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*** Take one of these online teacher programs to help people and better the education system *** WASL Assessment State Page \clip\99\19\wasl99.htm 1999 test results

Partnership for Learning Dumps corporate money into slick publicity for a faulty test which harms our kids. Poll purports showing voters support "raising standards". AT&T - 1-800-550-kids


10/10/99 Seattle Times reports 4th grade test is too hard 4/26/1999 4th grade test is easier than 10th grade test, sample questions used on the "secure" acual test!


"The key is an assessment system, not a list of goals. The assumption: The high stakes system will cause the desired change in teaching and goals".

Marc Tucker, presentation to educator in Seattle 1991 leading to WASL

Washington State is following other states in implementing what is called "performance based testing". The purpose of these test is not to measure effectiveness of current curriculums, but deliberately fail current skills in order to enforce the drive towards a radical reform of education.

It is the cornerstone, and first step in reforms as envisioned by people such as Marc Tucker of the NCEE who first proposed such tests to Washington state in 1991. Although lip service is paid that the test only covers the Essential Acdemic Learning Requirements, in fact, most of these tests ignore any written standards documents. Nationwide, 22 states are tying graduation to these tests

Marc Tucker started this movement with his proposal to have a Certificate of Mastery backed by a new generation of tests. He has stated that we need to insure that all meet "world class" standards to be globally competitive. But in fact, nations like Germany and Britain do not require all students to meet the same performance standard. Students are ranked, and graduate with whatever grades that they get, which may be passing or not.

The trend is away from rote checking for memorized skills towards free response and partial answers for questions with no one correct answer. They are graded more on prose than actually getting a correct answer. They are sold as being carefully checked for cultural bias. Yet they are written to impossibly high cognitive standards that are more difficult than IQ tests in terms of impact on minorities and the poor, so that 4th grades get problems that look like middle or high school and high school expectations exceed college placement exams.

Conservatives charge that using the same passing standard for all will result in lower standards. But in actuality, standards are being placed so high that only the top students can actually demonstrate this performance, and in some cases, no schools have been able to meet state goals of 70% or 80% passing.

Washington's 1997 4th grade math test placed half of the population in the lowest "doesn't know anything" score category, failed 80% of the general population, and 97% of the minority population. By 1999, 80,000 4th, 80,000 7th and 80,000 10th graders were taking the test. [about $10M per year]

In comparison, traditional norm-referenced tests are designed to discriminate between the best and the worst between wide extremes. While norm-based tests were designed primarily with statistics and scientific research in mind, the new tests are based almost entirely on politics, with no research to back up the assertion that the new tests are improvements over the old tests in terms of cost, reliability, or fairness. Tests are deliberately piloted with known failure rates of 75% or higher, without any evidence that any diverse group of students can be expected to be taught to pass at higher rates.

These are proving more difficult than the old tests. In the fall of 1997, Washington was reviewing the results of a new test widely heralded as "raising standards" so that "all children will master essential skills". No one in the education business questioned the idea that a test that 80% of students "flunked" wasn't too hard. Nearly half of problems required knowledge beyond 4th grade curriculum in any current textbooks, and up to 10th grade level measured by the state benchmarks the test was allegedly designed to assess. In every other state with similar tests, similarly low pass rates are celebrated as proof of the need for reforms, and examples show similar usage of over-grade level problems.

Other Experts on Testing and Assessment Problems

What's wrong with the new "performance based" tests?

Read Sander's paper for the the best case against the new tests: (4) "Educational Assessment Reassessed: The Usefulness of Standardized and Alternative Measures of Student Achievement as Indicators for the Assessment of Educational Outcomes," Educational Policy Analysis Archives, Vol 3 No 6, March 3, 1995

It's the best summary of what's wrong with these tests, it amounts to what I was able to figure out on my own with the CLAS test.

A Point By Point Critique of "Best Features"

Feature: They don't rely on multiple choice.

Problem: Essay problems are much more difficult for poor and minority students. Most students aren't taught to answer math problems by explaining in terms of words and pictures instead of simply computing a corrrect answer. Essay questions are much more difficult to score and grade because they require subjective judgements. Machine scoring is much less error prone, and much less expensive. Either they're right or wrong, and no bone-headed idea that you should get full credit even if the result is wrong.

Feature: The new tests are tough

Problem: Tough? They don't test what the students are taught, and in the WA assessment, they cover topics that according to the national NAEP frameworks shouldn't even be assessed at the 4th grade. For example using proportional logic to measure things like flagpoles based on their shadow isn't until the 8th grade. Reading scale drawings is an 8th grade skill. NAEP guidelines say to not do conversions, even within the same system, like converting 60 inches to 5 feet. Yes, they're supposed to be able to read simple bar charts, but not frequency histograms with unlabeled minor tics. They're supposed to know about central tendencies, but not formal mean or median, and not pick out the one with the most items UNDER a certain value like the battery life question. And they're not supposed to be exposed to experimental statistics. They're not supposed to be tested on trick questions - the battery life question was posed as which one should you pick which lasts at least 9 hours, but this answer was different from the one with the longest average life, which is what most students are taught to look for in battery ads.

See these sample problems: Problems with comments | Official samples | impressions of 1999 test


The following are NOT essential 4th grade skills. None of these is explicitly mentioned in the 4th grade Washington state essential skills, only some are in higher grades. They are not mentioned in the answer key, which only gives the relevant strands, despite statements by officials by the Commision on Student Learning, or the Superintendent of Instruction. The only 2 answer rubrics released were both wrong (measuring height by shadow, bird feeder cost list) In fact, many of these tasks ARE in the benchmarks, but at a much higher grade level. Similar skills can be found in other state tests like Kentucky, Exemplars, New Standards and other Tucker-inspired tests. George Cunningham and others have noted that these tests are way beyond any current standard expected of students, and often pay no attention to the standards (usually similar to Washington's). Similarly, the claim of "world class" benchmarks is fictitious since Japanese and German standards don't put these 7th and 10th grade skills into G4 either.

Grid showing grade level of sample problems Only 40% of problems are clearly within 4th grade 31% are clearly at 7th grade or higher level by benchmarks

Two education experts, Gregory Cizek of the University of Toledo, and home schooling advocate Richard Bray agreed that the WA 4th grade test would be difficult for a 6th grader if not higher, and some skills are on the 8th grade NAEP agenda. It is claimed that these skills are in the new Essential Learning Skills 4th grade guide, and that the best schools teach these skills, but they are NOT on anybody's curriculum or text book, they're not in the Essential Academic Learning Requirements/Benchmarks (EALR), and the only places that scored relatively well (70% passing, still 30% failed) was in the best and wealthiest schools under the old tests.

Feature: They're not racially biased

The WA test had blacks score 0.8 Standard Deviations lower than whites on the math test, virtually the same gap as IQ tests where blacks outside the south generally score about 90 IQ, or 0.8 SD less than whites. California's CLAS, and every other state test show minorities doing just as bad, and usually worse on the new tests than thge old fashioned ones

Therefore, if inequality is bias, the WA test is just as bad if not worse than IQ tests. Written response tests are even more difficult for minorities than multiple choice tests. Multicultural questions are not easier for minorities, passages by authors like Alice Walker are unintelligible even by college level readers. Questions with partial credit for process over answers are not easier. It is all an illusion that getting rid of these features will make them easier for minorities.

Feature: They don't grade students on a curve.

Problem: Criterion based tests base based on largely arbitrary choice of a standard with no apparent relationship to current curriculum. For example the 4th grade test assumes knowledge of how to build a bird feeder out of wood set into the ground in cement, or how to interpet frequency histograms. Such tests CAN be converted to a curve, but even so, is not standardized to allow comparison with other states. In fact, it is highly deceptive when the press in WA, RI and Colorado all have headlines about how the new scores are much lower than old norm-referenced tests when in fact, the level of performance is the same. All they did is change the level of expectation from 50th percentile to meeting some new arbitrary state standard which falls well beyond national average.

Feature: Tests are graded on a 5 or 6 point scale "mastery" based or criterion-referenced instead of norm-referenced scale.

Problem: Mastery _is_ relative. Some kids can solve a much higher percentage of advanced problems than others. There is no absolute measure of what a student "should" know without a measure of what actual kids can do. Distributions of such tests typically bear no resemblence of the percentages of students who get A or B letter grade, which normally correspond to equal to or better than expected. In the 1994 CLAS, 0% got a "6" which corresponds to an "A", and only 5% got a "B", which was like a "B" grade. Where curve-based tests are criticized because it shows some grades scoring above average, the new tests can and sometimes do "flunk" almost everybody. Such a coarse scale is almost useless for ranking students compared to a 1-100 percentile scale or the typical 200-800 SAT style scale which can discriminate between students even in the top 0.1% of the curve.

Feature: Problems are graded such that good explanations are more important getting a correct answer.

Problem: When questions don't have just one correct answer, students can be confused as to what the correct answer is, and grading is very subjective.

Feature: Problems are scored by a human expert, not a computer

Problem: Grading is subjective, with no guarantee that the same result will be scored the same by different scorers. Computers can automatically score multiple choice questions with no problems with repeatability, and provide very fine resolution between ability with many problems.

Feature: New tests look for "thinking skills" instead of rote memory

Problem: Critical thinking was never the problem with students who did well or poorly with the old tests. Questions which resemble an intellectual obstacle course are only even more difficult for the poorly prepared, as the California's CLAS showed the poor and minorities did even worse. New tests often trade demonstration of hard computational or verbal skills for this "thinking skills" instead. If you want to add thinking problems, add them, don't replace facts and skills based problems, which can result in lower, not higher math performance.

Features: All students should be able to learn

Problem: You can't simply state that we're going to set a standard that only the top 85th percentile can hack right now, and say that everybody is going to pass this, and then require 85th percentile performance for a "certificate of mastery" to proceeed on the next grade or get a high school diploma when currently performance above the 15-20th percentile is good enough. These tests are really no different than IQ tests, and nobody's even been able to demonstrate an educational program that takes a general population and makes them pass any test at a 85th percentile / 115 IQ level. It just can't be done. If you can show me a research project that shows it's possible that's one thing, but it's nuts to run a real school system that way with no evidence that it's possible.


Summary of 1997 WASL Data

District Rankings on "new performance based 4th grade test"

Scatter Chart showing
correlation between new test and old CTBS
scatter chart

	WASL Spectrum, ranked by math score

	CTBS = math over 50 percentile 
    FL= Free/Reduced Lunch%
    CTBS= percent above 50th percentile on traditional test
    Math etc. = percent above "standard"

	Math  Read Listn Writ CTBS FL
	 92   100   96    92  NA    Challenge Edmonds
	 83   100  100   100        St. Thomas Bellevue Cath
	 80    88   92    80        Bertschi Seattle Priv
	 80   100   93    53        Brighton Edmonds Priv
----------------- best public school = 72 ------------------------
	 72    82   87    83  91  2 Somerset Bellevue
	 68    95   91    74        Assumption-St Bridget Seattle Priv
	 66    83   93    83  77 16 Wedgewood Seattle 
	 63    90   90    90        Evergreen Academy (Bothell Priv)
	 62    79   85    79  82  1 Cougar Ridge Issaquah 
	 61    78   85    73        Bush Seattle Priv
	 60    81   88    67  88  1 Lakeridge Mercer Island
------------ best district = 60 ---------------------------------
	 58    76   84    71        Mercer Island Dist
	 58    79   71    79  78  1 Sunrise Northshore 
	 57    68   85    77  72 26 Laurelhurst Seattle
     53    74   86           25 Kennewick Ridge View
	 51    75   86    83  84 21 Whittier Seattle
	 50    70   74    35  80  9 Shelton View Northshore
	 50    67   71    82  62  7 B.Franklin Lk Wash
					  68        Black Diamond
	 50                         Franklin Elem (LWSD)
	 44    71   76    52        Bainbridge Island
	 33               61        Lake Washington
	 36    64   74    65        Issaquah
	 34    62   71    57        Bellevue
	 34    57   73    59        Northshore
------------very good suburb 31-34 ------------------------
	 32    62   74    39        Riverview
	 24    47   51    50        Auburn
------------average 22-30 --------------------------------
	 22    48         42        Statewide
	 22    59   75    46        Snoqualmie
	 21    58   65    46        Enumclaw  
	 17    48   62    49        Renton               
	 14                         Bell Elem (LWSD)
----------- worst inner city schools = 3-7 ---------------------
	  7    28   40    31        South Central
	  6    47   61    57 51 41  Cascade Renton
	  6    31   52    40 40 56  Thorndyke South Central
	  3     3   28    28 40 73  Dunlap Seattle
	  3     39  77    36        Holy Family Auburn Priv
	  3    26   46    31 33 56  Campbell Hill Renton
	Math  Read Listn Writ

Poor urban schools do the worst, wealthy and private
schools do the best.

Statewide Performance by Race / Gender

\doc\web\97\08\waasrace.wk1 ASIANS AND BOYS MATH AVERAGE LOWER THAN WHITES, GIRLS DIFFERENCE OF 0.67SD MEANS IT IS JUST AS DISCRIMINATORY AGAINST BLACKS AS IQ TESTS. Washington Assessment of Student Learning Grade 4 Spring 1997 Analysis by Arthur Hu Oct 20, 1997 Data: Office Washington State Superintendent of Instruction Mathematics Interpolate Not Level State Std SD Est Group Tested 1 2 3 4Mean Deviatdiff Percentile Total 3 46.3 28.9 14.95 6.85 374.5 33.95 0.00 50 Male 3.2 47.2 27.8 14.7 7.1 373.7 34.9 -0.02 49 Female 2.8 45.4 30.0 15.2 6.6 375.3 33.0 0.02 51 White 2.5 41.1 31.3 17.1 8.0 378.9 32.8 0.13 55 Black 4.0 73.4 17.1 4.0 1.2 351.6 30.8 -0.67 26 Hispanic 7.2 71.7 15.8 4.3 1.0 350.3 31.4 -0.71 25 Asian 2.5 45.8 27.4 15.6 8.7 376.8 34.9 0.07 52 Native A 3.4 70.1 19.7 5.3 1.6 355.0 31.5 -0.57 30 Note - percentile estimated assuming 1 SD = 35% difference in percentile 25th percentile = 90 IQ Index White=1.00 Not Level State Std State Group Tested 1 2 3 4Mean DeviatMean Total 3 1.13 -1.08 -1.14 -1.17 -1.01 1.04 374.5 Male 3.2 1.15 -1.13 -1.16 -1.13 -1.01 1.06 373.7 Female 2.8 1.10 -1.04 -1.13 -1.21 -1.01 1.01 375.3 White 2.5 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 378.9 Black 4.0 1.79 -1.83 -4.28 -6.67 -1.08 -1.06 351.6 Hispanic 7.2 1.74 -1.98 -3.98 -8.00 -1.08 -1.04 350.3 Asian 2.5 1.11 -1.14 -1.10 1.09 -1.01 1.06 376.8 Native A 3.4 1.71 -1.59 -3.23 -5.00 -1.07 -1.04 355.0 Chart Ranked by % scoring 4 (highest range) % of Not Level State Group Tested 1 2 3 4Mean Asian 2.5 1.11 -1.14 -1.10 1.09 -1.01 1.00 White 2.5 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 Male 3.2 1.15 -1.13 -1.16 -1.13 -1.01 Total 3 1.13 -1.08 -1.14 -1.17 -1.01 Female 2.8 1.10 -1.04 -1.13 -1.21 -1.01 Native A 3.4 1.71 -1.59 -3.23 -5.00 -1.07 Black 4.0 1.79 -1.83 -4.28 -6.67 -1.08 Hispanic 7.2 1.74 -1.98 -3.98 -8.00 -1.08 Blacks and Hispanics only 1/7 or 1/8 as likely as whites to score "4", nearly twice as likely to score "1" Ranked by Mathematics Mean State White Group Mean Ratio Rank White 378.9 1.00 1 Asian 376.8 -1.01 2 Female 375.3 -1.01 3 Total 364.4 -1.04 4 Male 373.7 -1.01 5 Native A 355.0 -1.07 6 Black 351.6 -1.08 7 Hispanic 350.3 -1.08 8 Asian mean is lower than White, Male mean is lower than Female

State Superintendent Terry Bergeson insists that the tests are not too difficult. But since 46% of students scored only a "1", which corresponds to "knows or understands almost none of what was expected", and 50% is generally understood to be the definition of "grade level", endorsement of the new standards is equivalent to declaring that grade-level achievement corresponds to a zero-achievement level on the new scale. This was not released in most news reports which only reported that "only 20%" of students achieved the state standard, but not that that the halfway point was at the lowest score. Now the Bergeson is cooperating with McDonalds to publicize the new standards asking "are you as smart as a 4th grader" without mentioning that the 50th percentile student completely flunked.

Ranked by top scores, Asians are most over-represented, but by far less than on SAT test, Native Americans, Blacks and Hispanics are under-represented by a factor of 5 to 8 times at the level of a "4"

The Asian average, however is actually about 1% worse than whites, compared to minority scores, which are 7-8% worse. This is contrary to most tests where the Asian mean is also higher than whites, not just the percentage at the top.

Similarly, boys are over-represented at the top (5) and bottom (1), but their average is lower than for girls. Like the CLAS test, girls outscored boys in every category in terms of their median/mean score, which puts more emphasis on writing. It has been observed by many that boys are more likely found at either extreme

A difference of .67 Standard Deviation between white and black scores would make the black score about 90 on an IQ scale, or about the same as IQ tests. Since the most difficult tests have the biggest spreads between races, this puts the new WA assessment on the level of an IQ test in terms of difficulty and disparate racial performance. Blacks statewide generally peform at the 30th to 40th national percentile on tests like the CTBS instead of the 15th to 25th percentile equivalent 85 to 90 IQ on most IQ test results.

Oddly, though organizations like Fair Test claim IQ and SAT tests are biased because results are so disparate, they support new style assessments even though racial differences are even more prounounced than tests like the CTBS.

Tests which require written responses are MORE DIFFICULT and will therefore, MAGNIFY any differences between the races.

Consumer's Guide Ratings of Standardized Tests

Excellent Norm-Referenced Tests
TAAS (Texas)

NAEP - Criterion referenced, higher order thinking
Voluntary National Test - NTCM fuzzy math standards,
  constructed response, criterion referenced
Terra Nova - also NTCM compliant

Awful Performance-Based Tests
CLAS (California) Tested for subjective values
WASL (Washington) Math tested 4th graders at 7th and 10th grade benchmarks
FCAT (Florida)
KIRIS (Kentucky) No multiple choice
New Standards (NCEE) NY City, Vermont
Exemplars (Vermont)

Who is Against High-Stakes Testing

New Articles on WASL


Note how many articles are front page news.

zip#28\images\972\1209\p01.bmp Students Need To Show they can reason
on tests Seattle Times 12/7/97 Education Q&A Only 2 of 40 questions
are straight math, says you won't get full credit without correct
answer (but that's not what the sample bird feeder rubric says!)
they cut out my source of test being too hard. Asks what happens if
you don't pass CIM test.

\clip\98\09\prep.txt Seattle Times
Tuesday, May 19, 1998 Don't let preparation blur state test results
TERRY Bergeson, superintendent of public instruction, is worried that
problems with the new state tests could seriously erode public
confidence in schools. She should be. 

"State tells schools: Don't Cheat. Warning issued after reports of
test rules being broken" Jolayne Houtz, Dick Lilly Seattle Times May
16, 1998. Front Page. Terry Bergeson and Chuck Colson, chairman of
the state Commision on Student Learning issued a warning memo after
getting reports of testing rules being broken, and improper coaching
at Seattle's T.T. Minor Elementary school.

 for all practical purposes the EALR
movement will destroy the junior and senior years of our high schools.
Rod Roberts

From: "Roxanne Sitler" Date sent: Fri, 24 Apr 1998 07:19:00 -0700 This year HB2849 moved the CTBS from 4th grade to 3rd. We tried to get an amendment to that bill to leave it in the 4th but were unsuccessful. Now they have no comparison for the performance-based and CTBS on same grade level. Also, CTBS was normed for 5 years and that has expired which means they are searching for a new norm-referenced test. The RFP's will go out this year.

April 23 Eastside Journal Claims no
other state is doing the CIM or tests like this, CIM is back to year

CTBS 4th grade tests to be
cancelled in exchange for reading bill. That's just great. Now we
won't be able to tell that our kids can't read.

Spokesman review article - testing educational reforms. Says that 

"This is just a test: 4th graders go for heavy mental mettle." Debera
Carlton Harrell Seattle Post Intelligencer April 14, 1998 p. 1 (front
page) Achievementof minority students a major concern. [Solution to
height of flagpole from shadow is incorrect - it says to count the
!@#$% bricks!] 71% of 10th graders would flunk if they were given the
test today.
files \clip\98\08\test\p01-p04.tif
\clip\98\07\cramtest.txt Seattle Times March 26, 1998 Schools cram
for state test by Jolayne Houtz Seattle Times staff reporter More
students are writing in math journals these days, reading nonfiction
materials and being asked not only what the right answer is, but also
why it's right.  "Parents at Cougar Ridge Elementary in Issaquah, one
of the region's highest-scoring schools last year, are being asked to
help children learn multiplication tables and other basics at home,
so teachers can focus on math concepts and more sophisticated

Seattle Times March 24, 1998 Time to put your commitment to the
test by Gary Locke and Terry Bergeson Special to The Times [Blantant
sales pitch for "higher standards" and new test]

[Tacoma WA] News Tribune Putting
the tests to the test Washington students about to take a
different type of exam that already is raising controversy March
24,1998 Debbie Cafazzo; The News Tribune ; Education writers Mary
Schneiter, Skip Card, Susan Gordon, Kris Sherman and Debby Abe
contributed to this report 

" Parents like Terry Olive of Federal Way worry that the grading
system may be too subjective. But others support the new tests and
what they represent.  "

" Arthur Hu is a Kirkland parent of preschoolers who has made an
avocation of critiquing the new state tests and education reform. He
maintains an Internet mailing list about reform here and in other
states.  And he thinks educators are headed in the wrong direction.
Hu believes the Washington tests, particularly the fourth-grade
tests, are too hard. He points to dismal results from last spring's
testing of fourth-graders - the first of the new-style test scores to
be reported.  "

Letter to Gov Locke by Arthur Hu
\clip\97\29\latinsc.txt Seattle Times Company Friday, Dec. 12, 1997
Groups seek better Latino test scores by Tamra Fitzpatrick Seattle
Times staff reporter [only 5% passed new math assessment, emphasizes
multiculturalism, latino history, not academics]

11/14/97 Representative from Commision on Student Learning says that
since 1994, they have been independent of the New Standards
organization.  They contract with Riverside to take questions
developed by committees. Items and scoring are kept confidential, and
"you just have to trust us", they have been field tested and are
based on the essential learnings requirements. She notes that the
example test did not have any examples of item-specific rubrics, but
says that they do exist on a real test, didn't have any to show. Not
familiar with national testing standards. Says the bird feeder
question was re-designed, "you know you always have a problem in the
developmental stage". "we tested them with real kids" Yeah, and 80%
flunked. Then she said bye.

\clip\97\25\edclip7.txt 11/2/97 Seattle Times Commentary If we set
the bar high, our children will compete by Mindy Cameron Seattle
Times editorial page editor ARE national tests necessary to improve
public schools and student learning across America?

Seattle Times Wednesday, Sept. 17, 1997 Test scores reinforce link to
family income

"Most Eastside scores higher than state average" Seattle Times Sept
13, 1997 p. A10 Katherine Long eastside bureau "Bainbridge district
sees room for improvement" (same date and page) Bell Elem was the
lowest scoring school in LWSD (principal told me it was one of the
most "diverse" schools in the district) image:

Arthur Hu Letter To Seattle Times Editor
on what's wrong with new WA assessment

ritest.txt 44% OF RI 8TH
\clip\97\25\ritest.txt New Test in R.I. Sends Shock Waves Through
State By Jeff Archer 10/29/97 Denver Post Scores on new test will be
low By Janet Bingham Denver Post Education Writer Brace for grim and
sobering student test results, the governor and the state education
commissioner are warning.

\doc\web\97\08\busibeat.txt "Businessman beats drum for education
reforms" Eastside Journal (Bellevue Wa) September 24, 1997 p. A2
Molly O'Connor. F101697
\clip\97\23\misspent.txt VIEWPOINT: Misspent money, untested methods
produce poorly prepared students (Tacoma)News Tribune September 15,
1997 Clyde Ballard and Peggy Johnson

\clip\97\23\muchwork.txt 'Much work to be
done' in schools Partnership for Learning assesses education reform
and identifies needs Tacoma News Tribune September 11, 1997 Kris
Sherman; The News Tribune

\clip\97\23\werewell.txt Tacoma News
Tribune We're well ahead of other Washington in testing September 19,
1997 ROBERT MARSHALL WELLS; News Tribune Editorial writer " Despite
such a lackluster performance, complaints about low scores and
unreasonably tough statewide standards have been fairly muted. "

Seattle Times Company Friday, Oct. 10, 1997 Minority test scores
`devastating' by Jolayne Houtz Seattle Times staff reporter

Percent of students passing standard
              Math  Reading
Black         5
Hispanic      5     20
NativeAm      7     20

 Seattle Times Reformers could put
teachers to the test by Jolayne Houtz Seattle Times staff reporter
[Assess penalties and rewards for school that don't improve by x
percent on the new test, but no evidence that it has worked in other

to Opinion at Seattle Times
Seattle Times Company Friday, Oct. 10, 1997 Minority test scores
`devastating' by Jolayne Houtz Seattle Times staff reporter [Of
course test scores are low for minorities]

Loop newsPeter Schrag: The new school
standards: A cheer and a caveat. Setting standards too high, and
rushing into innovations with no track record of success, CA goes
back to old fashioned machine scored state-wide tests.

Julanne Burts is bothered too

Anti: \CLIP\97\97\23\canttest.txt Seattle Times Friday, Oct. 3, 1997 You can't legislate higher test scores by Ralph DeBruler Special to The Seattle Times Pro: \clip\97\23\testok.txt Seattle Times Friday, Oct. 3, 1997 We're on the way to better test results by Clyde Ballard and Peggy Johnson Special to The Seattle Times BRUCE ALBERT WANTS TO TEST FOR THINKING, NOT FACTS Business Week \clip\97\21\badtest.txt A SCIENTIST ASSAULTS THE SCIENCE OF TESTING Bruce Alberts wants students to interpret data, not parrot it Business Week Oct 6, 1997

Telling Bill Pfeifer what's wrong with the new test The problem isn't norm referenced tests, the new tests are based on a philoshipy that has destroyed math in some places "The real problem in the continued use of norm-referenced tests is the perception on the part of many that they are useful and meaningful."... "The problem with the new assessment is that it is not assessment at all. It is refusal to assess when refusing to assess forthrightly would draw well deserved public outrage. California's CLAS, Kentucky's KIRIS, etc., all share the same problem in mathematics. They are so unreliable that they can have no consequences or people will (and rightly will) sue if they are used in making individual student decisions. The ITBS, CTBS, SAT-7, ERB, etc. do not have that problem. " Iowa students math goes to hell with the new program. Bill Pfeifer asks Arthur about the WA assessment test \doc\web\97\07\family.txt EDUCATION WEEK REVIEW \clip\97\21\assess.htm Assessment: What You Test Is What You Get Liberals say we have to test for skills, not just rote facts, conservatives say it's just an excuse to toss out facts, some say these won't discriminate against minorities (but they do just as poorly in actual results, or worse) "Because it's difficult to test a lot of these thinking skills with the multiple-choice bubble-in test sheet that was such an ideal tool for testing rote learning, many school systems are moving toward what they call "alternative assessments"--typically "performance-based tests." These are more open-ended tests, where teachers judge students on written essays, on the process they use to solve a math problem, or even on portfolios of their work over the school year." SEATTLE TIMES ENDORSES NEW TEST \clip\97\20\edref.txt Seattle Times Sunday, Sept. 7, 1997 Education reform gets real \clip\97\20\sking.txt Seattle Times Friday, Sept. 12, 1997 South King County school' test results on par with state by Dionne Searcey Seattle Times South bureau Sample Questions for Washington State: "LOW" SCORES CITED FOR NEW WASHINGTON PERFORMANCE BASED TEST, BUT IT'S JUST A BAD IDEA Annotated copy with samples The Seattle Times Company Thursday, Sept. 4, 1997 Education reform's big test: Held to higher standards, fourth-graders score badly, showing the challenge ahead Test samples The new test costs $29 per student compared to only $2.40 for the CTBS. Only about 20% met or exceeded "standard" in math, about half met or exceeded reading though. Not quite as hard as CLAS where not even 1% met the highest grade, and less than 5% got the 2nd highest. ---------------------------------------------------------------- BRACE FOR ROTTEN SCORES ON REFORM TEST \CLIP\97\20\JUSTTEST.TXT Mindy Cameron Seattle Times editorial page editor August 31, 1997 p. B6 "Just a test? No, a giant step in education reform" [Comment - new tests just flunk everybody on standards real kids can't meet, while dropping basics that the old test were just fine at measuring much easier, the poor and minority will still do the worse, while dropping sight of mastering the basics] "In Maryland, Bergeson said, only 10 percent met the new standards on the first test. In Kentucky, same thing." NEW MATH STANDARDS TEST ACTUALLY FLAWED \doc\web\97\07\mathtest.txt HUNDREDS PROTEST DESIGN OF NATIONAL MATH TEST Hundreds of mathematicians, academics, teachers, school board members, parents and students have signed a letter to President Clinton protesting the design of his proposed National Voluntary Mathematics Test for eighth graders. " * Competence in arithmetic and other basic skills is intentionally not directly assessed. * Instead of computational competence, students will be able to have calculators available at all times. This is in direct contrast to the desire of most parents that their children be able to calculate for themselves. * A number of the example problems are ambiguous, have potentially significant cultural biases and are designed to be compatible with mathematically weak strategies such as guessing. * A major fraction of the score will come from subjectively graded questions involving judgments about each student's individual strategy and description of his work rather than on the correctness of the actual answer " >For more information contact > >Michael McKeown of Mathematically Correct > >PO Box 22083 >San Diego, CA 92192-2083 Kansas sample 4th grade test - geometry, division, multiplication, perimeter, making change posted for education use only \clip\97\18\refmtest.txt F081897 (contains bird feeder example) SEATTLE: NEW REFORM TEST DIFFICULT, GRADES ON EXPLANATION, NOT CORRECT RESULT browse/html97/test_072197.html Copyright © 1997 The Seattle Times Company Monday, July 21, 1997 Education reform's first test faces examination by the public "Students are measured not against other students but on how each one measures up to a set of written standards." Uh oh. This is another silly test like the CLAS that is so hard not even 99th percentile students will meet the arbitrarily high set standard. It's just stupid to give kids higher grades for their a good explanation than a correct numerical result. All this effort to measure "higher order thinking skills" only makes it more expensive to grade, and will make the gap between the white/asian/rich and the black/hispanic/poor even greater, and give the impression that everyone failed. Schools don't teach how to make essays about solving math problems, they teach solving math problems, and the old tests measured that just fine. The problem isn't that the old tests weren't hard enough, the problem is that students weren't doing that great with the old tests either. The example test really requires taking shop in order to understand how such an object is even built or how to read the drawings. Gregory Cizek University of Toledo responds that this would be difficult even for a 6th grader, if this is an average question, it's a good thing they're giving it in washington, it will make Ohio kids look better by comparison. Richard Bray, home schooling advocate PHD also says the question is too difficult. \priv\96\08\newtest.txt Seattle Times April 21, 1996 " New test will debut in schools this week It's linked to higher standards separation of school and state knows about 4th grade test expectations. dr. gregory cizek prof educ u toledo ohio 419-530-2611

Issue Contents

Performance Testing Issues

---------------------------------------------------------------------------- @@Ability HIGH STAKES TESTING BUMPS AGAINST REALITY: KIDS DIFFER IN ABILITY z60\clip\2002\10\phelp.txt Mon, 28 Oct 2002 The Case Of The Truth-Telling (But Racially-Incorrect) Teacher By Steve Sailer This brouhaha is an outcome of two contradictory trends in American society: 1) The backlash against realistic thinking about intelligence that resulted from the The Bell Curve wars of 1994; 2) The enormous expansion of "high stakes" testing in schools over the last decade. @@ACT Work Keys \clip\97\28\assess.txt Education Week October 23, 1991 National Standards/Assessments: Students [Comprehensive listing of major high school to work assesmment efforts in 1991, including Bush tests, NAEP, Tucker, ACT Work Keys, SCANS] American College Testing Program: Developing Work Keys, a national system for teaching and assessing employability skills that could be used by employers and by students who plan to enter the workforce directly after high school.
@@AERA AERA BELIEVE NOT ONE STATE IS FAIR ABOUT HIGH STAKES TESTING z45\clip\2000\09\aera.txt From Harvard Education Letter - Research Online, September/October, 2000. See The full text of the AERA position statement is available online at . The AERA website is at . "These are all criteria that we believe have to be put in place in order for testing to be fair," says AERA president Catherine Snow. "Right now, there's not a state in the union that's abiding by all of them." @@Against People / Organizations against high stakes testing LOS ANGELELES MINORITY GROUP CALLS FOR END TO EXIT TESTS z63\clip\2003\02\panelex.txt Monday, February 10, 2003 - 9:09:20 PM MST Panel urges suspension of exit exam Critics call failing students victims of failing system By Helen Gao Staff Writer z47\clip\2000\12\edmis.txt National Education Association NEA Teaching and Learning EDUCATIONAL MISMEASUREMENT: HOW HIGH-STAKES TESTING CAN HARM OUR CHILDREN (And What We Might Do About It) W. James Popham University of California, Los Angeles November 2000 "SES-linked items do, indeed, spread out students’ test scores. But SES-linked items don’t measure what is supposed to be taught in schools. " "If a state’s educators do not understand why certain high-stakes tests not only yield invalid estimates of instructional quality, but also are likely to lower educational quality, those educators cannot inform parents or policymakers about such problems." wcala@@ROCHESTER.RR.COM writes: Yesterday, about 30 of us (NY Superintendents) spent the day with James Popham to determine our next move to counter the further development of crap tests (like the current 4, 8 and high school tests) for grades 3, 5, 7. 2002 - gave seminar to Washington WEA teachers union saying that standardized tests are a fraud with respect to accountability and high stakes, presented a video "test boosters" on how to raise scores by, well, cheating. On TVW cable channel. Building Tests To Support Instruction and Accountability A Guide for Policymakers Prepared By The Commission on Instructionally Supportive Assessment Convened By American Association of School Administrators National Association of Elementary School Principals National Association of Secondary School Principals National Education Association National Middle School Association October 2001 W. James Popham (Chair) Professor Emeritus Graduate School of Education and Information Studies University of California, Los Angeles Requirement 9: A state should secure evidence that supports the ongoing improvement of its state assessments to ensure those assessments are (a) appropriate for the accountability purposes for which they are used, (b) appropriate for determining whether students have attained state standards, (c) appropriate for enhancing instruction, and (d) not the cause of negative consequences. Fairtest critique - it still assumes the central over-emphasis and importance of assessing and meeting state standards. @@Gap WHEN REDUCING THE GAP IS ONLY AN ILLUSION When tests change from a 80 / 40 pass rate for whites and blacks to something like 99 / 96, it is said that the gap has been eliminated but in fact the same ratios can be found on tests like the SAT which have a 1 standard deviation gap. The POINT gaps appear to be smaller when the test is made easy enough that most students pass, but the bell curve is still there. Test Gap Spectrum - Pass rates 43W 33B Projected 203 TAKS 8th grade CLOSING THE GAP OR SWEEPING IT UNDER THE RUG? 96% VS 99% PASS RATE IS STILL A 4 TO 1 FAILURE RATE GAP! CLOSING ACADEMIC GAP JUST BY CHANGING THE PASSING SCORE \priv\2008\08\racepass.txt WSJ: Charles Murray: Acid Tests Thu Aug 28, 2008 12:42 pm (PDT) Charles Murray: Acid Tests,pubID.24711/pub_detail.asp Publication Date: July 25, 2006 Test scores are the last refuge of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). They have to be, because so little else about the act is attractive. NCLB takes a giant step toward nationalizing elementary and secondary education, a disaster for federalism. It pushes classrooms toward relentless drilling, not something that inspires able people to become teachers or makes children eager to learn. In this instance, the percentage-passed measure misleadingly showed a huge reduction in the black-white achievement gap. But look at the left-hand side of the curve. In a state that imposes tough standards--for example, one that establishes a threshold that only 40% of whites pass--across-the-board improvements in scores can misleadingly show an increase in the white-black achievement gap when none occurred. Question: Doesn't this mean that the same set of scores could be made to show a rising or falling group difference just by changing the definition of a passing score? Answer: Yes. z52\clip\2001\09\lessgap.txt Wake tests teaching method z52\clip\2001\09\lessgap.wk1 Staff Photo By Alexis L. Richardson By T. KEUNG HUI, Staff Writer GARNER -- Eyes throughout Wake County are being focused on eight schools that might have found a way to raise student test scores dramatically and close the racial achievement gap..... Pass rates: 91-92 00-01 white 79 99 black 54 96 low income 55 98 "by 2000-01, across-the-board gains had all but eliminated the gap on all the tests." For instance, 96 percent of Brazosport's black students and 98 percent of low-income students passed the math test, only slightly below the 99 percent passing rate among white students" The truth is that the gap is still there, but it's hidden in a much easier test when 99% of whites pass. The FAILURE ratio remained the same - between 2 and 4 times that of whites. So the bell curve gap of about 1 standard deviation is still there, while the point gap looks smaller. =================================================================== Group Years 91-92 00-01 Pass white 79 99 black 54 96 low income 55 98 Fail white 21 1 black 46 4 low income 45 2 Failiure Ratio black 2.2 4.0 <- Ratio is actually worse low income 2.1 2.0 <- 2.0 ratio is the same as before! ============================================================== LA GRIFFE SHOWS THAT POINT GAP REDUCATION IS ONLY A MIRAGE Z75\clipim\2004\01\07\achgap\achgap.htm Volume 6 Number 1 January 2004 CLOSING THE RACIAL LEARNING GAP "Governor Easley cited data for students in Grades 3-8. In a single year blacks and Native Americans had narrowed their achievement gaps by 6 points each, Latinos by 4." "This diagram shows how a point gap can be manipulated by playing with the passing score. ..Setting the passing score at level 1 produces a gap of 34 points. At level 2 the gap shrinks to 14 points...Changing an exam's difficulty can achieve the same result in a more insidious manner. A symmetry exists between the minimum passing score and the test difficulty.In Texas and North Carolina pass rates have been improving. Both states are in the high pass-rate region. There, gains in pass rates by whites will be accompanied by even greater gains by blacks. When pass rates are high, incremental student gains guarantee a gap decrease.. In the past decade no meaningful gap reduction occurred in either North Carolina or Texas How to become the most celebrated education administrator in the US: 1. Set the passing score on all state tests at the point where 80% of white students pass. 2. Institute education reforms like those in North Carolina and Texas. As performance improves, the racial learning gap will decrease, following the curves of Figures 8 and 9. 3. Continue this policy until the gap is so narrow that further reduction will be insignificant. 4. Use your newly acquired reputation as a gap-busting administrator to land a similar job in another state. There, start again with step 1. Three such iterations should guarantee international celebrity @@A-Level see @@GCSE An "A level" is the second level GCE or vocational NVQ level of of British secondary-school examinations, taken usually two years after the first GCSE. Usually used for college admissions, it is more like the SAT or ACT than a state high school exit exam. Boys do better than girls at the A-level, but not the GCSE 33% of boys, 39% of girls take the A-levels, comparable to US SAT/ACT rates and US 4 year degree rates. BOYS DO BETTER AT HIGH RISK FLASH A-LEVEL VS GCSE JUDITH JUDD, Why flash boys shine at A-level., Independent, 07-10-1996, pp 1. \clip\99\09\boyalev.txt "Teachers questioned by the London and Leicester researchers talked of boys' "risk-taking approach, their greater willingness to sound stupid." Girls, they said, "write at length, lack the courage to discard irrelevant detail and perform less well intraditional exams." At GCSE, girls gain 8 per cent more A-to-C grades than boys in all subjects. But at A-level, boys do better, given their GCSE results, than do girls. " NOW 1/3 OF UK TAKES A-LEVELS, GIRLS HAVE EDGE AT HS GCSE, BOYS AT COLLEGE ENTRANCE MATH SCIENCE \clip\99\09\girlgc.txt Judith Judd Education Editor, Macho attitudes key to boys failing., Independent, 07-25-1998, pp 6. In 1985 a fifth of girls stayed on for A-levels. Now the figure is almost two-fifths (39 per cent) compared with only 33 per cent for boys. However, girls continue to take traditional "female subjects" at A-level. [comparable to SAT taking rates in US] UK COLLEGE ADMISSIONS BASED ON GCE AS APTITUDE TEST A-AGGRE was the grade point of the student's GCE 'A' level examinations. It was used to capture the aptitude and intellectual ability of the students. Admission into local universities is based solely upon this aggregate--a prevalent criterion among colleges in the British Commonwealth system (Lumsden and Scott 1987). " "Students' performance in economics: Does the norm hold across cultural and institutional settings? " ( Journal of Economic Education/Electric Library ) @@Alabama z43\clip\2000\07\stanal.txt Testing the system Local schools find out scores, fate Thursday By CINDY FISHER BIRMINGHAM POST-HERALD On Thursday, scores will be released for one of the most important tests given in Alabama public schools: the Stanford Achievement Test. If scores on the national standardized test don't show students are learning, schools could be taken over by state officials. 1985 - 6th grade test for graduation 1993 - 8th grade test for graduation 1999 - pilot 11th grade test for graduation. ALABAMA CALLS G6-8 TEACHER TEST TOO EASY WHEN GRAD TEST IS G11 \clip\99\10\altest.txt Montgomery Advertiser Friday, July 16 "Schools chief calls test too easy "It never occurred to me tht a test like this, which is taken basically by college students at the end of their sophomore year as they are about to go into their junior year would be at such a low level. ..The proposed agreement would provide remedial courses for prospective teachers who failed the test ..While the Praxis I has a middle school level of difficulty, Alabama is starting a graduation exam for students that is based on questions that have an 11th grade difficulty A+ is equivalent to Goals 2000. They were the consensus building part of David Hornbeck's plan (known in Alabama as Governor Folsom's reform plan, the Teague Plan...). They have not given up. Now they have co-opted the current move to "better teachers" so they can force their agenda forward through teacher certification (using "child-centered" "Experiential learning" "group learning", etc.). Forgive me for not being clearer. Sharman ALABAMA ADOPTS EXIT EXAM FROM HELL Birmingham News: Students facing tougher exit test February 27, 1999 Students facing tougher exit test CHARLES J. DEAN News staff writer 02/26/99 Question: Ryan makes $3 per hour more than Scott. If 3 times Ryan's rate plus 4 times Scott's rate is $65, what is Ryan's hourly wage? Answer: $11. (solve ax+bx=c algebra) Question: A simple majority in Congress votes for a proposed amendment to the Constitution. What happens next? Answer: It's dead. Such a proposal requires a two thirds vote to pass. (no adult knows this, even if they look it up) state school superintendent, has predicted that possibly 50 percent of students in one third of the state's high schools might flunk the exam the first time around. ALABAMA MAY LAY OFF STANFORD ACHIEVEMENT TEST Alabama: Montgomery Advertiser, Monday, Nov. 30, 1998. Page 1. "Educators want new standards" Test case: The Alabama BOE may ask legislators for an alternative way to measure student achievement by John F. Maclean Morton said 97,000 of the 440,000 students tested on last year's Stanford Achievement Test scored below the 23rd percentile, or in the lowest quadrant of the test. (22% is actually better than national average distribution!) @@Alaska In 1993, Alaskans embarked on a campaign to bring higher standards and accountability to their public school system. The cornerstone of this effort was the development of content standards in ten core subject areas. The standards represent what Alaskans want students to know and be able to do as a result of their public schooling. Alaska is (1998) developing an exit exam that would turn their diploma inti a 12th grade cim Alaska test plan test response June 30, 2000 Anchorage Daily News EXIT EXAM TEST SCORES INDICATE PUBLIC EDUCATION IS IN TROUBLE By Mike Doogan Daily News Columnist If the first high school exit exam is any indication, public education in Alaska is a disaster. Two of three sophomores failed the math test. One of two flunked writing. One of four failed reading. 2/2000 Anchorage Daily News Graders to 'bookmark' exit exams 2.4 JUNEAU - Lawmakers were reassured Thursday that the method the state will use to set the cutoff point for passing high school exit exams is fair and well-researched and avoids pitfalls other states have encountered. State will refine tests this year 2.4 What are the exit tests? They are three tests - in reading, writing and math - that high school students must pass to earn a high school diploma in Alaska beginning in 2002. The tests are also known as the High School Graduation Qualifying Exam. This year they'll be given statewide March 7, 8 and 9. @@Alliance ALLIANCE OF CONSERVATIVES, LIBERALS, CORPORATE, EDUCRATS 4 STANDARDS z68\doc\web\2003\07\standref.txt .. has been hit with at least some degree of criticism—notably both from the Right, which sees standards-based reform as imposing on local school district autonomy, and from the Left, which sees it as racist, sexist, and classist.. willingness to take such criticism seriously yet still maintain that it can satisfactorily be accommodated by .. the prevailing framework. "the demand for standards-based reform itself—the standardization imperative—goes unchallenged, at least among the alliance of conservative and liberal politicians, corporate elites, chief school officers, and teacher union leaders. " @@Alternative Assessment @@Alternative Diploma TORONTO ELMIMINATES NON-ELITE DIPLOMAS, OFFERS SKILL CERTIFICATE \clip\2004\02\torskill.txt Fri, 20 Feb 2004 Toronto Star Certificate rewards job skills, not marks Toronto board to issue 200 in June Seen as alternative to dropping out KRISTIN RUSHOWY EDUCATION REPORTER Toronto high-school students doomed to fail because the new curriculum is too tough will be able to earn a certificate showcasing their job skills rather than their school smarts. In the past, many of the students who will be eligible for the skills certificate would have studied at the "basic" level and earned a diploma. Now, the basic level has all but disappeared, leaving those students struggling to learn material beyond their capability, or taking courses developed locally by boards that often don't count for credit. ... Almost half of students who begin high school end up going straight into the workforce - with or without a diploma. 1990: NCEE GETS GRANT FOR ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT z40\clipim\2000\03\19\edgrant.efx Education Grants for New Kinds of Tests Dec 17, 1990 SF Chronicle University of Pittsburgh and NCEE will use grants to develop tests based actual performance and portfolios. From Pew Chartible Trust and John D. MacArthur foundation. 1st graders tested by 5th graders rated by happy and sad faces "Student CenteredClassroom Assessment" by Richard Stiggins and "Seven Kinds of Smart" by Thomas Armstrong. ETS: ASSESSMENTS DON'T TEST FOR TEAMWORK, CONSTRUCTIVISM zip36\clip\99\17\cheating.txt LA Times Sunday, Aug. 22 Cheating in School Reflects Basic Confusion in Society By emphasizing the wrong things in student testing, we end up inviting a culture of compromise. By MARI PEARLMAN. Wants tests based on collaboration, constructivism, not single correct answers, scary coming from makers of the best multiple choice tests we have as compared to awful performanc baesed tests. @@Answer Disclosure Mother wins right to see incorrect test answers on CIM test Connecticut Mother Wins Battle With State Education Department Five-year struggle brings victory for parents' rights [to see which questions she was scored wrong and why, but not to see the entire testj] @@Apartments BUY LAND TO KEEP APT KIDS OUT TO KEEP TEST SCORES HIGH z48\clip\2001\03\1strike.txt From free St. Louis paper: First Strike Hazelwood schools blocked apartments to protect test scores IN, By D.J. Wilson. Buys land from developer to keep out transient kids in apartments who lower test scores. @@Arizona AIMS @@AIMS Arizona will tie graduation diploma to passing the AIMS test. The math test was so difficult, one parent who graduated with an engineering degree and law school could not pass the test. SPI Keegan left town after AIMS technical problems forced a rewrite and the public demanded delaying high stakes or killing it entirely. "I was wrong," Ms. Keegan, a speech pathologist first elected superintendent of public instruction in 1994, said in an interview. "But if we're going to shoot wrong, I want to shoot too high and then moderate. " 90% of whites, 97% of blacks fail the math section. Arizona Republic AIMS test articles %%Errors AIMS SAMPLE MATH PROBLEMS ARE MATHEMATICALLY INCORRECT Experts find numerous math errors. Substance June 2001 p. 46 Christian Richardson. "If the released items are representative of the AIMS, many of the items are simply incorrect mathematically" said James Middleton, Arizona State University professor of mathematics. " Many have confusing wording or have multiple correct answers". The state program administrator says "it is possible for errors to slip through the publising company". %%General PARENTS SUE AIMS, SAYS STATE HAS NOT PREPARED STUDENTS TO PASS clip\2006\04\aimslaw.txt Governor: AIMS hurdle still in place Associated Press Apr. 20, 2006 12:00 AM Gov. Janet Napolitano said high school students shouldn't read too much into a class-action lawsuit that tries to block use of the AIMS test as a graduation requirement. KEEGAN VANISHES AFTER AIMS BOMBS WITH PUBLIC z51\clip\2001\09\mumaims.txt Ex-state schools chief mum on AIMS Sept. 09, 2001 technical problems forced Keegan to keep moving back the effective date of the graduation test. By early this year, state lawmakers threatened to put the test to a statewide vote. Amid the turmoil, Keegan resigned in May "Student Failure Causes States To Retool Testing Programs" Jacques Steinberg, New York Times Friday, December 22, 2000, FRONT PAGENot only did Arizona education officials put material on the 10th-grade math exam, including some calculus and trigonometry, that most students would not be taught until 12th grade.. in the early 1990's the state had introduced a precursor to AIMS, called ASAP (Arizona Student Assessment Program), standardized tests that used a common subject like the rain forest as grist for reading, math and writing questions. Soon after her 1994 election, Ms. Keegan killed the program, saying its value was amorphous. ... to delete from the test those concepts that they considered too advanced, including analysis of matrices and writing of algorithms. .. after the second round of failing test scores (16 percent passed the math, 33 percent passed the writing) were released this fall, Ms. Keegan pulled back again. z46\clip\2000\11\keegan.txt Nov 22 Arizona Republic Keegan backs off AIMS requirements Faced with dismal scores and relentless criticism, state education chief Lisa Graham Keegan waved a white flag Monday, putting the state's first high school graduation test on hold. z43\clip\2000\07\azcanc.txt ARIZONA TO SCRAP FALL AIMS TO GET RID OF HIGHER ORDER MATH Jul 1st, 2000 edition of The Arizona Republic online, Curiouser and curiouser State may cancel fall AIMS test The controversial AIMS graduation test needs so many changes that this fall's exam may be scrapped. The Arizona Department of Education is pushing for the delay because it wants to remove short-answer math and reading questions, said spokeswoman Patricia Likens, making the test easier to grade and quicker to score. The Education Board already agreed Monday to remove higher level math from the exam because many students had not learned those concepts. February 24, 2000 Arizona Republic AIMS math test may get easier More The math section of the AIMS graduation test may be softened if students fail it again this spring, Arizona's schools chief said Wednesday, departing from her usual defense of the exam. \clip\99\20\aimsmath.txt AIMS dominates discussion at education board meeting Board to refigure AIMS math test By Kelly Pearce The Arizona Republic Nov 23, 1999 Reading Math Writing Exceeds 14 0 1 Meets 47 11 29 Near or below standard 38 88 70 Parents, teachers and administrators sent the state Board of Education a message Monday: The math test it requires for high school graduation is way too difficult. AIMS PROBLEMS WAY BEYOND 10TH GRADE MATH HOW CAN YOU BE WORLD CLASS AND FLUNK 90%???? AIMS scores not so bad, pros say Some items not covered in class Related Articles Both Garcia and 17-year-old classmate Gordon Lafontaine were in Algebra 3 when they took the AIMS test. But they said there were problems on the test that they had no idea how to answer. They could answer them now, they said, after spending almost a semester in pre-calculus. "Nor do the scores mean that the students are stupid, especially as other tests show Arizona kids doing about as well as kids elsewhere. ..State scores are at the national average in math on most standardized nationally normed tests given in Arizona, Glass said. Globally, Arizona scored at a level statistically equivalent to Germany, Denmark and Israel. " TEST REQUIRES ANOTHER $1200 PER STUDENT?? $1,200 per pupil per year urged for AIMS test By Mike McCloy The Arizona Republic Nov. 17, 1999 State schools chief Lisa Graham Keegan believes she can get most Arizona students to pass the AIMS test at an added cost of about $1,200 a year per child.... ""We are going to have a train wreck," he said. "We are going to end up only giving 20 percent of our high school seniors diplomas." " ARIZONA TEST FLUNKS 90% OF ALL, 99% OF MINORITIES \clip\99\20\aimsfail.txt AIMS scores fall short 9 of 10 test-takers fail to meet minimum standards By Kelly Pearce and Jennifer Barrett The Arizona Republic Nov. 16, 1999 Nearly 9 of 10 Arizona high school sophomores failed to meet minimum mathematics requirements last year on the AIMS test. Approximately 99 percent of 124 Dysart High students failed the math portion, but Koch said the poor scoring extended beyond his district's boundaries. AZ SUPERINTENDENT BARELY PASSES 10TH GRADE TEST AT 90TH PERCENTILE Passed: Keegan 'relieved' at her AIMS scores By Kelly Pearce The Arizona Republic Nov. 16, 1999 Keegan admitted that her math score - 520 - could have been better. A score of 500 was "meets standards." ARIZONA HIGH STANDARDS A MODEL FOR "REAL" REFORM? \clip\99\19\ariz.txt Center for Civic Innovation Manhattan Institute Civic Bulletin No. 19 July 1999 Transforming American Education by Lisa Graham Keegan Lisa Graham Keegan is Superintendent of Public Instruction for the State of Arizona. [Arizona also has high standards gone amok with failure rates so high they didn't even want to release the scores] What’s going on in Arizona’s education system is really a backdrop for what’s going on across the nation. In Arizona, academic achievement and the motivation for children to be brilliant is increasing. AZ TEST RESULTS SO BAD THEY DON'T EVEN WANT TO RELEASE THEM! zip36\clip\99\16\aims.txt AIMS release opposed Education Board urged to be cautious By Kelly Pearce The Arizona Republic Aug. 24, 1999 The president of the state Board of Education isn't so sure she wants the public to see the first round of scores for Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards. Results of AIMS will be released in October to today's high school juniors, 60,000 of whom took the reading, writing and math exam last spring. But Mary Garcia voiced concerns during the board's Monday meeting about announcing to everyone how many students conquered the state's academic standards and how many didn't. HEY WE WERE ONLY KIDDING... Arizona Republic Education board chief relents One day after she spoke out against publicly releasing the first round of scores of the AIMS test, the president of the Arizona Board of Education backpedaled and said she favors making available some general, statewide numbers. %%Diploma ARIZONA TO MAKE THEIR GRAD TEST MANDATORY EVEN FOR OUT OF STATE XFER Note - Arizona has a republican governor and republican superintendent who got 98% of vote in 1998. Both appear to be strongly committed to "standards based education". Tying graduation to test is functionally equivalnet to Marc Tucker's CIM idea, and consistent with OBE requiring demonstration of high performance rather than passing seat time. \clip\99\15\aims.txt School and Student Accountability Division July 27, 1999 Test to be offered up to age 22, not decided on giving test to private schools, to be required even if you move in from another state. \clip\98\17\edclip04.txt AIMS rescheduled Today's freshmen to be 1st group to test for diplomas By Cathryn Creno The Arizona Republic Nov. 24, 1998 ARIZONA TEACHERS UNION SUPPORTS 3 LEVEL -CIM+ DIPLOMAS \clip\98\17\aims.txt Teachers urge 3 levels of high school degrees By Cathryn Creno The Arizona Republic Nov. 19, 1998 ... the math on the AIMS is way too hard. "My 11th-grader took the pilot test and told me he bombed it because the questions were so terrible and bizarre," Leih said. She intends to keep her 10th-grader home the day the AIMS is given next spring. astounded by parents who do not think their kids should have to know algebra and geometry to graduate. Diploma - CIM, CIM, CIM+ based on passing AIMS %%Difficulty AIMS MATH USELESS AS HIGH SCHOOL EXIT OR EMPLOYER REQUIREMENTS. "SOMETHING IS WRONG WITH THE TEST" The AIMS Test and the Mathematics Actually Used by Arizona Employees Gene V Glass Arizona State University Cheryl A. Edholm Longwood High School Middle Island (N.Y.) Executive Summary Arizona’s Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS) produces unusual failure rates at Grade 10 in mathematics. For the typical Grade 10 AIMS mathematics question, only three of 43 managers reported that it tested mathematics actually used by their employees. " a hurried process of content selection in 1995 that was subject to manipulation by external consultants to the Arizona Department of Education and designed to exclude teachers in the very subjects of their identity of the AIMS Mathematics standards with the curriculum recommendations of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, a document whose authors have asserted is not a valid framework for a high-school exit examination" ..."extraordinary failure rates on the AIMS test, particularly the Grade 10 Mathematics test, have reinforced the suspicion that something is wrong with the test" The Texas high school exit exam, which fails approximately 10 percent has much easier questions. The most difficult math question in one of the earliest administrations of the TAAS tested whether students could calculate the size of an envelope required to hold an 8.5” X 11” piece of paper folded vertically in thirds \clip\98\19\aims.txt State refigures AIMS math Education board OKs condensing 5 tests into 1 By Julie Amparano The Arizona Republic Dec. 22, 1998 "One parent, Fred Gamble, said he couldn't pass the test even though he had an engineering degree and graduated with honors from law school. " %%Poll Poll: 82% support test for graduation Officials call results endorsement of AIMS By Cathryn Creno The Arizona Republic Less impressed was K.R. Scott, a Phoenix Mountain Pointe High School government teacher running as a write-in candidate for state superintendent of public instruction. I think people support the idea of a high school graduation test, but many strongly oppose this specific tool. "Parents of sophomores are worried that nothing their children have done in the last 12 years will be measured on the test."... the state superintendent of public instruction, were shouted down at a forum attended by about 300 Mesa and Tempe parents, kids and educators @@Arkansas z39\clip\2000\02\akscore.txt Sat, 26 Feb 2000 TEST SCORES DON'T TELL WHOLE STORY OF SCHOOL PERFORMANCE JEFF PORTER ARKANSAS DEMOCRAT-GAZETTE This school year, Arkansas fifth-graders improved their performance on the Stanford Achievement Test. Or maybe they didn't. [test scores rise due to exclusion of the worst students] "Richard G. Innes" <> comments It is indeed telling that Arkansas excluded much of their student with disabilities population from their own testing program. Arkansas kids with disabilities have had 4th grade reading scores reported from the National Assessment of Educational Progress each time the test was given. Here is how the scores for Arkansas students with learning disabilities look: Year NAEP Score 1992 177 1994 157 1998 152 Small wonder the state wants to bury this information in their own testing program. You can bet most folks in Arkansas never heard of the NAEP. @@Arts %%Classroom Based Assessment For Arts Washington 5th graders expected to sight sing, and write sheet music on staff and perform. Similar goofy expecations for dancing, visual arts. Boston Globe 5/15/2000 Stronger schooling in the arts On paper, it sounds like the best of ancient Athens. Public school students in Massachusetts are supposed to sing and play instruments; choreograph dances; read, write, act in, and build sets for plays; learn about art history; draw, paint, and sculpt. The blueprint for this is the Massachusetts Arts Curriculum Framework, adopted last June. Two goals run through this Board of Education document: Teach students skills and make them flame-bearers of human achievement in theater, music, the visual arts, and dance. ARTS COMPETENCY TESTS? ARGH! z40\clipim\2000\04\12\test.efx In New Jersey, Be Creative or Else New York Times Education Life April 9, 2000 1997 Nick Chiles NAEP gave an arts test where only 5 percent were graded best on self-portrait, 16% made a design of how to transport a fish on a bicycle, whites did best in music, but blacks approached whites on rhythmic embellishment. Whites and Asian did best in visual arts, girls outdid boys in everything. @@Backlash see Testing Backlash @@Bias, Minority It is thought that conventional norm-referenced multiple choice tests are "biased" against minorities. Marc Tucker believes that they under-estimate the abilities of minorities. But the bottom line is for all the minority friendly features of performance-based tests, the gap is even wider on the new tests. Since open-response is harder than multiple choice, and testing higher order thinking is more difficult than memorization, this should be expected. DIFFERENTIAL PASS RATES: Percent Passing / Above average Ranked by pass ratio White Black Ratio SD SD units 93% 75% 3:1 1994 Seattle Police Written Test 0.80 65% 28% 2:1 2002 CA High School Exit 60% 40% 1.5:1 .5? G4 Seattle 1993 CTBS norm 0.51 ??? 43% 15% 3:1 .9? G4 WASL 1999 Wash perf 0.86 35% 13% 3:1 .9? G4 WASL 1998 Wash perf 0.74 35% 9% 3.5:1 1995 Seattle Video Police Test 0.96 29% 2% 15:1 ? G11 Stanford 9 Boston perf 1.50 ??? 25% 5% 5:1 .9 G4 WASL 1997 Washington perf 0.97 15% 3% 5:1 .9? G8 CLAS 1994 Calf perf 0.84 Last column estimated SD difference from pass rates by La Griffe du Lion PERFORMANCE BASED TESTS FAVOR GIRLS BY 2:1 Published Sunday, January 17, 1999, in the Herald-Leader FRANK ANDERSON/STAFF KIRIS test's format helps girls top boys By Linda B. Blackford Lexington KY HERALD-LEADER EDUCATION WRITER "In 1998, for example, nearly twice as many girls as boys scored in the highest category in reading, 37 percent to 19 percent. The disparity increased from 1997, when the difference was 15 percentage points." That same pattern follows in Maryland, one of the few other states with a performance-based test. Note - activists are still concerned only when girls are outdone by boys. No concern that boys are being left behind. "The department conducted one study on race and gender in 1996 and 1997, but has refused to release it, saying it is a draft and needs work." @@Bias, Political Cunningham and Garner Phillips (1995) provides tables that quantify the weight given to different topics. She found that on the 1993-94 KIRIS assessment in reading, 23% of content focused on the experience of historically disadvantaged groups, 13% respect for animals, 35% health, 17% environmentalism, 7% criticism of traditional education, and 3% evolution. This left 3% for work and job issues, the only non-controversial content. None of the reading passages used content from art, history, science fiction, space, and computers although these made up 12% of the content in 1991-92 and 6% in 1992-93. A statewide Sensitivity Review Committee concluded that: · Taken as a whole, the test favors a liberal viewpoint. · Many questions appear to seek a politically correct response. @@Bilingual Testing BILINGUAL SF AND SAN JOSE SCORE BETTER THAN NATIVE - ASIANS? \clip\98\10\biltest.txt From: ADP /MN10594.DTL [How many of these "bilingual" students are Asian, who routinely get better math scores??] Bilingual Surprise In State Testing Many native-English speakers outscored in S.F. San Jose Nanette Asimov, Chronicle Staff Writer Tuesday, July 7, 1998 San Francisco Chronicle. District-wide 42-50 in math, bilingual 74-85! SAN FRANCISCO .. Grade 2 Reading Math Lang. Native English speakers 49 50 47 Bilingual students 58 65 60 Bilingual ed. graduates 75 87 80 Grade 4 Reading Math Lang. Native English speakers 49 42 48 Bilingual students 56 56 58 Bilingual ed. graduates 66 79 73 Grade 6 Reading Math Lang. Native English speakers 47 50 47 Bilingual tudents 53 63 57 Bilingual ed. graduates 58 79 64 .. Grade 9 Reading Math Lang. S.S.(x) Sci. Native English speakers 50 64 61 54 50 Bilingual students 56 72 66 58 56 Bilingual ed. graduates 44 74 63 52 53 .. Grade 11 Reading Math Lang. S.S.(x) Sci. Native English speakers 56 64 64 67 54 Bilingual students 61 73 68 72 62 Bilingual ed. graduates 46 74 59 66 54 @@Blog Who am I? My name is Kimberly Swygert, and I'm a Research Scientist at a non-profit large-scale high-stakes standardized testing organization. I prefer not to say which one, not because I don't like this place, but because I want to ensure as much as possible that my opinions posted on this blog are not confused with the official opinions of my employers. @@Bookmark (Setting Standards) A bookmark procedure appears to be common to most standards - based tests - a committee establishes a "bookmark" in an ordered list of tasks, but the panelists are not allowed to know what % of students got the answer, or consider wheher the task is compliant with the written standards. The result is very high failure rates when given to actual students. ALASKA - OUR STANDARDS WONT BE A TRAIN WRECK (YEAH RIGHT) for article links February 4, 2000 Anchorage Daily News Graders to 'bookmark' exit exams 2.4 JUNEAU - Lawmakers were reassured Thursday that the method the state will use to set the cutoff point for passing high school exit exams is fair and well-researched and avoids pitfalls other states have encountered. II. HOW WERE THE PROFICIENCY CUT SCORES SET? The standard setting procedure selected for use in Wisconsin was designed and conducted by the testing contractor, CTB/McGraw-Hill. The panelists placed "bookmarks" at the item in their item ordered booklets that represented the breaking point between the proficiency categories: minimal performance, basic, proficient, and advanced. Colorado As I recall, the tests in Colorado were developed by CTB/McGraw Hill using groups of teachers (and community persons?) who developed the questions, then they were field tested, then the groups had each member mark where they thought the various breaks should fall (mastery, proficient, etc.). Then they showed the groups the results of those breaks. The groups were shocked, and did make some adjustments, but they did not cave completely. The resulting data was, I think, fairly comparable to NAEP results. A similar phenomenon in testing occured in TN when our writing tests were developed. Groups of teachers developed them and set the standards, then were shocked at how poorly their students performed. Dave Shearon Nashville, TN Seattle and Rhode Island describe similar processes for determining proficiency levels. @@Boys z47\clip\2001\01\boytest.txt The Electronic Telegraph ISSUE 2065 Friday 19 January 2001 Boys 'lose out' in feminised exams By Liz Lightfoot, Education Correspondent SEPARATE exams for boys and girls were suggested yesterday to overcome the bias of the present "feminised" system. Madsen Pirie, president of the Adam Smith Institute, said that modular courses and continuous assessment favoured the systematic approach of girls rather than the "risk-taking" of boys. @@Boycott GazetteNet ARHS sophomores boycott MCAS Wednesday, May 24, 2000 -- (AMHERST) - Nearly 20 percent of the sophomore class at Amherst Regional High School is boycotting the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System tests. @@Boys Boys generally do worse on the new performance based tests than girls, even on math. z47\clip\2000\12\mspap.txt MSPAP Gauges Student Performance Far Better Than Nationally Normed Tests By Karin Chenoweth Thursday, December 14, 2000 ; Page M10 BOYS SCORE WORSE "Generally, you will see that boys are testing much less well than girls. Consider that 48.2 percent of eighth-grade girls scored at a satisfactory level in writing and 15.2 percent of those at an excellent level. But only 28.5 percent of eighth-grade boys were satisfactory and only 6.9 percent of those were excellent. In reading statewide, there is a gap of more than 10 points between boys and girls."

@@Bracey, Gerald

Critic of education fads finds new assessments are ridiculously hard when everybody flunks. Bracey says Third graders across the nation are throwing up on test day and there have been test-induced suicides and nervous breakdowns documented in New York, California, and Arizona. No wonder. Children are being asked to do the impossible. I define World Class as the 65th percentile on a standardized test. Why does a World Class district like Gwinnett need further proof of its stature? @@Bush, GW MANDATE FOR EQUAL TEST SCORES DOOMED TO FAIL zip54\clip\2001\12\medscore.txt Dec 17 2001 Fat kids, racial disparities and education reform © 2001 By ...demanding equal or nearly equal scores among all ethnic groups, the current effort at educational reform is sure to fail. Few if any schools will succeed in erasing racial disparities that relate far more to disadvantages in home environments than unequal treatment by educators. BUSH RECOMMENDS STANDARDS BASED, NOT NORM REF TESTING z48\clip\2001\02\edwktest.txt February 21, 2001 Usefulness of Annual Testing Varies by State By Lynn Olson Education Week ideally, the administration wants states to use standards-based exams, but that they could use an off-the-shelf, norm-referenced test if they chose. @@California The 1992-93 CLAS test was widely acknowledged to be a disaster because it was unreliable to grade, and was scored more for feelings than correct answers The newer SAT-9/STAR test is a valid test for most students, but it has been slameed for being required of students who are not proficient in english, and the math is expecting perhaps too much "real math" instead of not enough. It is also being used as a OBE/ TQM baseline to drive performance quotas, which is still a bad idea no matter what test you use. %%CLAS HOW WHOLE LANGUAGE AND OUTCOME BASED EDUCATION FAILED IN CA #1996-49 March 15, 1996 THE DECLINE OF ACADEMIC STANDARDS IN CALIFORNIA EDUCATION The Story Behind the Student Testing Fiasco Just what was wrong with the CLAS test? It evaluated students more on their feeling than their analysis of a subject. It permitted students to take certain sections of the test in groups. It didn't require students to write complete sentences, much less complete paragraphs. In some cases, students could draw pictures instead of write their answers. In short, it furthered the state's policy of eschewing basic skills for so-called "problem solving" skills. z43\clipim\2000\07\06\clas\clas.htm MATRIX TEST SON OF DISASTEROUS CLAS TEST \clip\99\06\matrix.txt Another Test DEBRA J. SAUNDERS S February 14, 1999 EARLIER this month, the word started to percolate. A 1995 state law called for two statewide school tests. It first prompted California to buy the multiple-choice STAR test, and then mandated another more intensive test with open-ended questions -- a matrix test. Wags said that state school chief Delaine Eastin's Department of Education was trying to turn the matrix test into a Son of CLAS test. 11/02/97 CA SELECTS TERRA NOVA TEST caltest.txt Terra Nova is just repackaged CTBS and it's a scam. %%C-TAP VOCATIONAL / TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT CALIFORNIA DEVELOPING CAREER TECHNICAL STANDARDS ASSESSMENTS z48\clip\2001\03\ctap.txt The tests to be developed were part of the Career-Technical Assessment Program (C-TAP) for the California Dept. of Ed. by Sacramento County Office of Education, with a total (then) of $4,321,562.00 C-TAP will use performance-based assessment strategies, including projects and specific work products collected over a period of time, as well as on-demand assessments conducted within a specific time limit (written, timed tests). These "career-prep" components will, among other things, demonstrate knowledge and skills needed within a particular industry, as well as those that are common to a set of related occupations WITHIN an industry. Thus, I expect the SCANS standards relating to specific industries and occupational clusters will be used. '\ %%Delay GOODBYE STEM AND LEAF BOX AND WHISKER PLOT, MEDIAN, QUARTILE z75\priv\2003\11\catest.txt Los Angeles Daily News High School Exit Exam to be made easier By Jennifer Coleman Associated Press state Board of Education voted Wednesday to remove some of the more difficult math and English questions on the California High School Exit Exam. "missing will be the lower quartile, median and maximum of a data set. The board also deleted questions that had students use "stem-and-leaf" and "box-and-whiskers" plots for data displays. Instead, students will face more questions about computing averages" Wednesday, November 12, 2003 40% FAILURE RATE - DELAY EXIT TEST BY 3 YEARS OR FOREVER? z67\clip\2003\05\gradexam.txt,1,5598089.story State Education Official Seeks to Delay Exit Exam Report is cited showing high failure rate on the prerequisite to diploma. "Only about 60% of the students in the class of 2004 have passed the math portion of the test so far" By Duke Helfand, Times Staff Writer z76\clip\2003\05\testhard.txt Friday, May 2, 2003 (SF Chronicle) Exit exam too hard -- reprieve likely/State may delay denial of diplomas to students who fail Nanette Asimov, Chronicle Staff Writer Human Resources Research Organization of Virginia, concludes that the exit exam "meets all of the test standards for use as a graduation requirement." California High School Exit Exam Passing Rates for Class of 2004(x) 2001-2002 English 10th- language Group Graders arts Math All students 459,588 81% 62% Economically disadvantaged 125,139 79% 54% English learners 77,446 54% 37% Special education 47,169 40% 22% (x) As of January, 2003 Source: Human Resources Research Organization %%High School exit Fewer California students pass high school exit exam,0,7803473,print.story This year's number was the lowest since passage became mandatory for students to get a diploma. Officials cite inclusion of special education students this year as a reason. By Seema Mehta Los Angeles Times Staff Writer September 10, 2008 One in 10 high school seniors in the class of 2008 failed to pass California's exit exam by graduation, the lowest rate of passage since the test became mandatory to earn a diploma three years ago, according to data released Tuesday by the state Department of Education. The estimated passage rate dipped, state officials said, because for the first time special education students were required to take the exam to receive diplomas, and their test results were included in the tally. Nearly half of special education students -- those with learning, physical or mental disabilities such as autism or dyslexia -- did not pass the exam. State Supt. of Public Instruction Jack O'Connell defended the mandate. "Far from holding students back," he said, "the exit exam requirement ensures all students who earn diplomas will have the basic skills essential to their success in the workforce." Special education students' graduation rate dipped nearly 3 percentage points for the class of 2008 because of the requirement LOS ANGELES WHITE, ASIAN SCORE ABOUT SAME AS STATE NEARLY HALF OF BLACKS FAIL MATH % statewide math, english All 74 75 African 54 62 Asian 91 85 Latino 61 62 White 87 88 % Los Angeles Unified All 58 62 African 49 60 Asian 91 82 (about = state) Latino 53 57 White 85 88 (about = state) % Manual Arts High School All 39 53 African 29 48 Latino 42 54 August 27, 2004 By Duke Helfand, Times Staff Writer Los Angeles Times z60\clip\2002\10\caexam.txt More than 50 percent of students fail high-stakes graduation test By Jessica Brice ASSOCIATED PRESS September 30, 2002 SACRAMENTO – More than half of the high school students who took the state's high school graduation test this spring failed its math and English sections, meaning they will have to retake the test or they won't receive a high school diploma. Rate Index Race 28 -2.32 B 30 -2.16 H 65 1.00 W 70 1.07 A CA HIGH SCHOOL MATH TEST PROJECTED WITH 50% FAIL RATE Z46\DOC\WEB\2000\10\CATEST.TXT Updated Information on the High School Exit Exam: Students exempted from the exam will not receive diplomas. Districts may issue "certificates of attendance" to such students. The estimated failure rate on the recent field test was 40% in English language arts and 50% in math. Cunningham: HUMMRO has just completed a 100 page evaluation of the Ca. HSEE and it is available at . This is a remarkable document for several reasons. First, it is extremely long and detailed. For those of you in California, or those who are interested in assessment or the HSEE in particular, you can learn just about everything from this document. It is remarkable that such a lengthy and complete document would be published before the test is even administered. All that has occurred so far is pilot testing. Second, unlike most evaluations, this is a very frank and sometimes critical evaluation. "For over half of the mathematics items and more than 90% of the English language arts items, the average ratings across districts suggested that at least one-fourth of the 10 th grade students had not received instruction that would allow them to answer the test item correctly." results from the analyses of field test data showed that the test items are relatively difficult for today’s 10 th graders, particularly in mathematics. If these items reflect what we believe students need to know and be able to do, and several panels of reviewers believe that they do, then a significant number of 10 th grade students are likely to fail this exam. %%New STAR tests STUDENTS BELOW 40TH PCTILE WON'T PASS, NEED TO TAKE SUMMER SCHOOL z55\clip\2002\04\casumm.txt Summer school takes serious turn Teachers, students focus on state tests Julian Guthrie, Chronicle Staff Writer Monday, April 22, 2002 ©2002 San Francisco Chronicle San Francisco Unified students who score at or below the 40th percentile on the state's standardized exam -- the 50th percentile is considered average -- are being "strongly urged" to attend summer school... looking at the California high school exit exam is that not one student who was at or below the 40th percentile was able to pass, " said Brooks. CA vs Maryland hard vs. fuzzy standards based tests. z42\clip\2000\07\sat9bad.txt,1737,167139.html,00.html "Passing or Failing? The Stanford Achievement Test is alternately lauded and panned by Valley educators as a way to evaluate student achievement" Expecting all students to score above a nationally set norm is ridiculous, Kuehn said. "We call it the 'Lake Woebegone effect' -- where all the children are above average," she said. "With a norm, someone always has to be at the bottom." NOBODY WANTS TO BID ON CALIFORNIA GRADUATION TEST! \clip\99\2000\01\fasttest.txt Saturday, January 8, 2000 By MARTHA GROVES, Times Education Writer Spurned last month by test publishers, state education officials have issued another plea. It is in the form of a memorandum inviting publishers to submit "an informal bid" to develop and implement the high-stakes test %%Stanford 9 ED PROFESSOR CLAIMS NO "GREAT LEAP" FOR LEP STUDENTS He says everybody gained LEP or no, questions claim of 150% improvement What legitimate inferences can be made from the 1999 release of SAT-9 scores with respect to the impact of Proposition 227 on the performance of LEP students? Kenji Hakuta Professor of Education, Stanford University (650) 725-7454 Lots of tables showing state test scores and improvement by state, district. LEP Students State of California, State of California, State of California, Language Reading Math Grade 19981999 Change Grade 19981999 Change Grade 1998 1999 Change 2 19 23 4 2 27 34 7 2 19 23 4 3 14 18 4 3 25 32 7 3 19 24 5 4 15 17 2 4 21 25 4 4 23 26 3 5 14 16 2 5 21 24 3 5 21 23 2 6 16 18 2 6 24 28 4 6 22 24 2 7 12 14 2 7 22 24 2 7 19 21 2 8 15 17 2 8 23 25 2 8 19 21 2 All Students State of California, State of California, State of California, Reading Math Language Grade 19981999 Change Grade 19981999 Change Grade 1998 1999 Change 2 39 43 4 2 43 50 7 2 40 45 5 3 36 40 4 3 42 49 7 3 39 44 5 4 40 42 2 4 39 44 5 4 44 46 2 5 40 41 1 5 41 45 4 5 44 46 2 6 43 45 2 6 48 52 4 6 47 49 2 7 41 43 2 7 45 47 2 7 49 51 2 8 44 46 2 8 45 48 3 8 47 49 2 STANFORD 9 TESTS KIDS 2 YEARS ABOVE OVER GRADE LEVEL IN CA 6/99 Riverside Press Stanford 9 exam daunts youngsters Math is tested at two years over grade level. By Kamrhan Farwell Millions of California children took a new math test this spring that even the brightest students are expected to bomb. The problem is, the new killer quiz landed on students' desks before the lessons did. @@Scores %%Year 2008 ASIANS MOST, AM INDIAN LEAST PASSING READING WRITING Washington OSPI Class of 2010 10th graders Met standard in reading and writing by ethnic group 82.5 Asian 78.7 Caucasian 75.4 All 71.9 Multiracial 65.5 Haw/Pac Islnd 62.5 Black/African Am 61.3 Low income 60.9 Hisp/Latino 57.9 Am Ind AN 34.0 Special education 30.2 English language learners @@STar %%Star Tough new math test based on rigorous rather than fuzzy standards, but either way both test flunk most students relative to expecations which are still not based on the curve and what actual students can do vs. what ideal situation would be. Tests based on algebra / geometry rather than the usual middle school level math on CIM tests. STAR is a creature of the California Board of Education (tradition), established to the dismay of the California Department of Education (progressive). 2008 Results Build reports by ethnic group: \doc\web\2008\10\castarrace.xls Analysis by Arthur Hu 10/2008 California Standardized Testing and Reporting (STAR) Test scores by race, 2008 Conclusions - Chinese best, but Filipino slightly above Asian average, and slightly better than white. Asian Indians get lots of awards and high SAT scores, but on CA state test they slightly LAG whites. Chinese Filipino Asian White AsIndian Black CST General Math 6 7 Mean scale score 333.7 320.2 319.2 315.3 315.2 285.7 Advanced 10% 4% 6% 4% 4% 1% Far Below Basic 13% 14% 16% 15% 18% 31% CST Algebra I Mean scale score 358.4 321.6 336.5 321.1 324 286.1 Advanced 16% 4% 9% 4% 5% 1% Far Below Basic 4% 7% 7% 8% 9% 22% CST General Math 6 7 Mean scale score Advanced Far Below Basic CST Algebra I Mean scale score Advanced Far Below Basic Chinese 333.7 10% 13% 358.4 16% 4% Filipino 320.2 4% 14% 321.6 4% 7% Asian 319.2 6% 16% 336.5 9% 7% White 315.3 4% 15% 321.1 4% 8% AsIndian 315.2 4% 18% 324 5% 9% Black 285.7 1% 31% 286.1 1% 22% Star Test details To download this file go to Cunningham: ESSAY TESTS DON'T WORK THERE IS NO GOOD WAY TO SET PERFORMANCE STANDARDS EVEN WITM M-CHOICE STANDARDIZED TESTS NO GOOD BEYOND K-5 At the present time there is no accepted, correct way of setting performance standards. There aren't even any good proposed ways of doing this. The most carefully researched and expensively implemented are the performance standards used by NAEP. These have been savaged by almost everybody. AZ AND CA BOTH DUMPED PERFORMANCE TESTS BUT HAVE SCORE INFLATION \doc\web\99\09\testinf.txt "Arizona's situation was quite similar to California, they discarded a performance assessment system and followed it with the Stanford 9, pretty much in the same years as California." * Ron Dietel: Research conducted by our center shows that after a new test is introduced, scores consistently go up the second year and also in the years to follow. If a new test or a new form of the same test is introduced, the scores return to earlier low levels. (See for example, the 1998 CRESST Policy Brief by Robert Linn.) Therefore, research supports Barbara's comments and what you have heard. i:\clip\99\13\starbk.txt CA MATH TESTS ALGEBRA AT GRADE 8, EASTIN COMPLAINS MATH TOO HARD \doc\web\99\09\alg8.txt State's Kids Do Better Than Expected in Tests of New Curriculum Nanette Asimov Chronicle Staff Writer Friday July 2, 1999 ©1999 San Francisco Chronicle URL: * students test for what they have not been taught * need curriculum first, then test, not test first * teacher and Eastin say math is outrageous, most adults would not get test * arthur - are they testing all 8th graders on algebra 2? 4 Grade 8: Mathematics Algebra 1 Which equation is equivalent to 3(x - 7) - 2(x-1) = 8 . A x - 23 = 8 B x - 19 = 8 C x - 8 = 8 D x - 6 = 8 CA STUDENTS FALL SHORT ON NEW "STANDARDS BASED" MATH TESTS For background information see Mathematics (based on 15 Foundational Skills from Stanford-9 and 35 Standards-Based questions) Grade: Number Right (out of 50 possible) 2:23/50 3:22/50 4:20/50 5:18/50 6:19/50 7:17.7/50 Algebra I: 19.3/50 Geometry: 22.3/50 Algebra II: 23.6/50 11 (Summative Test): 17.2/50 Mathematics Stanford Achievement Test-9th version Grade: 1998 national percentile rank, 1999 national percentile rank, change 2: 43%, 50% 7 3: 42, 49 7 4: 39, 44 5 5: 41, 45 4 6: 48, 52 4 7: 45, 47 2 8: 45, 48 3 9: 50, 51 1 10: 43, 46 3 11: 46, 48 2 Comment - the % correct looks pretty bad, but percentiles are still pretty close to the national average. Also we need to remember that CA leads the world in aerospace and computer engineering with the schools and colleges that it has, even if their aveages aren't that great. I believe these tests suffer the same problem as other "standards" based tests in being based on future goals rather than current performance curves, and setting absolute "criterion-based" scores rather than rank-order norm-based expectations even if it is based on traditional curriculum. Mathematically Correct has obtained the statewide STAR test data for both the Stanford-9 nationally Normed Exam and the Augmentation Exam in Mathematics. Comments follow the results. OUTRAGE OVER FAILURE RATE ON CONSERVATIVE MATH TEST HIGHER THAN EQUALLY DIFFICULT CLAS TESTS. \clip\99\11\ortest.txt Orange County Register June 4, 1999 New test overwhelms state students EDUCATION: The exam, based on new grade-by-grade standards, presents big problems, especially in math. By DANIEL M. WEINTRAUB and JOHN GITTELSOHN The Orange County Register [The so-called progressive math tests show failure rates as high or higher than the "tough" math tests, yet there is only outrage when it is backed by the basics crowd. Yet the basics crowd is making exactly the same arguments as WASL that we need a test that most students will fail, even if it tests what they have not been taught in order to "raise the bar"] RIGHT WING CRITERION BASED TEST JUST AS FAULTY AS LEFT WING TEST \clip\99\11\fullsc.txt Fullerton scores reveal, uh ... what? EDUCATION: The tests geared to new state standards are, literally, beyond compare. June 3, 1999 By ELIZABETH CHEY and JOHN GITTELSOHN The Orange County Register Fullerton scores reveal, uh . .. what? [Sorry Mathematically Correct, I'm going to insist that ANY criterion based test that tosses the bell curve is useless] The state [CA] adopted "world class" standards for grade-by-grade math and language-arts content in late 1997. But it still must define the level of performance considered acceptable. Should students be expected to answer 50 percent of questions right? Sixty percent? One hundred percent? Most schools gave the tests in the traditional math sequence: Algebra 1, Geometry and Algebra 2. Fullerton and a few other districts gave tests designed for three levels of Integrated Math: Levels 1, 2 and 3. Freshmen took Level 1 or 2. Sophomores took one of the three tests. All juniors took a test that assumed they had completed the three-year sequence. The Integrated Math tests posed questions that Algebra 1 and Geometry classes had not studied. CA MATH TEACHERS COMPLAIN STAR TEST IS TOO DIFFICULT \doc\web\99\07\starhard.txt Letter was sent by Judy Anderson, President of the California Mathematics Council, the CA affiliate of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics complaining the test was too difficult, yet they had no problems when everybody was flunking the "aligned" CLAS test or WA's WASL with 90% minority flunk rates. It's not the difficulty but "philosiphy" that they are complaining about. @@Canada HIGHER STANDARDS STW HELL IN TORONTO z47\clip\2001\01\torncur.txt Mon Jan 8, 2001 Toroto Star Dispatches from the Grade 10 front 150,330 students were guinea pigs for a new curriculum. Four took notes Brand new curriculum - same old problems Louise Brown EDUCATION REPORTER They are tired of being called Ontario's academic guinea pigs - even though it's true. As well, they are the first teens in a generation to face a mandatory, province-wide Grade 10 literacy test. @@Carkhuff Understanding the WASL A Listmania! list by Amanda E. (Spokane, WA) Share with Friends The list author says: "These books are essential background reading to understand the theory behind why and how the WASL was created by Drs. Terry Bergeson, Shirley McClune and Robert Carkhuff. Dr. Robert Carkhuff was the sole-source no-bid contractor to the tune of 1 million dollars to architect Washington State's education reform and the WASL. Dr. Carkhuff's background is in clinical psychology and theosophy, not pedagogy (the science of teaching) or mathematics and is an unknown in the world of psychology - in fact he admitted in one of his books that he was kicked out of medical school. These books also explain why there is no math in the WASL and why 2+2 can equal 5 on the WASL with full credit as long as the child can explain why they think it should be the right answer." @@Cartoon z41\clipim\2000\05\08 4/20-4/24 2000 posted Safe Haven by by Bill Holbrook This week you'll be taking the county's high stakes test which will be the sole factor in determining whether you can move on to eighth grade. Nothing else, not your grade, not your demonstrative skills, not even MY assessment will be taken into account. Just your score on this one test. Any questions? That about sums it up. Students have 1 ton weights labeled "pressure" hanging over their heads. Sample question: The county is forcing this high-stakes test because a) we've spent millions on it and we can't back down now.. b) we don't care about actual learning, just test scores or c) we hate kids or d) all of the above This question measures a) creative problem solving b) outside the box thinking c) analytical processes that will be the hallmark of 21st century success or d) rote knowledge of haphazard trivia. What's the name of this test again? Who wants to go on to eighth grade? z45\clipim\2000\08\09\safe0731.gif z45\clipim\2000\08\09\safe0801.gif July 31 Tonight, some community leaders will be pressuring us to produce employees with specific vocational skills! .. that 'd be outdated by the time we graduate? Heck, they'd be outdated by the time the meeting's over Aug 01 "As the business leaders of this community, we want the school system to mold students into productive employees for us! And how would we mold them? Easy! We created a mold. Two, actually, one for keyboard drones and one for semiskilled labor. @@Catholic Archdiocese of Chicago adopts performance assessment @@Cheating Since tests have such high consequences for failure in some states, some schools have been accused of cheating. In every case, it is the teachers or school, not the students or parents accused of cheating. NEW YORK TEACHERS 21 CASE OF CHEATING ON HIGH STAKES TESTS z75\clip\2003\10\cheat.txt NATION IN BRIEF Monday, October 27, 2003; Page A20 N.Y. Teachers Cheated In Testing of Students ALBANY, N.Y. -- High-stakes testing has led to high-level cheating by New York teachers, according to state records obtained under the Freedom of Information Law. From 1999 through the spring of 2002, records showed 21 cases of proven cheating by teachers. They read off answers during a test, sent students back to correct wrong answers, photocopied secure tests for use in class, inflated scores and peeked at questions then drilled those topics in class before the test. Watch Out, America" by Donna Garner September 6, 1999 Like TAAS, create tests that magically show score inflation without true improvement, make them easier every year, make them based on fuzzy standards that have no meaning, subjectively scored. z42\clip\2000\06\eastgate.txt The Columbus Dispatch can't prove Eastgate students got test answers Friday, June 9, 2000 Barbara Carmen Fred Squillante / Dispatch The review was prompted by several fifth-graders who told their teacher a "tutor'' had supplied answers to the 1999 statewide test. SCHOOL WITH HIGH TEST SCORES IN CONN JUST CHEATED z42\CLIP\2000\06\faircheat.txt The Seattle Times Company Sunday, April 6, 1997 A winning school loses its magic by Helen O'Neill and Denise Lavoie Associated Press FAIRFIELD, Conn. -- Stratfield School was a magical place where happy children tested highest in the state and parents dreamed of the Ivy League. [principal implicated in erasing wrong answers] z42\clip\2000\06\nightest.txt Cheating 101 Nightline Tuesday, June 6, 2000 disturbing, but what's genuinely alarming is the rash of discoveries in recent months that students are actually being encouraged to cheat by their teachers, who in turn say that they feel under pressure from school administrators to do just that. \clip\99\21\nyccheat.txt Investigator: NYC school officials helped kids cheat to boost test scores December 8, 1999 NEW YORK (AP) -- Teachers and administrators at 32 New York City schools helped students cheat on standardized tests by providing them with questions in advance and even marking test forms for them, a special investigator for city schools charged. \clip\98\01\readrate.txt Officials Misuse Waivers to Inflate Test Scores LANSING, MI - Officials at [mostly black] Muskegon Heights Middle School admit to skewing the results of a statewide test by asking the parents of low-achieving students to sign test waiver forms. "Once a black school does well, they automatically say you cheated," Parker said. "We expected this to happen." School administrators justify their actions by saying that failure-prone students could risk further dejection by taking a test they simply have no hope of passing. "I would challenge anyone to give a student with a second-grade reading level the 7th-grade MEAP test," said Muskegon Heights Middle School Principal Danny Smith. "It just contributes to the child's already poor self-esteem." \clip\97\30\kircheat.txt KIRIS scores to be lowered at 11 schools Investigators cite teachers helping, students cheating By Linda B. Blackford Herald-Leader Education Writer \clip\97\29\toogood\index.html Too Good to be true: New Orlean Times Picayune Special Report 12/97 [Extensive report: Newspaper suspects New Orleans Superintendent Morris Holmes has been encouraging widespread cheating on test scores by excluding the worst students, reading questions, and other questionable practices that make test scores fluctuate wildly, from 24th (inner city) to 69th (better suburb) percentile at one school. Has rankings of all schools in the city] \clip\97\29\kiris.txt Scott teacher suspended over notes on KIRIS By Jefferson George Central Kentucky Bureau 12/15/97 GEORGETOWN -- The suspension of a Scott County Middle School teacher after she took notes from a KIRIS test has some questioning whether a rule regarding "inappropriate assessment practices" is itself inappropriate. @@Chicago CASE A teacher was sued for releasing a few test questions from the city test, he runs Substance newspaper. George N. Schmidt Editor, Substance 5132 W. Berteau Chicago, IL 60641 773-725-7502 Chicago uses ITBS as a high stakes test to retain or force summer school for any student who fall below "grade level", or in other words, any student that is below average, half or most of students. %%Dropout ONLY HALF 1ST GRADERS REACH 8TH GRADE ON TIME, 1/3 LEAVE SYSTEM IN CHICAGO z68\clip\2003\07\dalygen.txt The Daley Generation: Why are they leaving? July 28, 2003 BY ROSALIND ROSSI AND JANET RAUSA FULLER Staff Reporters Advertisement ... who started as first-graders in 1995.. normally would have graduated eighth grade last month. .. about half--made it to eighth. .. [2nd most common was 31% left system permanently] %%General MILLION DOLLAR DAMAGES REDUCED TO $500 z63\clip\2003\01\caseover.txt,1,6206257 Teacher who leaked test owes city schools $500 By Ana Beatriz Cholo Tribune staff reporter January 29, 2003 The Chicago Board of Education, which had sought more than $1.3 million from a teacher who published a standardized test in 1999 without permission, has agreed to accept $500 in damages, officials said this week. CASE RIP 2002 z62\clip\2002\12\erascase.txt Schools getting rid of unpopular exam December 6, 2002 BY ROSALIND ROSSI EDUCATION REPORTER A controversial [CASE] high school exam written by Chicago public school teachers is being dumped in favor of a new test cost... more than $1 million to develop, but critics said many questions were poorly written and it was too time-consuming. Chicago ends CASE tests z56\DOC\WEB\2002\12\casedrop.txtr Chicago ends CASE tests By George N. Schmidt Substance [Chicago] Between 1998 and the end of 2002, the Chicago school system spent more than $10 million developing, printing, scoring and analyzing the controversial tests. Teachers also charged that the CASE took eight school days out of their teaching calendars at a cost of hundreds of millions of dollars in what most called wasted test prep and test time. Chicago administers its own city-wide CASE test on top of 3 other state tests In Chicago, our high school students each year must take three "standards" exams, plus assorted other things. We have: TAP (Riverside's test, which is used for high stakes decisions) ISAT (the Illinois test, which is used to rank schools but without high stakes for kids) CASE (Chicago's eternal "pilot" local "standards" battery of tests) In Chicago, elementary kids take the Iowa, ISAT (soon to be "Prairie State" tests) and (soon) CASE. %%Politics Chicago and Illinois run by kleptocracy of Republicans and Democrats. %%Social Promotion NEARLY HALF OF 3RD GRADE MUST TAKE SUMMER SCHOOL 6/12/01 Chicago Tribune Summer's no break for city 3rd graders By Ray Quintanilla , Tribune Education Reporter About 43 percent of the Chicago Public School 3rd graders who took the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills must attend summer school because they failed to score high enough to merit a promotion, according to new data released Monday. ENDING SOCIAL PROMOTION - STILL OUTCOME BASED EDUCATION z43\clip\2000\07\chicret.txt ENDING SOCIAL PROMOTION Chicago schools test a high stakes, higher standards promotion policy CNN -- June 28, 2000 Comment: This is the same story we've been hearing to justify the WASL and the new "higher" performance based graduation standards. A "no social promotion" policy has not been pushed in WA yet, but it is an inevitable consequence of outcome based education. "Graduating based on the fact that you showed up and got a minimum grade -- that is the horror story of social promotion," said Gery Chico, president of the Chicago School Board. "We wanted our diploma to mean something again," Chico said. "We weren't going to accept any longer that students would move from grade to grade to grade, without showing us that they had performed, had merited that promotion." @@China z43\clip\2000\07\chintest.txt July 10, 2000 BEIJING JOURNAL For Chinese Students, Fate Is a Single Exam Only half of those tested can get in. Only those who get into academic high schools after jr high can take the test. Over all, because of the scarcity of slots, only about 12 percent of young adults in China can attend college, a far lower share than in most Western countries, China gives really grueling tests for middle class kids too they use tests to determine which people to lay off, you fail the "cut" in your work test you lose your job. CHINA HAS ONE HIGH STANDARD THAT FLUNK 80% WANTING TO GO TO HIGH SCHOOL z42\doc\web\2000\06\chined.txt 5/3/2000 * free education only to grade 9 * high school requires exam, fewer than 20% pass * one high standard that most flunk * teachers required to have 3 years of college * teachers paid and graded on student outcomes * teacher directed and dominated Some Thoughts On Chinese Education Leo Casey For two weeks at the end of April and the start of May, a group of 16 New York area educators, of which I was one, participated in a two week study tour of China. @@City Schools Becoming the Best: Standards and Assessment Development in the Great City Schools State content standards @@Cizek, Gregory 6/12/01 In Defense of Testing Series Unintended Consequences of High-Stakes Testing Gregory Cizek, University of North Carolina Is a guest contributor to EducationNews It's eschatological. In one tract after another, the zealous proclaim that there is a dire threat posed by the anti-Christ of postmodern education: testing. To be more precise, the Great Satan does not comprise all testing, only testing with consequences--consequences such as grade retention for students, salaries for educators, or the futures of (in particular) low-performing schools. In this fevered and frenzied battle, what is clear is that any sort of high-stakes test is the beast. On the side of the angels are those who take the path of beast-resistance @@CLAS California Learning Assesment System Disaster 8/28/95A Tale of Three Tests CLAS flunks everybody, Seattle flunks Asian police applicants, San Jose flunks out White battalion Fire Chief in a new oral exam

Now widely regarded as a failure, California was one of the first states to try out "performance based tests" with CLAS. It still showed whites, Asians and the rich on top. The math test was so tough, nobody the 1st year and only 3.2% got the top score the 2nd year. Nearly half, 42.5% scored a bottom "1" rarely correct, and questions bothered parents who saw it as a test of politically correct values. Others didn't note that written response tests are even harder on unprepared minorities than multiple choice questions, Studies showed that tests, which were scored by teachers were completely useless for comparing districts, and were completely unreliable. It was created by staffers who made no apologies about being on the cutting edge of political correctness with no experience in creating tests, in complete secrecy. It was cancelled by the governor after only 2 years. Performance based tests by other states suffer from many of the same problems. Title: Test's Validity Under Minority Microscope: California Learning Assessment System Exam Undergoing Repairs After Heated Complaints Summary: The California school system must decide what is more important for its students - getting the right answer or how to use one's intellectual mobility to arrive at an answer. Source: AsianWeek; Ethnic News Watch Date: 12-AUG-1994 Bishop story of how most student math problems weren't even read for CLAS 10/21/97 WA Legislature Reading ForumrealaudioThis portion of the House Education Committee Reading Forum features an address by former California Secretary of Education Maureen DiMarco. Now with Riverside Publishing. Tells about CLAS test fiasco, as proposed would test for basic and advanced skills, but actual test was completely performance based, and tests of basic skills were so minimal, they would be lost in the round-off error. Nobody understood scoring from 1 to 5 that required a paragraph to explain. In math, "our students have only been 1 to 3 in performance so far", so 4,5, and 6 were the "Star Trek" scores where "no man has gone before". It was supposed to be developed by the best test people, but in fact was done by staff, almost none who had any experience in psychometrics or testing. We wanted to be on the cutting edge, but we were the ones who got cut. Secrecy did the test in, legislators and not even the Governor were able to see the test, DiMarco had to sneak into a real school to peak at the test, and was shocked. There were handbills on telephone poles telling people to be wary of the test, reaction to the test on the streets was so great. It was said that it was conservatives who hated Alice walker passages who killed, it, but it more the impression. Finally, the Governor vetoed the funding. FairTest survey of states Evaluation. Until vetoed by the governor in 1994, the state's assessment program was the innovative California Learning Assessment System. It used a mix of constructed-response and multiple-choice items and was perhaps the most controversial state exam in the nation. It represented a significant step forward in state testing as it used multiple methods and was also available in Spanish. CLAS included not only the exam but also development of local performance and portfolio assessments. The governor placated conservatives who objected to using anything other than multiple-choice items and vetoed the reauthorization. TEACHERS: CLAS DOES NOT TEST WHAT IS BEING TAUGHT \clip\98\01\clas.txt Wednesday, April 5, 1995 · Page A1 ©1998 San Francisco Chronicle `Alarming' Statewide Test Results Students score low in reading, math Nanette Asimov, Chronicle Staff Writer " Mike Kirst, a Stanford University education professor and former president of the state Board of Education, agreed that the CLAS test does not measure what students are being taught. ``CLAS says this is what students ought to be studying,'' said Kirst. ``It's a much more difficult standard to meet, and higher than we've ever tried to measure students by. " CLAS TESTS WERE NOT RELIABLE BETWEEN SCHOOLS OR STUDENTS Peter Schrag, "The New School Wars: How Outcome-Based Education Blew Up," The American Prospect no. 20 (Winter 1995): 53- 62 ( \clip\97\26\schwar.htm "California's CLAS Struggle" CLAS - BETTER SCORE FOR SOCIAL SENSIVITIY THAN CORRECT ANSWER \clip\97\09\mathans.txt "The report that in grading the CLAS test, greater credit was given to answers showing social sensitivity than to those with correct mathematical thinking made the whole testing process very questionable - and certainly raised doubts in my mind. That was not eased when I heard a presentation at Palm Springs in which the sample paper presented to us as a "6" (perfect score) was in fact mathematically incorrect, but it was the one the scorers liked the best." SEATTLE CITES CLAS IT'S JUST A BAD IDEA \clip\97\20\testrefm.txt The Seattle Times Company Thursday, Sept. 4, 1997 Education reform's big test: Held to higher standards, fourth-graders score badly, showing the challenge ahead California was one of the first states to try performance-based testing statewide and immediately ran into criticism from parents that the questions pried into children's private lives. Others questioned the test's reliability. 10/9/97 \clip\97\23\test2.txt Sacramento Bee Dan Walters: Testing vital, but this one? "Earlier in the decade, the state implemented the California Learning Assessment System (CLAS) but it was attacked by conservative critics who said it was too intrusive, too subjective in its methodology and too tied to politically correct notions" \doc\95\08 CLSANFRA.TXT - San Francisco 1994 CLAS Test results, from Calf State Ed. Gopher \doc\95\09\ CLLACNT.TXT Santa Clara Co. CLSANMAT.TXT San Mateo Co. CLSTANIS.TXT Stanislaus Co \doc\95\10\ \doc\95\10\zip\*.txt CLAS results by city: CLLAUNF.TXT LA Unified CLMARIN.TXT Marin Co. CLALAMED.TXT Alameda Co. CLORANGE.TXT Orange Co. CLVENTUR.TXT Ventura Co. CLCONTRA.TXT Conta Costa County CLSANDIE.TXT San Diego County \doc\95\07\clas95.txt - press release and internet aol instructions. Looks like no data on race, just which districts and schools did best overall. \priv\95\04\clas95.txt - no more funding for CLAS test asian test clas doc942\priv\mickey1/2.txt x\doc\95\08\clasasin.wk1 \doc\94\19\clasasin.wk1 - CLAS comparison by cities Nowhere are blacks equal to whites in the same city. See asian - ed - test clas, history: doc941\clas*.* asians in city worse than state, blacks equal, whites better at state, asians better in everything \doc\94\17\clasfail.txt \doc\94\2\priv\clas2.txt \doc\94\3\priv\clasx.txt clas.xls Estimate of percentile equivalents, California CLAS 1994 Grade 8 Reading W50 B41.8 H41.8 A50.5 N42.3 Fil48.5 PacI 45.2 Grade 8 Math W50 B30 H30 A53.8 N37.9 Fil43.9 PacI 37.3 CA CLAS 8 W1.00 B-1.66 H-1.66 A1.08 Black IQ = Math 92 Reading 96 vs. 85 in general IQ tests. Asian IQ = Math 102 Reading 100 California Department of Education California Learning Assessment System 1993 Scores by Ethnic Background Performance level is ranked from 1 to 6 lowest to best Index analysis by Arthur Hu Ratio is compared to percent of whites at level, -2 = 1/2 Summary, in general Asians are not only better in Math but Reading and Writing as well. Filipinos are weaker in math, but in some grades are as good or better in reading and writing than whites Pacific Islanders are weaker all the way around, but not as far down as Hispanics and African Americans. Hispanics and African Americans are consistently the lowest at the top levels and highest at the low levels. Math performance of around half at the lowest level among Blacks and Hispanics statewide is similar to East Palo Alto / Ravenswood and Alum Rock/ East San Jose which are predominantly black and Hispanic, and the worse district scores in the bay area. Percent of State students performing at level Grade8 Math White Black Hisp Asian NatAm Fil Paci 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 2 0 0 4 0 1 1 4 13 3 3 17 5 9 6 3 20 7 8 21 11 18 11 2 39 39 40 34 42 41 41 1 24 49 46 23 39 31 40 total 98 98 97 99 97 100 99 Grade8 Reading White Black Hisp Asian NatAm Fil Paci 6 1 0 0 2 0 1 1 5 9 4 3 13 4 8 6 4 35 23 24 36 24 34 28 3 39 42 42 34 44 38 44 2 13 26 26 13 24 16 18 1 1 4 4 2 4 1 3 total 98 99 99 100 100 98 100 Grade8 Writing White Black Hisp Asian NatAm Fil Paci 6 1 0 0 2 0 2 0 5 13 5 4 16 6 16 8 4 37 24 25 36 25 36 32 3 35 40 41 32 40 32 38 2 12 23 22 11 22 11 17 1 2 8 5 2 5 2 4 total 100 100 97 99 98 99 99 Index Grade8 Math White Black Hisp Asian NatAm Fil Paci 6 1.00 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! 5 1.00 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! 2.00 #DIV/0! -2.00 -2.00 4 1.00 -4.33 -4.33 1.31 -2.60 -1.44 -2.17 3 1.00 -2.86 -2.50 1.05 -1.82 -1.11 -1.82 2 1.00 1.00 1.03 -1.15 1.08 1.05 1.05 1 1.00 2.04 1.92 -1.04 1.63 1.29 1.67 Asian best, Fil & Paci -2 Index Grade8 Reading White Black Hisp Asian NatAm Fil Paci 6 1.00 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! 2.00 #DIV/0! 1.00 1.00 5 1.00 -2.25 -3.00 1.44 -2.25 -1.13 -1.50 4 1.00 -1.52 -1.46 1.03 -1.46 -1.03 -1.25 3 1.00 1.08 1.08 -1.15 1.13 -1.03 1.13 2 1.00 2.00 2.00 1.00 1.85 1.23 1.38 1 1.00 4.00 4.00 2.00 4.00 1.00 3.00 Asian best, Fil & PacI = White, worse at bottom Index Grade8 Writing White Black Hisp Asian NatAm Fil Paci 6 1.00 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! 2.00 #DIV/0! 2.00 #DIV/0! 5 1.00 -2.60 -3.25 1.23 -2.17 1.23 -1.63 4 1.00 -1.54 -1.48 -1.03 -1.48 -1.03 -1.16 3 1.00 1.14 1.17 -1.09 1.14 -1.09 1.09 2 1.00 1.92 1.83 -1.09 1.83 -1.09 1.42 1 1.00 4.00 2.50 1.00 2.50 1.00 2.00 Asian & Fil = 2X, not worse at bottom see file for grades 4, 10 \doc\95\08\saclcla2.xls - Gunderson is 92 pct vs. white, worst is 25 xdoc\94\12\saclcla2.xls - Santa Clara County ranking by school in CLAS xdoc\94\9\saclclas.xls - original list d:\doc\94\17\priv\clasok.txt - CLAS has grading consistency problems, but experts say it's OK. SJM 8/3/94 d:\doc\94\17\clasfail.txt asian education test clas doc942\priv\clas2.txt sampling errors? @@College Exit The logical (or illogical) extension of minimum competency tests for high school is a test for college which has been opposed by professors in colleges and the Boston Globe. z68\clip\2003\07\coltest.txt News bulletin from the Chronicle of Higher Education, July 15, 2003 [44]By JEFFREY SELINGO Denver Higher-education policy makers told college leaders and legislators on Monday that national tests or surveys of how much students learn in college may soon be on their way, overriding the patchwork of policies that exists in the states. STANDARDS BASED TESTING, GRADE PROMOTION HEADED FOR COLLEGES z57\clip\2002\08\colltest.txt New York Times August 4, 2002 Tests Are Not Just for Kids By KATE ZERNIKE And some states have added teeth: in South Dakota, for example, students must pass exams to progress to junior year. z47\clip\2001\01\uttest.txt Houston Chronicle Jan. 8, 2001, 9:27PM UT officials to work with faculty on plan for testing process By RON NISSIMOV Copyright 2001 Houston Chronicle AUSTIN -- University of Texas officials said Monday they will begin consulting with faculty members soon about a controversial proposal to require testing of college students before graduation. BOSTON GLOBE SAYS YES K12 NO COLLEGE EXIT EXAM z47\clip\2001\01\colltest.txt A BOSTON GLOBE EDITORIAL College Testing "As necessary as it is to measure students' mastery of the K-12 curriculum, it would be foolhardy to seek a one-size-fits-all test for anything as multifaceted as higher education. " Texas colleges propose standardized exit exam for college faculty is appalled @@Colorado Colorado is introducing a new reform-based test in 1997 with low score results. "By law we are a standards-based state" 08 Mar 1998 from net I have just found out about some ridiculous legislation in Colorado that would essentially ban the use of norm-referenced testing in the state. Are there any folks who might want to call their legislators and urge them to vote against it? Colorado HB 98-1267 Education Appropriations Act can be referenced at "discourages the use of norm-referenced tests". ties school accreditation to standards-based tests (CSAP) adds grades and content areas to the existing CSAP cites increased cost of CSAP of approximately $5.9M (Total CSAP: $18.5M requires school districts to pay for the additional testing links graduation requirement for 12th graders to grade 10 CSAP performance --------------------------------------------------------------------- z48\clip\2001\02\csap.txt,1299,DRMN_15_66817,00. html Boulder students protest CSAP tests Exams `anti-diversity,' young critics charge By Nancy Mitchell, News Staff Writer Statewide exams given this week in Boulder Valley schools have prompted students from two high schools to protest, calling the tests unfair and "anti-diversity." KIDS WORRY ABOUT COLORADO HIGH STAKES TEST z48\clip\2001\02\coltest2.txt,1299,DRMN_21_21644,00.html Feb 11, 2001 The stress of CSAP Students, teachers, administrators await state-mandated test, stomachs churning By Nancy Mitchell, News Staff Writer Valentin Lujan, 14...eyes widen with worry when he talks about CSAP, the state test officially known as the Colorado Student Assessment Program. "If you don't do good on the test, you have to go to summer school for whatever you missed," he said last week. low-performing schools face conversion to a charter school if they don't improve over time. z48\clip\2001\02\coltest.txt,1299,DRMN_3_21651,00.html Questions and answers about the CSAP tests "This year, the state is paying nearly $10.8 million for the CSAP tests, including development of new tests, shipping and scoring. With 700,000 exams expected, Watson said, it works out to $15.40 per test." z40\clip\2000\03\cotest.txt Rocky Mountain News Timing hurt math scores? Experts indicate skills erode over summer By Brian Weber Denver Rocky Mountain News Education Writer The timing [right after summer vacation] of state math tests probably hurt scores and made them nearly worthless for helping struggling students this year. The results found that 47 percent of fifth-graders were proficient or advanced on skills they learned through fourth grade on tests in the Colorado Student Assessment Program. Thirty-eight percent were partially proficient, and 13 percent were unsatisfactory. 43 schools hit the state's ultimate goal for all standards tests -- 80 percent proficient or advanced. Advanced or proficient pass rate 56 white 53 asian 23 black hispanic difference = 0.88 SD \clip\98\13\cotest2.txt October 5, 1998 Bessemer's success Scores jolt school into action By Janet Bingham Denver Post Education Writer This year, 64 percent of Bessemer fourth-graders met the standards - a dramatic five-fold increase [from 12%] and the biggest improvement in the state. The number meeting writing standards jumped from 2 percent to 48 percent. Across Colorado, 57 percent of fourth-graders met reading standards, the same as last year, and 36 percent met writing standards, up from 31 percent last year. More than 80 percent of the 325 students at the Pueblo school qualify for free or reduced-price lunches; more than 80 percent are Hispanic or black. Law asks much, gives little By Renate Robey Denver Post Education Writer Under new Colorado law, if this year's third-graders do as poorly on the test this spring, those who fail will have to go through an individual assessment and be placed on a very specific and personalized reading plan. Those students could be held back in reading but advance to the next grade in other subjects. 66% "PROFICIENT" IN CO READING \clip\98\14\cotest.txt October 2, 1998 By Bill Scanlon Rocky Mountain News Staff Writer Third-graders scored better on their Colorado State Assessment Program reading test than fourth-graders did on theirs, prompting parents and educators to ask why. NORMED TESTS UP, BUT STANDARDS-BASED TEST AWFUL? Denver Business Journal 1/19/98 Defending standardized tests Lee White and Irv Moskowitz How could DPS students show an upturn on the ITBS across all grades last spring and yet perform so abysmally on the state standards? By law we have become a standards-based state. \clip\98\02\newscli3.txt \clip\98\01\copoor.txt Denver Post Jan 1, 1998 Poorer schools do poorly (politicians say there should be no link...) By Carlos Illescas Denver Post Education Writer %Proficient %Assistance: Reading Writing 0 78 50 60+ 29 11 COLORADO THINK 50% WILL FAIL NEW TEST \clip\97\27\coltest.txt Rocky Mountain News November 10, 1997 Low test scores expected Exams designed to point out gaps in students' knowledge "projections indicate most of their children won't pass, state education officials said" "The Colorado test measures how much a student knows compared to the standards, devised by state and local educators and parents. " 43% BELOW IN READING, 69% BELOW IN WRITING Fourth-graders' low scores called no surprise By Bill Scanlon Rocky Mountain News 11/13/97 \clip\97\27\coltest2.txt " Forty-three percent of students were below proficiency in reading. Sixty-nine percent were below prociency in writing. " Only 14% PASS WRITING IN DENVER Fourth-graders fail the test Rocky Mountain News 11/13/97 WRITING REQUIRED SEVERAL DRAFTS, STUDENTS NOT ASKED TO PERFORM BEFORE \clip\97\27\coltest3.txt Students criticize test requirements Questions boring, say fourth-graders who took the exam Rocky Mountain News November 13, 1997 10/29/97 Denver Post Scores on new test will be low By Janet Bingham Denver Post Education Writer Brace for grim and sobering student test results, the governor and the state education commissioner are warning. %%Scores z57\clip\2002\08\csap.txt Rocky Mountain News URL:,1299,DRMN_957_1303935,00.html Minorities' progress stalled, CSAP reveals By Holly Yettick, Rocky Mountain News August 3, 2002 Asians lead only in math. 8th grade science W62 B21 H21 A51 10th-grade math W33 B 7 H 8 A35 Existing learning gaps between minority students and their classmates show little sign of shrinking, according to state test results released this week. @@Comparison Performance vs. Standardized Tests The Assessment Debate: PRESS \clip\98\09\assdbt\assdbt.htm @@Computer Administered Tests On the web at: Testing Writing on Computers: An Experiment Comparing Student Performance on Tests Conducted via Computer and via Paper-and-Pencil Michael Russell Boston College Walt Haney Boston College Abstract Computer use has grown rapidly during the past decade. Within the educational community, interest in authentic assessment has also increased. To enhance the authenticity of tests of writing, as well as of other knowledge and skills, some assessments require students to respond in written form via paper-and-pencil. However, as increasing numbers of students grow accustomed to writing on computers, these assessments may yield underestimates of students' writing abilities. This article presents the findings of a small study examining the effect that mode of administration -- computer versus paper-and-pencil -- has on middle school students' performance on multiple-choice and written test questions. Findings show that, though multiple-choice test results do not differ much by mode of administration, for students accustomed to writing on computer, responses written on computer are substantially higher than those written by hand (effect size of 0.9 and relative success rates of 67% versus 30%). Implications are discussed in terms of both future research and test validity. the computer mode of administration had the effect of increasing the success rate on the performance writing item (as judged by the average of three independent raters) from around 30% to close to 70%. those students who performed the assessment on the computer tended to write almost twice as much and were more apt to organize their responses into more paragraphs. @@Connecticut Connecticut Academic Performance Test CAPT Statewide, only 36-41% of students meet "state standards". Test is correlated to national norms, and sets criterion based "standard". Only 10% passed the first year according to WA's Gordon Ensign. When the mastery test is linked to a national standardized test, the Metropolitan Achievement Test, data show that the typical Connecticut student scores better than most students in the country -- higher than 57 percent to 69 percent of other students The test started in 1985, officials brag of continuous improvement. But the "poor" (thats minorities) continue to do poorly. In urban areas, high numbers of students skip the test, but it is compulsory. In 2000, the establishment is considering, but resisting calls to make it a high stakes exit exam. Connecticut State Dept of Ed Mastery Test Objectives %%News EDUCATORS RESIST TURNING CAPT INTO HIGH STAKES EXIT EXAM z46\clip\2000\11\capt.txt Tough Questions About CAPT By RICK GREEN The Hartford Courant November 07, 2000 She said it would be unwise to make the CAPT or anything like it an "exit exam'' for high school. "It is much too difficult a test to be an exit test. It is meant to set a high goal,'' The state's association of superintendents has taken a formal position against making the CAPT a "high-stakes" test, such as the one now causing upheaval in Massachusetts ..CAPT appears to be almost optional in urban districts such as Hartford, where, for example, just 65 percent of eligible students even show up to take the math portion of the test. 65.5 percent of test takers reached the state goal on at least one portion of the test, up from 58.2 percent in 1995. ...15.4 percent of students achieved the state goal on all four tests z45\clip\2000\07\conn.txt Connecticut's Education Success Story (URL below article) By Jay Mathews Washington Post Staff Writer Tuesday , July 18, 2000 ; A11 Jeffery Westcott, a new teacher at Church Street School in Hamden, Conn., cringed three years ago when he watched a video of himself running his second-grade class. Did he really cut that child off so quickly, just as the boy was about to make his point? SUCCESS FROM TESTING OR JUST RICH COLLEGE PARENT KIDS? \clip\99\08\edclip01.txt Harford Courant Mar 5, 199 State Students Get Top Rank In National Reading Test By LISA CHEDEKEL Connecticut's fourth- and eighth-graders soared past their peers on a new national reading test, ranking No. 1 among 43 states and drawing praise from U.S. Department of Education officials. Districts across the state have revamped instruction around the Connecticut Mastery Test in the past five years, renewed focus on basic skills had allowed Connecticut, with its high per-capita income and glut of college graduates, to push ahead of other states. \clip\99\05\edclip03.txt Thursday, February 4 SPECIAL REPORT: 1998 Connecticut Mastery Tests Cities Still Lagging In Mastery Test Scores By RICK GREEN This story ran in The Courant February 4, 1999 According to test results released Wednesday, just two in 10 fourth-graders are reaching state goals for reading in the state's poorest cities. Just over half of them can tell time. Slightly more than four in 10 are adept at estimating lengths and areas. Among eighth-graders, 40 percent are at or above state goals on all three tests -- virtually double the figure of five years ago. ONLY 35% PASS CONN. G10 LANGUAGE TEST New York Times November 5, 1998 Most 10th Graders Fall Below Connecticut Academic Goals By THE ASSOCIATED PRESS [44 math] In science, 36 percent made the grade, the same as in 1997, and language arts remained steady at 35 percent. In interdisciplinary skills, which combine math, reading and writing skills, 38 percent achieved the goal, the same as the year before. "This is not a pass-fail test," Sergi said. "Scoring below the state goal is not a failing grade. It means that students are not performing at the high levels we want them to achieve. \clip\98\02\masttest.txt 1-18-98 The Hartford (CT) Courant "Mastery Test Scores Up, But Cities Still Lag" [test given in 4th, 6th, and 8th grades] \clip\98\02\masttest.txt 1-17-98 The Hartford (CT) Courant "Teachers Hailed as Students Master Test" [One school board chairman says: "We have seen a pattern of declines as the students reach the eighth grade, particularly in math,...We've identified that as ... a particular priority."] When the mastery test is linked to a national standardized test, the Metropolitan Achievement Test, data show that the typical Connecticut student scores better than most students in the country -- higher than 57 percent to 69 percent of other students (test accomplishes standard setting, scores are up, "real-life" / "applied" content is seen as valid, minorities, cities still lag) 50-60% reaching goals. "Town-By-Town Results: Connecticut Mastery Test Results" [the state department of education reports test results by grouping towns according to families' socio-economic-education status] \clip\97\30\glaston\test1996.htm The Connecticut Academic Performance Test is an extremely challenging state-mandated test given every May to all students in Grade 10. The test assesses knowledge of curriculum, but depends more heavily on critical thinking, effective writing and application of knowledge to new situations. On the CAPT, Glastonbury's results exceeded Connectiuct state averages as well as averages posted by the Educational Reference Group in 1996 The cahrt below indicates the percentage of students who have met or exceeded the state goal. The state CAPT goal is one of the most demanding academic standards in the nation. Conn.(ERG) Glastonbury Mathematics 41% 57% 69% Language Arts 35% 50% 57% Science 34% 48% 51% Interdisciplinary 36% 47% 55% Connecticut Mastery Tests Glastonbury students in Grades 4, 6 and 8 continue to score well on the demanding Connecticut Mastery Test (CMT). This state-mandated test assesses mastery in mathematics, degrees of reading proficiency, writing, written communication, llistening and reading comprehension. The Scores in this table indicate the percentage of students who scored at or above the state mastery goal in 1996. Grade 4 Grade 6 Grade 8 Mathematics 85% 72% 72% Writing 57% 79% 76% Reading 78% 79% 78% Students at or above state goal on all 3 tests 47% 58% 58% \clip\97\30\cttest.txt 12-27-97 Hartford (CT) Courant "Mastery Test Scores Are Rising" [8th grade writing: 25% pass compared to 24% last year; 6th grade writing: 26 % pass compared to 14% last year] $1.95 for full text @@Conservative %%Against %%For Bennett, William [[Finn, Chester [[Ravitch, Diane z56\clip\2002\07\ravit.txt 2002 • No. 2 EDUCATION: On School Reform, Let’s Stay the Course Diane Ravitch Recent reforms in Massachusetts show how we can improve our public schools by demanding excellence—from students and teachers alike. [[Thomas Sowell Linda Chavez z42\priv\2000\06\lchavez.txt JUNE 1, 2000 Feel Good Failures By LINDA CHAVEZ What would happen if schools administered tests, but students refused to take them? Several hundred students in Massachusetts decided to find out for Thernstroms z42\clip\2000\06\fortest.txt Inside the Classroom Outlawing tests by Dean L. Kalahar, M.Ed. At one time children would go to school and graduate with a high school diploma that defined a level of proficiency and skill providing potential employers assurance of competency. Let¹s be honest, what is morally wrong is the unconscionable belief that standards and accountability are less important than allowing children to pass through a school system without being able to read or write. @@Construction AIMS SPENDS $150 PER ITEM, COST 4 years and $10m TEMP SCORERS PAID $9-$15 PER HOUR (LESS THAN TEACHERS) z41\clip\2000\05\aimmake.txt Creating AIMS test a long process Days of reckoning here for sophomores By Dave Walker The Arizona Republic May 1, 2000 HOW STANDARDIZED TESTS ARE CONSTRUCTED z40\clip\2000\04\newtest.txt NY Times April 9, 2000 A Test Is Born By JIM YARDLEY Among the biggest testing players are three of the major textbook publishers. CTB/McGraw-Hill publishes the TerraNova, which in modified form is used to help determine grade promotion in New York City. Riverside Publishing, owned by Houghton Mifflin, makes the popular Iowa Test of Basic Skills. And Harcourt Brace, the parent company of the Psychological Corp., makes the Stanford Achievement Test, which has existed in different forms for nearly 80 years and is widely used throughout the country, including, in an augmented version, as California's state test. Paslov estimates that 70 percent of his company's testing business comes from creating custom tests for states. States want to control the test and what it covers, rather than order one from a catalog. By the year 2003, according to the United States Department of Education, 26 states will require that students pass a test to graduate from high school; currently, 18 states require such a test. @@Context @@Companies z45\clip\2000\10\testaw.txt Ken Goodman's Absurdity award for November goes to the 4 billion dollar per year, McGraw-Hill Company for its Harold W. McGraw, Jr. Prize in Education. Winners of the Award for the year 2000 Nancy Grasmick, Maryland State Schools Superintendent Rod Paige, Superintendent, Houston Independent School District Sanford I. Weill, Chairman & CEO, Citigroup, Inc. (all promoted expensive McGraw Hill programs and / or tests) z42\clip\2000\06\testmark.txt pni/print&articleid=A6706-2000May25 Testing the Market By Jay Mathews Washington Post Staff Writer Tuesday , May 30, 2000 ; A09 1. Harcourt. The San Antonio-based company has about 40 percent of the testing market, including the Stanford 9 used by Virginia and D.C. schools and Virginia's Standards of Learning tests. Harcourt's rise to the top was aided by a $28 million contract to test all California schoolchildren, a prize that came when the state school board could not resolve a bitter fight between proponents of the other two companies. 2. CTB. Based in Monterey, Calif., its biggest tests have been the California Achievement Tests and the California Tests of Basic Skills/TerraNova. It also produces the MSPAP, Maryland's principal school assessment test, and has won a five-year, $10.3 million contract to develop Maryland's new high school graduation tests. It has about 40 percent of the market, slightly behind Harcourt. 3. Riverside. The company produces the popular Iowa Test of Basic Skills and the Woodcock Diagnostic Reading Battery. It is based in Itasca, Ill., just west of Chicago, and has about 20 percent of the market. (Washington State WASL, ITBS) @@Control One criticism of new assesment and "accountability" systems is that they are being used as a weapon to impose control on districts and schools that do not comply with mandated reforms and curriculum. If the Federal government can take a state that is only second in ACT score and percentage of high school graduates and impose a mandated curriculum on them, then they can impose it anywhere in the United States @@Core Knowledge Core Knowledge has tests now aligned to their curriculum. @@Correlation PERFORMANCE BASED RESULTS ALMOST EXACTLY THE SAME AS TRADITIONAL TESTS, SO IF TRADITIONAL IS CHEAPER, WHY DO THE NEW TESTS? (local) \clip\97\25\edasses.htm (4) "Educational Assessment Reassessed: The Usefulness of Standardized and Alternative Measures of Student Achievement as Indicators for the Assessment of Educational Outcomes," Educational Policy Analysis Archives, Vol 3 No 6, March 3, 1995 (available at website: Shavelson et al. found that "taken in the aggregate, a combination of the alternative assessments correlates about the same with aptitude as does the standardized science achievement test. Aptitude, then, is a major factor in generalizing performance across assessment tasks" (p. 26). What this means is that students score at a comparable level on the battery of performance assessments in Shavelson's study and on aptitude and a standardized science achievement test. On the California Bar exam, the largest program so far to have incorporated performance testing, the rank order of applicants is nearly the same on the performance, essay, and multiple-choice sections. Low-scoring students score low on all three parts, high-scoring candidates score high on all three. According to a new study, the same thing is true on the free-response and multiple-choice parts of the Advanced Placement computer science exam. Several similar studies on other tests have yielded similar conclusions. . . . (p. 31) the question becomes which form of assessment is most appropriate to a given purpose. Having determined that, we must next ask which appropriate model is most efficient in terms of cost and resources. @@Cost Performance based tests are very, very expensive in terms of time and money compared to traditional machine-scored standardized tests. Free response questions must be scored by trained "experts" with complex rubrics because many questions have no correct answer. Some tests are untimed as well. Traditional tests typically cost less than $5 per student, free-response tests cost from $30 up to hundreds depending on how development costs are assessed. If these tests provided more information, it might be worth it, but for all the talk about "higher order thinking" and "multiple intellegences" and "racial bias", the gap for poor and minorities is even greater, and the rank order of students is almost identical to that of traditional tests, so you're spending much more time and money to find out that the rich, white, Asian, and kids who study really hard, drill a lot and memorize lots of facts get the best scores, compare to students who learn "naturally". In terms of total reform movements, Kentucky Test cost spectrum: $840-$1,650 Kentucky KIRIS test $450 New Principal test $150 NAEP $135 European essay-on-demand test $85 Traditional Principal test $65 AP Advanced Placement $20-25 Maryland $31.79 Colorado $29.00 Washington $4.19 Tennesee TVAS $2.40 CTBS $1.30 Terra Nova --------------------------------------------------- Annual Testing Cost $900M Testing across US $120-250M Kentucky estimated $100M Texas proposed $55M CLAS proposed $31M Texas $18M Virginia SOL Development Cost $2.5M Arizona AIMS $1.3M WA WASL Science test (suspended) $18M Massachusetts annual %%Bidding Cunningham When a state sends out an RFP for the construction of a test, the proposal may cost as much as one hundred thousand dollars to prepare. Only McGraw-Hill and Harcourt-Brace can afford to prrepare such an expensive proposal. %%Development $16 MILLION TO DEVELOP FLORIDA TEST QUESTIONS Trouble with FCAT St. Petersburg Times, published October 7, 2002 They said disclosing the tests to parents would force the state to spend $16-million creating new test questions every year %%Letter Doyon: It was budgeted. I believe I heard or read it at A+ or in the paper. $100,000 a year. [to send congratulations letter to every WASL passing student from Governor and OSPI / superintendent] 1/7/03 %%reform program By July of 1999, Massachusetts had spent over 50 million dollars on the MCAS. That money could have been used for teacher training and workshops, to install and preserve interesting electives and programs, or to improve funding for schools that are not doing well academically \clip\98\17\edclip04.txt ANALYSIS Tests result prove education law is a work in progress By Scot Lehigh, Globe Staff, 11/24/98 Five years after the passage of Massachusetts' landmark education reform law, the message from yesterday's student test results was not how far the state has come but rather how far it has to go. Since the law passed in 1993, Massachusetts has spent an extra $5 billion to phase in a doubling, to $2.8 billion a year, of its yearly baseline spending on education. Date sent: Sat, 12 Dec 1998 13:45:29 -0500 From: "Richard G. Innes" <> Kentucky increased spending from 2 to 3 billion dollars, up 50% in 5 years! (that's annually!) TESTING EVERYBODY EVERY YEAR IN ILLINOIS TO COST 80% MORE - $129m z45\CLIP\2000\10\ILLTEST.TXT Article URL: article/0,2669,ART-47533,FF.html State seeks yearly tests for most students By Stephanie Banchero
and Michael Martinez Oct 18, 2000 The Illinois State Board of Education proposed Wednesday that all 3rd- though 11th-grade public school students take standardized tests every year in reading, writing and math, which would make Illinois children among the most frequently tested in the nation. ... experts who balk at giving up more classroom time for annual state testing and from legislators who bristle at the $129 million annual price an 80 percent increase over the current funding level. %%testing \clip\99\09\aimscopy.txt Aide copied portion of AIMS, state says Theft counts sought on N. Arizona official By Karina Bland The Arizona Republic March 18, 1999 "AIMS test cost about $2.5 million to develop " \clip\98\19\taas.txt Stiffer TAAS' yearly cost: $100 million Education officials say new testing plan would be three times as expensive By A. Phillips Brooks American-Statesman Capitol Staff Published: Dec. 13, 1998 Expanding and enhancing the state student testing system as Education Commissioner Mike Moses has proposed would cost about $100 million a year -- triple the current cost, education officials said. Moses' plan is more expensive than the current testing system, about $31 million a year \clip\98\05\newscl04.txt 2/19/98 Oakridger (TN) Half of state's second-graders taking non-mandated, non-funded tests anyway The Associated Press NASHVILLE Education Department told the Nashville Banner that 38,039 of Tennessee's 74,333 second-graders will be tested. . Testing of all second-graders would cost $90,000. (or just about $1 per student) $47,000 PER QUESTION, $8 MILLION PER YEAR, $120-257 MILLION OVERALL A total of 170 essay questions a year. For this the state was paying Advanced Systems $8 million a year. total cost of assessment $120 to 257 million per year. You don't know any one that would write 170 questions such as the above for $8 million do you. That's about $47,000 per question. Not a bad business to be in. An audit was just completed to determine how the state's money was spent. Well the audit couldn't find any evidence of money being mispent. George Cunningham U of Loiusville \clip\97\27\coltest.txt Rocky Mountain News November 10, 1997 Low test scores expected Ninety-six percent of fourth-graders in Colorado public schools -- 50,328 -- took the test, which cost $1.6 million." ($31.79 per student) MARYLAND COSTS $20 TO $25 PER STUDENT \clip\97\26\misso.txt Missouri Tries to Avoid Outcome-Based Ed. Mistakes By: LISA ROBINETT State Capital Bureau May 04, 1995 Missouri Digital News The cost of Maryland's program, which is in its fifth year, ranges from $20 to $25 per student, Gabrys said. NEW OPEN RESPONSE PRINCIPAL TEST COSTS $450 VS. $85 The questions on the test, which is called the School Leaders Licensure Assessment, are designed to reflect the standards for administrators developed by the 23-state consortium, which was organized by the Council of Chief State School Officers in Washington. The tests contrast sharply in cost. The ETS multiple-choice test costs candidates $85, while the price of the new one is $450. CLAS WAS TO COST $55 MILLION PER YEAR From: Date sent: Tue, 4 Nov 1997 08:54:48 -0500 (EST) I thought everyone would be interested in hearing what California planned to pay for the failed CLAS test. At the end of 3 years when it was to have been fully implemented, the state estimated it would cost at least $55 million per year to test. TENNESEE TRADITIONAL + TVAS = $4.19 PER TEST p. 30 "Using and Interpreting Tennesse's Value Added Assessment System: A Primer for Teachers and Principals" Samuel E Bratton et al. The University of Tennesee R11-0435-02-002-97 ALTERNATIVE TESTS ARE MUCH MORE EXPENSIVE (local) \clip\97\25\edasses.htm (4) "Educational Assessment Reassessed: The Usefulness of Standardized and Alternative Measures of Student Achievement as Indicators for the Assessment of Educational Outcomes," Educational Policy Analysis Archives, Vol 3 No 6, March 3, 1995 (available at website: the cost-effectiveness of nationally standardized tests is a major boon to most local school districts. They can, in effect, get accountability for pennies a pupil. The alternatives are far more expensive. director of the California Assessment Program, will concede that the cost differential can be as much as five times per pupil." (p. 11). Shepard with estimating the cost of the fourth grade math portion of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) at $150 per pupil. George Madaus has reported estimates that using performance assessment in most subjects in American schools would cost between $2.5 and $3 billion annually. And Desmond Nuttall has pointed out that, despite several advantages of the broad use of performance assessment in England, its financial and personnel costs are so immense as to threaten its continuation (p. 452). For his estimate, Arthur Wise used the College Entrance Examination Board's fee for Advanced Placement (AP) tests: $65 per test. His projection of costs for five tests at three grade levels comes to between $2 billion and $3 billion a year. Keep in mind that the AP tests for the most part are scored by machine. . . . In several [European] countries it is estimated that to score essay-on-demand exam papers in four to five subject fields at ages 16+ and 18+ costs $135 per student (Madaus & Kellaghan, 1993, p. 467) KENTUCKY COSTS $840 TO $1,650 PER STUDENT TO TEST KENTUCKY TEST WAS A DISASTER \doc\web\97\08\kentest.txt From: Date: Sun, 19 Oct 1997 11:57:45 -0400 Lawrence Picus, a leading finance expert has determined that the Kentucky test costs between $120 and $254 million per year and between $848 and $1,791 per student tested... WA SPENT $29 FOR NEW TEST VS ONLY $2.40 FOR CTBS The Seattle Times Company Thursday, Sept. 4, 1997 Education reform's big test: Held to higher standards, fourth-graders score badly, showing the challenge ahead The new test costs $29 per student compared to only $2.40 for the CTBS. The test also take place over several days, and more hours per day. @@Canada CANADIANS GET THEIR WASL TOO z45\priv\2000\10\canwasl.txt The Toronto Star News October 19, 2000 The new Grade 10 exam might test your patience ... "While the ministry is counting on the results proving that things are worse than we ever imagined, there is no doubt the official testing will lead to a far more intelligent.." @@Candidate BLACK DEMOCRAT RUNS AGAINST HIGH STAKES TESTING FOR STATE BOARD z69\clip\2003\08\camprock.txt LEAP critic runs for BESE seat Higher teacher pay on Demo's agenda Saturday August 16, 2003 LEAP critic runs for BESE seat Higher teacher pay on Demo's agenda Saturday August 16, 2003 Communications consultant C.C. Campbell-Rock has announced her candidacy for the District 2 seat representing Orleans Parish on the state Board of Elementary and Secondary Education. "I am against high-stakes testing," Campbell-Rock said Friday, because such tests have "punitive consequences."

@@Criterion Referenced

Or The Test that All Can Fail As opposed to the traditional norm-referenced test which merely ranks every one on a scale from bottom to top 1 to 99th percentile, the idea is to set a standard that everyone can meet. Unfortunately, when politics demands a "high" standard, on the NAEP and most reform state tests, the "standard" is set at a level that most actual students fail. Officials promise that scores will improve, but the when initial levels correspond to students at the 70th or 80th percentile, they are not acknowledging the impossibility of raising all students to such a level when they were not able to bring all students to the lower previous level. CRITERION BASED TESTS FLUNK BASED ON BOGUS PASS RATES z46\clipim\2000\10\30\testok\testok.htm Education Policy Analysis Archives Volume 1 Number 2 February 2, 1993 ISSN 1068-2341 Educational Reform in an Era of Disinformation David C. Berliner ...they designed a norm-referenced test, where each item was to have a difficulty level of about .50. Such tests, by design, will have a mean of approximately fifty percent. If you then use that test in a criterion-referenced manner, indicating arbitrarily that a passing grade is sixty percent, you have ensured that the vast majority of your students have failed the test. MORE STATES USE CRITERION THAN NORM REFERENCING = 13 CRIT ONLY Education Week Quality Counts Jan 11, 1999. Of 48 states that give state assessments: 42 are criterion referenced. 29 have norm referencing They are still ridiculously high This was pointed out this spring by Lye Jones, a psychometrician at North Carolina, Chapel Hill. He noted that in the 1996 NAEP science assessment, only 18% of 4th graders were proficient and only 2% were advanced. But, said Lyle, these are the same 4th graders who finished third in the world among 26 nations in TIMSS. Does it make sense to say so few are doing well? He didn't answer his question. Didn't have to. \doc\web\99\02\braccrit.txt The problem is that Glaser and all the enthusiasts who took up the crusade didn't seem to realize that most educational disciplines are so vague domains that it's impossible to specify those benchmarks. @@CTBS Innes on CTBS-5 norming used by Kentucky. @@Cunningham, George Kentucky expert critic of University of Louisville of performance based tests. He maintains that traditional tests are much cheaper, more reliable, and are just as good. Says that performance tests are just repacking of essay tests our grandparents took that are simply harder, more expensive to score. There is no reason to favor essay over multiple choice. He is probably one of the only people who has recognized that OBE has been transformed into the Standards-based reform movement which purposes creates tests so difficult, very few, especially minorities can pass them, so opposition is coming from the left as well now. email: He's happy to take calls too at home at 502 452-9764. 2114 Lakeside Drive Loiusville Kentucky 40205 "new standards are beyond belief" 11th and 12th grade standard - college level 95th percentile Kentucky supt behind New Standards require a 10th grade test - probably New Standards 11th grade standard - MSWord: Unrealistic Standards - giving report on basic use of log-log and semi log decible scale - solve regular N-gon of same size lengh figure out - formula for height v=h(t)=h0 - quadratic function the purpose is not to prepare kids for college Here's his new book: Cunningham, G. K. (1998) Assessment in the Classroom: Constructing and Interpreting Tests. Falmer Press: London. ISBN 0 7507 0732 1 paper News Says mc tests are more effective, 3000 to 1 cheaper Ed week blames conservatives in new wave of testing Why don't all states use the ITBS instead of developing their own tests? Art and ECC/Loop <> I think Dr. Cunningham did very well, especially considering the broadcast was on KY Educational Television, with the obvious danger of bias present. He even slipped in some late-breaking data I had passed on about the newest score results. The "OBE Borg" (Interesting term, Art) tried to imply the tests were not very relevant. That didn't sit too well with anyone. Dick Standards Based Reform: The Kentucky Experience Terra Nova is just repackaged CTBS and it's a scam. Progressives have made a deal with the STW devil which creates tests that expect that all will peform at the same very high levels, but just flunks everybody. George Cunningham KY: NEW TESTS ARE STW, NOT OBE AND TOO DAMN HARD For anyone interested in a more detailed description of this sort of assessment you might want to check out _Assessment in the Classroom: Constructing and Interpreting Tests_ which I just had published by Falmer Press (ISBN 0 7507 -732). What the STW influence has been is to make the tests very difficult. The failure rates can be expected to be extremely high, particularly among minorities. This is one indication of the difference between STW and progressive education. In Washington state the failure rate for minorities on their new test is 95%. As for OBE, the concept is dead and has been replaced by the STW standards movement. Even William Spady, its founder admits that the term is only used now as a term of opprobrium. OBE was captured by progressives who distorted it, and ultimately destroyed it. You can't teach higher order thinking and criterion reference / essay questions are bogus @@Cure Marda Kirkwood writes letter attacking WASL, published in 5 papers. the TNT, Vancouver Columbian, South County Journal, Snohomish Valley Herald, and the Federal Way News [or Mirror, whichever is the more conservative one.] The latest is the North Kitsap Herald. @@Curriculum Based Measurement :) "CURRICULUM BASED MEASUREMENT The computer program assessment package is called "Monitoring Basic Skills Progress" (MBSP) available from Pro-Ed @@Curriculum Control Tests are not being used merely as yardsticks of what has been taught, but to force alignment of curriculum with new reforms such as fuzzy math, whole language, and new progressive standards. WA education reformers say "test scores will become acceptible once the curriculum reflects the "new" skills". The Phyllis Schlafly Report NOVEMBER 1997 Control of Tests = Control of Curriculum \doc\web\97\09\testcont.txt @@Cut-Scores @@Bookmark How are Cut Scores Set? Also see standard setting The Bookmark Standard Setting Procedure: COGNITIVE EXPERIENCE OF BOOKMARK PARTICIPANTS: Cut Score Refs: Understanding a Scaled Score (see esp. p. 4): Establishing the Cut (Passing) Score: z63\doc\web\2003\01\bench1.txt George Cunningham U Louisville: "items are placed in order of difficulty. Judges then determine where the cut-points should placed. Generally, the judges are give impact data (in California this is called the empirical approach), which allows the judges to take into account the ratio of passes to failures associated with a given cut-score. [but not in Washington] The judge's scores are combined using methods of achieving consensus or they are averaged in some way." @@Daycare EXTENDED DAYCARE AS TEST PREP z42\clip\2000\06\daytest.txt School, Day Care To Open Together By Brooke A. Masters Washington Post Staff Writer Thursday , June 1, 2000 ; V01 As concern grows that Alexandria elementary students need more supervision and educational opportunities, the city and its public schools have announced plans to open a before- and after-school child-care center that might eventually serve as a model for the city. City and school officials also said they were concerned that many Alexandria students might need help passing the state-mandated Standards of Learning tests. @@Defective z56\doc\web\2002\05\testab.txt PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT FOUND TO BE UNRELIABLE, INVALID TITLE Developing a valid and reliable portfolio assessment in the primary grades: Building on practical experience. AUTHOR Shapley, Kelly S.; Bush, M. Joan AFFILIATION Office of Institutional Assessment & Evaluation, Southwest Educational Development Lab, Austin, TX, US, 1 SOURCE Applied Measurement in Education. 1999 Vol 12(2) 111-132 "the portfolio assessment did not provide high quality information about student achievement as hoped. The reliability of the scores was low, and the portfolio contents did not provide a valid sample of students' work. " STUDENTS WHO FLUNK KIRIS ACE THE ACT TITLE Kentucky Performance Assessment of Mathematics: Do the numbers add up? 13% of those judged less than proficient had ACT mathematics scores of 22 and above. The results indicate that the Kentucky constructed response tests do not adequately discriminate differences in mathematics abilities, as measured by the ACT, AUTHOR Strong, Sue; Sexton, Larry C. SOURCE Journal of Instructional Psychology. 1997 Sep Vol 24(3) 202-206 PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT INVALID, DEFECTIVE, DANGEROUS TITLE Performance assessment for state accountability: Proceed with caution. because it lacks genuine reliability and validity, its use for high-stakes decisions including State accountability is dangerous. ...became a means of changing behavior rather than a mechanism for gathering information ... prepared to undertake it without sufficient quality control" (S. Dunbar et al, 1991). AUTHOR Strong, Sue; Sexton, Larry C. @@Deflating Scores Schmidt says lowering scores to get money is probably an urban myth. transcript from the Nightline show on cheating has Katy Haycock of the Ed Trust saying the following: "In fact, in the '60s and '70s, a large part of the cheating was in low-performing schools, and the teachers were actually feeding the kids wrong answers, because in those years you got more money from the federal government if you performance was low than you did if it was high." June 12, 2000 @@department of education office of civil rights to produce position paper on high stakes tests z44\clip\2000\08\ocr\TestingResource.pdf @@Difficult Most states are "happy" that so many of their students are failing their new tests. My test is harder than your test.''Are we now creating an exam that we can say, `My exam's tougher than your exam?' 50% OF MCAS MATH BEYOND HALF OF STUDENTS, TOUGHER THAN ACT "SOMETHING'S NOT ALIGNED" z56\clip\2002\07\mcasmat.txt The Boston Globe A percent problem: MCAS results show math woes By Anand Vaishnav, Globe Staff, Globe Correspondent, 7/18/2002 "''When you've got 50 percent of students in the state missing a question, that probably suggests that it's beyond what a large percentage of kids have had experience with,'' Payzant said. ''Something's not aligned " More than half of the multiple-choice math questions on the 2002 MCAS exam stumped more than half of the 10th-graders who took it, according to a Globe analysis of preliminary state data. KIRIS WAS DESIGNED TO BE 1ST YEAR GRADUATE LEVEL, BUT IT'S WORSE z46\doc\web\2000\10\kiris.txt George Cunningham about KIRIS "I know no professors that could achieve proficient on all parts of the test, I know I couldn't. The designer of the test said that it was intended to require first year of graduate school level performance for every student, but it is much more difficult than that." 10/10/99 Seattle Times reports 4th grade test is too hard ohtest.txt DESIGN OF MATH TEST ISN'T ADDING UP by Betty Raskoff Kazmin (Forum/Opinion piece) The Columbus Dispatch, Jan 23,'99 How reasonable is it for Ohio legislators to subject schoolchildren to the law of unintended consequences? Senate Bill 55 decrees that fourth graders must pass a state reading test to advance to fifth grade, beginning in 2001. More than half of Ohio's fourth graders failed the reading test given last spring. VERY EASY TO MAKE A VERY HARD TEST (Where did you read that most minorities failed WA test?) I read it in an article that appeared in the Seattle Times written by Jolayne Houtz. It was sent to a listserve over the internet, but has no date. The same thing is happening all over, but most states don't report results separately for minorities for obvious reasons. Colorada officials are giddily happy about how poorly their students did on their test. They think this shows how good their test is. Actually it is not that difficult to make a test too difficult. George K. Cunningham University of Louisville PARENT WITH ENGINEERING DEGREE AND LAW DEGREE CAN'T PASS MATH TEST \clip\98\19\aims.txt State refigures AIMS math Education board OKs condensing 5 tests into 1 By Julie Amparano The Arizona Republic Dec. 22, 1998 "One parent, Fred Gamble, said he couldn't pass the test even though he had an engineering degree and graduated with honors from law school. " MASS TEST IS TOO HARD FOR AVERAGE 10TH GRADER 2/26/98 A recent graduate's opinion: Unfair By Globe Staff, 02/26/98 \clip\98\05\newscl08.txt ''Basically, I feel the test is unfair. The majority of 10th-graders will probably have great difficulty passing the test because it involves some difficult mathematical and scientific concepts. After completing the test, I showed a neighbor of mine some of the questions, and he informed me that the question concerning the properties of water had actually appeared on an AP [advanced placement] biology exam two years ago. Expecting the normal 10th-grader to answer such a question is ridiculous. @@Developmentally Appropriate Many critics of standards based tests that flunk 50-70% of kids is that they are not developmentally appropriate. BAR WAS SET TOO HIGH ON MCAS ENGLISH z52\clip\2001\10\mcasscor.txt State officials alter scoring of MCAS tests Few students seen affected By Scott S. Greenberger, Globe Staff, 10/4/2001 since no more than 1% got "advanced" 4th grade english, they determined that the bar was too high for children that age. This year, it will be easier for students to reach the proficient and advanced categories. @@Diploma Most states are slated to make passing a high stakes test a step to getting a diploma, or attaching a rating to a diploma %%Tier z78\clip\2004\04\tierdipl.txt Education Week American Education's Newspaper of Record April 28, 2004 Three-Tier Diplomas Ignite Delaware Spat By Michelle R. Davis Education Week This year, 51 percent of the state's high school graduates are slated to receive the basic diploma, 40 percent the standard diploma, and eight percent the distinguished diploma, according to state department of education projections. @@Disabled ORE will not permit accomodations on CIM test. @@Disclosure of Results Parents Are Starting to Win School Victories September 1, 1999 by: Phyllis Schlafly Debra Gaudette of East Hartford, Connecticut, has just triumphed in her five-year effort to see the results of her daughter's Connecticut Mastery Test given in the sixth grade. The U.S. Department of Education finally issued a ruling saying that the school establishment had violated Mrs. Gaudette's parental rights under the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA). @@Drivers Licence Cynthia Woods,WA says: As of January 1, 2000, the law in Oklahoma is that a student must pass the 8th grade Ok Reading Test to apply for a driver license. The student must take a letter with him/her to the DVMP to show he/she passed the test. I'm not sure if private and homeschoolers are exempt from this requirement. @@Dropout Rather than "rising to the bar", many students will simply respond to higher standards by dropping out. NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND OR LEAVE BEHIND ANYBODY WHO DOESN'T MEET STANDARD? Exit Strategy Critics Say Graduation Tests May Drive Kids Out of Schools By Dean Schabner Critics of the move say that there is already evidence that children particularly minority and poor children are dropping out or being pushed out of schools as a result of emphasis on high-stakes testing. 8TH GRADE HIGH STAKES TESTS CORRELATE WITH HIGHER DROP OUT RATES DO HIGH-STAKES TESTS AFFECT STUDENTS' DECISIONS TO DROP OUT OF SCHOOL? EVIDENCE FROM NELS Sean F. Reardon Claudia Galindo Pennsylvania State University April, 2002 We find that the presence of an eighth grade promotion test requirement is strongly associated with an increased probability of dropping out prior to tenth grade. The difference in dropout rates ..particularly for students with low achievement, low GPA, and from low-SES families), where the difference in dropout probabilities is as much as two percentage points. This is a sizable difference when we consider that these are dropout rates early in high school, when aggregate dropout rates generally below 5%. z63\clip\2003\01\aera2002.doc z48\clip\2001\03\bilidrop.txt Higher standards -> Bi-Lingual Dropouts (We told you so....) BILINGUAL-ED STUDENTS ARE QUITTING AT A GROWING RATE Saturday,March 24,2001 The New York Post By KENNETH LOVETT Of the 9,942 students in the class of 2000 who were in bilingual programs, 31 percent quit school, a sharp increase from the 17 percent dropout rate in 1998, according to city Board of Education figures. The alarming increase among immigrants coincides with tougher state standards that took effect last year, requiring almost all students to pass the English Regents exam before graduating. STANDARDS DRIVING BLACKS OUT OF CHICAGO HIGH SCHOOLS? z42\doc\web\2000\07\jimcrow.txt Schmidt: Every September for the past 40 years (or so), Chicago has done its annual "Racial Ethnic Survey", a head count of the kids for the federal government. In September 1995, Chicago's public high schools had 102,719 students. By September 1999, Chicago's public high schools had 93,210 students. That is a loss of 9 percent in the high schools unless my calculator broke. What happened? We got "standards and accountability". The number of black kids in Chicago's high schools had decreased by nearly 10,000 since 1995. According to the same data: In September 1995, Chicago's elementary schools had 169,946 black children. In September 1999, Chicago's elementary schools had 173,751 black children. In September 1995, Chicago's high schools had 58,192 black children. In September 1999, Chicago's high schools had 48,976 black children. BOSTON DROPOUT RATE MAY BE RISING DUE TO NEW MA ASSESSMENTS \clip\99\07\edclip06.txt LESSON PLAN Rise in school dropout rate may reflect challenges to come By Beth Daley, Doreen Iudica Vigue, Kate Zernike, Globe Staff, 03/02/99 " For the first time in a decade, the dropout rate for Boston public school ninth-graders who do not graduate within five years has risen, although the reason is unclear. The 3 percent rise to 26.4 percent may be just a statistical blip, but some officials say the school system's new high academic standards may be leaving more students behind. STATES WITH HIGH STAKES TESTS HAD HIGHEST DROP OUT RATES \clip\99\07\edclip05.txt Richmond Times-Dispatch: Bigger risk for at-risk? Weakest students could become school dropouts Monday, March 1, 1999 BY KRISTEN NOZ Times-Dispatch Staff Writer "Testing systems that hold students, teachers and schools accountable for standardized test scores work to the disadvantage of at-risk students, according to Walt Haney, research associate with the Center for the Study of Testing. " Researchers found nine of the 10 states with highest drop-out rates use high-stakes graduation tests. None of the states with lowest drop-out rates used tests for high-stakes purposes. [If they don't rise to the higher bar, they'll just drop out!] @@Dumbing down Schools can play games to buy tests that make them look good or bad. Lake Wash was found to have purchased special dumbed down versions of tests, this may be common. @@Easier TESTS "GUARANTEED" NOT TO GET EASIER? YEAH, RIGHT \doc\web\98\10\easier.txt <> We were told the same thing about Kentucky's KIRIS test when it first began. However, linking open-response questions and performance events is a terribly challenging proposition. Ditto with WASL washington test @@Education Week Blomstrom concludes that states like Iowa which got lowest grade for assessment had the highest NAEP scores

z47\clipim\2001\01\30\std\std.htm NO RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GRADES FOR "STANDARDS" AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT z47\clip\2001\01\edweek.txt January 22, 2001 Center for the Study of Jobs & Education in Wisconsin and the U.S. Education Week’s Grading of the States Receives a Grade of F By Dennis W. Redovich Wisconsin received a grade of D and ranked 37th on Standards and Accountability but ranked in the top 10 on all six tests. @@Effective NO EVIDENCE HIGH STAKES TESTING IMPROVES LEARNING, JUST SCORES HIGH STAKES KEEPING THE LOWLY LOWER, JUST LIKE FIRST TESTS DID web: z55\clip\2002\04\highstak.txt z55\clipim\2002\04\23\highstak\highstak.htm Education Policy Analysis Archives Volume 10 Number 18 March 28, 2002 ISSN 1068-2341 * The authors wish to thank the Rockefeller Foundation for support of the research reported here. * Analyses of these data reveal that if the intended goal of high-stakes testing policy is to increase student learning, then that policy is not working. While a state's high-stakes test may show increased scores, there is little support in these data that such increases are anything but the result of test preparation and/or the exclusion of students from the testing process. * If student learning is not affected, the validity of a state's test is in question. * [beliefs of testocrats] that these statements are true only some of the time, or for only a modest percent of the individuals who were studied. The research suggests, therefore, that all of these statements are likely to be false a good deal of the time. And in fact, some research studies show exactly the opposite of the effects anticipated by supporters of high-stakes testing * after TAAS practice materials, the middle school teachers in more than one district reported students were unable to read a novel even two years below grade level. * journalist Peter Schrag noted that "...the unimpressive scores on other tests raise unavoidable questions about what the numbers really mean [on the high-stakes tests] and about the cost of their achievement." (Note 86) * On the ACT Six states displayed overall positive effects, while twelve states displayed overall negative effects. BOGUS CLAIM THAT TESTS RISE, AND DROPOUT DOES NOT GO UP z42\clipim\2000\05\12\waslmons\waslmon.htm 5/12/2000 Spokesman Review Gordon Ambach, executive director of the Council of Chief State School Officers, said “The actual rates of passing these tests rise very rapidly and the rate of final graduations does not drop below what they were before the tests were put in place," Ambach said States Committed to Standards Reforms Reap NAEP Gains. Education Week March 10, 1998 David J. Hort et al. Colorado, Kentucky and Connecticut were the only states to show statistically significant gain in NAEP. Supporters of whole language opposed to going back to basics and phonics say this proves reforms were working. [But Kentucky KIRIS showed inflated gains relative to NAEP, and NAEP is largely aligned to education reform] @@Electives ARTS DROPPED IF SOL SCORES TOO LOW. z58\priv\2002\09\solprep.txt Pr. William Middle Schools Boost SOL Remedial Work For at least one nine-week grading period, and as many as four, those students must drop an elective course such as music or physical education in order to take a remedial math or reading class... in addition to their regular math and English classes @@Erb Education Record Bureau has reputation for good, traditional tests, but they may have given into Educationists like the NTCM standards. These are high-end tests aimed at private schools with higher norms. CunninghamThe main way they differ from the mainstream standardized achievement tests is that they were originally created for use in private schools. They now are going after the suburban market. They can put in harder questions and still average 62% correct. \eztest.txt Wayne Bishop likes ERB, I'm pretty sure that the local private Core Knowledge school uses the ERB. Initially, they used the MAT. Nancy I saw the tests annually and was consistently highly impressed with its traditional content and presentation style and its rigor. I would have I saw the tests annually and was consistently highly impressed with its traditional content and presentation style and its rigor. I would have said for sure that it is the most reliable and valid achievement test available today. @@Errors (in scoring and testing) Many of the new and even some old tests are prone to error with "high stakes" consequences such as sending kids to summer school or holding them back a grade. Scoring is subject to low quality, or sometimes the scoring keys are defective, or the questions themselves are defective as Washington state found, or the standards themselves are defective. - Standards defective - Specifications do not meet standards - Items do not meet specifications - Reading not appropriate to grade level - Cognitive loading is not developmentally appropriate z69\clip\2003\08\error.txt z69\clipim\2003\08\22\error.pdf Errors in Standardized Tests: Errors in Standardized Tests: A Systemic Problem National Board on Educational Testing and Public Policy Kathleen Rhoades & George Madaus Lynch School of Education Boston College May 2003 [Excellent study of most major screw up stories in US, Canada and UK] Latent errors may stem from poorly conceived legislation or policy mandates, or from a faulty decision made at a department of education. For example, latent error in testing resides in the following: Legislation requires a single test be used to determine graduation – a requirement that goes against the advice of the test developer or published test standards, or is in conflict with the test design. [WASL or any other exit test with a "cut score"] A state department of education demands that test scores be reported faster than can be dependably accomplished by the contractor. A mandate requires that school test scores increase by x percent per year.This directive fails to take measurement error into account, and projects growth estimates that are not realistic. [NLCB, A Plus accoutability proposals] Policy makers use tests to track achievement trends without any external confirmation of validity, making it impossible to tell whether the trend is due to actual differences in achievement or to some other factor, such as changes in the test. [Claims of WASL test score improvement, despite admitting test has been made easier] z70\clip\2003\08\mathare.txt STATE TO RESCORE REGENTS MATH TEST Newsday -- August 27, 2003 by John Hildebrand With thousands of students and parents holding their breaths, state school officials Tuesday announced an unprecedented rescoring of a Regents math exam failed by an estimated two-thirds of Long Island students who took it last spring. FLORIDA 3RD GRADE TEST WRITTEN AT 7TH GRADE LEVEL WITH MISSPELLINGS z63\clip\2003\03\fcatfail.txt orl-edped191031903mar19,0,4532284.story?coll=orl%2Dopinion%2Dheadlines Orlando Sentinal Posted March 19, 2003 FCAT failures "As a Sentinel editorial revealed last week, third-graders are likely to be tested on material written at a seventh-grade level or higher." $16,000 FOR EACH HARMED STUDENT z62\clip\2002\11\testpay.txt Testing Company May Pay $7 Million By BRIAN BAKST ASSOCIATED PRESS Testing Company May Pay $7 Million Jake Plumley, 21, of St. Paul, who now paints houses for a living, couldn't participate in his commencement at Harding High School because of the error. He'll be eligible for $16,000. $18M FOR FLAWED SOL SCORES z57\clip\2002\08\solgoof.txt SOL scorer erred -- writing scores better 5,625 who 'failed' now are passing BY PAIGE AKIN TIMES-DISPATCH STAFF WRITER Aug 14, 2002 More than 5,000 students who took Virginia's writing SOLs in the spring and received failing grades actually passed the tests. That's because the company that grades all of the state's Standards of Learning tests miscalculated the pass/fail cutoff for fifth-grade, eighth- grade and high school writing tests. NCS HAS 6 WRONG ANSWERS OUT OF 68 QUESTIONS z57\clip\2002\08\ncsscore.txt May 20, 2001 Right Answer, Wrong Score: Test Flaws Take Toll By DIANA B. HENRIQUES and JACQUES STEINBERG "someone at NCS had failed to adjust the answer key, resulting in 6 wrong answers out of 68 questions." New York Times 6/30/01 Mandatory Math Test Had Confusing Errors, State Officials Say By ANEMONA HARTOCOLLIS New York State officials acknowledged that a statewide test given to thousands of students as a requirement for high school graduation contained several confusing errors. SUBSTITUTE FLUBS WASL TIMING Sub mistakes WASL as timed test, scores off kilter. ACADEMIC DEATH PENALTY z45\clip\2000\08\errtest.txt Aug 20 2000 Test accuracy crucial as reliance on them grows Several high-profile errors in scoring raise concerns nationally Brian Bakst; The Associated Press ; News Tribune staff writer Cheryl Reid contributed to this story. Wash rescoring "We call it the academic death penalty - if you don't pass it you're done. That's what the result is," said Shawn Raiter, a St. Paul lawyer who filed one of three lawsuits against National Computer Systems. 07/30/2000 Compiled from News Tribune News Services TEST-SCORING ERROR: As many as 336 high school seniors were not allowed to graduate because a private scoring company incorrectly graded the mathematics portion of a Michigan test, officials said Friday. In all, 7,989 students who took the test in February and April this year were mistakenly told they failed when they actually passed. National Computer Systems President David Smith said the company will offer $1,000 in tuition aid to students who failed to graduate because of the errors. NY STATE REGENTS EXAM NO CORRECT ANSWER ON ELASTIC CLAUSE z43\clip\2000\07\nygoof.txt : Regents questions with wrong answers? That's correct By MEGAN ALLEN Observer-Dispatch It turns out the U.S. history and government, biology and earth science [New York State] Regents exams included mistakes, according to the Associated Press. The exams each included one or two multiple-choice questions with no or two correct answers, the AP reported. The question, which had no correct answer, was based on part of Article 1 of the U.S. Constitution, known as the elastic clause. The elastic clause allows Congress to make any laws necessary to execute its powers, which include establishing an army and navy. It serves to give the federal government more power and flexibility, Breckel said. [Why the heck are they even asking kids about the elastic clause???] zip37\clip\99\18\testerr.txt TEST SCORE FLUB SENDS KIDS TO SUMMER SCHOOL IN NYC BY MISTAKE 9/18/99 National Testing Co. Botches Scores The Associated Press By MARTHA MENDOZA MONTEREY, Calif. (AP) - An error by a national school testing company that may have accidentally sent almost 9,000 New York City kids to summer school or held them back a grade has also affected results in four other states. GOOF PUTS SAMPLE PROBLEM ON REAL WASL TEST \clip\99\12\goof.txt April 29, 1999 Goof puts sample questions on state test for fourth-graders by Linda Shaw Seattle Times staff reporter In what the state superintendent's office calls an unfortunate mistake, two questions published in the widely distributed sample test accidentally ended up on the real exam. One of the questions also appeared in materials distributed to every school to help teachers better understand how the test is scored, said spokesman Marc Frazer. Many tests show serious errors \clip\99\08\testerr.txt EDUCATORS FIND ERRORS IN NEW STATE SCIENCE TEST 03/03/99 By PETER ASELTINE Staff Writer New York Times TRENTON -- The state Department of Education has flunked its own science standards by sending out sample test questions that are riddled with errors, according to area school officials. [Offical counters that they would have been found in field testing, but how can they come up with wrong questions in the first place? WA field tested questions that flunked 80% of kids, but no problems found?] New York Post \clip\99\02\edclip04.txt STATE'S GOOF LETS 4TH-GRADERS GET THE BEST OF TEST By SUSAN EDELMAN and MARIA ALVAREZ Fourth-graders at dozens of city schools got a big break yesterday - the state's feared new reading test included three of five passages that came straight from their classwork. \images\972\1218\hornbeck1.tif, hornbeck2.tif Letter from Hornbeck to Stanford Achievement test about incorrect scoring, perfect score was NOT above "standard"! @@Essay Testing %%Grading \clip\98\08\esaygrad.txt Subject: Scoring Essays by Computer THE WASHINGTON POST, Sunday, April 26, 1998; Page C07 . . . GRADED BY MACHINE By Amy E. Schwartz The New Mexico State University system was proud enough of the invention by two faculty members to announce it on its Web site: "Computer software grades essays just as well as people, professors announced." @@Eugenics Early IQ tests were motivated by Eugenics The Forgotten History of Eugenics Vol 13 No. 3 Spring 1999 High Stakes testing has its origins in the eugenics movement and racist assumptions about IQ. We forget, at our own peril, that this legacy hangs over current demands for increased testing. Alan Stoskepf @@Evaluation TEST EVALUATION by Lawrence M. Rudner, ERIC/AE 12/93 \clip\97\26\testeval.txt @@Exemplars An excellent example of a standards based testing company that comes up with awful out-of-grade-level performance / outcome based testing, has run into ethical questions by asking teachers to use their own materials and student responses. "Exemplars has been publishing top quality teacher  developed and teacher tested mathematics assessment  material for five years. Today, Exemplars math  materials are being used by teachers in schools and  districts in 49 states and 8 foreign countries."  They are based on NTCM standards :( All tasks include the context for the problem, what it  is designed to accomplish, what students will do,  teaching tips, interdisciplinary links, materials needed  and time that the task will take to complete, and  rubrics describing Novice, Apprentice, Practitioner  and Expert performances. The Best of Exemplars CD ROM comes with a workbook to help teachers get started with [standards-based assessment and instruction] using Exemplars. It includes a self-guided tutorial that individual teachers can use, or it can be used in study groups or professional development sessions. Exemplars also offers professional development opportunities for schools and districts that focuses on [problem solving] and [standards-based performance assessment]. Home Page: 271 Poker Hill Rd, Underhill VT 05489 800-450-4050 From: 7/15/98 Arthur, The problem solving tasks are a key component of the math portfolios. Former Vt. DOE employee Ross Brewer has formed a company to market and sell this hog wash. It's known as "Exemplars" and they have a web site: or .com What's worse is that our kids are being used in the classrooms to develop these bogus problem solving tasks. There are examples listed on the Exemplars site. I also have examples which were given to my fourth grader this past school year. Nancy %%Samples Timber to trees - how many seedlings do you need to plant and how many houses can you make with them. Comment - they're not directly teaching the skills needed to solve the problem, it's more like thematic based instruction where you have to solve the problem, then figure out what you need to know to solve it. Preview Page Estimating M&Ms Concepts: sample size, computing probability ratio, scaling from sample to whole, increasing sample size improves quality of result. Students are NOT expected to have been exposed to probability unit prior to solving this problem. G3-5: Estimate the number of each color of M&M in boxes of M&M. The mastery of concepts such as deter-mining a sample size and applying a ratio were necessary in successfully solving this task. This task was presented to a class of low-performing 4th grade students after a unit on estimation. although they had the concept of "the larger the sample, the more accurate your results are likely to be," students had difficulty explain-ing this idea. Students who have had a unit on probability before undertaking this activity may take a different approach by determining the typical number of each color candy per box, and then using those results to predict the number of each color in 10 boxes. Note - Ratio appears to be assessed at 4th grade in performance based tests, but benchmarked at 7th grade (WA and LA) G4 Exemplars Sample G4 WA Assessment G6 Japan 1990 G7 WA Benchmark G7 LA standard Figure out average in 2nd grade, solve for N with extra trips @@Exemption WISCONSIN PARENTS CAN EXEMPT STUDENTS FROM TAKING THE TEST \clip\99\07\edclip05.txt Milwaukee Journal Sentinel Graduation test may lose some clout Parents persuade key state legislators to consider other high school factors By Marie Rohde of the Journal Sentinel staff March 01, 1999 large numbers of students in Michigan have opted to not take graduation tests. For the most part those were students with good grade-point averages who had received scholarships that they feared might be affected by a poor showing on a graduation test. @@Expulsion Issaquah parents say police are targeting low-performing youth so that the school can raise WASL scores by expelling them. @@FairTest Activist organization hates norm reference multiple choice test, loves the new open-ended criterion referenced tests. "We place special emphasis on eliminating the racial, class, gender, and cultural barriers to equal opportunity posed by standardized tests, and preventing their damage to the quality of education." But the new tests are even HARDER on minorities! FairTest's work on K-12 testing issues centers on three broad concerns: standardized tests, especially norm-referenced, multiple choice tests, are harmful to kids and to education; (why? Because minrorities with lower performance get lower scores??) basing high-stakes decisions on standardized tests (high school graduation, advancement, etc.) is bad educational practice; (but that's just what they are doing with CIM!) alternatives to standardized tests, such as performance assessment and portfolios, must be implemented at all levels, from individual classrooms to large-scale assessment (what's the differnce? these new tests are worse for minorities!) Home page State survey of K12 testing They like KIRIS (Innes) and Maryland, but they've also gone on record opposing the state testing movement in general Fairtest said they liked Kentucky's now defunct KIRIS test, too. That says a lot about the judgment of this group! For those in the group who don't already know, KIRIS had to be discontinued after the legislature was presented with overwhelming evidence of its lack of validity. (Richard Innes) 6/2/1999 Education Week Student Protesters in Massachusetts Sit Out State Exams By Kerry A. White "MCAS is now determining education in Massachusetts, and it was never intended to do that," argued Karen Hartke, a project director for the National Center for Fair & Open Testing, or FairTest, a Cambridge-based group that strongly opposes most standardized and high-stakes testing. LIBERAL FAIRTEST JOINS BATTLE AGAINST STATE TESTING MANIA \clip\99\12\fairtest.txt FairTest Report Questions Reliance On High-Stakes Testing by States By Debra Viadero \clip\99\12\stakes.txt High Stakes Tests Do Not Improve Student Learning A FairTest Report by Monty Neill, Acting Executive Director January 1998 Read "High Stakes Tests Do Not Improve Student Learning," on the National Center for Fair & Open Testing Web site. Students in states that require them to pass a test in order to graduate from high school tend to fare worse on the National Assessment of Educational Progress, according to a new report. The report, released last week by a group critical of standardized testing, takes aim at growing calls for states to put in place so-called high-stakes tests. @@Federal ESEA Goals 2000 Improving America's Schools Act of 1994 directs all states to implement high stakes performance based tests. Who defined states content & performance standards I will quote Minnesota's approval statement for our voluntary G2K plan from the USDOE. "The [Minnesota] plan, developed in accordance to the criteria under Title III of the Goals 2000: Education America Act,..." Z67\CLIP\2003\05\elmore.txt clipim\2003\05\07\elmore\elmore.htm Unwarranted Intrusion by RICHARD F. ELMORE recommended by Don Orlich 1994 ACT LAUNCHED STATES TO DEVELOP STANDARDS AND TESTS, UNTIL 2000 1994, when Title I—the flagship federal compensatory education program—was amended to require states to create performance-based accountability systems for schools. .. they required states to develop academic standards, assessments based on the standards, and progress goals for schools and school districts, all within ambitious timetables. The merger of state and federal accountability policies—or alignment, as it was called—was supposed to occur by the year 2000. @@Fitness z84\clip\2004\11\fittest.txt Posted on Thu, Nov. 25, 2004 Students fail to measure up in state physical fitness tests By Jackie Burrell CONTRA COSTA TIMES Alameda and Contra Costa county children are relatively more physically fit than the state average, with two-thirds scoring in the "healthy fitness zone" on exams measuring body composition, aerobic capacity, and four other areas. But just 30 percent reached proficiency levels in all six areas, according to the report that came out Wednesday. .... Five years into a new physical fitness test for fifth-, seventh- and ninth-graders... 27 percent of the California's state's students passed physical fitness tests measuring cardiovascular fitness, @@Florida @@FCAT %%FCAT The '97 FCAT will NOT give out ranking scores, or national comparisons. It will only be graded above proficient, proficient and below proficiency. The FCAT includes a combination of multiple-choice and grid response questions. Their legislature passed a law requiring passing the FCAT reading to pass the 4th grade, with school board approving any exceptions, but tests were not returned in time to make promotion decisions! Got documents (a) A 21-page contract (May 24, 1999 - November 30, 2002) with Harcourt, and (b) A 22-page contract (July 27, 1999 - November 30, 2002) with National Computer Systems, Inc. The total amount of both contracts, which I have not analyzed yet, is in excess of $50 million and may total $100 million. 91% PASS RATE IS ACTUALLY ONLY 57.5% OF 9TH GRADERS 5/22/2003: Bracey: All Things Considered just reported that 91% of the seniors have passed the FCAT. Gloria Pipkin: In 1998-1999 when the most of this year's seniors were in 9th grade, the state enrollment figure for grade 9 was 218,529, while the class of 2003 had about 138,000 members last fall. If 91% of those passed the FCAT, that's around 125,580 who passed, or roughly 57.5% of the original high school cohort. SAMPLE FCAT 5th grade math look familiar? Artur The FCAT is also based on hi-G factor mental gymnastics rather than basics. Many items, such as rate, and computing median, or computing distance between points on a grid along a diagonal are not on the WA EALRS until 7th or 10th grade. FCAT FAILS MORE THAN HALF OF DADE COUNTY STUDENTS z56\clip\2002\05\fcatscar.txt Miammi Herald May. 23, 2002 FCAT failure rate is `scary' Many in S. Florida must retake the test BY DANIEL A. GRECH sophomores in Miami-Dade failed the FCAT at a much higher rate than other students in the state. This year, 56 percent of the 24,300 10th-graders in Miami-Dade failed the reading section and 42 percent failed math. In Broward, about 40 percent of the 13,800 10th-graders failed reading and 28 percent failed math, mirroring state averages. Students who fail to pass receive only a ''certificate of completion'' at graduation. FLA REQUIRES RETAINING 4TH GRADE READING FAIL, BUT TEST NOT SCORE IN TIME z42\clip\2000\05\fcatdel.txt State test scores are likely to be tardy As schools close for summer, some will make decisions on promoting students without crucial data on their performance. By STEPHEN HEGARTY © St. Petersburg Times, published May 14, 2000 4/2000 Three practicing teachers and I will be guests this afternoon on a local public radio talk show to voice our opposition to FCAT. One of the teachers is also the mother of twin fourth graders who have already received retention notices (before scores are available). "Flunk the FCAT, Not the Kids" is our slogan. Advice and counsel welcome. Gloria Lynn Haven, FL \clip\99\04\fcat.htm Monday, February 1, 1999 Students ready, teachers uneasy as FCAT nears By Beau Halton Times-Union staff writer Because the test is essentially forcing changes in how teachers teach and how students learn, Jacksonville's teachers, principals and administrators have lukewarm greetings for FCATs. May 11, 1998 or April Herrle, (850) 488-5394 Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) Results Released The highest average statewide subscore for any FCAT test was 65 for "literature" on the Grade 10 reading test--indicating the average student achieved 65 percent of the content for that portion of the test. The lowest average statewide subscores are 40 for the "measurement" portion of the Grade 5 mathematics test and the "data analysis and probability" portion of Grade 8 mathematics. A minimum competency test can be thought of as a twelve-inch ruler on which most students score near the twelve-inch end of the ruler because the content of the test is restricted to levels that every student is expected to achieve. The FCAT is like a yardstick on which students can be measured throughout the length of the yardstick to very challenging levels of difficulty. z58\doc\web\2002\09\fcat.txt Florida is proud of the rising student achievement we're seeing over the last four years. Since there is such good news, we thought you may be interested in this information. First, this is new data. The ethnic breakdown of the 2002 FCAT scores have just recently been confirmed by the Florida Department of Education. Percent of students meeting and surpassing the proficient level on the FCAT reading test are rising Grade 4: AA: 23 to 42, Hisp: 38 to 56, White 65 to 74, ESE: 13 to 16 Grade 8: AA: 20 to 27, Hisp: 33 to 43, White: 55 to 64, ESE: 8 to 12 Grade 10: AA: 11 to 16, Hisp: 20 to 28, White: 37 to 51, ESE: 4 to 9 %%HSCT The High School Competency Test must be passed before graduation, it is taken as junior, and can be retaken, level set at 9th grade with algebra. ONLY 60% OF MIAMI JUNIORS PASS TEST \clip\98\18\edclip03.txt Published Friday, December 4, 1998, in the Miami Herald Officials encouraged by students' test scores By SABRINA WALTERS Herald Staff Writer The passing rate for Miami-Dade high school students on a state-required exam remained steady this year, with 60 percent of juniors receiving satisfactory scores that will allow them to graduate. \clip\98\18\hcst.txt Orlando Journal-Sentinel: Test scores make educators happy Catherine Hinman of The Sentinel Staff Published in The Orlando Sentinel, Dec 3 1998 \clip\98\17\edclip03.txt New standards may give schools a jolt Catherine Hinman of The Sentinel Staff Published in The Orlando Sentinel, Nov 23 1998. Under a tough grading scale proposed for a new high-stakes state test, Florida's schools and its students are in for a cold bath. Statistically speaking, it may look like a blood bath. More than two-thirds of fifth-graders who took the math portion of the test last school year scored below par, as did 56 percent of eighth-graders and 71 percent of 10th-graders taking the reading test. Minorities fared far worse as a group. HIGHER DROPOUT RATE DUE TO TOUGHER EXIT EXAM newscl04.txt 2/19/98 Miami Herald New test yields fewer high school graduates The High School Competency Test ensures graduates have at least ninth-grade skills. It's given to juniors, and can be taken multiple times. Florida Department of Education: the percentage of all students assing the test has fallen from 97.9 percent in 1990-91 to 94.1 percent in 1996-97. Black = from 96.2 percent to 88.6 percent. Hispanic from 98.7 to 92.7. The graduation rate among white students has hovered around 97 and 98 percent since 1990-91. Fail rate on Florida HSCT is 6 times higher for blacks white 2.0 hisp 7.3 black 11.4 Richard Innes wonders if test will be as bad as KIRIS \clip\98\03\edclip2.txt 1/26/98 Miami Herald A test of standards State exam to measure reading, math skills By SABRINA WALTERS Herald Staff Writer. Standards were adopted in 1996. Florida Department of Education 1995-96 Performance Status Report For reading and math in elementary and middle schools, the proficient range is defined as scores above the 50th national percentile on Reading Comprehension and Math Concepts/Application subtests. Comparable data for high schools consist of percent passing the Communications and Mathematics sections of the HSCT. FLORIDA BRACES FOR LOW, NEW TEST SCORES 1/23/98 Miami Herald State leaders vow to stand firm on school test By JACKIE HALLIFAX Associated Press TALLAHASSEE -- Florida leaders say they are bracing themselves against any public outcry that develops after students take a tough new assessment test next week. That's because the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test, which will be given to students in grades 4, 5, 8 and 10, is likely to produce lower scores than students, parents and educators like. %%Pass Rates \doc\web\2004\02\fcatpass.txt z75\clipim\2004\02\28\grade12pass03.pdf FCAT 12th grade pass rates 2003 Reading Scale Pct Math Scale Pct Tested Score Passed Tested Score Passed Statewide 15065 263 31 12072 283 42 Desoto 16 251 19 17 258 6 Hardee 19 287 47 17 305 71 Clay 222 290 59 198 295 56 Statewide, only 30-40% of students pass either test, so fewer than 30% will passboth tests. Even in the best districts, no more than 60% pass. Only the top 50-60% of students take the SAT, so the median FCAT flunk should be equal to an average SAT score. Any data on what a passing score on the FCAT is equivalent to? ''Clearly the students that are not passing the FCAT are not likely to score 1200 or even 1000 on the SAT,'' said Education Commissioner Jim Horne. FACT - the flunk line on the FCAT appears to correspond to the median SAT taking population, or the 70th percentile. FCAT PASSING SCORE = 410 VERBAL, 370 MATH, 780 COMBINED The FCAT tenth grade passing score approved by the State Board of Education is 300. Concordant Scores - FCAT and Other National Tests Reading Scores Math Scores FCAT Reading SAT Verbal FCAT Math SAT Math 300-303 410 300-303 370 285-288 370 292-295 350 FCAT Reading ACT Reading FCAT Math ACT Math 292-300 15 286-301 15 285-291 14 FCAT Reading PSAT Verbal FACT Math PSAT Math 296-300 37 297-302 34 284-289 34 292-296 33 FCAT Reading PLAN Reading FCAT Math PLAN Math 293-304 14 299-313 15 282-292 13 285-298 14 Concordance Studies Between the FCAT and Other Standardized Tests Concordance Between the FCAT Math and SAT Math Scores Based on Students Who Took Both Tests 2000-2001 (N=71,118) SAT Math FCAT Math SAT Math FCAT Math Scores S c o r e s S c o r e s Scores 760-800 500 450 330-332 750 449-499 440 326-329 740 441-448 430 322-325 730 433-440 420 319-321 720 425-432 410 314-318 710 415-424 400 312-313 700 410-414 390 308-311 690 405-409 380 304-307 680 401-404 370 300-303 670 396-400 360 296-299 660 393-395 350 292-295 650 389-392 340 288-291 640 386-388 330 283-287 630 383-385 320 279-282 620 380-382 310 274-278 610 377-379 300 270-273 600 374-376 290 267-269 590 372-373 280 260-266 580 369-371 270 258-259 570 366-368 260 251-257 560 364-365 250 245-250 550 360-363 240 242-244 540 358-359 230 236-241 530 355-357 220 233-235 520 352-354 210 227-232 510 349-351 200 100-226 500 346-348 490 343-345 480 339-342 470 336-338 460 333-335 @@For Testing Monty Neill [Mneillft@AOL.COM] Fairtest 4/2000 "Why TEsting Experts Hate Testing" was authored by Doug Phelps, who authored a peice a few years back in Ed Measurement arguing that in fact the US does not test too much. The data was largely junk and EM actually printed a letter from me on that. Then he appears with his massive mis-information for Fordham -- tho with backhanded praise for FairTest for our effectiveness. In addition to FairTest, he also went after Boston College and CRESST. The thing about the Fordham reports is they are mailed massively across the country. Then again, their efforts to trash us don't seem to have affected whether reporters call us. Monty Neill Here you can find an interesting paper "Why Testing Experts Hate Testing." Never heard of the guy who wrote it but he does take a lot of well known psychometricians to task: Lorrie Shepard, George Madaus, Dan Koretz, etc., and, of course, FairTest. This is the home of the Fordham Foundation which Checker Finn's lawyer daddy persuaded a rich widow to set up for him. @@GCSE (UK General Certificate of Secondary Education) @@GNVQ (Vocational Certificate) %%A-level VOCATIONAL GCSE TO REPLACE FAILED GNVQ z47\clip\2001\01\vocuk.txt Date: Wed, 24 Jan 2001 16:09:34 EST Subject: UK News- Pupils to be steered into vocational path at 14 Pupils to be steered into vocational path at 14 Education Unlimited Will Woodward Education editor Wednesday January 24, 2001 "Currently, students can take up to 14 intermediate vocational GNVQ qualifications. But small employers in particular have been reluctant to recognise them and they still suffer from the stigma of being less demanding than GCSEs. In pilot schemes, about 50,000 youngsters are already taking work-related study programmes from aged 14. Vocational A-levels began last September in the new post-16 curriculum. " UK INTRODUCES NEW A-LEVELS,7348,369887,00.html z45\clip\2000\10\newalev.txt The new exams Will Woodward Tuesday July 18, 2000 Guardian Newspapers Limited 2000 Advanced Extension Award Instead of? The Special Paper. AEAs will be the last part of the "suite" of world-class tests available at nine, 13 and 18 for most advanced students AEAs will be available in biology, chemistry, economics, English, French, geography, German, history, Latin, maths, physics, religious studies, Spanish, Welsh, and Welsh as a second language and, subject to confirmation, critical thinking. Vocational A level Instead of? Advanced GNVQ. %%Race Phil Rushton notes: the UK from The Times 3/11/99: London Times March 11,1999 \clip\99\09\gcserace.txt Gypsy children, who were included in the survey at the request of the Department for Education and Employment, registered by far the lowest results. Many opted out of education at an early age and, in half of the schools surveyed, no member of the group had sat a GCSE examination. Percent passing GCSE exams with five grades C or better 1998 Exclusions per 1,000 Percentage of 1998 higher ed entrants Pop -------------------------------------------- \doc\web\99\05\gcserace.wk1 \clip\99\09\gcserace.txt The Times of London March 11 1999 John O'Leary and Hannah Betts on a claimd of institutional prejudice Analysis by Arthur Hu UK Office for Standards in Education Ranked by GCSE Group Hi GCSE ExcludedHigh Ed Pop Ed rate Chinese 61% 5 2.0 0.7 2.86 Indian 54% 22 4.0 1.5 2.67 White 47% 28 89.8 94.5 0.95 Bangladeshi 33% 9 0.6 0.6 1.00 Carib Black 29% 160 1.0 0.9 1.11 Pakistani 29% 35 2.2 0.9 2.44 Gypsy "lowest" Chinese 80% stay after 16, lowest exclusion rate Whites are only group slightly under-represented in higher ed Ranked by Exclusion Group Hi GCSE Excluded Carib Black 29% 160 Pakistani 29% 35 White 47% 28 Indian 54% 22 Bangladeshi 33% 9 Chinese 61% 5 Ranked by Ed Rate Group Hi GCSE High Ed Pop Ed rate Chinese 61% 2.0 0.7 2.86 Indian 54% 4.0 1.5 2.67 Pakistani 29% 2.2 0.9 2.44 Carib Black 29% 1.0 0.9 1.11 Bangladeshi 33% 0.6 0.6 1.00 White 47% 89.8 94.5 0.95 \clip\99\09\bgcse.txt Michael Brooks, Education: Closer inspection could narrow the ethnic gap., Independent, 12-04-1997, pp E8,9. [underlying message - monitoring of racial stereotypes will close the gap???] Birmingham top 3 grades GCSE math science White 32.2 36.9 Black 8.6 12.4 Indian 34.2 44.1 Testing on LEA entry level and GCSE vs average Black +20 -21 Indian -5 +14 White +10 +6 Blacks start ahead on entry, but fall behind at high school exit. UK STUDY: LOW EXPECTATION AND STEREOTYPING MAIN CAUSE OF LAG? BLACK, PAKISTANI, BANGLADESHI, GYPSY AT BOTTOM OF GCSE \clip\99\09\brittest.txt Young, gifted, black - and a living reproach to our racist school system (UK) Independent; Judith Judd Education Editor; 03-11-1999 Black Caribbean pupils in Britain's schools... are at the bottom of the heap for academic qualifications - just 29 per cent achieve five good grades at GCSE, though girls do better than boys. Thefigures for whites are 47 per cent and for Indians 54 per cent. A report by school inspectors published today suggests that racial stereotyping and low expectations among teachers are to blame for the poor exam performance of Black Caribbeans, Pakistanis, Bangladeshis and Gypsy Traveller children. 54 Indian 47 White 29 Black (pay) \clip\99\09\ukprej.txt Independent; JUDITH JUDD; 05-16-1996 Black pupils 'held back by prejudice' Black boys do badly at school because teachers believe they are disruptive and unacademic, leaders of the Commission for Racial Equality said yesterday. Birmingham analysis based on 1995 GCSE results. Percentage of boys getting grades A to C in maths: Afro-Caribbean 8.6 Black African 14.3 Indian 34.2 White 32.2 Percentage of boys getting grades A to C in science: Afro-Caribbean 12.4 Black African 28.6 Indian 44.1 White 36.9 UK MINORITIES BETTER EDUCATED - BUT IS IT ASIANS OR BLACKS? \clip\99\09\alevel.txt Weekly Journal, The; Sulaima Elmi; 09-16-1993 Black people 'better educated' "Of all white people in the Britain aged over 18, only a small proportion, 13.4 percent, have an A-level or higher education. But for people from all ethnic minorities, the figure is 15.4 per cent. " Considering the smaller proportion of blacks who get high GCSE grades, it's highly unlikely the claim is true that blacks are "better educated" GCSE/GNVQ RESULTS For pupils aged 15 in schools GCE A/AS/ADVANCED GNVQ RESULTS For students aged 16-18 in schools and colleges %%Example SEXISM STUDIES Rude sexual parody of GCSE. Crude jokes, but you get the idea of question format. %%General Dumbing Down of UK General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) \clip\98\19\gcseres.txt UK GOVERNMENT: GCSE/GNVQ and GCE A/AS/Advanced GNVQ 1997/98 provisional results for young people, England., M2 PressWIRE, 12-01-1998. GCSE/GNVQ RESULTS For pupils aged 15 in schools GCE A/AS/ADVANCED GNVQ RESULTS For students aged 16-18 in schools and colleges GCSE/GNVQ RESULTS For pupils aged 15 in schools -- 46.3 per cent achieved 5 or more grades A*-C at GCSE or the GNVQ equivalent. (Table 1) -- 87.5 per cent achieved at least five grades A*-G at GCSE or the GNVQ equivalent. (Table 1) -- 93.4 per cent achieved at least one grade A*-G at GCSE or the GNVQ equivalent. (Table 1) -- Girls continue to outperform boys, particularly at the higher grades (A*-C); 51.5 per cent of girls achieved at least 5 A*-C grades or the GNVQ equivalent compared with 41.3 per cent of boys. (Table 1) The UK also has the NVQ and GNVQ which is effectively a vocational certificate for those not good enough for academics GCSE NOT FOR UNIVERSITY ENTRANCE, IT MAY DISCRIMINATE AGAINST BOYS \clip\98\19\gcseboy.txt electric library Lucy Hodges, Warning to boys: don't leave it too late., Independent, 06-18-1998, pp 2,3. "Increasingly, they are using stellar performance at GCSElevel to help them select the few who will be offered places. That is worrying some people because GCSEs were never designed for university entrance. And it disturbs boys' schools, in particular, because boys do worse at GCSE than girls. They develop later, sometimes waking up only in the sixth form." @@GED General Equivalency Diploma @@Gender Bias z47\clip\2001\01\femexam.txt How exams are fixed in favour of girls The Spectator, 20/1/2001 Girls are doing better than boys in exams, but that does not mean that they are brighter, says Madsen Pirie. What has happened is that exams have been feminised — and so has the country§ion=current&issue=2001-0 @@Georgia z44\doc\web\2000\07\gwin.txt 70% failed pilot so cut score was set below chance rate so very few fail ONLY 2-3% FAIL GWINNET 4/7TH GRADE TEST Schools not in hurry to copy Gwinnett's Gateway test plan Sophia Lezin Jones - Staff Tuesday, July 11, 2000 About 16,000 fourth- and seventh-graders in April took the Gateway exam --- customized based on Gwinnett's curriculum --- becoming the first students in the state required to pass a standardized exam to be promoted to the next grade. Exam results showed 3.1 percent of fourth-graders and 1.8 percent of seventh-graders failed. GA GATEWAY 25% IS A PASSING SCORE, BUT TEST IS OK PROMOTION TEST? z42\clip\2000\05\gwin.txt Atlanta Constitution• May 15, 2000 Gateway scores flunk logic test Lucy Soto - Staff Monday, May 15, 2000 'Alice in Gwinnett' "Then you should say what you mean," the March Hare went on. Gwinnett County. The school system has spent four years and $6 million developing the Gateway test to measure how well students are learning in the classroom. Test results are due in the next few weeks. Fourth- and seventh-graders have to pass to be promoted. The test is supposed to help parents know exactly how their kids are doing. @@Germany Wolf explains what the German tests for Mittle Reife and Arbitur are like. Each teacher comes up with their own test that is approved by the central education agency which checks manual scoring on a A-E scale. Tests are long written papers on one topic, not short answers to lots of topics like US tests. Academic Standards A Profile of Germany's Education System College-Bound Students \clip\2001\01\germstan.htm compulsory education starts at age 6 grundschule - 4 years primary school tracked by ability into high school high school hauptschule to grade 9, employment realschule to grade 10, nonprofessional skill trade + college gymnasium to grade 10 upper gymnasium to grade 11-13 apprenticeship to post-gymnasium in 1990-91, approximately 33 percent of German students were in hauptschule, 28 percent in realschule, 31 percent in gymnasium and eight percent in comprehensive schools. If you are held back more than twice, you are moved to a lower track There is no single set of national standards in Germany, there is a process for college qualification and an earned certificate called the Abitur, In 1991, 37 percent of the age cohort took their Abitur. More than 95 percent of these candidates passed. Arbitur no longer guarantees place in university. %%Shootings STUDENT WHO FAILS HIGH STAKES GERMAN EXAM GOES ON SHOOTING SPREE 4/29/2002 Thuringia, where Erfurt is the state capital, is alone in denying even an intermediate diploma to students who go beyond 10th grade but then fail twice to pass final exams. Officials said Steinhaeuser had failed last year, and his expulsion a few weeks ago deprived him of the second -- and last -- chance for a full diploma, necessary to attend a university or get a decent job." @@Gifted 10%-20% OF GIFTED STUDENTS IN OHIO NOT PROFICIENT Schools Fight Over Test Scores of Gifted WSJ 2/4/04 90.7% of Ohio sixth-graders identified as "gifted" (usually top 5%) scored at proficient or advanced in math, vs. 44.6% of all students. Youngstown district 79.5% math, 72.7% reading vs 11.4/15.7 Gifted Other Math 92.8 51 Reading 95.2 60 Writing 94.4 74.7 College Seattle Times November 27, 2002 10th-grade exam harder than college test? By Linda Shaw original study The study looked at a sample of students who took both the WASL and one of the community-college exams in one of three years — 1999, 2000 or 2001. The majority sought entry into Running Start, some students who failed the WASL passed the community-college exam, and vice versa, making those results more mixed In reading, about 80 percent of students who passed the WASL also cleared the recommended passing level set by the publishers of the community-college test. In math, however, the community-college exam was clearly more difficult. Only a third of the students who passed the math part of the WASL also passed the community college's math test Of the 3,757 sophomores in the study, 88 percent passed the community-college writing exams, which determines whether they are ready for college-level work. But fewer — 73 percent — passed the writing section of the 10th-grade Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL). Only 75% of Running Start students in WA passed WASL test z75\clip\2004\02\giftscor.txt In Era of Scores, Schools Fight Over Gifted Kids Wall Street Journal 2004-02-04,,SB107584553220519637,00.html?mod=home%5Fpage%5Fone%5Fus NCLB In Ohio: Just When You Think Nothing Can Surprise You YOUNGSTOWN, Ohio -- Matthew Benton, a self-possessed sixth-grader with an "A" average and an I.Q. of 132, is likely to pass the Ohio Proficiency Tests next month with ease. But his prowess on the tests, which are used to assess schools' performance, won't help Bennett Elementary, where Matthew is in a citywide program for academically gifted students. @@Grade Level NO NATIONAL DEFINITION OF GRADE LEVEL z70\clip\2003\09\mishmash.txt U.S. EDUCATION LAW NETS MISHMASH OF RESULTS Palm Beach Post -- September 10, 2003 by Kimberly Miller because every state individually decides what it takes to pass, academic success measured by Bush's No Child Left Behind Act is wildly different throughout the country. In Florida, for example, education officials said "adequate yearly progress" last year meant 31 percent of students should be able to read on grade level... but 88 percent of schools failed to meet that standard. California said making progress meant 14 percent of elementary school students and 11 percent of high school students should be able to read on grade level. Forty-five percent of California's schools failed to meet the standards. There is no national standard defining grade level. @@Grading Alignment Boston asked teacher to fail as many students as was failed by the MCAS test, which is nearly all minority students. z47\clip\2000\12\mcasgrad.txt Remarks of David Stratman to the Boston School Committee, December 6, 2000 I have here in my hand a memo dated November 1 which Superintendent Payzant sent to teachers and various administrative personnel in the Boston Public Schools directing teachers to "align" their grades with MCAS scores. @@Grade Promotion z56\clip\2002\05\houssurv.txt May 7, 2002, 10:36PM Teachers dislike test being key to pupil promotions Few favor state's new policy By MELANIE MARKLEY Copyright 2002 Houston Chronicle Only 10 percent of Texas teachers believe a test should decide whether students are promoted or held back a grade, a recent survey found. @@Grammar Tests like TAAS tend to use non-traditional or even incorrect grammar @@Grade Level STANDARDIZED TESTING STARTS AT FIRST GRADE \clip\99\08\edclip03.txt For 6-, 7-year-olds, a standardized test can be scary Leslie Postal Orlando Sentinel March 7, 1999. Like many in Seminole County, Young's [6, 7 yr olds] students last week took the county's ABACUS test. The first-grade version assesses reading and math skills. For kids who are used to nothing more than short quizzes, ABACUS was a test of a very different sort. @@Grade Equivalent Level Grade Level equivalent is based on the median test score, not any mastery of content. It is even worse for showing growth over time since the average itself will move. GES yielded by a group test (such as the ITBS) represents the AVERAGE RAW SCORE of students at a particular grade level. Thus, a GES of, say, 7.5 represents the average of the raw scores (usually the number of correct responses) of a group of individuals who are in the fifth month of grade seven. see also (a) the Sun Times (5/25/00) article, "Margin of error in Iowa Tests raises red flags," and (b) the Consortium's 1998 report, "Academic Productivity of Chicago Public Elementary Schools." The latter raises the point that in addition to being poor indicators of individual student achievement, Grade Equivelent scores (GEs) are not appropriate for measuring changes in GROUP performance OVER TIME. @@Graduation Requirement Many states and some districts are contemplating or imposing rules of having to pass a 10th grade test to graduate. This is a bad idea, especially given the very high flunk rates of most of the tests. %%Against z75\clip\2003\11\massbord.txt Nov 2003 press release MASC Reaffirms Strong Opposition to MCAS Requirement, Votes Overwhelmingly Against NCLB Massachusetts Association of School Committees delegates yesterday reaffirmed their opposition to the MCAS graduation requirement by a four-to-one margin, in a stunning repudiation of the notion that MCAS's high pass rate means Massachusetts students are all receiving a high-quality public education and that MCAS opposition has dissipated. %%General EXIT EXAMS ARE A TIME BOMB \clip\99\05\exitexam.txt February 3, 1999, in the San Jose Mercury News `Exit exams' already being put to the test Standards: Graduation hurdle favored by Gov. Davis is a tricky undertaking. BY MICHAEL BAZELEY Mercury News Staff Writer " Many states have run into controversy as parents and politicians tried to come to grips with alarmingly high failure rates. " \clip\99\03\edclip02.txt Group seeks to eliminate ISTEP rule Education panel votes to stop requiring a passing score on the 10th-grade exam to earn diploma. By Thomas P. Wyman Indianapolis Star/News Indiana House Democrats enlisted a powerful and unusual coalition of school boards, superintendents, principals, and teachers unions to challenge the 10th-grade ISTEP exam as a high school graduation requirement. ISTEP graduation requirements mean many students who maintain passing grades but cannot master the test will be unfairly denied a high school diploma. \clip\98\19\gradtest.txt Arizona joins graduation-test push Fair or not, 22 states require graduation tests Suzanne Starr/The Arizona Republic By Kathleen Ingley The Arizona Republic Oct. 5, 1998 Fairtest opposes movement towards graduation tests (but likes the Maryland test??) MALDEF opposes Texas test. Nevada revised test and got 40% flunk rate. \clip\99\03\edclip01.txt Charlotte Observer:January 20, 1999 Raising bar to affect thousands of Carolinas kids By FOON RHEE Staff Writer "[propose] to require students in third, fifth and eighth grades to reach standards on state math and reading exams to move on to the next grade, though local schools would still make the final call. To graduate high school, students would have to pass a new 10th-grade reading and math test, plus complete a senior project." @@Green Party The Texas Green Party has an item on its platform that explicitly addresses this 8. We oppose over reliance on high-stakes standardized tests when such tests are used as the primary criterion for grade advancement, graduation, or teacher pay. Likewise, we refute that the averaged scores from such tests can be used to make fair or meaningful comparisons between schools. @@Anxiety @@Health @@Sickness Testing causes so much stress that it has become a health issue. TEST RELATED STRESS IS MAKING KIDS SICK z49\clip\2001\05\highconc.txt High stakes testing: A statement of concern by the Alliance for Childhood, April 25, 2001. Health-care professionals and parents already report that test-related stress is literally making many children sick. HOW TO DEAL WITH TESTING ANXIETY HAS A HEALTH ISSUE z42\clip\2000\06\testanx.txt Reducing Test Anxiety Published: 5/21/00 It's that time of year when kids are gearing up for final exams. For many it can be pure torture because of the anxiety. STUDENTS ARE GETTING SICK, SUICIDE, NERVOUS BREAKDOWN OVER TESTS \doc\web\2000\06\bractest.txt THE GWINNETT GATEWAY TESTS: UNECESSARY Gerald W. Bracey Third graders across the nation are throwing up on test day and there have been test-induced suicides and nervous breakdowns documented in New York, California, and Arizona. No wonder. Children are being asked to do the impossible. @@Higher Order Thinking Proponents of alternative tests say that multiple choice tests do not test "higher order" thinking, and do not resemble "authentic" real-world tasks, which are not multiple choice. Defenders of traditional tests point out that tests like the SAT are rarely just recall of simple facts, but usually involve several higher order skills TRADITIONAL TESTS DO REQUIRE MENTAL PROCESSING, NOT JUST FACTS RECALL 60% of the items of a Norm Referenced Test (according to the publisher) require mental processing -- skills in logic, synthesis, analysis, etc. It is simply not true, as mot test bashers claim, that multiple choice tests consist mainly of items that ask for the recall of facts. p. 27 "Using and Interpreting Tennesse's Value Added Assessment System: A Primer for Teachers and Principals" Samuel E Bratton et al. The University of Tennesee R11-0435-02-002-97 TRADITIONAL TESTS CAN TEST HOT, NEW TESTS MIGHT NOT (local) \clip\97\25\edasses.htm (4) "Educational Assessment Reassessed: The Usefulness of Standardized and Alternative Measures of Student Achievement as Indicators for the Assessment of Educational Outcomes," Educational Policy Analysis Archives, Vol 3 No 6, March 3, 1995 (available at website: The notion that multiple choice tests can tap only recall is a myth. In fact, the best multiple choice items can--and do--measure students' ability to analyze, synthesize information, make comparisons, draw inferences, and evaluate ideas, products, or performances. (p. 67) Feinberg points out that "the most widely known multiple-choice exam, the Scholastic Aptitude Test, tests very little knowledge; it is almost completely a test of analytical and reasoning ability at quite complex and sophisticated levels" and that "many other standardized tests, particularly at the high school level, also probe the ability to draw fair inferences and reach tenable conclusions." (p. 16). @@High Stakes Testing High stakes tests - which are attached to diploma or grade promotion or draconian accountability / punishment schemes are evil, whether based on performance or norm referenced tests. \doc\web\2003\12\seabwasl.txt Dec 2003 ...the Seattle Education Association Board of Directors, condemn the planned use of the WASL as a barrier to graduation and call on legislators, the Superintendent of Public Instruction, the Washington State Education Board and the Seattle School District to adhere to ethical testing policies as stated in this warning. z54\clipim\2001\12\20\stakes.pdf \clip\2001\12\stakes.txt Rethinking "High Stakes:" Lessons from the US and England and Wales William A. Firestone Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey David Mayrowetz Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey INDUSTRY STANDARDS BAN USE OF TESTS AS HIGH STAKES z49\clip\2001\05\testfail.txt New York Times - May 21, 2001 When a Test Fails the Schools, Careers and Reputations Suffer By JACQUES STEINBERG and DIANA B. HENRIQUES "Making such decisions based on a single test score violates the testing industry's standards, and both CTB and city school officials agree that the company advised the city against putting such a premium on its test. But the board forged ahead anyway. " HIGH STAKES ACCOUNTABILITY TESTS FALL SHORT OF NORM REF TESTS, DO NOT INFORM INSTRUCTION z48\clip\2001\04\lyonread.txt "Measuring Success: Using Assessments and Accountability to Raise Student Achievement". Statement of Dr. G. Reid Lyon A single test cannot address all these purposes. For example, a so-called "high-stakes" test can be useful for accountability purposes, but does not provide teachers the information they need to plan instruction, particularly in kindergarten through the second grade. Consistent with the NRC report on high stakes testing, accountability is hard to assess before Grade 3 Norm-referenced tests assess transfer of learning. They essentially rank children within their grade level on how well they read. An assessment designed to rank individuals will not generally be effective for diagnosing problems, or providing prescriptive information to inform and guide instructional practices @@High Standards DOES HOLDING EVERYONE TO ONE ELEVATED STANDARD MAKE SENSE (NO!) Z75\clip\2003\10\scalebk.txt October 14, 2003 NEWS ANALYSIS Scaling Back Changes on Regents Standards By KAREN W. ARENSON the deeper question for New York is whether it will ever be possible to hold all students to an elevated standard — the same for everyone — and whether it even makes sense to have such a system. @@History Most modern testing companies started out with versions of IQ test. Terry Olive contributes: This is a fascinating article from "Education Week" on the history of standardized testing, told partially from the perspective of the family who founded CTB/McGraw-Hill (CTBS), the testing division of McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. It certainly answered a lot of questions I had about who, what, when and where. Terry ------------------------------------------ "QUIZ BIZ" "Commercial publication of tests began before the First World War. In 1916, Houghton Mifflin Co., a leading textbook publisher at the time, began publishing the Stanford-Binet intelligence scale, an individual-intelligence test created by the psychologist Lewis M. Terman of Stanford University. The test quickly took hold in schools. In addition to intelligence tests, the schools had dozens of achievement tests and 'scales' written by university professors or school district research directors. Many of them were published for sale around the country." %%OLD [[Kansas 1895 Salinas Journal 1895 TEST USED TO JUSTIFY TESTING HELL z50\clip\2001\06\test1895.txt 105-year-old Saline County test in nation's spotlight By TANA THOMSON The Salina Journal June 2001 The test has resurfaced via the Internet, prompting the Washington Post, the Boston Globe, National Public Radio and other media to run stories and columns centered on the difficulty of the questions such a young group was expected to know. Even though the 1895 graduation test was given in eighth grade, very few people actually took the test "Their graduation rate was only 10 percent, so, that test was prepared and administered for a very small portion of the population - it wasn't designed for the whole population." 1895 Kansas 8th grade final test with answers Urban legends review of 1895 test z48\clip\2001\03\test8.txt - with answers This is the 8th grade final exam from 1895 from Salina, Kansas. It was taken from the original document on file at the Smoky Valley Genealogical Society and Library in Salina, Kansas, and reprinted by the Salina Journal. link Could You Pass the 1885 Admission Test for High School? The following entrance examination for prospective high school students in Jersey City, N.J. was reprinted in the Union City, N.J., newspaper, the Hudson Dispatch, and later in the Wall Street Journal, June 9, 1992, Section A, p. 16. [[Jersey City 1885 Jersey city %%State History movement EXAMS EVOLVE FROM GATEWAY TO HIGH SCHOOL FOR ALL z60\clip\2002\10\testhist.htm HIGH SCHOOL GRAD FROM 3 TO 17% 1890-1920 8TH GRADE EXAM WAS GATEWAY When the Committee of Ten issued its report in 1893, the high school was a small institution focused on those bright children whose parents were “willing and able to forego their labor.” In this context, the eighth-grade examination reaffirmed the limited role of the high school and accentuated its elite status by limiting admission to those students “who show themselves able to profit by an education prolonged to the eighteenth year” By 1920, however, the high school was no longer an elite institution designed for a few select students. In the period between 1890–1918, high school attendance increased from 202,000 to 1.6 million, a 711 percent increase. Where in 1890 only 3 percent of the age 17 population graduated from high school—by 1920 nearly 17 percent of 17 year olds would graduate from high school (Krug 1964; Tyack 1974, p. 57–58). In Kansas, educators called for the state to discontinue the eighth-grade exam because “the concept of minimum essentials or minimum standards is not defensible, the only defensible standard is the best that each child can do under his particular circumstances” Only in New York and Minnesota did the state examination persist past the 1930s. .. agents of socialization and “social control” In an era of social control, custodial care, and compulsory school laws, a model of examinations as gatekeepers made little sense. What was crucial was getting all students into high school and keeping them there (Krug 1964). @@Holistic Normally a term referring to the flakey lifestyle ads in the alternative paper classifieds, this claims to grade a paper on its "whole" effect vs. the analytic scoring of various criterion such as spelling, grammar. WHAT THE HECK IS HOLISTIC SCORING ANYWAYS? \clip\99\13\rubric.txt Phi Delta Kapan May 1999 Writing to the Rubric: Lingering Effects of Traditional Standardized Testing on Direct Writing Assessment, by Linda Mabry Holistic is "whole effect" vs analytic scoring parts to get one score. "claims of their holism rarely survive analysis" @@Horror story AIMS PILOT TESTS 4TH GRADERS ON KNOWLEDGE OF PHAROH LINK something that this reminds me of is our AIMS test here in arizona. two years ago, our school piloted the AIMS (4th grade) and one of the 'essay' questions for the writing section of the test asked students to write about what they would do if they were pharoh of egypt. @@Horse Race HORSE RACES TAILORED TO BE COMPETITIVE RATHER THAN ONE PASSING STANDARD z63\clip\2003\01\horse.txt (Published in (1-16-03) January 16, 2003 130 No Child Left Behind Horse races more equitable than high-stakes testing by Daniel Pryzbyla [instead of one high standard for all...] "Specific "conditions" for each race are provided to horse trainers: race distance, age of horse, gender, weight, winners, non-winners, etc. A trainer's main objective is to enter the horse(s) in a race within conditions it can be competitive, in hopes of advancing to higher "class" divisions." @@Illinois @@ISAT @@ISTEP @@IGAP @@Prarie State Exam ISAT (1999) Cost: 7.7m 1999 Development 1 yr IGAP (1988) Prarie State exam starting in 1999. Cost: Development 4 yrs Required for graduation: no Includes ACT college admissions test Schmidt says the state tests are not high stakes, it's only the cities that are punishing their kids. Schmidt explains difference between CASE, ITBS, IGAP and ISAT city and state test mess. %%Against ISTEP should be abolished. I was formerly a schoolteacher for twelve years, and then switched to computer programming. As I was taking classes in the ISTEP, I for a time graded ISTEP tests. Politicians cannot MANDATE better school performance--any more than a gubernatorial decree will make a genius out of a jackass. %%igap The 1998 IGAP scores are listed by school districts along with comparative information at:,1413,66,00.html The 1999 ISAT scores are listed by school districts (no comparative information) at:,1413,74,00.html ILLINOIS DISTRICT WANTS TO TIE GRADUATION TO TEST SCORES, NOT REQUIRED BY STATE \clip\99\20\igap2.txt School officials want to put students to test November 23, 1999 BY MARK SKERTIC SUBURBAN REPORTER The days when students could earn a high school diploma by just passing a series of classes could soon be over in School District 230. " Illinois does not mandate that students pass an exam to receive a high school diploma, but it does require students to take plenty of tests. " %%ISAT If you go to the ISBE website: you'll find sample ISAT tests for all the grade levels. ISAT is ridiculous, rdyarrow ZIP37\clip\99\18\isat.txt ISAT EASIER THAN IOWA STANDARDIZED TESTS The Chicago Sun Times Test results leave Vallas in puzzlement September 15, 1999 BY ROSALIND ROSSI EDUCATION REPORTER More Chicago public school students passed a tough new state reading test--supposedly linked to "world class" standards--than passed a widely used standardized test, results released Tuesday showed. Report on daughter who took the isat many problems. ISAT HASTILY PREPARED IN 1 YR, IGAP 3 YRS, COST $7.7m \doc\web\99\02\isast.txt almost $7.7 million in contracts have been awarded for the printing, scoring and other technical support for the tests. Work on ISAT didn't begin until after the state adopted new learning standards in July 1997. Pilot testing was conducted in 400 to 500 schools last winter. In contrast, the IGAP exams took three years to complete and conduct pilot testing before they were first sent to schools in 1988. \clip\99\04\isat.txt Tougher state school tests debut Chicago Sun Times February 1, 1999 BY ROSALIND ROSSI EDUCATION REPORTER Amid increasing complaints from some parents about testing, Illinois public schools today will introduce a new state standardized test that raises the stakes for children. ..Such questions raised a furor in California, where a two-year, $50 million testing experiment was scrapped. MULTIPLE RIGHT ANSWER FORMAT DUMPED FOR MULTIPLE CHOICE \doc\web\99\01\isat.txt Kane County Chronicle Thursday, January 7, 1999 PUT STATE TESTING OF ILLINOIS STUDENTS IN PERSPECTIVE by Dr. Sandra S. Wright BTW, so far we have had no luck in getting the reading levels for the new ISAT test evaluated for grade level so those of you who are trying to do this, please persevere. ...The state decided to abandon the controversial multiple-right answer format used in the IGAP in favor of a more straightforward multiple choice format Only 37% of 6th graders meet "state standards" \doc\web\98\06\igap.txt \clip\98\10\igap.txt full (c) text, not posted Validity of IGAP scores questioned Associated Press Daily Herald Saturday July 11, 1998 (Illinois test) SPRINGFIELD- Last fall, the state\'s top educator called a five-year tumble in scores on statewide reading tests \"a hemorrhage\". Now two developers of the tests say changes in scoring- not in children\'s skills- may be to blame for the plunge. (scoring was changed after 5 years of rising scores, but perhaps it was caused be ed reform like whole language?) \clip\98\04\prarexam.txt Officials get some Prairie State Exam answers Daily Herald-- Neighbor section Tuesday, Feb.10, 1998 [won't be required to pass, but score will be noted on transcript] What is the Prairie State Achievement Examination? Beginning with the 1999-2000 school year, each high school will administer the state-developed and required examination to its twelfth grade students. Recognition by the Illinois State Board of Education (ISBE) is given to students whose scores on the test are determined by ISBE to be excellent. 10:303 May a student be denied a high school diploma by reason of a poor score on the Prairie State Achievement test? A student may not be denied a diploma if he completes all other applicable high school graduation requirements. clip\97\30\estlou.txt 10-31-97 St. Louis Post-Dispatch *East St. Louis Pupils Fall Lower on State Tests; More than 70 Percent Aren*t Meeting Illinois Goals* [64% of 6th graders could not meet state reading goals, on IGAP compared to 37% statewide] From: ILCHEC 12 Dec 1997 Is this illinois? I thought they had the igap. >> We have the IGAPs, and have had them for years. But recently passed legislation will produce "enhanced" IGAPs --- these new tests will be performance- based, with few, if any, purely academic questions. Few will be assessed by machine, they will need to be analyzed with a state-wide rubric as the grading guide, and hand-graded by teachers and teachers' aides. The labor costs will soar, and the objectivity in assessment will dive. Fran Eaton IL From: (Martin A. Kanofsky) The state legislature just passed implementing the new Prairie State Test for 12 grade starting in the year 2000. Will this replace a diploma? The legislation says that those who pass the Prairie State Achievement Test (performance-based granddaddy of all our new performance-based assessments) will be the ones who receive a Prairie State Achievement Award. All those who do not pass the test of political-correctness will merely receive a "regular diploma".... %%Prarie State Exam / ACT ILLINOIS ADDS COLLEGE ACT TO HIGH SCHOOL EXIT REQUIREMENT z46\clip\2000\10\illact.txt A test for Illinois athletes: NCAA flunks state ACT October 30, 2000 BY ROSALIND ROSSI EDUCATION REPORTER Illinois has been trying to establish new "world-class" state tests for its public school students. The Prairie State exam is the third new state high school test in four years. Two years ago the state abandoned an old test for a new test, and then opted to replace the new test with the Prairie State for high school juniors only [which includes the college ACT but given on a weekday, NCAA will require a saturday]. %%Scores 30-40% FAIL ILLINOIS TESTS, BLACKS TWICE AS BAD z56\clip\2002\07\illtest.txt August 1, 2002 Test scores surge for minorities But whites still far ahead in state Overall, the statewide results from the Illinois Standards Achievement Test and the Prairie State Achievement Exam remained disappointing, with at least 30 to 40 percent of students failing to meet state standards on most of the tests. On all but three tests, more than half [Chicago] pupils failed. ..Only 34 percent of black 3rd graders passed the state's reading exam, for example, compared with 76 percent of their white counterparts. @@Illinois WORKPLACE SKILLS ASSESSMENT \clip\98\16\iwsa.txt Illinois WORKPLACE SKILLS ASSESSMENT URL: The Illinois Workplace Skills Assessment is a multiple-choice test that is designed to assess student's knowledge of skills needed for success in the workplace. The assessment was developed in response to the Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act of 1990 requirements, national reports such as the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS), and requests from commerce, industry, and labor throughout Illinois. @@Improvement %%Hawthorne Effect Hawthorne effect is when numbers rise just because everybody is paying attention to raising a single number being measured. Leon Todd says this is what causes rising NAEP and other test scores. Kirkwood says that people put in extra when they're being measured, but bounce back once the microscope is removed. @@Indiana z48\clip\2001\03\wobbwasl.txt Seattle Times March 02, 2001 Editorial Too early, too easy to give up on WASL Indiana suggests not. Their "2008" was last year. The first time around, only 54 percent of Indiana's Class of 2000 passed its new 10th-grade math and verbal tests. By the fourth time - and lots of remedial work - 86 percent passed the tests. After one more test, the final graduation rate last June was 89.5 percent, the same as when Indiana had no test. A student who failed math could graduate with a "C" in each of a list of core subjects \clip\99\03\edclip02.txt Group seeks to eliminate ISTEP rule Education panel votes to stop requiring a passing score on the 10th-grade exam to earn diploma. By Thomas P. Wyman Indianapolis Star/News Indiana House Democrats enlisted a powerful and unusual coalition of school boards, superintendents, principals, and teachers unions to challenge the 10th-grade ISTEP exam as a high school graduation requirement. ISTEP graduation requirements mean many students who maintain passing grades but cannot master the test will be unfairly denied a high school diploma. @@Instructional Validity @@Curricular Validity %%Graduation EVALUATION SAYS CAL EXAM VALID FOR GRADUATION REQUIREMENT "State Board of Education Meeting Highlights" from 5/2003 "An independent evaluation of the California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE) has found that the exit exam is valid and meets all nationally recognized test standards for use as a graduation requirement." All of HumRRO's reports on the CAHSEE are available on the CDE (California Dept. of Education) web site, at: TEST MUST BE VALID, AND TOLD IN ADVANCE Missouri NEA Essentially, in the landmark Debra P. v. Turlington case (Florida, 1976), students challenged the testing requirement as racially biased. The case “established two major requirements for diploma sanction testing: adequate notice and curricular validity. Adequate notice requires that students be told what a graduation test will cover several years before the test is implemented. Curricular validity means that the schools are teaching what is being tested; under Debra P., the state must collect data to demonstrate curricular validity” (Phillips, 1993). \clip\99\05\timss\timss.txt Kappan Professional Journal September 1998 URL: Tinkering with TIMSS By Gerald W. Bracey "Forgione was director of testing for the state of Connecticut for a number of years. During his tenure, the minimum-competency-testing madness swept the country, culminating, in one sense, with the 1978 ruling in Debra P. v. Turlington. In that decision, the court held that for a test to be used to qualify students for high school graduation, the state had to prove that the test had instructional validity. That is, the state had to show that students had had an opportunity to learn the material tested... ..issues were discussed at considerable length in The Courts, Validity, and Minimum Competency Testing, edited by George Madaus of Boston College they stated, "If tests without instructional validity are being used for certification, the students who fail such tests are being penalized for the failures of the schools and teachers -- and not for their own inadequacies. The rational basis for judging student performance in school is undermined." @@Iowa IOWA STANDS CLEAR OF STAMPEDE TOWARDS "STANDARDS" BRAVO! \clip\98\20\edclip03.txt Iowa schools stand alone on standards Outsiders question the local control that has served the state's children well. By TOM CARNEY Des Moines Iowa Register Staff Writer 12/28/1998 " Iowa is the only state without specific requirements for schools on student achievement or uniform testing." @@japan Congratulations, Standards Based Education has managed to import "Examination Hell" into the US from Japan. FROM EXAMINATION HELL TO MOVING AWAY FROM HIGH SCORES FOR ALL The struggle to create creativity Economist June 28, 1997 p. 46 ..Japanese scores are high, but they fall in a narrow band. Median American scores aren't as high but they have a broader band of good and poor results. Just as US and UK are stressing the importance of high achievement by all, reformers in Japan are moving in the other direction. .. in favour of junking many of the practices that make school life an "examination hell" for Japanese children. The rigid reliance on testing deprives.. interests outside the core curriculum. Parents who want their kids in the best corporations won't tinker with what has worked in the past. Long Document details of why TAAS is weak in math, has Japan examples. Sailer talks about exam hell in Japan, which is the sort of system Standards Based Education claims to emulate vs. the hated SAT @@Job Requirements ONLY 20% OF JOBS REQUIRE COLLEGE, 5% HIGHER MATH /SCI link There is a surplus of well-educated people for jobs that require higher levels of education and training. 3. A majority of jobs in the American workforce require only short-term (45%) or moderate length (10%) on the job training or experience. About 20% of jobs might require a bachelor's degree or more. 5. About 5% of jobs in the 2000s might require higher math and science course work - Center for the Study of Jobs & Education in Wisconsin And the United States 122 High stakes testing in math and science for promotion or graduation in public elementary and secondary schools is child abuse. By Dennis W. redovich November 2002 Table I Employment 2000, U.S. BLS Projected Employment 2010, BLS 2000 Average Earnings & Education and Training for Top 46 Occupations with at least 800,000 Jobs in 2010 In the United States @@Kansas Kansas State Report Card School Year 1995-96 Statewide Mathematics Test: The mathematics assessments were given to fourth-, seventh- and tenth-graders. The tests measured problem-solving abilities (real life situation problems with no immediately apparent answer), mathematical reasoning abilities (mathematical understanding used to create solutions) and mathematical communications skills (the ability to communicate mathematical information to others) Standard of excellence =75, state average = 50-59 PERFORMANCE TEST TO BE OPTIONAL \clip\97\29\asses.txt [KANSAS] Assessment tests are getting major overhaul The material may have significant changes starting in 1998-99 school year. By Bill Bartel The Wichita Eagle 12/14/97 Kansas '97 sample questions These test questions are very straightforward applications of what is taught in school. City schools Last year, only 19 percent of Wichita's schools had math scores that were at or above the state average. This year, 28 percent of USD 259 schools scored higher than the state average in math. The Wichita district lagged behind suburban and Catholic neighbors with only 51 percent of its scores at the state average in science. \clip\97\29\cath.htm Catholic school scores Suburban schools c:\clip\97\29\suburb.htm @@Kentucky (KIRIS -> CATS) @@KIRIS KIRIS is a criterion referenced state-developed test that is the centerpiece of its reform program. It is horrendously expensive, ($1 billion dollars over 6 years) has suffered major scoring booboos, has been declared invalid and flawed by UCLA. Reform proponents point to increasing test scores as proof that reform works, but a Rand stduy concludes most increases are artificially inflated by teaching to the test, and not supported by naep or act test increases. KIRIS is unique in that it does not have ANY mulitple choice questions, and shows rising scores, while SAT, ACT, and military tests show achievement going down. Opponents want to use a nationally norm-referenced test. CATS is basically a renamed KIRIS to deflect negative publicity over KIRIS. See the RAND report that finds KIRIS was completely bogus. Full detail is available at the KDE web site ( %%CATS Critics say the CATS will just be a renamed version of KIRIS which suffered an ignomious death. Kentucky Dept of Education Reliable and valid scores will be used for school and student accountability. Teachers will be extensively involved in designing and scoring the test. Results of a nationally normed test might be used in accountability. The format will reduce testing times for schools and students. A way to measure the progress of individual students over time will be solicited. Test results will be reported to schools and districts in a more timely fashion. %%Correlation Oregon Test does not have a valid construction process, Kentucky similar problems KIRIS POOR COLLEGE PREDICTOR COMPARED TO ACT Richard G. Innes KIRIS got ratings no higher than .38, and one score, for Math, actually was -0.02! In essence, KIRIS is a non-predictor of college work. the GPA awarded by teachers earned ratings no higher than 0.48, %%Cost Est of cost Cunningham: Kentucky's custom-made, constructed response assessment cost between $750 and $1500 per student tested. (including costs of grading, administering test too) %%Critics 4-12-2000 Lexington Herald-Leader Once upon a time, Kentucky's education system was declared unconstitutional. KERA celebrates a decade By Linda B. Blackford, Herald-Leader Education Writer FRANKFORT -- Even 10 years ago, in the hectic last days of a legislative session, lawmakers knew they had something big on their hands. It was a 900-page bill that would overturn just about everything in Kentucky's schools, from how schools were funded to how children were taught. SERIES ON KERA, CATS, KIRIS TEST AND ACCOUNTABILITY FAILURES z40\clipim\2000\04\kyfail.txt Money gap shrinks between rich, poor districts KERA's main goal is to meet financial needs of students 12 April 2000 By Steve Vied Messenger-Inquirer The Kentucky Education Reform Act of 1990 shook the commonwealth's system of elementary and secondary schools to its very foundation. NAEP GAINS HELPED BY EXCLUDING SP ED STUDENTS KENTUCKY SHOWS GAINS ONLY IN THEIR OWN TESTS \clip\99\09\edclip01.txt Friday, March 12, 1999 Omitting special ed kids may have aided Ky. scores BY ANDREA TORTORA The Cincinnati Enquirer WASHINGTON The three Southern states, including Kentucky, that enjoyed big gains in national reading scores released last week may have been helped by the high rate at which they excluded special education students. Kentucky education officials, who for the past 10 years have carried out the nation's most ambitious education reform experiment. However, until last week's reading scores were released, Kentucky had seen no improvements in national tests, only in their state tests. [This is more proof that state reform movements create their own tests which are guaranteed to show inflated improvement claims, not create real gains] \clip\99\06\edclip09.txt February 18, 1999, in the Herald-Leader Study says test scores slow to match funding By Linda B. Blackford HERALD-LEADER EDUCATION WRITER Kentucky's 1990 education reforms have almost completely equalized funding between school districts, but the state is making slower progress in student achievement...\ the increase in performance, we haven't gotten there yet, Although scores have risen steadily on Kentucky's statewide test, scores on the NAEP have remained mostly stable. "OUTSTANDING" KIRIS SCHOOL IS BELOW AVERAGE \DOC\WEB\98\10\kirisno.txt CUNNINGHAM- GOAL IS 100% "PROFICIENT" IN 15 YEARS, NOW ONLY 5-13% e:\doc\web\98\10\gcunn.txt Full detail is available at the KDE web site ( These percentages represent mostly Proficient performance because hardly any students are at the Distinguished level. Almost all of the growth about which the Kentucky Department of Education is so proud came from students moving from the Novice to the Apprentice level. To expect that the above numbers will all be 100 in fifteen years is nothing short of ludicrous. RAND STUDY FINDS KIRIS GAINS "IMPLAUSIBLE" AND "INFLATED" \doc\web\98\10\kiribad.txt web filed zip29\clipim\98\12\09\kiris\kiris.htm You can order the entire report for $15. Dr. Daniel M. Koretz, a "national-class" testing expert, shows that critics of KIRIS were dead right. The RAND team found serious inflation when KIRIS results were compared to results on the ACT (a college entrance test similar to the SAT) and the National Assessment of Education Progress. INTERPRETATIONS OF FINDINGS Taken together, the external evidence and internal evidence suggest clear inflation of score gains in mathematics. Many KIRIS gains were implausibly large, and all external comparisons showed either no increases in mathematics on other assessments or increases that were far smaller than those on KIRIS. Changes in item difficulty over time and differences in performance between new and reused items were generally consistent with a hypothesis of inflation and created a sawtooth pattern—an increase in performance on reused items followed by a decrease in performance on new items—in both grades. Moreover, the modest tendency for the discrepancy between performance on new and reused items to be larger in high-gain schools suggests that item-specific coaching may have contributed to inflation of scores. p. xiii: All schools were expected to have all students proficient at the end of 20 years regardless of current score. (100 score). Performance was set without regard to current performance. A typical school would have to show improvement of 2 standard deviations over 20 years, the difference between 8th grade US and highest scoring Japan in math is is only 1 SD. Some schools met this goal in only ONE year. Between 1992 and 1993, the entire state reading gained by 1.3 SD, math and science about 0.5 SD. In secondary grades, gains were about 0.5 SD. THE SIMPLE SIZE OF THE LARGER OF THE KIRIS GAINS RAISES QUESTIONS ABOUT ITS VALIDITY. \clip\98\04\edbrief2.txt 2/15/98 Lexington Herald Leader Commentary KIRIS is flawed and based on false premises By Wayne S. Lewis I am wholeheartedly opposed to the KIRIS testing system, a major component of the Kentucky Education Reform Act. \doc\web\98\06\textest.txt TEXAS NAEP MIXED RESULTS KENTUCKY DOWN IN ALL 3 TESTS %%KERA State reform law z40\clip\2000\04\kera.txt A New Direction KERA changes way schools teach, students learn 10 April 2000 By Mark Cooper Messenger-Inquirer Looking for physical evidence of the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA) in schools is more frustrating than looking for Carmen Sandiego without the clues. Inness says it's all an illusion with no real progress. %%New Standards Date sent: Mon, 9 Mar 1998 22:44:49 -0500 From: "Richard G. Innes" <> Kentucky was a New Standards member state, probably the launch state, for that matter. We know NS questions were embedded in our KIRIS test several years ago. So, we were NS guinea pigs. Our KIRIS, which is NS all the way, has consistently failed to correlate to other testing results for Kentucky students: NAEP, CTBS/CAT, PSAT, SAT, DOD entrance testing, you name it. Richard Innes %%Race WHITE FEMALES HIGHEST, WHITE M/BLACK F IN MIDDLE z47\clip\2001\01\kytest.txt January 12, 2001, in the Herald-Leader 6 school districts taking on `achievement gap' Fayette part of effort to raise black students' test scores By Charles Wolfe ASSOCIATED PRESS FRANKFORT Six school districts have pledged to attack one insidious aspect of public education the ``achievement gap'' that is reflected in test scores that show black students consistently lagging behind their white peers. As a group, white females are the highest achievers and black males the lowest. White males and black females are fairly close to each other in the middle @@Kindergarten 5/2000 Alex Molnar, Professor of Education will discuss kindergarten standardized testing on Wisconsin Public Radio from 6 a.m. until 7 on Friday. He's against it. I wrote a crummy letter to the editor published in the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel May 14 edition in which I bashed the absurdity of administering standardized tests to 5 year olds. Brian LeCloux Washington Kindergarten Readiness standards From 18 months to 36 months, children should be able to: * Experiment with the effect of their own actions on objects. From 36 months to 60 months, children should be able to: * Identify objects that influence or affect other objects. For example, "The sun makes the ice melt." * Ask "why" questions to show effort at understanding cause and effect. DISCUSS TESTING FROM KINDERGARTEN z41\clip\2000\05\mpstest.txt MPS to consider plan for earlier standardized testing By Joe Williams of the Journal Sentinel staff Last Updated: May 9, 2000 Milwaukee Public Schools administrators tonight will present a controversial plan to the School Board that would begin standardized testing earlier and more often as a way to better measure student performance. Is kindergarten too early for standardized testing? Yes (80.4%) No (19.6%) @@Kozol, Jonathan z41\clip\2000\05\kozol.txt ALL CHILDREN NEED MORE THAN TEST-TAKING SKILLS. PET BURIALS, FOR INSTANCE. May 22, 2000 The Details of Life by JONATHAN KOZOL I know the fairly hard-nosed attitudes that govern social policy in urban neighborhoods today and can anticipate that this may be perceived as a preposterous distraction from the bottom-line concerns with "discipline" and "rigor" and "job preparation" and "high standards" and what is now known as "high-stakes testing" and the rest of the severe agenda that has recently been put in place for inner-city kids. @@Innes [[Innes, Richard G Richard G. Innes <> Outspoken critic of KIRIS tests, also credited for pointing out flaws in NAEP claims of improvement. Doubts Rand report texas top, cal bottom based on NAEP. Word .doc format Innes on fradulent rise in NAEP scores The Troubling Situation With The 1998 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 4th Grade Reading Assessment Innes says KIRIS people came up with bogus finding that NAEP gains were genuine in Kentucky. \clip\99\11\innes.txt Christian Science Monitor May 18, 1999 Parent spots flaw in national test Using data available over the Internet, Mr. Innes argued that gains in some states, including Kentucky, were the result of excluding higher numbers of students with learning disabilities. NAEP GAINS HELPED BY EXCLUDING SP ED STUDENTS \clip\99\09\edclip01.txt Friday, March 12, 1999 Omitting special ed kids may have aided Ky. scores BY ANDREA TORTORA The Cincinnati Enquirer WASHINGTON The first to point out the special education issue was Kentucky education critic and commercial pilot Dick Innes, who crunches education data on the side. \clip\98\05\kirino.txt Richard Innes finds KIRIS question has no correct response. Editorial, Cincinatti Enquirer 2/20/98 "KIRIS Questions put to the test" Kiris similar to WA test in that it was created to make a atmosphere of crisis, did not stay within curriculum guidelines, deliberately graded down to allow "room for improvement" State Audit shows KIRIS test has been getting easier in order to show progress. [[Cunningham, George Kiris not specific enough to enforce benchmarks, slavish attention to NTCM style puzzles. KIRIS to be reformed beyond recognition and invalidated. 1. Reference to performance assessment has been eliminated. 2. Writing portfolios can not be used in school accountability scores. 3. Accountability scores must include scores from standardized tests. 4. All past results are voided. 5. New rewards and sanctions can not be imposed until 2002. 6. The accountability and testing systems must be rebuilt. %%News END OF KIRIS STILL SAYS MOST SCHOOL SHOWED PROGRESS \clip\98\18\edclip03.txt KIRIS test ends 7-year run with good news, bad news Most schools improve but some scores fall By Linda B. Blackford HERALD-LEADER EDUCATION WRITER In five years, the proportion of high school students scoring in the lowest bracket in reading declined from nearly 60 percent to 16 percent. \clip\98\04\newscli8.txt 2/14/98 Lexington Herald Leader Editorial No retreat on reform (keep the KIRIS, we need reform no matter how badly screwed up the test was) \clip\98\04\newscli4.txt 2/11/98 Lexington Herald Leader Bill up for vote would revamp KIRIS testing By Linda B. Blackford HERALD-LEADER EDUCATION WRITER Kentucky's school testing program would keep its soul but get a new name, a new boss and several new parts in the latest version of a compromise bill being hammered out in the General Assembly. \clip\98\04\kirkflop.txt 2/6/98 Lexington Herald Leader Commentary Problems with KIRIS test erode public's support for reforms By Gex "Jay" Williams Kentucky's accounting system doesn't work and isn't fair, KIRIS isn't usable when it changes every year, and isn't even valid for one year. KIRIS IN REAL TROUBLE, COULD WA BE NEXT? \clip\98\03\kiris3.txt 1/29/98 Lexington Herald Leader Lawmakers seek ways to fix KIRIS Bill calls for suspending test (WA's zarelli is doing the same thing, but does the Seattle Times cover it? Noooooooooooo.) By Linda B. Blackford HERALD-LEADER EDUCATION WRITER BILL WOULD KILL KIRIS, UCLA SAYS TEST FLAWED, INVALID, START OVER AGAIN \clip\98\03\kirifail.txt 1/24/98 Lexington Herald Leader Lawmakers struggle to save KIRIS test from outright ban By Linda B. Blackford HERALD-LEADER EDUCATION WRITER "To change the assessment now would be a radical mistake." [the test IS a radical mistake!] Sen. Gex "Jay" Williams, R-Verona has Senate Bill 113 would suspend the test for a year and replace it with a standardized test \clip\98\03\kirifai2.txt BY PATRICK CROWLEY The Cincinnati Enquirer 1/27/98 Williams lobbies for changes in school testing 2/4/98 One of the strongest criticism of Kentucky's KIRIS was written by a professor and another educator who are very progressive. Their criticism was aimed at the STW aspects of the assessment program. The article appeared in the Phi Delta Kappan in the fall. $1 BILLION FOR KIRIS BUT NO EVIDENCE OF IMPROVMENT. KIRIS was supposed to be set to NAEP but KIRIS goes up while NAEP scores are stagnant Dec 10, 1997 Education Week Ky. Test Scores Up as KIRIS Criticism Lingers \clip\98\01\kiris\kiris.htm KENTUCKY SCORES UP \clip\97\29\kentuk.txt Lexington Herald-Leader 12/5/97 " In June, the department admitted that scores for nearly all elementary and middle schools in 1996 - more than 1,000 schools in all - had been miscalculated by the state's contractor, Advanced Systems of New Hampshire. " Complete scores 12/978 KENTUCKY SAYS 3RD BEST SCHOOL IS IN TROUBLE BECAUSE IT IS NOT IMPROVING \clip\97\29\account.txt State may change the way it evaluates test results By Linda B. Blackford Lexington KY Herald-Leader Education Writer Wednesday, October 1, 1997 Would-Be National Testers Disparage English and Computation By Robert Holland Kentucky has been the model state for the Clintonites' attempted trashing of objective testing in favor of "performance-based assessment." That kind of yardstick supposedly measures students' "thinking skills" as opposed to the core knowledge that is necessary for any so-called "critical thinking" to be more than uninformed opinion. National testing experts lambasted the Kentucky Instructional Results Information System (KIRIS) two years ago as an invalid gauge of student achievement. Finally, last June, the wheels came off completely when Cody had to terminate the contract with the creator of KIRIS because of gross errors in rating the achievement of the state's pupils. From: (Richard G. Innes) To All ECC & Loop, Our Education Commissioner has just sent a rather extraordinary letter to all teachers proclaiming the entire nation accepts the KIRIS test as a valid assessment! From: Obviously, Wilmer Cody has not bothered to ask all Kentucky teachers if they think that the KIRIS tests are valid! Or maybe he doesn't count us as part of the nation. MEH, KY teacher %%Portfolio KIRIS finds portfolio grading to be very unreliable, off by at least one grade @@ITBS Iowa Test of Basic Skills, traditional multiple choice, computer scored test, dropped in favor of controversial WASL by Washington state after 2005. \doc\web\2005\06\itbs05.xls Analysis by Arthur Hu Washington ITBS Scores 1999-2005 Reading Mathematics 1999 2004 2005 1999 2004 2005 Third Grade All students 55 58 58 60 67 66 Native American 39 43 46 43 50 52 Asian 49 57 58 67 75 76 African American 39 46 45 40 49 48 Hispanic 28 32 33 36 43 43 White 60 63 63 64 72 71 Asians up 5 pts to equal state average in reading, but still lags whites by 5. Asians beat whites in math 76 to 71. Hispanics lowest at 43 Blacks only 5 pts shy in reading, 2 pts shy of 50 average in math Sixth Grade Reading Mathematics 1999 2004 2005 1999 2004 2005 All students 54 55 55 56 58 58 Native American 36 42 41 38 43 43 Asian 50 54 55 64 68 68 African American 36 39 40 35 38 40 Hispanic 28 31 31 34 37 37 White 59 61 61 60 62 62 Asians have also reached state average in sixth grade, up 5 pts in reading Asians beat whites 68 to 62 in math, Hispanics 37 is lowest score By 6th grade, blacks fall from 46/48 to 40/40 in reading/math compared to 61/62 white (By comparison, IQ and tests like WASL put blacks at 15-20th percentile) Source: Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction, Seattle Times table 6/14/2005 p. B4 e:\clip\2005\06\itbswa.txt Seattle Times June 14, 2005 State students' scores change little By Linda Shaw Seattle Times staff reporter Washington's scores on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills stayed steady this year, the last year that students in third and sixth grades will take the exams. @@Lake Wobegon Effect Test score inflation effect named for Lake Wobegon, Garrison Keillor's mythical Minnesota community, the women are strong, the men are good looking and the children are all above average. In the 1980s, a researcher found that most districts were claiming to be above average. A 1989 article uses this problem to justify test of what "students should know and be expected to do". Comment: Most districts will score at or near average simply because most students go to the large districts, so scores around average won't tell you much. However, scores above 80 and below 30 pretty much consistently tell you which districts are far above or below average. This "effect" is largely responsible for the even more destructive use of"criterion based" testing where expectations are set with NO relationship to how actual children perform, thus the test so hard that "everyone scored below average". ROOTS OF REJECTION OF MEDIAN = GRADE LEVEL FOR "AGREED UPON STANDARDS" Lessons Edward B. Fiske New York Times July 11, 1989 z39\clipim\99\12\12\average.gif New York Times .. grade level can be misleading.. instead of the levelf of what students in the grade should be achieving, it is a midpoint with half of the students above and below... confusion... can be seen as an argument for setting national standards for setting national standards of what _students at each grade level should know and be able to do_ Then ... could rate schools on how many of their students can function at the agreed upon levels [Who'd guess the result would be everybody flunking because nobody can agree on what everybody should know - that's why we started with the curve!] The Lake Wobegon Effect Students get used to old norms on tests. Giving Equity a Chance in the Excellence Game Harold Howe II Harvard Grad School of Education "The intepretation of the meaning of test scores by politicians has some comical aspects, including the concept that all students should achieve at above average levels. The only place this happens is Lake Wobegon ... where all the children are above average... a similar idea is that all children should be reading at grade level -- like the belief that all football teams should win all their games". The Great School Debate Which Way for American Education Edited by Beatrice and Ronald Gross (c) 1985 Touchstone book NY TIMES NEW TEST MANIA: RETURN OF THE WOBEGON EFFECT? \clip\99\12\average.txt New York Times June 20, 1999 New Math: No One Is Below Average By ANEMONA HARTOCOLLIS "Dr. Cannell surveyed school districts across the country and found that most of them reported their students scoring above the national average on standardized tests -- something that any high-school math student would dismiss as statistically impossible." [warns that officials have ways to manipulate test scores to make them look good] @@Law NC BANS USE OF TEST SCORE FOR RETENTION z62\clip\2002\12\ncpath.txt 'McDonald's or IBM' In North Carolina, eighth graders are forced to make decisions that will impact the rest of their lives Winter 2002/2003 "Recently, due to public pressure, a law was passed forbidding the use of standardized test scores as the sole criterion for student retention in North Carolina." z45\clip\2000\10\wellston.txt Oct 2000 National Council of Teachers of English Endorses "Fairness and Accuracy in Student Testing Act" This legislation is a significant step toward bringing sanity to the high-stakes testing movement. —NCTE Executive Director Faith Schullstrom Here's an excellent resource for looking up current actions on Senate and House Bills THOMAS -- U.S. Congress on the Internet s.460 A BILL To provide for fairness and accuracy in high stakes educational decisions for students. by Wellstone S.2348 Sponsor: Sen Wellstone, Paul D. (introduced 4/4/2000) Related Bills: H.R.4333 Latest Major Action: 4/4/2000 Referred to Senate committee Title: A bill to provide for fairness and accuracy in student testing. Excerpted from NY Times obituary for Paul Wellstone. Often, Mr. Wellstone was the only senator voting against a measure, or one of only a few. He was, for instance, one of three senators in 1999 to support compromise missile defense legislation. He was the only one that year to vote against an education bill involving standardized tests, and the only Democrat who opposed his party's version of lowering the estate tax. @@Learning Record Home: Ed-reform Goals 2000 aligned assessment system said to be favored over standardized testing by progressives. @@Links Washington Educational Research Association Assessment group based in Washington, many assessment links. FairTest They're against valid tests like the SAT, but killing OBE tests is a good start. Good anti-MCAS page @@Louisiana @@LEAP Louisiana has the LEAP, a criterion referenced test, a section must be passed to graduate from high school, or be advanced past grade 4 LOUISIANA REQUIRES 4TH GRADERS TO BE HELD BACK IF NOT PASS TEST z41\clip\2000\05\leap.txt Schools BESE changes rule on holding students back By WILL SENTELL Capitol News Bureau Fourth-grade students who struggle with school work should not be required by the state to repeat the grade more than once, Louisiana's top school board has decided. We have a small victory for eight graders. They will not be required to repeat a grade as long as they do remedial work. BESE changed its rule last week. However, fourth graders, our youngest public school students must repeat grade four if they don't pass the test. \clip\99\07\edclip03.txt Tests taking LEAP forward in difficulty students Times Picayune students will have to correctly answer half the test questions in both math and English to achieve approaching basic. Ninety percent correct in either subject will be deemed advanced. State officials expect 35 percent of Louisiana's public school students to fail the new LEAP test in its first year and 25 percent to demonstrate skills approaching basic (60% below standard!) Some parents voiced concern that consistent grading of such a test will be difficult LOUISIANA EDUCATIONAL ASSESSMENT PROGRAM Given in grades 3, 5 and 7. Required by state. Measures students' abilities in math and language arts against state criteria. Score represents the percentage who pass. A separate five-part section of the LEAP, called the Graduate Exit Exam, is given to high school students, who must pass it to graduate. @@Lower Bar ARIZONA, TEXAS LOWER THE BAR - DON'T SET A GOAL THAT NO SCHOOL HAS REACHED z68\clip\2003\07\lowbar.txt Academic bar lowered to get schools on track Maggie Galehouse The Arizona Republic July 14, 2003 "What does concern him is that the federal government expects all students to be performing at a proficient level by 2014, regardless of income, race and English proficiency. "We should not set a goal for all schools that is so high that no school has yet achieved it," Linn said. " @@Low Scores Across the nation, the buzz is warning about low test scores expected of first year "raising the standard" tests. Also see public relations addressing how to sell these low scores. ONLY 33% OF NY CITY, 48% OF STATE PASS NY READING TEST search: standards assessments \clip\99\12\nytest.txt Poor Districts Fare Worst On N.Y. Assessment By Caroline Hendrie Around the country, states have been hit by similarly weak first-year scores as they institute more rigorous assessments linked to revamped standards. The results often come as a shock to schools and the public, even though education leaders seek to dampen expectations beforehand by stressing that the initial scores should be seen as starting points for improvement. ("Panel To Probe Validity of N.Y. Reading Test," Feb. 3, 1999.) @@Maine MEA test abandoned totally open response questions, example given of kicking ball (ridiculous rubric) @@MALDEF Mexican American Legal Defence Fund sued state of Texas because TAAS test denies diplomas to Mexican Americans. z39\clipim\2000\03\maldef\maldef.htm San Francisco Regional Office (covers Washington) 660 Market Street, Suite 206 San Francisco, CA 94104 415.248-5803 415.248-5816 Fax @@Manipulation Manipulating data to show improvement read the Appendix XXVI in Charlotte's book. It is called "Shamanistic Rituals in Effective Schools" by Brian Rowan, colleague of Spady. In this paper which he presented in 1984, he tells how the educrat reformers "massage" the data to "prove" effective results. It is an extremely revealing look into the backroom management of educational research data for public manipulation. @@Maryland MSPAP @@MSPAP (RIP) @@MSA Maryland's test scores are not released to individual students or parents, has no multiple choice questions. It has raised protests from parents and teachers. Fairtest calls it the best state test in the country, but less than half of students pass "satisfactory". March 2001: Grasmick announces that "standards based" tests will be replaced by traditional tests. It's DEAD for all practical purposes. In the best Kent county, only 60% of students met the state standard. rigorous 70% satisfactory mark was established when the tests were begun in 1993. MSDE website at Baltimore 5th grade math state satisfactory standard of 70% MSPAP Satisfactory: Grade 5 - Mathematics Percent of Students 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 CTBS 11.8 13.3 16.7 13.2 13.6 13.5 16.2 20.5 26 Alexander Hamilton 1.4 0.0 1.6 16.3 7.7 1.3 14.8 33.3 23 Kent county 30.7 38.7 31.1 53.8 52.5 49.0 52.7 48.9 Montgomery 59.6 60.7 59.6 61.1 63.2 61.9 61.2 60.4 70 %%Critic HSA: HIGH STAKES TESTING STILL AN AREA FOR PIONEERS z68\clipim\2003\07\07\ed_highstakes_703.pdf ABell Foundation: High Risk or High Time? July 14, 2003 - In the next six months, the Maryland State Board of Education will decide whether to raise the stakes by making passing scores on the new more rigorous High School Assessments (HSAs) a condition for graduation. as more and more states have entered the high-stakes testing arena, numerous studies and reports with conflicting evidence give the Board even more fodder for its decision-making this summer and beyond. It is clear from the lack of concrete answers to the questions posed to and by the Board that high-stakes testing is still an arena for pioneers. The Graduation Requirement Dilemma Maryland is not alone in delaying its new graduation requirement, nor is it to be admonished for doing so, given the potential impact it will have on many students. Indeed below is a sampling of states at similar impasses in implementing graduation requirements: • Alaska has postponed requirement due to high failure rates. • Arizona has postponed implementation of the requirement four times. • California has just decided to postpone its requirement for two more years. • Florida lowered the passing scores for math and reading, and waived requirement for special education. • Massachusetts also lowered scores for passing and issued waivers. • Michigan offers multiple types of diplomas for different levels of achievement. • New York has added a waiver/appeal process. • Wisconsin has made the requirement optional for school districts. COMPLEX ASSESSMENTS PERCEIVED AS UNFAIR, INVALID AND UNREALISTIC The Education Policy Analysis Archives is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal freely accessible of the internet at EPAA has just published Volume 11 Number 3 " The Limits of Sanctions in Low-Performing Schools: A Study of Maryland and Kentucky Schools on Probation" by Heinrich Mintrop. Heinrich Mintrop University of California, Los Angeles The article reports on a study of 11 schools that were labeled as low-performing by the state accountability systems of Maryland and Kentucky, nationally known for complex performance-based assessments. The study shows that putting schools on probation only weakly motivated teachers because the assessments were largely perceived as **unfair, invalid, and unrealistic ** MSPAP TO BE REPLACED BY MULTIPLE CHOICE z55\clip\2002\04\endmsp.txt Date: Fri, 26 Apr 2002 10:30:53 -0400 Maryland school test is dropped MSPAP to be replaced, fails to meet new federal standards, officials say; Current round of testing is last; New performance exam likely to be a commercial product By Mike Bowler [Baltimore] Sun Staff April 25, 2002 ..scores on the new test will be made available to individual students, a requirement of the new federal law, and the new test will include "objective" multiple-choice questions. 3RD GRADE MSPAP IS DEVELOPMENTALLY INAPPROPRIATE z55\clip\2002\03\Testing tests Testing tests Vaishali Honawar THE WASHINGTON TIMES Published 3/10/2002 "The third-grade test is developmentally inappropriate. What children have to answer is very difficult," he said. Mr. Catania said the MSPAPs carry with them a great deal of stress. MARYLAND SCRAPS STANDARDS BASED MSPAP FOR TRADITIONAL TESTS z55\clip\2002\03\mspform.txt Once-Lauded MSPAP Undermined by Format Grasmick has all but scrapped this year's eighth-grade version of the MSPAP and announced plans to ultimately replace the test with a far more traditional exam. WASHINGTON TIMES: PROBLEM IS FLAWED TEST, NOT DECLINING SCORES Z55\CLIP\2002\02\MSPAP.TXT The Washington Times The MSPAP mishap House Editorial Published 2/17/2002 If the Evers panel has it correct, the real problem with the MSPAP isn't the declining student scores, but the fact that the test itself is flawed. z55\clip\2002\01\mspscor.txt MSPAP Grading Shocked Teachers Even Wrong Answers Could Earn Points By Brigid Schulte Washington Post Staff Writer Monday, February 4, 2002; Page B01 she and other teachers were trained to look for key words. If the students used the words, they would get credit, even if the answer was wrong or made no sense. Answers that were perfectly sound but lacking the key words got a zero. MSPAP GRADES ON PROCESS, NOT KNOWLEDGE z54\clip\2001\11\recyc.txt Education Week November 7, 2001 Recycled Modern Theory By Tom Neumark Education Week Equipping students with vague concepts and weak skills is not the foundation for lifelong learning. the statewide testing program that is long on process and short on content. On the MSPAP, students are graded more on the process used to arrive at answers than on whether their answers are correct. BALTIMORE SUN: SOMETHING WRONG WITH THESE TESTS z53\clip\2001\10\mspapno.txt Parents, educators criticize MSPAP They seek changes to testing format By Howard Libit Sun Staff October 11, 2001 Maryland ought to look at using more traditional, multiple-choice exams. "There is something wrong with these tests," said Zalee Harris, a Prince George's County education activist. "This can't go on." A WONDERFUL BUT FLAWED TEST?? z52\clip\2001\10\mspap2.txt Education Beat: Mike Bowler, Baltimore Sun Oct 3, 2001 THE ABELL Foundation ...find Maryland's testing program to be well-conceived and well-executed... can it be an assessment tool and a model for classroom instruction at the same time? "It seems impossible for an assessment system to achieve both purposes." .. no evidence MSPAP measures higher-level thinking skills.. .. heavy reliance on writing might be distorting scores. BIG MSPAP REPORT: MSPAP IS GREAT BUT.... z52\clipim\2001\10\01\mspap.pdf Our findings regarding selected psychometric aspects of MSPAP are generally positive. The state and its test contractor have done a good to excellent job of delivering, scoring, and reporting complex assessment materials. Many aspects of the process are state-of-the-art in the assessment field. ...The timing of the administration of the assessment is out of step with the delivery of the subject matter content in the classroom, there was no direct evidence that we saw that demonstrates that the tasks are measuring higher level thinking skills, there appears to be a confounding of the assessment of higher level thinking skills with writing skills, non-standardized testing conditions due to the pre-assessment activities are used, questions remain about the developmental level of the tasks in the assessment... There is also one major shortcoming and that is the failure, to date, to compile what the panel believes to be a sufficient amount of validity evidence to support the multiple intended uses of the MSPAP. In MSPAP, constructed response is the only format used and writing skills are important in large parts of the assessment. NAEP takes a maximum of 90 minutes of a student™s time. MSPAP may require nine hours. It is almost certainly the case too that ihsatisfactorylI on the MSPAP is not identical to ioproficiencyll on the NAEP. percent of Maryland students performing at the satisfactory level has increased from 31.7% in 1993 to 44.1% in 1998. If it is unknown whether the content has actually been taught, then interpretation of low test scores becomes problematic. At Grade 3, for example, over 50% of the teachers indicated that the material related to mathematics would be taught later in the school year. MOST TEACHERS BELIEVE MSPAP TASKS ARE NOT DEVELOPMENTALLY APPROPRIATE less than one-quarter of Maryland teachers agreed with the statement, The MSPAP test is developmentally appropriate for their students. Overall 67% either disagreed or strongly disagreed with this statement. Therefore, there seems to be concern, at least with the majority of the teachers, about the developmental appropriateness of MSPAP tasks. ... that the tasks or response strategies are too difficult for the students or that they call for cognitive skills that are developmentally inappropriate. Even though the tasks are reviewed for developmental appropriateness, teachers report that the tasks are not developmentally appropriate, especially for the lower grade levels (3 and 5). THERE IS NO DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DIMENSIONS - IT'S JUST MEASURING IQ! ...these content area correlations are remarkably high. The reasons for these excessively high correlations are not clear but may result from lack of content area independence due to the interdisciplinary nature of the tasks. The degree to which such high intercorrelations impact on the validity of score interpretations is not clear. The heavy emphasis on writing as the sole means for a student to communicate his or her answers should be re-considered due to the potential confound in score interpretation. It could be the case that a student has the cognitive skills and knowledge to correctly answer a question, but is limited in the writing skills needed to communicate the answer effectively. A Delphi-like process was used to set the standard for Satisfactory performance for schools. MSPAP IS PART OF STW/GOALS 2000, ENFORCER AFTER 5 YR HIGH STAKES BAN z49\doc\web\2001\04\MSAPAP studied after 10 years.htm Page 145 of Public Law 103-227-94, Goals 2000 Educate America Act, Section 211 (5)(C)(ii), reads: "…such assessments will not be used to make decisions regarding graduation, grade promotion, or retention of students for a period of 5-years from the date of enactment of this law." In other words, five years after MSPAP became the official accountability tool, which was July 1, 1995, MSDE became the enforcer, controller, and dictator of the federal education reform laws (same) Poor Performance Review Sunday, April 1, 2001 Washington Times "In most subjects, the tasks did not come close to testing for knowledge of the things asked for in Maryland's own standards, which are supposed to guide districts in choice of textbooks and curricula, and to present the state's own idea of what its children should be learning. Furthermore, the grading was inconsistent, with correct answers often not recognized as such by some of the graders, and incorrect answers given full credit. The questions themselves were often incoherent, trivial or based on erroneous understanding of the subject matter by the composers of the questions. " 2 teachers speak out A test is never the cure for the disease it diagnoses. Except, that is, in the field of education z47\clip\2001\01\msprap.txt Prince George's Journal§ion=fp&snumber=40 The rap on MSPAP "What gives conspiracy theorists the creeps, perhaps, is the way that MSPAP can make ``plays well with others'' and ``good team worker'' judgments about children - and teachers, schools and school systems. ..the limited view of MSPAP that the public is allowed hampers both its improvement and its acceptance. " %%For z47\clip\2000\12\mspscor.txt FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Kent County Posts Highest MSPAP Scores in Maryland Baltimore, MD (December 1, 1999) -- The Eastern Shore's Kent County is the highest performing school system in the state, according to the results of the 1999 Maryland School Performance Assessment Program (MSPAP) released today by State Superintendent of Schools Nancy S. Grasmick. The 1999 MSPAP results indicate that 60% of Kent County students performed at the satisfactory level on the highly rigorous tests, ONLY FOUR SCHOOLS IN STATE PASS THE TEST z49\clip\2000\12\mspwork.txt Teaching to the Test September 1997 issue of The American School Board Journal. "Fullerton school was one of only four elementary schools in the state to meet or surpass the state's expectations for third-graders on the 1996 Maryland School Performance Assessment Program (MSPAP), Neither particularly wealthy nor particularly poor %%General OFFICIALS COMPLAIN CONSERVATIVE BIAS AGAINST TESTING z46\clip\2000\11\mspap.txt d=1150510209456 Think tank challenges validity and accuracy of state school testing Subhead: Md. officials dispute criticisms of MSPAP By Mike Bowler SUN STAFF A bitterly disputed independent review of Maryland's school performance test says it is "riddled with errors" and doesn't measure what is taught in the state's schools. z40\clip\2000\03\taiwtest.txt Baltimore Sun March 15, 2000 Taiwan has upper hand in its success on MSPAP By Mike Bowler Sun Staff Taiwan school pay to take the Maryland Performance tests - and shine. "The Taiwanese school system -- like other Asian educational systems -- is often said not to foster the kind of creative problem-solving stressed by MSPAP. The Chinese kids generally beat the socks off their Maryland counterparts in grades three, five and eight, especially in the higher grades." When Maryland, for example, released the results of a new assessment in 1993, only 31.7 percent of its students reached the "satisfactory" level. Improved performance in subsequent years, however, has made Maryland's testing program a model among states implementing standards-based reforms. ritest.txt 44% OF RI 8TH GRADERS FAIL STATE MATH STANDARD, BUT EQUAL TO NATIONAL AVERAGE \clip\97\25\ritest.txt New Test in R.I. Sends Shock Waves Through State By Jeff Archer ONLY 25% PASS 8TH GRADE READING \clip\98\18\edclip09.txt 8th-grade reading tests remain worry for Maryland educators No growth in scores in 6 years; a quarter can read satisfactorily By Mike Bowler Baltimore Sun Staff MSAP PRINCE GEORGE AND BALTIMORE SCORE AT BOTTOM ONLY 44% PASS \clip\98\18\msap.txt Maryland Students Boost Test Scores But Less Than Half Rated 'Satisfactory' On Spring Exams By Amy Argetsinger Washington Post Staff Writer Wednesday, December 9, 1998; Page B01 WHY GIVE TEST BEFORE CURRICULUM IS ESTABLISHED? \clip\98\17\edclip06.txt Giving Schools a Sense of Direction: Md. Proposes List of Standards For Content By Amy Argetsinger Washington Post Staff Writer Monday, November 23, 1998; Page B01 Some observers find it odd that a state would establish stringent assessment exams before establishing content guidelines -- essentially, before specifying the subjects and skills students need to master to do well on the tests. "People are putting the cart before the horse," said Paul Gagnon, a senior research associate at Boston University's School of Education and formerly a champion for content standards at the U.S. Department of Education. MARYLAND CONSIDERS RELEASING SCORES OF STUDENTS TO PARENTS \clip\98\16\msap2.txt From: (MRS COLEEN C ARY) Md. May Widen Release of Test Scores By Amy Argetsinger Washington Post Staff Writer Tuesday, November 10, 1998; Page D05 \clipim\98\03\credib.tif National drive fails critic's credibility test The Washington Times Oct 28, 1997 p. E3 Maryland MSPAP is based on Goals 2000, introduced by the US Dept of education, questions about scoring and enforcement of politically correct values. Schools are threatened with takeover if they get low scores. Business roundtable is a big supporter of tests. Trained workers instead of independent thinkers MARYLAND TEST HAS NO MULTIPLE CHOICE link From: (MRS COLEEN C ARY) THE WASHINGTON POST, May 11, 1998 IN MD., THE 'BUBBLE' TEST HAS BURST Analytical Exam Gains Favor Over Multiple-Choice Format By Amy Argetsinger and Ellen Nakashima Washington Post Staff Writers A small but vocal cadre of parents continues to protest the MSPAP, saying it takes time away from the "basics" of everyday school instruction. [goal of 70% pass, 25% excellent by 2000] Last year, only 41.8 percent of Maryland students scored "satisfactory," up from 31.7 in 1993. Still, state education officials insist the test is within the reach of elementary and middle school children: In two experiments, Taiwanese students took the same test translated into Chinese and outperformed Maryland students of the same age. [but does not prove they met the goal either, or that Maryland students are equally capable since they don't have a performance-based curriculum either, and US Asians also beat US whites by the same margin] "Are we shooting too high?' " .. we've established standards that are certainly within the abilities of students [but that has not been shown when 50% fail]." [one of the first performance based tests, started after Tucker-led governor's report] FairTest calls it "the best single statewide test in the country." Others say the MSPAP is too subjective and fuzzy. Dan Koretz, a senior social scientist at Rand Education.. "Maryland's test is very unusual for achievement testing and in my view hasn't been adequately evaluated," he said. few states have followed Maryland's lead, finding such tests to be too expensive and time-consuming. [some had added multiple choice like WA] MARYLAND REQUIRES 70% OF SCHOOLS TO MEET TEST STANDARD \clip\97\29\maryland.txt Middle schools lag in state test scores; elementary schools hold their own By: LESLIE GROSS, Staff Writer 12-18-97 The Capitol (Annapolis, MD) "Middle Schools Lag in State Test Scores; Elementary Schools Hold Their Own" " School officials provided individual school scores on the Maryland School Performance Assessment Program, a test taken each year by third-, fifth- and eighth-graders. The state requires all schools to have 70 percent of students meeting a satisfactory standard in six different subjects by the year 2000. Therefore, elementary schools must meet a total of 12 standards -- six each for the third- and fifth-grade tests -- and middle schools must meet six standards for the eighth-grade test. " %%Graduation Requirement 2009 TESTS WILL BE REQUIRED z81\clip\2004\06\mdreq.txt,0,2786049.story?coll=bal-home-headlines Diplomas to require state tests Condition of graduation to start for Class of 2009 The new tests replace the Maryland functional exams, .. since the late 1970s. ... predictions that thousands would fail and drop out. Eventually, only a handful of students failed the tests, and the vast majority of students passed without breaking a sweat 5/21/2003 Class of 2008 to Face State Exam The State Board of Education voted yesterday to require the Class of 2008 -- students now in seventh grade -- to be the first group of Maryland high school students to pass a standardized exam to graduate. @@Massachusetts @@MCAS Massachusetts is bracing for a new "hard" test, the MCAS in the spring of 1998. The state Education Reform Act of 1993 mandates that these tests be given this year. (Similar to other state reform acts that call for performance based tests) The 1993 reform act lead to a doubling of state spending on education, but the "test" show massive "failure" rates. The test is required for graduation, making it effectively a CIM. Boston College did a study showing that the acuracy of the test is completely laughable. The Mass NAACP has taken a position against the tests. Pass rates for 10th graders jumped to 75% in 2001. MCAS shows one of the highest race failure ratios of any test. Blacks and Hispanics show a rate of 4 to 5 times higher. Even Asians are nearly twice as likely to flunk, in a state with a relatively high number of poor Southest Asians. ================================================================== MCAS BRAGS 95% PASS RATE, WASH POINTS TO SUCCESS, BLACK RATE 56% From: "GERALD BRACEY" The MCAS pass rate is NOT 95% for anybody except those who are in the senior class. For instance, there were 77,733 members of the class of 2003 in the ninth grade. By the time they got to the 12th grade, there were only 60,000. What happened to the nearly 18,000 who disappeared? When Anne Wheelock did the appropriate calculations for the class of 2004, she got these pass rates: All 74% Whites 80% Blacks 56% Latinos 54% Asians 89% Looking only at pass rates can obscure a possible increasing achievement gap. All this explained on pp. 54-57 of Reading Educational Research: How to Avoid Getting Statistically Snookered. Jerry Bracey 90% PASS REALLY MEANS 70% OVERALL, 54% BLACK, 40% LATINO PASS MCAS mcaspass.txt The writer is the Coordinator of Marylanders Against High Stakes Testing. She maintains the group's website at DOE report inflates MCAS pass rates for the Class of 2003" --March 2003 - DOE's 90% pass rate overstates the statewide pass rate by 20 percentage points. The real "on time pass rate" is 70% when all members of the original class of 2003 are included. - MCAS pass rates, when restated as "on time pass rates," show that only 54% of African American, and 40% Latino students from the class of 2003 have passed MCAS. ASIANS NEARLY TWICE AS LIKELY TO FLUNK MCAS AS WHITES z68\clip\2003\06\mcaspass.txt He maintained a 'B' average, but this Massachusetts senior can't graduate KEN MAGUIRE; The Associated Press BOSTON - Four attempts. Two points shy. Pass rates: 94 percent of seniors in suburban schools pass 79 percent in city schools. pass 74 Fitchburg 69 Springfield 64 Chelsea, 64 percent 60 percent city of Lawrence, lowest in state Failure rates: percent - ratio 30 -5.0 percent of Hispanic 25 -4.2 percent of black seniors 10 -1.7 percent Asian 6 1.0 percent white by Department of Education statistics. number for advanced systems questions mcas support services 1-800-737-5103 help line School Forum Springfield paper list of stories over "controversy". Boston Globe Jordana Hart State Dept of Education MCAS page \clipim\98\11\mcas1998.pdf 4Mbyte pdf file of test booklet %%critics HIGH STAKES ASSUMES THAT EVERYONE HAS FAILED The Sunday, March 2, 2003 Boston Globe Magazine At the root of this heretofore inchoate rebellion seems to be a feeling of powerlessness... High-stakes testing is premised upon the assumption that everyone else involved in education - up to and including (shh!) students and their parents - has failed so dismally that a kind of exam ex machina is needed to sort the whole mess out. MCAS EITHER 95% OR 66% PASS RATE z63\clip\2002\12\mcas66.txt MCAS likely to trip 5 to 10% Swift to report on class of '03 By Anand Vaishnav, Globe Staff, 12/17/2002 "Based on its much-larger freshmen enrollment, the seniors' MCAS pass rate is about 66 percent, said Walt Haney, an education professor at Boston College's Lynch School of Education." z54\clip\2001\12\mcasre.txt MCAS retest is equally rigorous, education chief says Some questions not as hard, but scores must rise By Scott S. Greenberger, Globe Staff, 12/10/2001 Boston Globe 12/10/2001 Forty-six percent of vocational students who took both tests in 2001 passed them, compared with 20 percent in 2000. Only about 14 percent of high school juniors in Massachusetts are black or Hispanic, but nearly 30 percent of those who have not passed both English and math are from one of those groups. Eighty-two percent of students who took the exam last spring passed English, compared with 66 percent in 2000. The math passing rate was 75 percent, up from 55 percent in 2000. z54\clip\2001\11\mcas2.txt Greenberg: The cloning of Massachusetts students By Dan Greenberg / Guest Columnist Friday, November 16, 2001 YOU'RE BREAKING THE LAW IF YOU GIVE DIPLOMA WITHOUT MCAS z53\clip\2001\10\mcaslaw.txt The Union-News Springfield MCAS 'the law,' school chiefs told Saturday, October 20, 2001 By ANGELA CARBONE NORTHAMPTON — State Education Commissioner David P. Driscoll said yesterday that any school committee that awards diplomas to students who fail the MCAS tests is breaking the law. MCAS FAILURE RATES CUT IN HALF - 75% OF 10TH GRADERS PASS z53\clip\2001\10\mcasup.txt MCAS opponents' stance weakened By Scott S. Greenberger, Globe Staff, 10/17/2001 nearly three-fourths of 10th-graders who took MCAS English and math passed them - with Overboard on Testing? By Lynn Olson .. some argue that the heavy emphasis on test results to compare schools and districts and decide if students graduate or advance to the next grade has gone too far. "The one solution that is not feasible, most agree, is to get rid of tests. " INVALID TEST: MCAS CLASSIFIES BEST STUDENTS AS FAILURES z47\clip\2001\01\hibar.txt How High the Bar? By Debra Viadero Worsley noticed that one 8th grader who was rated "advanced" on mathematics on the Stanford Achievement Test-9th Edition, the nationally normed test that Holliston students ordinarily took, fell into the "failure" category on the math portion of the state exam. z46\clip\2000\11\mcas11222000.htm MCAS scores expose urban-suburban gap by Ed Hayward Wednesday, November 22, 2000Payzant was adamant in urging lawmakers not to entertain calls by MCAS opponents to re-tool the assessment system - a list of critics that includes the Massachusetts Teachers Assocation and the Massachusetts Association of School Committees. z46\doc\web\2000\11\brooklin.txt Victor Steinbok [mailto:aardvark69@EARTHLINK.NET] November 15, 2000 Tonight an anti-MCAS resolution passed at the Brookline Town meeting by a vote of 175 to 10 Students who are in upper ranges on most other tests could fall in any fail to pass range on MCAS z46\clipim\2000\11\15\mcasdraw\mcasdraw.htm What Can Student Drawings Tell Us About High-Stakes Testing in Massachusetts? Anne Wheelock Independent Education Policy Writer & Researcher Author Bio | E-mail Author "A small minority of drawings depicted students as diligentarticle problem-solvers and thinkers. A larger percentage of drawings portrayed students as anxious, angry, bored, pessimistic, or withdrawn from testing. The overall patterns that emerge challenge the belief that the high stakes associated with MCAS will enhance the motivation and effort of students in a uniform way." CITY REFERENDUM INITIATIVE BANS MCAS GRAD REQUIREMENT z46\clip\2000\11\mcasref.txt 11/8/00 City voters send message against MCAS By Joanna Massey, Standard-Times staff writer NEW BEDFORD -- Voters in two of the city's three districts yesterday approved a non-binding ballot referendum to suspend the use of the MCAS exam as a high school graduation requirement. GOV LASHES OUT ON TEACHERS WALKING AWAY FROM MCAS z46\clip\2000\11\blast.txt Boston Globe Cellucci blasts teachers on tests By Frank Phillips, Globe Staff, 11/9/2000 Reenergized by voters' overwhelming approval of his tax cut, Governor Paul Cellucci quickly plunged into another battle with his union opponents yesterday, this time lashing out at teachers for ''reneging'' on their support of student testing. MASS SCHOOL COMMITTEES WANT TO SUSPEND MCAS UNTIL FIXED BUT NOT BAN IT FOR GRADUATION ENTIRELY z46\doc\web\2000\11\mcassusp.txt The Massachusetts Association of School Committees voted overwhelmingly (137 to 30, or more than 4 to 1) to pass the Arlington resolution, which calls for a suspension of the use of the MCAS to determine graduation until many critical issues have been addressed. MCAS IS NOT A BASIC SKILLS TEST, LOWER STANDARD FOR DIPLOMA? z45\clip\2000\09\mcasre.txt Changes eyed for MCAS re-tests Officials concerned about failure rates By Scott S. Greenberger, Globe Staff, 9/6/2000 Few would argue with the sentiment expressed on a protester's sign at Governor Paul Cellucci's ''State of Education'' speech last week: ''The MCAS is not a basic skills test!'' Telegram & Gazette (Massachusetts) Opponents expected to challenge MCAS test in courts 'High-stakes' testing remains controversial Sunday, August 27, 2000 By Clive McFarlane Telegram & Gazette Staff WORCESTER-- Of the 1,509 10th-graders enrolled in the Worcester public schools in the 1998-99 academic year, nearly two-thirds got failing marks on the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System tests. Nevertheless, those 905 students will receive their high school diplomas, provided they satisfactorily complete all local graduation requirements. New Democracy finds that neither CARE or Fairtest have actually taken a position against 1993 ed reform law. \clip\99\21\mcas.txt Coalition for Authentic Reform in Education (CARE) From RECOMMENDATIONS * No child should be denied a diploma or retained in grade on the basis of one test. * The energy, resources and time spent on preparing for and administering the MCAS should be applied directly to improving classrooms. EVEN FAIRTEST OK WITH A 40% FAIL RATE STANDARD! \CLIP\99\20\mcaslow.txt State set to decide on MCAS pass-fail tomorrow by Ed Hayward Monday, November 22, 1999 ``Using an arbitrary score on a test to get to whether someone should get a diploma is the wrong use for that test,'' said Karen Hartke of the group Fairtest. ``But at a minimum, I'd recommend they set the mark no higher than the point they are now calling failing.'' ...a cornerstone of the $6 billion reform push. IT'S OK TO PASS AVERAGE STUDENTS?? WHAT A CONCEPT. \clip\99\20\mcaslow.txt Officials call low standard a starting point 'Weak' MCAS standard mulled Tuesday, November 23, 1999 By Lee Hammel Worcester Telegram & Gazette Staff "said students with MCAS scores that show “needs improvement” are about in the 50th percentile of students nationally, according to other standardized tests. “Average students should be getting a high school diploma,” she said. " [Yet the "needs improvement 220 score was still failed by 40% of 8th grade math students!] MASS MCAS FLUNKS VOCATIONAL STUDENTS Union-Leader & Sunday News Failing the grade Vocational schools are scoring lowest in the MCAS tests. Are the tests geared especially for college-bound students, leaving the rest behind? ..concerns about testing vocational students on what amounts to about half of what they are taught. ..might include delaying the state test until 11th grade, when vocational students may be more synchronized with what college preparatory students have studied. AGAIN, NO ONE BLAMES THE TEST FOR MASSIVE MINORITY FAILURE RATES \clip\99\20\mcasmin.txt metro/MCAS_stirs_ears_that_minorities_will_drop_out-.shtml MCAS stirs fears that minorities will drop out Failure rate high for blacks, Latinos By Cindy Rodriguez, Globe Staff, 11/12/99 An analysis of MCAS test results released yesterday showed 83 percent of Latinos and 80 percent of blacks failed the 10th-grade math exam last year, providing the first glimpse of the huge disparity dividing students among racial and ethnic lines. AMBIVALENT OR AFRAID TO CRITICIZE MCAS? zip38\clip\99\20\mcasno2.txt Confused by the MCAS tests By Joan Vennochi, Globe Columnist, 11/12/99 The entire episode provided many lessons - most of them unintended by MCAS proponents - and one very good reason to remain ambivalent about the statewide exams. The MCAS created turmoil in our home last school year. From day one of fourth grade, the teacher talked about the upcoming tests and taught to them almost exclusively for the rest of the year. But that wasn't the worst part. After the class completed part one of the actual composition test, the teacher handed it back the next day, suggesting that students might want to clean it up. News reports about the test results reinforce ambivalence. The latest MCAS scores are still characterized as dismal MOVEMENT TO KILL MASS ED REFORM OVER TEST RESULTS \clip\99\19\mcas.txt A BOSTON GLOBE EDITORIAL An unfair test of school reform Disappointing scores from the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System tests are being cited as evidence that education reform has failed. Some legislators are beginning to back away from the Commonwealth's financial commitments even before the final installment of promised state aid increases has been enacted. MA PARENTS HORRIFIED AT THREAT OF EVEN MORE TESTING \clip\99\13\moretest.txt From the Boston Herald: Education boss eyes broader MCAS exam by Darrell S. Pressley Wednesday, July 7, 1999 The Bay State education chief wants to expand the controversial MCAS test to include expansive student portfolios and challenging science experiments. "But parents said the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System already takes away too much class time, and any expansion would hurt children and teachers. " EDUCATORS ATTACK MCAS AS TOO LONG, DIFFICULT, BUREAUCRATS DEFEND "HIGH STANDARDS" \clip\99\12\mcas.txt Educators focus on MCAS, violence concerns By Hermione Malone, Boston Globe Correspondent, 06/24/99 It seemed a little disproportionate to .. Melrose high school principal, that fourth graders spent as much time this year taking the MCAS test as law students taking the Massachusetts Bar Exam. The 12-hour bar exam is somewhat shorter than the untimed MCAS, which averages 14 to 20 hours to complete. NO DATA TO SUPPORT VALIDITY OF MA MCAS TEST. WORKING ON IT \doc\web\99\07\mcas.txt From: "Gerald W. Bracey" Date: Fri, 19 Mar 1999 22:49:38 -0800 Anyone wondering about the validity of the Massachusetts test that = flunked 55% of the candidates should get a copy of "More Truth Than = Error?" It's a review by Walt Haney and associates at Boston College = and damning. Their raw calculations of reliability coefficients (which the state has = refused to provide) are abysmal. Even when they toss out = outliers--people with scores way outside most of the others, they can't = the coefficients to reach .50. To show your test reliable, yYou strive = for .90 and are sorely disappointed with anything below .80 MIT TEACHERS SAY MCAS 10TH GRADE SCIENCE QUESTIONS ARE BOGUS \clip\98\18\mcasbad.txt LESSON PLAN State test doesn't measure up, say 3 Boston Latin teachers By Beth Daley, Jordana Hart, Kate Zernike, Globe Staff, 12/08/98 Did you take the MCAS test questions published in the Globe two Sundays ago? Well, three graduates of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who teach science at Boston Latin did, and were distressed after analyzing the questions used to test 10th-graders. %%Pass Rate REAL MCAS PASS RATES NOT 96% MA Dept. of Ed "Progress Report" Inflates MCAS 'Pass Rates' for Class of 2004 (June 2004) see rates that reflect the capacity of schools to help students both pass MCAS and also progress on time to graduate with the Class of 2004 -- are as follows: - All students: 74%, not 96%. - White students: 80%, not 98%. - African American students: 59%, not 88%. - Latino students: 54%, not 85%. - Asian students: 89%, not 95%. \clip\2004\06\mcaspass.txt [MASS] URBAN SCHOOLS CONTINUE TO GRAPPLE WITH [MCAS] EXIT EXAM Associated Press -- June 7, 2004 by Ken Maguire Of the 61,338 seniors enrolled in Massachusetts in March, 96 percent have passed the MCAS Fail %, rate 2 1.00 white 5 2.50 asian 12 6.00 black 15 7.50 latino 19% STILL DON'T PASS MCAS z62\clip\2002\11\mcaspass.txt Education board OK's alternative to diploma By Michele Kurtz, Boston Globe 11/27/2002 "after three chances to take the test, about 12,000 seniors - or 19 percent - have not passed both sections of the 10th-grade Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System, and could be denied diplomas" in a nod to hard-working students who are denied diplomas for failing the 10th-grade MCAS, the state Board of Education adopted a controversial ''certificate of attainment'' yesterday designed to recognize their diligence. z56\clip\2002\07\mcaspass.txt Schools: Many who failed MCAS quit By Megan Tench, Globe Staff, 7/18/2002 "So far, 51 percent of the Class of 2003 in Boston have yet to pass the exam." Boston school officials announced findings yesterday that a significant number of the students in the Class of 2003 who failed the high-stakes MCAS exam in the spring of 2001 and who did not take the retest in December of 2001 have dropped out of high school. %%Race MINORITY MCAS GAINS, BUT GAP REMAINS, RAISES SUSPICION z53\priv\2001\10\mcasrac.txt metro/Mixed_signals_from_latest_MCAS_scores+.shtml Mixed signals from latest MCAS scores "60 percent of African-American 10th-graders passed English on the 2001 test, up from 40 percent in 2000. In math, the passing rate went from 23 percent to 48 percent. Hispanic students also made gains, from 34 percent to 52 percent in English and 21 percent to 42 percent in math. But because white students made roughly the same gains between 2000 and 2001, minority students didn't make up much ground. The roughly parallel improvement across all groups preserved the gap - and aroused suspicion in some quarters." %%Sample Example of failing responses z46\clipim\2000\11\07\g10lowmath\g10lowmath.htm - 13 1. if height of cone is doubled, what is volume? 2. if radius of cone is doubled, what is volume? what is the height of the cone in terms of radius in order to have cone and sphere with same volue? Arthur Hu review 11/17/98 - 4th grade test is not as hard as WASL, but requires: (The following either do not appear in the MA framework, or appear at higher grade levels in other standards or curriculum) NA/G4 count 5-group hash marks NA/G3 manual adding 3 column with carry NA/G5 add list of 12 2 digit numbers, NA/G3 add 3+3 digits (with calculator?) NA/G3 sub 3+3 digits NA/G4 mult 2x2 digit NA/G3 divide 3 by 1 digits NA/G5 adding 6 sums NA/G7 divide 4 hours by six, result in minutes NA NA/G6 add time beyond even hour NA NA/G7 read chart between tic marks NA/G5 estimate integer as fraction of 3 digit integer NA/G6 apply same operation to both sides of equation NA/G5 test all answers NA/G5 compute probability as a fraction NA/G5 multiplication of integer by n/m fraction NA/G6 reducing fractions NA/G5 draw fraction of circle 1/2 1/3 1/6 NA/G6 compare fractions with uncommon denominator NA/G6 divisibility by 5 NA/G8 combinations (how many ways to arrange 3 items) NA/G6 drawing figures with parallel and perpendicular and intersecting lines NA/G7 draw outline from coordinate list NA/G7 construct 4 closed figures with fixed unit perimeter NA/NA memorizing acute, "regroup" and obtuse NA/G6 convert fraction to decimal and compare NA/NA devise a number game with one solution 15% of problems are patterns, 15% of problems are drawing. Not present: frequency histogram scale drawing reading sorting Spreadsheet shows that 70% of problems either cover material not mentioned in the frameworks, or covered at a higher grade level XX/YY XX= not specified in MA standards YY= should not be assessed without definition, best estimate of grade level placement from rigorous CA or Japan standards. Suspicions About the Statewide Tests By Jeff Jacoby, Boston Globe Columnist, May 7, 1998 I was going to write a column expressing my reservations about the MCAS, a 15-hour-long series of tests now being administered to fourth-, eighth-, and 10th-graders in every Massachusetts public school. I was going to point out that for all the ink and air time being devoted to the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System, as it's formally called, little is actually known about it. MASS TEST IS TOO HARD FOR AVERAGE 10TH GRADER 2/26/98 A recent graduate's opinion: Unfair By Globe Staff, 02/26/98 \clip\98\05\newscl08.txt ''Basically, I feel the test is unfair. The majority of 10th-graders will probably have great difficulty passing the test [contains questions found on college level advanced placement test] MASS TEST IS TOO HARD FOR AVERAGE 10TH GRADER 2/26/98 A recent graduate's opinion: Unfair By Globe Staff, 02/26/98 \clip\98\05\newscl08.txt ''Basically, I feel the test is unfair. The majority of 10th-graders will probably have great difficulty passing the test [contains questions found on college level advanced placement test] TESTS ARE SETTING UP SOME SCHOOLS FOR FAILURE \clip\98\05\newscl03.txt 2/18/98 Daily Hampshire Gazette (MA Area educators fret over testing By MARY CAREY, Staff Writer (FEB. 17) - Area educators are worried about how students will fare on standardized tests to be given to all 4th-, 8th- and 10th-graders in May. Poor results, they contend, could be used to bolster arguments favoring increased public funding of educational alternatives like charter schools. The Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System tests, a part of the 1992 educational reform package, will test students on math, science and English facts and concepts... "The tests, he said, are setting up some of the public schools for failure." 10th grade test will be required to graduate. %%For Boston Phoenix MCAS malaise Sure, improvements should be made. But critics are wrong to disparage the need for standards and accountability. %%news ONLY REICH 1 OF 4 AGAINST TYING DIPLOMA TO MCAS SCORE z57\clip\2002\08\mcasgov.txt A BOSTON GLOBE EDITORIAL The tests that count CAMPAIGN MATTERS: EDUCATION 8/12/2002 AP DOE study declares MCAS tests reliable By JEAN McMILLAN BOSTON (AP) -- The controversial MCAS tests, closely watched by parents, teachers and elected officials, are reliable and valid, state education officials said Monday, citing new studies. \clip\99\07\edclip02.txt Committee seeks methods to copy 3 schools share secrets of success By Beth Daley, Globe Staff, 02/25/99 three of the highest-scoring elementary schools in Boston on the state MCAS exams Lyndon, O'Hearn and Quincy schools What they seem to have most in common was not just their relatively high test scores, but a determination to get away from traditional grill and drill teaching. \clip\98\18\edclip09.txt Parents eager to see schools' rank Cautions not to compare exam numbers go unheard By Beth Daley, Globe Staff, 12/10/98 \clip\98\18\mastest.txt Boston Globe Boston students do poorly on state exam [urban poor flunk, rich do well] By Beth Daley, Globe Staff, 12/09/98 More than half of Boston's public school fourth-graders failed math on tough new statewide MCAS tests, with less than 3 percent showing expertise in the subject, according to a source. Students in urban areas of Massachusetts did the poorest on the tests, with the worst scores in higher grades. A majority of Boston 10th-graders scored in the ''failing'' or ''needs improvement'' category in English, math, and science. Christian Science Monitor TUESDAY, DECEMBER 1, 1998 LEARNING, K-12 ACHIEVEMENT TESTS States to public: Improvement will take time Gail Russell Chaddock ( Staff writer of The Christian Science Monitor "But the Bay State took a cue from states that had already weathered dismal first-round assessments, such as Texas, Washington, Oregon, and Colorado." "When 50 percent of Massachusetts 10th-graders failed the state's tough new math test, state officials hailed the results as a historic turning point. At every level except eighth-grade English, most fourth-, eighth-, and 10th-graders failed to reach proficient levels in the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS), in results announced last week." by 2003, seniors in Massachusetts will have to pass the 10th-grade MCAS test to graduate. \clip\98\17\techmcas.txt Educators split on making MCAS a subject in class By Jordana Hart, Boston Globe Staff, 11/25/98 Although Massachusetts teachers are divided on whether to ''teach to the test'' to boost scores on the statewide exams for fourth-, eighth-, and 10th-graders, many educators say the test is so broad that teaching to it could benefit many classrooms. \clip\98\17\edclip04.txt ANALYSIS Tests result prove education law is a work in progress By Scot Lehigh, Globe Staff, 11/24/98 Five years after the passage of Massachusetts' landmark education reform law, the message from yesterday's student test results was not how far the state has come but rather how far it has to go. Since the law passed in 1993, Massachusetts has spent an extra $5 billion to phase in a doubling, to $2.8 billion a year, of its yearly baseline spending on education. \clip\98\17\mcas.txt This story ran on page B02 of the Boston Globe on 11/17/98. Some educators give MCAS questions a 'C' - for challenging By Beth Daley, Jordana Hart, and Kate Zernike, Globe Staff, 11/17/98 ''It was on the hard side but not too hard,'' said Jorge Lach, a Lexington parent of a fourth-grader who reviewed questions from that grade level. ''The math questions were pretty good; [they] emphasized mostly critical thinking rather than repetition or pure calculations. \clip\98\16\matest.txt Last spring's public school test questions headed for Internet By Jordana Hart, Globe Staff, 11/13/98 state officials plan to make public on Monday all the test questions students were asked last spring, and to post them on the Internet. MCAS TO TEST ONLY FROM FRAMEWORKS? \clip\98\18\newtest.txt New Tests Send Bay State Schools Scrambling By Kerry A. White the test questions are culled "100 percent" from the learning standards contained in the state's new curriculum frameworks. MCAS will offer a mixture of multiple-choice and essay questions designed by the state education department and the Dover, N.H.-based Advanced Systems \clip\98\05\newscl08.txt 2/26/98 Boston Globe State tests worry parents, teachers Schools rush to prepare students By Beth Daley and Jordana Hart, Globe Staff, 02/26/98 Parents and educators across the state, even those in top school districts, are panicking over predictions that their children could receive poor scores on state tests being administered for the first time this spring. MCAS USED TO SET BASELINE FOR CONTINUAL IMPROVEMENT \clip\98\15\edclip03.txt Teachers fear they'll be scored by student test results By Beth Daley, Globe Staff, 10/23/98 Most school officials and teachers interviewed know the Department of Education's mantra: that the tests are being used only as a baseline for schools to use as they seek to improve scores in coming years, and should not be used to judge schools this year. %%Sample COLLEGE LEVEL CHEMISTRY PROBLEM - DOUBLE DISPLACEMENT REACTION z42\doc\web\2000\05\whymcas.txt Hamptom Gazette Northampton, MA sample test z42\clipim\2000\05\15\mcassamp\mcassamp.htm The science questions are absurdly difficult Which of the following is a double displacement reaction A) CI2 + 2KBR -> 2KCL + BR2 B) PBCL2 + LI2SO4 -> 2LICL + PBSO4 C) PB(OH)2 -> PBO+H2O D) 2H2+O2 ->2H2O ANSWER IS B (2 reactants) \clipim\98\11\mcas1998.pdf 4Mbyte pdf file of test booklet G4 Sample Question Use the Map Below to Complete this question ---------------------- Main Street ---------------------- A. Draw Broadway Street PARALLEL to Main Street. Write Broadway on this street. B. Draw Birch Street PERPENDICULAR to Main Street. Write BIRCH on this street. C. Draw Walnut Street so that it INTERSECTS Main Street, but is NOT perpendicular to Main Street. Write Walnut on this street. D. Mark one OBTUSE angle on your drawing with an O. E. Mark one ACUTE angle on your drawing with an A. Comment - 1. nobody learns what ACUTE or OBTUSE is and it doesn't matter Talk about memorizing useless facts. They should at least give a definition Most states do _not_ specify acute or obtuse in 4th grade, most texts do not cover this. 2. constructing this drawing with these complex instructions is much, much more difficult than the typical "which of these streets is parallel?" 3. intersection is not a common 4th grade item either. @@Michigan %%Failing z49\clip\2001\04\michfail.txt 1 IN 5 MICHIGAN SCHOOLS FAIL NEW STANDARDS Mark Hornbeck "State flunks 600 schools" Detroit News, April 11, 2001 ( The number of unaccredited schools in Michigan is expected to increase from 8 to more than 600, reflecting a controversial tightening of state standards. The state Department of Education later this month will disclose the names of individual local schools that flunked the new standards. %%MEAP Performance based test for Michigan, criticized as meaningless by some parents who want to focus on SAT, not state guarantee of literacy. Scoring was changed from passing only top scoring category "proficient" to 4 levels passing top 3 from "basic endorsement" up to "exceeded standards". Some problems are challenging even for adults. Not a high stakes test (yet) October 21, 2003 MEAP could fall to new test Granholm open to alternative student exam Advocates say the tests are more advanced than those in other states, By Stacey Range Lansing State Journal The state spends about $30 million a year to develop and administer the MEAP. Other states spend between $5 million and $10 million "We really have to question why we are putting our resources into something that has such widespread dissent." ONE THIRD OF ADULTS GET RIGHT ANSWER ON MAEP MATH z60\clip\2002\11\meapad.txt MEAP is tough, even for adults Student test questions stumped lots of parents November 12, 2002 BY LORI HIGGINS Detroit FREE PRESS STAFF WRITER They were told each box of Colonel Crisp contains one of six prizes and asked: "If two boxes of cereal are purchased, what is the probability that the prizes will be different?" Adults taking an abridged version of the MEAP test Monday at Oakland Schools in Waterford were stumped. Fewer than a third chose the right answer. Thirty-five percent thought the answer was 1/6, while 31 percent answered correctly: 5/6. MICHIGAN STUDENTS IGNORE THE MAEP WHEN THEY DON'T NEED IT FOR COLLEGE Tuesday, November 3, 1998 Wayne County: Fewer students taking state test "The decline in scores and participation can be attributed to many things. But one reason we heard by a great number of parents is that they didn't see the validity of the test -- especially when their children are being accepted into the colleges of their choice." In the Dearborn Public Schools, less than half of the 979 juniors sat for the tests and less than 50 percent achieved the two highest levels of the state standards in math, reading, science and writing. \clip\98\16\maeptest.txt On MEAP, 36% don't make grade Caution is urged in evaluating test scores November 2, 1998 BY MARIO G. ORTIZ Detroit Free Press Education Writer More than a third, or 36 percent, of Wayne County 11th-graders who took a proficiency test failed to earn an endorsement on it, despite changes in this year's version designed to help more students gain the state's seal of approval. MICH TEST DUMPS ENDORSING ONLY TOP, NOW FLUNKS ONLY BOTTOM CATEGORY \clip\98\16\michtest.txt Endorsed diplomas rise with new exam October 30, 1998 BY TRACY VAN MOORLEHEM AND TAMARA AUDI Detroit Free Press Education Writers Previously, students were deemed proficient, novice or not yet novice, and only those in the top category received an endorsement. The majority of students did not. This year's test is graded in four categories, three of which receive endorsements. The categories are exceeded standards, met standards, basic endorsement and not endorsed. [WASL has 4 categories, only meets and exceed standards would meet CIM endorsement] MAEP PASSES 75% INSTEAD OF 30%, BUT MANY STILL THINK IT'S A WASTE \clip\98\14\meap.txt Endorsements rise with test change October 16, 1998 BY PEGGY WALSH-SARNECKI AND MARIO G. ORTIZ Free Press Education Writers [about 3/4 passed revamped test] On the previous test, taken in fall 1996, slightly more than half of the 11th-graders who took it earned endorsements in math. Roughly 40 percent of students who took the old High School Proficiency Test were endorsed in science and reading and less than 30 percent were endorsed in writing. \clip\98\05\newscl08.txt 2/29/98 Detroit Free Press Social studies MEAP unveiled New test goes beyond 'mindless recall' February 26, 1998 BY TRACY VAN MOORLEHEM AND PEGGY WALSH-SARNECKI Free Press Education Writers "These are questions that require higher-order thinking, not mindless recall of information," said David Harris, a social studies education consultant 1/21/98 \clip\98\02\edclip3.txt Teachers, janitors and bus drivers help boost scores BY HEATHER NEWMAN Free Press Staff Writer 1/21/98 \clip\98\02\edclip3.txt 2 states add context to raw scores BY TRACY VAN MOORLEHEM Free Press Education Writer Before 1992, no one in Tennessee needed to see annual state test results to know how their schools ranked. The poorest schools and districts scored at the bottom while the most affluent ones shone at the top. That's how it is in most states that give standardized tests, including Michigan. In last year's fourth-grade math Michigan Educational Assessment Program scores, for example, eight of the 10 top-scoring districts in metro Detroit were also among the 10 most affluent. Milwaukee Journal Sentinel Testing MEAP scores Comparing raw results has some pitfalls BY TRACY VAN MOORLEHEM AND HEATHER NEWMAN Free Press Staff Writers Home sales, custody fights hinge on exam BY TRACY VAN MOORLEHEM MICH STATE EXAM FLUNKS HONOR STUDENT WHO ACED ACT In Michigan, suburban parents started a boycott of the state proficiency test when an honor student -- a boy who graduated first in a class of 286 students -- flunked the exam. "We were flabbergasted," said Luanne Salz, the mother of Jonathan Salz, who enrolled at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology after getting a perfect score on his ACT test. "We never could find out why he did poorly [on the state test]. . . . We questioned the validity of the test." "In fact, if Minneapolis second-graders stay on their current academic track, less than half of them ultimately will pass the eighth-grade tests, according to a district analysis." source: \clip\98\02\gettuff.txt Minneapolis Star Tribune January 18, 1998 Morris Park overhaul a sign of get-tough movement Rob Hotakainen / Star Tribune %%Sample Sample MEAP questions can be found on the Department of Treasury Web site, z40\clipim\2000\04\06\maepmath.pdf high school math test standset.pdf standard setting - How standards committee sets cut scores @@Milwaukee Complaint MPS to switch to value added norm-referenced testing. @@Mininum Competency Testing \clip\99\05\timss\timss.txt Kappan Professional Journal September 1998 URL: Tinkering with TIMSS By Gerald W. Bracey "Forgione was director of testing for the state of Connecticut for a number of years. During his tenure, the minimum-competency-testing madness swept the country, culminating, in one sense, with the 1978 ruling in Debra P. v. Turlington. In that decision, the court held that for a test to be used to qualify students for high school graduation, the state had to prove that the test had instructional validity. That is, the state had to show that students had had an opportunity to learn the material tested... ..issues were discussed at considerable length in The Courts, Validity, and Minimum Competency Testing, edited by George Madaus of Boston College they stated, "If tests without instructional validity are being used for certification, the students who fail such tests are being penalized for the failures of the schools and teachers -- and not for their own inadequacies. The rational basis for judging student performance in school is undermined." @@Minnesota @@Profiles of Learning Minnesota has standards so weak that the only multiplication that is specified is single digits times 10, but not 2x2=4. Activists worked to elect a new governor and legislators who replaced them with new standards in 2003. Unfortunately, it is still "standards" based. ------------------------------------------------------- Test examples and specifications Complete copies of the Minnesota High Standards are available on the CFL Web Site. The entire rule is at An easier to read format of the standards is located at The Basic Standards can be found at Statewide standard in mathematics. To meet the basic requirement in mathematics, a student shall demonstrate the ability to solve mathematical problems derived from situations commonly encountered in adult life. Among common situations is the estimation of distance traveled when the elapsed time and average rate are known The state minimum for passing Basic Standards tests in reading and mathematics is 75%. Because the Basic Standards tests are new to schools and students, the first two groups of students affected by the rule are permitted to pass at a lower level. ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Press Statement May 23, 2003 Profile of Learning: Rest in Peace "Overturning the Profile required electing a new governor and new legislators. It required that parents, teachers and citizens come back year after year." Doyle dramatized the burial of the Profile with a ceremonial shredding of the now dead Profile standards and performance assessments. NEW STANDARDS SIMILAR TO REJECTED "PROFILE OF LEARNING" z67\clip\2003\05\minnprof.txt Policy Brief on S.F. 639 by Katherine A. Kersten Distinguished Senior Fellow for Cultural Studies Center of the American Experiment Minneapolis studying non-academic subjects S.F. 639 includes approximately 33 required standards for K-8 students in the area of dance. .. choreographic principles like repetition, pattern, or unity.. weak in vital areas like high school algebra .. division of fractions is not mentioned explicitly, though addition, subtraction and multiplication of fractions are addressed. Conversion between measurement systems only appears in optional high school standards.... not include standards for topics that are essential prerequisites ... trigonometry Students must perform many vocationally oriented... Middle school must work in teams to produce a product or service. Among other tasks, they must conduct a market survey, test their product´s cost-effectiveness z47\doc\web\2000\12\proflear.txt THE ACHIEVE REPORT: MARKETING A BAD IDEA By Michael J. Chapman ACHIEVE, Inc.'s evaluation of the Profile of Learning has finally been released. Its criticism of the Profile vindicates what many have been saying for years. Their recommendations contradict their criticism, revealing their true agenda. For example, Achieve suggests the state keep "moving forward," and "strengthening the Profile of Learning," and "continue to build and sustain public support...while staying the course." z46\doc\web\2000\11\minnobe.txt Achieve knocks Minnesota Profiles of Learning - It promotes OBE, but too many "core" areas, not enough content. \doc\web\98\10\mintest.txt asking why test has normal curve in 4th grade but standards don't even specify 2 x 2 = 4. \clip\98\15\ explains I-IV levels, I-II expected to meet graduation standards, III and IV expected to meet high standards. Modifies outcome based education by specifying minimal and advanced standards instead of just one standard MINNESOTA = ALL STUDENTS CAN ACHIEVE AT TWO LEVELS, NOT JUST ONE Notable is that they give out TWO levels of achiement standards. I and II who would be = to "below standard" are encouraged to aim for "graduation" standard, III and IV which are "meet / exceed" standard are slated for the "high standard". This is a significant departure of Tucker's notion that ALL must achieve at the highest international levels which would effectively eliminate the bell curve once and for all. (and if you believe that I've got a social program to sell you...) Test results State: Minnesota Date of Test: February 1998 1998 Grade 3 Score Information 1998 Grade 3 Achievement Level Information Percent of ....ReadingMathematics Level I 23% 18% Level II 42% 47% Level III 30% 29% Level IV 5% 6% Only 35% pass math Only 35% pass reading IV: students at this level demonstrate evidence of advanced academic performance, knowledge and skills that exceed the level neccesary for satisfactory work in the High Standards in the elementary grades III: Students at this level demonstrate evidence of solid academic performance and competence in the knowledge and skills neccesary for satisfactory work in the ... II: .. partial knowledge and skills... I: .. limited ... III or IV would "meet standards" to pass CIM \clip\98\15\mngr5.pdf sample grade 5 test specifications \clip\98\18\math5_ps.pdf specs for grade 5 mult by single digit 10 multiples Sample test - problems seem to be 1-step straightforward application of grade-level skills. Much easier than Washington tests. 5: perimeter 5: differnce in clock time with hands 5: missing information for multiplication problem 38. You are helping to prepare and serve beverages at a neighborhood picnic. a. A coffeepot holds 12 cups of coffee. If you want to serve 50 cups of coffee, how many pots of coffee will you need to make? Explain your answer and show your work. b. A pitcher holds 10 cups of lemonade. The glasses you are using only hold 1/2 of a cup. If you make 12 pitchers of lemonade, how many glasses will you be able to fill? Show or explain all of your work. See the item specific scoring rubric for this question. Each area of learning contains high standards that define expectations for teachers and students. "Performance Packages" High Standards: Benchmarks K-G3 No math?? 3.solving problems and justifying thinking by selecting appropriate numbers and representations; using operations, patterns, and estimation; generating multiple solutions; organizing data using pictures and charts; and using concrete objects, diagrams, or maps to solve simple problems involving counting, arrangements, or routes. G4-5 1.demonstrate understanding of concepts of place value, variables, and equations; when and how to use number operations; when and how to use a variety of estimation strategies; addition, subtraction, and multiplication of single-digit multiples of powers of ten; and the reasonableness of calculator results; MICH STATE EXAM FLUNKS HONOR STUDENT WHO ACED ACT In Michigan, suburban parents started a boycott of the state proficiency test when an honor student -- a boy who graduated first in a class of 286 students -- flunked the exam. "We were flabbergasted," said Luanne Salz, the mother of Jonathan Salz, who enrolled at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology after getting a perfect score on his ACT test. "We never could find out why he did poorly [on the state test]. . . . We questioned the validity of the test." "In fact, if Minneapolis second-graders stay on their current academic track, less than half of them ultimately will pass the eighth-grade tests, according to a district analysis." source: \clip\98\02\gettuff.txt Minneapolis Star Tribune January 18, 1998 Morris Park overhaul a sign of get-tough movement Rob Hotakainen / Star Tribune 1-19-98 Minneapolis Star Tribune "Kentucky's Accountability Plan Turns Heads" [what will Minnesota learn from how Kentucky's approach affects Brown Middle School in Louisville?] school \clip\98\02\adtest.txt 1-18-98 Minneapolis Star Tribune "Adults Take Crack at Basic-Skills Test" [most adults can pass the test, most material is elementary school] " On the math test, 14 of 17 passed, which meant getting more than 75 percent right. Nine of the 17 got 90 to 100 percent right. On reading, 15 of the 17 passed. Twelve got 90 to 100. " @@Minority Impact The promise of Performance Based tests is that they will be more fair to minorities because they are multicultural and not based on a curve. Yet actual scores are just as disparate as SAT and IQ tests, far worse than other basic skills tests. Where the penalty for not getting a high SAT score is settling for State U instead University of State, the penalty for not getting a high "competency" test score is being held back a year or not getting a diploma when they used to be promoted and get diplomas at the same rate as whites It is not a coincidence that states are _NOT_ reporting performance by race, only WA/WASL'97 and CA/CLAS appear to have published these numbers, which indicate a difference in minority scores on the order of a standard deviation, the same gap observed on IQ and SAT tests. This ommision appears to be deliberate to keep support of the minority community. Grading schools by absolute performance also penalizes students and teachers who happen to come from disadvantaged or work in such communities. This table shows how the pass ratio grows in size with the level of difficulty for the college level SAT. White / Black Pass Ratios for College SAT 1995 % Scoring in ran% Passing cut Score White Black White Black Ratio 750-800 1.41% 0.11% 1.4% 0.1% 13.22 700 -740 4.42% 0.51% 5.8% 0.6% 9.48 650 -690 7.61% 1.43% 13.4% 2.0% 6.56 600 -640 10.34% 2.70% 23.8% 4.7% 5.01 550 -590 11.50% 3.97% 35.3% 8.7% 4.04 500 -540 14.30% 7.10% 49.6% 15.8% 3.13 450-490 14.30% 10.54% 63.9% 26.4% 2.42 400-440 14.15% 15.65% 78.0% 42.0% 1.86 350 -390 11.13% 19.65% 89.2% 61.7% 1.45 300 -340 7.80% 24.77% 97.0% 86.4% 1.12 250 - 29 2.57% 13.57% 99.5% 100.0% 1.00 200-240 0.47% 0.00% 100.0% 100.0% 1.00 Differential Pass Rates for State Assessments - Despite the promise that new tests will erase the race gap, every state test shows just as large a race gap at every level as the "racist" SAT If the white pass rate is 14%, then the black pass (SAT equiv) rate is 2% on the SAT, it is only 3% on the Arizona AIMS test, so the race differential is the same size. BLACK WHITE TEST PASS RATIO SPECTRUM - TEST GAPS AS A RATIO TEND TO BE CONSTANT FOR ANY TEST ------------------------------------ Percent Pass SAT SD Black White Equiv State 3 14 2= 0.79 1999 Arizona AIMS math 3 15 2= 0.79 1994 California CLAS G8 5 20 5= 0.90 1997 Washington WASL math G4 2 29 9- 1.50 1998 Boston Stanford 9 G11 "Proficient" 10 30 9= 0.76 1998 Washington WASL math G4 11 40 12= 0.97 1995 1st TAAS Algebra 1994 16 44 16= 0.83 1998 Maryland MSAP Baltimore 21 49 16= 0.78 1998 Nevada 11th Grade 12 54 16+ 1998 Boston Stanford 9 G7 "Proficient" 12 54 2002 Seattle 4th Grade WASL Pass 23 56 20= 0.88 1999 Colorado G7 Math 21 57 2002 Michigan MEAP Science 5th 35 64 26+ 0.74 1998 Florida FCAT expected 35 75 42+ 0.69 1998 Mass MCAS sci technology 48 81 45= 0.93 1997 Texas TAAS G10 89 98 90= 0.81 1998 Florida HSCT G12 = equal to SAT gap - less than SAT gap + greater than SAT gap In California, only 3% of blacks passed vs. 15% of whites. On the SAT, where 15% of whites pass, it is about 2%. In Washington, only 5% of blacks passed vs 20% of whites. On the SAT it works out to an identical 5 percent. In Nevada, for white 49% , only 21% of blacks passed, vs about 16% on the SAT See “Standardized Tests: The Interpretation of Racial and Ethnic Gaps” at: This shows how to measure the "true" difference between races measured in standard deviation, not just the arithmetic difference between scores. On low-g tests such as TAAS, minorities can narrow the difference slightly, but on very difficult tests they may be limited by IQ. Does the state list scores for minorities? CA CLAS - YES, no publicity NV Yes WA'97 - YES KY KIRIS - NO MA MCAS - NO CO - NO FL - NO WA'98 - NO MD - NO OR - NO VT - NO ------ %%California EVALUATION OF CA HS TEST SAYS WATCH FOR MINORITIES z44\clipim\2000\07\17\HumRRO_YR1_Report.PDF In the late 1970s, for example, when minimum competency tests gained popularity, 20% of African American students, compared with 2% of White students, failed Florida's graduation tests and were denied high school diplomas (Debra P. v. Turlington, 1979). Similarly, 1998 data from the Texas graduation tests show cumulative failure rates of 17.6% for African American students and 17.4% for Hispanic students, compared with 6.7% for White students (Natriello & Pallas, 1999). For students with disabilities, most of whom now participate in large-scale state assessments, recent data from 14 states consistently show failure rates that are 35–40 percentage points higher than those for nondisabled students (Ysseldyke et al., 1998). Moreover, states increasingly are raising the standards on their graduation tests to “world-class” levels, such as those embodied in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Based on 1996 NAEP data, 40% of all students would fail tests that reflect world-class" standards, at least initially, and failure rates for minority students would be about 80%. These predictions are consistent with recent data from Massachusetts and New York, where students have begun taking state tests that reflect world-class standards. %%Colorado TEACHERS FLEE LOW SCORING SCHOOLS - STATE GRADES \clip\2000\05\gradfail.txt diane carman Grades also fail teachers By Diane Carman Denver Post Columnist No matter how hard the teachers work, how well they teach, Manual will be an "F" school next year under the state's program to grade schools based on student performance on standardized tests. %%Discrimination z45\doc\web\2000\09\pureocr.txt Press Advisory: October 3, 2000 Contact: Julie Woestehoff 312/461-1994 (day) 773/973-5548 (eve) Parents United for Responsible Education (PURE) will announce the success of its October, 1999, discrimination complaint in forcing major changes to the Chicago Public Schools’ student promotion policy. The drop out rate of twice-retained eighth graders is 29%. African-American and Latino students in Chicago have suffered the most under this terrible policy. By working with the Office for Civil Rights, PURE has brought about the beginning of the end of this illegal and educationally-unsound assessment policy. %%General NO EVIDENCE HIGH STAKES TESTING IMPROVES LEARNING, JUST SCORES HIGH STAKES KEEPING THE LOWLY LOWER, JUST LIKE FIRST TESTS DID web: z55\clip\2002\04\highstak.txt z55\clipim\2002\04\23\highstak\highstak.htm Education Policy Analysis Archives Volume 10 Number 18 March 28, 2002 ISSN 1068-2341 * The authors wish to thank the Rockefeller Foundation for support of the research reported here. * Analyses of these data reveal that if the intended goal of high-stakes testing policy is to increase student learning, then that policy is not working. While a state's high-stakes test may show increased scores, there is little support in these data that such increases are anything but the result of test preparation and/or the exclusion of students from the testing process. * If student learning is not affected, the validity of a state's test is in question. * High school graduation exams affect students from racial minority backgrounds in greater proportions than they do white students. * High stakes are not new. Standardized test scores were used to confirm the superiority or inferiority of various races, ethnic groups, and social classes. Used in this way, the consequences of standardized tests insured maintenance of the status quo along those racial, ethnic and class lines. So, for about a century, significant consequences have been attached to scores on standardized tests. * [beliefs of testocrats] that these statements are true only some of the time, or for only a modest percent of the individuals who were studied. The research suggests, therefore, that all of these statements are likely to be false a good deal of the time. And in fact, some research studies show exactly the opposite of the effects anticipated by supporters of high-stakes testing * too often the testing programs become thinly disquised methods to maintain the status quo and insure that funds stay in the hands of those who need them least. * Ninety-seven percent of African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans failed the math section of the AIMS. Due to the high failure rates for different groups of students, as well as various psychometric problems, this test had to be postponed. * a major cause of these gaps is that high-stakes standardized tests may be testing poor students on material they have not had a sufficient opportunity to learn. * after TAAS practice materials, the middle school teachers in more than one district reported students were unable to read a novel even two years below grade level. * A second report in this series inquires if there have been negative side-effects of high-stakes testing for economically disadvantaged and ethnic minority students * journalist Peter Schrag noted that "...the unimpressive scores on other tests raise unavoidable questions about what the numbers really mean [on the high-stakes tests] and about the cost of their achievement." (Note 86) * On the ACT Six states displayed overall positive effects, while twelve states displayed overall negative effects. %%Illinois In October, 1999, PURE filed a complaint with the U. S. Department of Education's Office of Civil Rights. We charged that the CPS testing policy has had a discriminatory impact on African-American students, who are nearly five times as likely to be held back as white students, and on Latino students, who are more than twice as likely to be retained. The Office of Civil Rights is currently investigating the Chicago Public Schools testing and retention policies. PURE's original OCR complaint is on our web site and can be used as a model- %%Massachusetts z55\CLIP\2002\04\mcasmin.txt [Half of] Blacks, Hispanics failing MCAS by Ed Hayward Friday, April 26, 2002 ``I think they would be irresponsible if they don't insist that MCAS exams be discontinued,'' said Leonard Alkins, president of the Boston branch of the NAACP. In Boston, half of the students who failed both the spring and December MCAS exams had 15 or more unexcused absences. MCAS FLUNKS INNER CITY KIDS ADMITTED TO COLLEGE z49\clip\2001\05\bostest.txt - Critics fear state test taking will take its toll - May 25, 2001 Despite the high rate of college admissions, a large number of Fenway seniors failed the Massachusetts state proficiency exam, known as the MCAS, when they took it in the 10th grade. BLACKS 2X, ASIANS 1.5X HIGHER FAIL RATE ON MCAS z46\clip\2000\11\mcasrace.txt Racial gap remains wide on MCAS scores By Sandy Coleman and Anand Vaishnav, Globe Staff, 11/14/2000 According to the 2000 MCAS results, 60 percent of African-American 10th-graders failed the English portion of the exam, along with 66 percent of Hispanics, and 65 percent of Native Americans - compared with 27 percent of white students and 34 percent of Asian-Pacific Islanders. [Note Asians have 50% higher fail rate in math than whites] in Grade 4 In math, 43 percent of African-Americans, 47 percent of Hispanics, and 34 percent of Native Americans failed. That's compared with 15 percent of Asian-Pacific Islanders and 11 percent of whites. %%NAACP These NAACP chapters have made statments against high stakes testing: * Arizona (AIMS) gave president's award * Boston, Mass (MCAS) * Cleveland, Ohio (OPT) * Seattle (WASL) No official statment, but lots of complaints z70\clip\2003\08\naacp.txt 8/28/2003 NAACP files against Florida education department Associated Press TALLAHASSEE, Fla. - The NAACP filed a federal complaint against Florida's education department Thursday, seeking to stop use of statewide assessment tests until the achievement gap between minority and white students is eliminated. z55\CLIP\2002\04\mcasmin.txt [Half of] Blacks, Hispanics failing MCAS by Ed Hayward Friday, April 26, 2002 ``I think they would be irresponsible if they don't insist that MCAS exams be discontinued,'' said Leonard Alkins, president of the Boston branch of the NAACP. NAACP GIVES PRESIDENT'S AWARD TO ARIZONA TEST RESISTERS \doc\web\2001\06\naacpi.txt Substance (Chicago) June 2001 p. 45 NAACP presents AZ Standards with President's Award On April 28, the East Valley NAACP recognized AZ Standards with an award for leadership and dedication in the fight against high stakes testing. The President's Award was presented to AZ Standards at the Western Regional NAACP conference held in Mesa, Arizona. z41\clip\2000\05\testcraz.txt Oakland Tribune Sunday, April 16, 2000 2:10 PM MST Value of school testing open to question THIS is the year U.S. schools went test-crazy. In Cleveland, the NAACP charged the Ohio test with racial bias after not one student in five poor schools passed all sections. %%Washington RIMMER IN SEATTLE VOWS TO END WASL SCORE GAP IN 3 YEARS z50\priv\06\0607\racegp.txt SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER Schools set sights on ending race gap in testing scores Thursday, June 7, 2001 By REBEKAH DENN SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER REPORTER DAWN MASON, GENEVA GAY QUESTION WASL FOR BLACKS Z40\clip\2000\04\testgap.txt The Seattle Times Company October 26, 1997 Conference targets blacks' 'academic gap' by Jolayne Houtz Seattle Times staff reporter A new set of test scores released last month gives new urgency to the struggle: About 5 percent of Washington's African-American and Latino fourth-graders met the standard on the state's tough new performance-based test given for the first time last spring. Rep. Dawn Mason, D-Seattle, questioned the value of a test that penalizes students for their creativity and has asked Bergeson's office to do a deeper analysis of what the test scores show. Another test isn't the answer, and in fact this test should be thrown out completely, said Geneva Gay, a University of Washington education professor. z40\clip\2000\03\cotest.txt Rocky Mountain News Timing hurt math scores? Experts indicate skills erode over summer By Brian Weber Denver Rocky Mountain News Education Writer Advanced or proficient pass rate 56 white 53 asian 23 black hispanic difference = 0.88 SD zip39\clip\2000\01\taasback.txt Newspaper feedback - most feel it's ok to flunk minorities with a tough or even "easy" graduation test. %%Texas JUDGE UPHOLDS ATTACHING TAAS TEST TO HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION \clip\2000\01\nixtest.txt 7 Jan 2000 Judge Nixes Minority Claim on Tests By KELLEY SHANNON Associated Press Writer SAN ANTONIO (AP) -- A federal judge upheld Texas' high school graduation test Friday, rejecting a claim by minority plaintiffs that the exam discriminates against blacks and Hispanics. \clip\99\21\taasb.txt Student testing is unfair to minorities, study says Texas education officials defend TAAS, say primary authors of report are biased 01/07/2000 By Terrence Stutz / The Dallas Morning News AUSTIN - Texas' student testing program is hurting the education of minority children and has deepened inequities between whites and minorities, a new study concludes. The study, commissioned by the Civil Rights Project at Harvard University, criticized the high-stakes Texas Assessment of Academic Skills as a "ticket to nowhere" for many minority students. TAAS RACE GAP SUBJECT OF LAWSUIT \clip\99\21\taasc.txt Jan. 6, 2000 at 23:06 CST Judge plans to announce TAAS suit decision today By Michelle Melendez Star-Telegram Staff Writer "The state pointed to a jump in the passing rate of minorities taking the graduation test in the 10th grade in recent years -- from 30 percent in 1994 to 65 percent in 1999. Gaps remain between minority and Anglo students, but they have narrowed. Anglos had passing rates of 67 percent in 1994 and 89 percent in 1999. Note - Even if TAAS is simpler than WASL, races are still off by bell-curve 1 standard deviation according to worksheet by La Griffe du Lion. When 1999 pass rate for minorities is the same as white pass rate in 1994, this is, like WASL also either a 5 year closing of the race gap, or a total scam. 1994: SD diff = 0.97 SD 1999: SD diff = 0.84 SD Send comments to %%Massachusetts FEWER BLACKS, HISPANICS TAKE POST ALGEBRA TRIG ON MCAS TEST \clip\99\21\mcasmath.txt A closer look at MCAS math-test problem By Cindy Rodriguez, Globe Staff, 12/12/99 [Tough tests are great for sorting out the top, but murder for the kids on the bottom which is why diplomas should have NO performance floor for those who try and learn whatever they learn] ''Education reform never took into consideration the dual educational systems that existed as it relates to children of color,'' said Leonard C. Alkins, president of the Boston branch of the NAACP. ''It's not good testing policy, not good school policy,'' said Mike Cohen, assistant secretary of elementary and secondary education at the US Department of Education, which is analyzing MCAS data to see if there is potential discrimination. mentions NAACP %%Washington LATINOS COMPLAIN WASL IS UNFAIR TO LATINO MIGRANT CHILDREN z43\clip\2000\07\latwasl.txt Seattle Times Company June 18, 2000 Test aid sought for Latino students by Ray Rivera The point isn't subtle, and neither is the message from Latino leaders who say the craze of high-stakes testing sweeping the country is setting their children up for failure. %%Arizona Arizona Education ---------- 11/17/99 "Non-Asian minorities fared worst on exam." "Students' AIMS test scores were generally dismal across the state, but minority families have the most to worry about, new state data show." "Only 3 percent of blacks, Hispanics and American Indians did well enough to pass the mathematics portion of the new state test, compared with 14 percent of Anglos and 18 per- cent of Asians, according to results released this week.".... ....But Raul Gonzalez, an education policy analyst with the National Council of La Raza, said yesterday that minority students are ``being set up to fail'' in high-stakes tests in Arizona and across the country.". z38\clip\99\20\aims3.txt Marks fuel concern about minorities, bias By Kelly Pearce and Jennifer Barrett The Arizona Republic Nov. 17, 1999 A breakdown of AIMS scores by race or ethnic group released Tuesday is likely to fuel criticism that the state's graduation test is biased against some minority students. "According to the ethnic breakdown, 97 percent of Blacks, Hispanics and Native Americans approached or fell far below the math standards. For Anglos, it was 86 percent. " New Bedford Standard Times zip38\clip\99\20\mcasmin.txt Racial divide Failure rates high for blacks, Hispanics on 1998 MCAS By Monica Allen, Standard-Times staff writer NEW BEDFORD -- Hispanic and black students in Massachusetts flunked the 1998 MCAS test in startling numbers -- and at rates nearly double their white counterparts, according to state Department of Education figures. Deputy Education Commissioner Alan Safran said the minority scores are alarming, but ... "It's not meaningful to draw conclusions [from first year results]," he said. The state is well aware of the gaps in performance.. The education system was overhauled in 1993 in large part to address the overwhelming gulfs between the wealthy suburban districts and their poorer urban counterparts. [yet the test exacerbates, not fixes the differences!] [includes tables showing high failure rates in various towns] \clip\99\20\mcasmin.txt metro/MCAS_stirs_ears_that_minorities_will_drop_out-.shtml MCAS stirs fears that minorities will drop out Failure rate high for blacks, Latinos By Cindy Rodriguez, Globe Staff, 11/12/99 An analysis of MCAS test results released yesterday showed 83 percent of Latinos and 80 percent of blacks failed the 10th-grade math exam last year, providing the first glimpse of the huge disparity dividing students among racial and ethnic lines. On all three test grade levels, Latinos and blacks failed at a rate twice that of whites, sparking fears that students who do not pass the exam - required in 2003 to graduate - will become frustrated and drop out. study by Gaston Institute for Latino Community Development and Public Policy at UMass/Boston Math exam failure rates MCAS 97% 10th grade Chicopee Latino 94% 10th grade Springfield Latino 91% 10th grade Springfield Black 88% 10th grade Boston Black 86% 10th grade Boston Latino 82% 10th grade Boston Black 83% 10th grade Latino 80% 10th grade Black Statewide science technology 10th grade failure 70% Latino 65% Black 33% Asian 25% Whites Poverty Rates 47% Latino 26% Black 19% Asian 6% White Predicted drop out rates 29% Latino 22% Black 13% Asian 10% White Date sent: Sat, 13 Nov 1999 14:33:16 -0800 (PST) From: La Griffe du Lion Subject: Re: [Upstream] MCAS minority scores draw outrage, but not at clueless officials who gave it! To: arthurhu @ (no space) Arthur, There is not much new here for blacks, the most predictable of groups. I excerpted three quotes from the Globe article and analyzed that data using the algorithms I developed in "Women and Minorities in Science." Below the data for each case you will find the mean differences (in SD units) between whites and the other ethnic/racial groups . --------------------- "Statewide, 83 percent of Hispanic students and 80 percent of black students flunked the math test in 1998. That's nearly double the percentage of white students -- 43 percent -- who failed." Blacks = 1.02, Latinos = 1.13 ------------------------------ "Statewide science technology 10th grade failure 70% Latino 65% Black 33% Asian 25% Whites" Blacks = 1.06, Latinos = 1.20, Asians = 0.23 ------------------------------------------------ "The eighth-grade scores were the worst for Latinos and blacks. In math, failures were: 79 percent for Latinos; 75 percent for blacks; and 34 percent for whites." Blacks = 1.09, Latinos = 1.22 -------------------------------- La Griffe du Lion TOUGH WISCONSIN TESTS ABOUT BARREL MAKING LEAVE MINORITIES COLD Tests [reform] gauge mastery of long passages Third-graders' exams are becoming more difficult, experts say By Alan J. Borsuk From the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel December 29, 1997 Which job were people more likely to have in the past? A. barrel maker B. computer expert C. astronaut RAISING THE BAR MEANS MORE MINORITIES MUST FAIL "The statement or reform initiative that we must raise the academic standard or raise the academic bar because too many students are passing the exams is a racist statement and leads to institutional racist practices of denying poverty class children of color a diploma. The statemaent that too many students are passing the graduation standards is the same as saying that more students, read more black students, must fail these standardized test year after year or the test is no good. " Leon Todd 75% OF BLACKS VS 33% ASIANS FLUNK SOL ALGEBRA TEST \CLIP\99\10\sol.txt The Washington Post 5/13/99 About 75 percent of black high school students failed in at least one subject on last spring's Standards of Learning (SOL) about 41 percent for whites, 33 percent for Asian Americans and 53 percent for Hispanics. Last year, 25 percent of black students passed the geometry test, compared with 59 percent of whites, 67 percent of Asian Americans and 47 percent of Hispanics. The passing rates in algebra were lower for all groups. There were similar gaps in scores within each Northern Virginia school system. On the high school Algebra II exam, for example, 41 percent of whites and 14 percent of blacks passed in Alexandria, and 52 percent of whites and 26 percent of blacks passed in Fairfax County. Subject White Black Asian Hispanic Algebra I 46% 20% 61% 33% Algebra II 34% 13% 50% 26% Biology 81% 50% 79% 61% Chemistry 60% 31% 62% 41% Earth Science 69% 31% 68% 51% English* 77% 55% 78% 64% Geometry 59% 25% 67% 47% U.S. History 36% 12% 39% 19% World History from 1000 A.D. 49% 17% 62% 33% World History to 1000 A.D. 68% 38% 77% 52% *Reading/literature and research SOURCE: Virginia Department of Education IF NOT RACIST, PERFORMANCE BASED TESTS ARE CERTAINLY MORE HARMFUL TO MINORITIES High School Exit Exams Are Racist By GARY DELGADO OPINION "We have entered an era in which catchy punitive sound bites have replaced thoughtful public policy efforts to solve social problems. Gov. Gray Davis' proposal to subject high school students to an exit exam before they can claim their diplomas is a prime example of this trend. The proposal sends a clear message to students: We haven't fixed the schools, but we are going to make that your failure, not ours." KIRIS DOES NOT PLUG RACE GAP \clip\99\03\kirrace.txt Lexington Kentucky Published Friday, January 22, 1999, in the Herald-Leader Race gap lingers on statewide test scores But grades up overall in 6-year KIRIS span By Linda B. Blackford HERALD-LEADER STAFF WRITER Winburn teachers think these are reasons their school -- which is 40 percent black -- bucks a national and statewide trend: At Winburn, black and white students achieve at the same levels, gap between Kentucky's black and white students on the statewide test in 1992 has not significantly narrowed in 1998. gap between the races scoring in the highest category of the KIRIS test is 16 percentage points in math and 12 percentage points in reading. \clip\98\19\edclip03.txt December 12, 1998 Difficult exam, higher standards too tough for juniors LAS VEGAS SUN Fewer than half of the 18,752 students tested - or 49.1 percent - were able to earn passing scores on the math test, which they took for the first time in October. Students will have four more opportunities to pass the test, which is required to earn a full diploma in Nevada. Black and Hispanic students performed dismally on the math test, with only 21.4 percent of blacks and 26.5 percent of Hispanics making the grade. Rabinowitz said the next step is to do an impact study addressing many of the concerns raised - problem areas for minority groups... MSAP PRINCE GEORGE AND BALTIMORE SCORE AT BOTTOM ONLY 44% PASS \clip\98\18\msap.txt Maryland Students Boost Test Scores But Less Than Half Rated 'Satisfactory' On Spring Exams By Amy Argetsinger Washington Post Staff Writer Wednesday, December 9, 1998; Page B01 Maryland Students Boost Test Scores "Many parents and some local school officials continue to criticize the exam as too difficult. School board members in Prince George's have questioned whether the exam is "culturally biased" in a way that puts African American students at a disadvantage. " BLACKS FAIL AT 6X RATE OF WHITES ON FLORIDA EXAM HIGHER DROPOUT RATE DUE TO TOUGHER EXIT EXAM newscl04.txt 2/19/98 Miami Herald The High School Competency Test ensures graduates have at least ninth-grade skills. Fail rate on Florida HSCT is 6 times higher for blacks white 2.0 hisp 7.3 black 11.4 65% OF FLORIDA MINORITY VS 36% OVEALL EXPECTED TO FAIL MATH TEST \clip\98\17\highmin.txt Florida raises passing grade on state tests The tougher standards approved by the governor and Cabinet could hit minority students the hardest. By STEPHEN HEGARTY © St. Petersburg Times, published November 25, 1998 As many as 36 percent of the state's fifth-graders could fail the math portion of the new Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test administered in January and February. Minority students could be the hardest hit. As many as 65 percent of Florida's African-American fifth-graders are expected to fail the math test. \clip\98\17\edclip03.txt New standards may give schools a jolt Catherine Hinman of The Sentinel Staff Published in The Orlando Sentinel, Nov 23 1998. Under a tough grading scale proposed for a new high-stakes state test, Florida's schools and its students are in for a cold bath. Minorities fared far worse as a group. Saxon: Proposed Math -Testing Standards Damaging to Minorities "Too often, tests designed for other purposes have been used unintentionally as filters that deny underrepresented groups access to the further study of mathematics. Today the mathematical development of each child in a diverse multicultural society must be valued. Assessment procedures must no longer be used to deny students the opportunities to learn important mathematics. " [tests motivated by minority impact, yet impact is even greater on actual scores] PERFORMANCE BASED TESTS SLAMMED, BAD FOR MINORITIES \clip\98\03\testback.txt 1/24/98 Antelope Valley Press National testing fails pop quiz By FRAN PAOLINELLI Valley Press Staff Writer "Petteway, citing historical data, claimed that minorities would be at a disadvantage when taking performance-based tests." [Thank god, I'm not the only one who noticed how badly minorities fare at these tests!] GRANADA HILLS - Question: How will one more test improve education and help children who have already been told a thousand times they are not doing well in school? MICH STATE EXAM FLUNKS HONOR STUDENT WHO ACED ACT In Michigan, suburban parents started a boycott of the state proficiency test when an honor student -- a boy who graduated first in a class of 286 students -- flunked the exam. "We were flabbergasted," said Luanne Salz, the mother of Jonathan Salz, who enrolled at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology after getting a perfect score on his ACT test. "We never could find out why he did poorly [on the state test]. . . . We questioned the validity of the test." source: \clip\98\02\gettuff.txt Minneapolis Star Tribune January 18, 1998 Morris Park overhaul a sign of get-tough movement Rob Hotakainen / Star Tribune @@Missouri Missouri Mastery and Achievement Tests, or MMAT Spring 1998 Missouri will begin requiring all public school students in selected grades to take a new test, the Missouri Assessment Program, or MAP. \clip\99\02\motest.txt 1999 Post-Dispatch Archives -- St. Louis, Missouri Monday, January 4, 1999 EDITORIAL FORGET SELF-ESTEEM; SET HIGH EDUCATIONAL STANDARDS By J. Martin Rochester And David Rose ...the unlimited amount of time students are now being given to complete the new statewide Missouri Assessment Project tests PERFORMANCE BASED TEST QUESTIONS HARD TO GET RIGHT \clip\98\03\edclip2.txt 1/28/98 St. Louis Post Dispatch Teachers look for new ways to measure learning By Dale Singer Of The Post-Dispatch " Even though they knew elementary division, few students used precision to give each child 3 3/4 cookies. Most used more creative solutions, like giving Joe extra cookies because he was the guest of honor; or letting Joe's mother share the feast, giving each person three cookies; or baking more cookies so that the bigger batch would let everyone share equally. Such answers may be resourceful, but the teachers had to determine whether they really responded to the question. They also had to determine what grade to give each response, based on a four-point scale, with each level responding to certain criteria. " \clip\97\30\stlo2.txt 12-15-97 St. Louis Post-Dispatch *Report Cards on Area Schools are In; In City, Test Scores Reveal Bright Spot, Many Failures** [7th graders at one school perform lowest in the state] Missouri Mastery and Achievement Tests, or MMAT, for 1996 and 1997. @@Motivation Standards based testing: if you motivate them, then you can get all students to meet any arbitrary goal. HIGH STAKES MOTIVATES SOME, BUT NOT ALL UNDERACHIEVERS TO PASS TESTS z74\clip\2003\09\motivate.txt ASCD September 16, 2003 | Volume 1 Number 19 High-stakes Testing and the Motivation of Low-achieving Students "The Bottom Line Low–performing students may be motivated by external high–stakes tests; however, there appears to be a core group of low-achieving students that are not supported by such policies. Students performed better when they received support from teachers and felt a sense of collective responsibility for learning. " @@NAACP Massachusetts and Texas NAACP have attacked state testing attached to high school graduation A CLOSER LOOK AT MCAS MATH-TEST PROBLEM Published on 12/12/1999. Boston SOURCE: By Cindy Rodriguez, GLOBE STAFF As state educators pore over the most recent MCAS test results, they are under increasing pressure to pinpoint why Latino and black 10th-graders have failed math at twice the rate of whites. @@Nader, Ralph 2000 candidate for president has made statements against standardized and high stakes testing. 2000 campaign website statement @@National Coverage TESTING FROM DIAGNOSIS TO TREATMENT TO DISEASE? \clip\99\08\edclip03.txt From diagnosis then to treatment now / Standardized tests alter, act as catalyst Sunday, March 7, 1999 BY RHEA BORJA Richmond Times-Dispatch Staff Writer Standardized testing has become the 800-pound gorilla of the education world. "Content should guide testing, not the other way around, said Gerald W. Bracey, a nationally recognized education consultant and the director of research, evaluation and testing for the Virginia Department of Education from 1977 to 1986. Also, teaching should match the content that students should learn. " \clipim\99\05\test\p01.tif, p02.tif The Test of Their Lives Time Feb 15, 1999 p. 56 As state grade school exams spread, some ask: Are the stakes too high? North Carolina teachers spend up to 80% of year on teaching to tests. Harvard lecturer s. Paul reville. We were having difficulty reaching lower standards. and now we've raised the bar by a factor of 25% to 30%. Massachusetts tests took 16 hours over several weeks. Bush "when you raise the bar, people rise to the challenge" Standards of Learning test was not geared to school curriculums. In the past two years, 20 states have unveiled custom-made exams intended to hold students to higher educational standards, more include subjective "performance questions" to craft essays and explain math problems. Teacher bonus, diploma, grade promotion, school accreditation hinges on tests. Virginia test: Trivial pursuit. 98% of schools fell short. Achieve to unify tests. @@NAEP National Assessment of Educational Progress See test.htm NAEP achievement levels are useless Sample problems are grade-inappropriate, appear to correspond to innappropriate WA state proficiency levels 20% pass rate at 4th grade. Sample in KIRIS review - write everything different about these 2 figures - write how to create 4 equal lengths out one string - what is probability of red ball in machine with x red y green z blue balls Mathematical Content Areas and Assessment Strands Tells what should and should not be assessed \clip\97\28\assess.txt Education Week October 23, 1991 National Standards/Assessments: Students [Comprehensive listing of major high school to work assesmment efforts in 1991, including Bush tests, NAEP, Tucker, ACT Work Keys, SCANS] @@National Education Goals Panel 10/25/98 Forwarded from KidsCampaign: The National Education Goals Panel has released its state by state findings on student achievement in math and science. Go online to find your own state at Students in 14 states achieved "world class" levels in science, and math scores improved in 28 states. COLORADO, CONNECTICUT, INDIANA, NORTH CAROLINA, TEXAS, and WEST VIRGINIA earned the most gold stars for student improvement in math and science. @@National VoluntarY Tests Lots of 1997 controversy over national tests. They would have cost $27 million each year. Official web page CLINTON'S NATIONAL TEST SUNK IN 1997 z45\clip\2000\10\natlfite.txt A Tempest Over National Testing The public likes a White House plan to test grade-schoolers, but it's taking fire. Here's why By Romesh Ratnesar ...a higher price tag. The department estimates the tests will cost $12 per child--the Iowa exam costs less than half that--and $27 million overall. \clip\98\14\natl.htm Description of basic-advanced criterion for national test by National Academy of Sciences Letter Report on Voluntary National Tests NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL COMMISSION ON BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES AND EDUCATION z43\clipim\2000\07\06\natvoltest\natvoltest.htm NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL + + + + + BOARD ON TESTING AND ASSESSMENT + + + + + VOLUNTARY NATIONAL TESTS OF READING AND MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENT REGULATORY AND LICENSING ISSUES + + + + + THURSDAY, JUNE 12, 1997 WASHINGTON, D.C. June 13, 1997 Proceedings \clip\98\14\natltest.txt November 19, 1997 Education Week on the Web Test Proposal To Be Tested by Experts By Millicent Lawton [Image] Washington [Image] Ashcroft opposes tests, says they will force a defective politically motivated national curriculum. Mandatory testing takes a toll on school time and resources, consuming about 20 million school days and somewhere between $700 million and $900 million in expenditures each year. According to Boston College's Center for the Study of Testing, children are already overtested, taking between three and nine standardized tests a year. Public Schools As Nurse And Nanny Speech by Pennsylvania Rep. Sam Rohrer, Eagle Forum Leadership Conference, Sept. 27, 1997. Clinton test official says unfair to ask kids to multiply 2 times 24. Senator John Ashcroft (R-MO) says "There is no way, academically, ethically or legally, that children can be given a valid test without first teaching them the subject matter to be tested. " @@NEA neatest.txt B-57 (2003) on testing of students "The Association opposes the use of standardized tests and/or assessments when--" The new lines are: ... m. Test preparation impedes or discourages learning, constrains the curriculum in ways that threaten the quality of teaching and learning for students, or limits and/or curtails future educational opportunities of learners n. Scores are used to track students. @@Nebraska for article links Education Week April 18, 2000 Nebraska OKs Its First Statewide Test, While Making Standards Mandatory Nebraska's enactment last week of a new plan of statewide academic standards and assessments leaves Iowa as the nation's lone holdout in the movement to embrace at least some variety of uniform state testing. @@Nevada NEVADA LEGS LOWER THE MATH BAR, VOWS TO RAISE THEM BY 2007 z68\clip\2003\06\nvscore.txt June 27, 2003 State sets new scores for math exam "Harcourt was fined $475,000 by the state for mistakes made with the spring 2002 version of the test.... The board was required to set the new passing grades after the state Legislature lowered the passing score to 290 for 2003 graduates because thousands of students scored below 304, which was the minimum to pass." Minimum to pass to be raised over next four years By Dan Kulin LAS VEGAS SUN 23% OF BLACK HIGH SCHOOL SENIORS DON'T PASS PROF EXAM z48\clip\2001\02\nevtest2.txt Sunday, February 18, 2001 Copyright © Las Vegas Review-Journal Poor minority scores on test raise questions "It's really highlighting an achievement gap that already exists. Would we rather not know that?" " Various reasons cited for disproportionate failure rate By LISA KIM BACH REVIEW-JOURNAL Last year, 23 percent of Clark County's black high school seniors failed to earn a diploma because they couldn't pass the state's proficiency exam. z45\clip\2000\10\vegchea.txt Oct 25, 2000 Number of high school graduates in Clark County drops Associated Press LAS VEGAS - Only three of every four seniors in the Clark County School District's Class of 2000 earned the right to graduate. ...Pat finally went to the Clark County School District and asked for a formal investigation into allegations of widespread cheating on the Nevada High School Proficiency Examination (HSPE). Murphy on problems with Nevada test Murphy posts pass rates In math: 67.3% of Limited English Proficiency students failed (these are word problems, mostly!) 71.6% of IEP/504 students failed. 42.1% of "regular student" failed. Sunday, March 19, 2000 Copyright © Las Vegas Review-Journal Nevada scores don't add up As many as 4,376 seniors may not graduate because they have not yet passed a state math test. By Ed Vogel Donrey Capital Bureau RENO -- One of every four Nevada high school seniors is in danger of not receiving a diploma in June because of failure to pass a required math test. [Actually, that's one of the most generous pass rates on any state proficiency test, but it's still going to have huge effects on blacks who otherwise graduate a rates comparable to whites in most states] Standards in Nevada. The State Board of Education might need some help defining the term "standards." It seems that calculators may soon be permitted on the state's 11th grade proficiency test, which is actually pegged to 8th grade skills. Even the standards for passing are low, requiring only 64 percent. Employers think it should be at least 80 percent for non-skilled workers. \clip\98\19\edclip03.txt December 12, 1998 Difficult exam, higher standards too tough for juniors LAS VEGAS SUN Fewer than half of the 18,752 students tested - or 49.1 percent - were able to earn passing scores on the math test, which they took for the first time in October. Students will have four more opportunities to pass the test, which is required to earn a full diploma in Nevada. Black and Hispanic students performed dismally on the math test, with only 21.4 percent of blacks and 26.5 percent of Hispanics making the grade. Rabinowitz said the next step is to do an impact study addressing many of the concerns raised - problem areas for minority groups... @@New Democracy Socialist leaning organization has taken a strong stand against MCAS and other high stakes test, joined fight in Seattle. The task that confronts people everywhere is to break the grip of capitalism and create human society on a new and truly democratic basis. @@New Hampshire \clip\98\04\newscl10.txt 2/16/98 Concord NH Monitor Editorial Kentucky's grades The centerpiece of the Kentucky reform is a statewide assessment test, similar to New Hampshire's, that rates performance according to four categories. [performance has been improving every year] @@New Jersey z54\clip\2002\01\njtest.txt Saturday, January 12, 2002 N.J. students' test scores show gap among races By Melanie Burney, Wendy Ginsberg and Kaitlin Gurney INQUIRER STAFF WRITERS For the first time, New Jersey yesterday released school test results by race and the differences were staggering. Statewide, 78 percent of all white students were proficient or higher. The same category for blacks was 35 percent, 85 percent for Asians, and 48 percent for Hispanics. Students not scoring at least proficient - in this case, 65 percent of black fourth graders in the stat'e - fall below the state minimum and may be most in need of instructional support, according to the state. La Griffe du Lion [] computes differences in standard deviation: Statewide: white-black difference = 1.2 SD, white-Hispanic difference = 0.82 SD, and white-Asian difference = -0.26 SD Controlling for income: white-black difference = 1.0 SD, white-Hispanic difference = 0.60 SD, and white-Asian difference = -0.21 SD NJ CHANGES SCHEDULES, ELECTIVE TO MEET STATE TESTS NY Jersey Times Schools struggle as tests loom 03/08/99 By NICK MANETTO Staff Writer The new standardized exams will test students in seven academic areas and five areas related to workplace skills. Three new tests will be the Elementary School Proficiency Assessment (ESPA) test for fourth-graders; the Grade Eight Proficiency Assessment, which replaces the Early Warning Test and will be administered beginning tomorrow, and the High School Proficiency Assessment (HSPA), which will replace the High School Proficiency Test. "the framework is not specific.".. "the framework from the state is too general and too much time is needed to prepare students and administer tests." "TEACHERS have complained about the many new things they must learn to properly prepare students to meet the math standards. Some of the concepts -- never before offered at the elementary level -- are said to be a bit too difficult to tie down in the amount of time they have. " @@New Standards Reference Examination @@America's Choice Performance Standards (renamed) Marc Tucker's (NCEE) New Standards project comes with an assement that does not give percentile rankings. It claims to judge students against "higher standards" than traditional, using fuzzy math directions, but critics point out that that there is no way to compare these results with national norms, and it can hide declines in basic skills. Like the WA and CA tests, very low percentage of students pass the most difficult math areas - less than 20% at the 4th grade level where norm referenced tests would probably tag them as about "average". The product was renamed to "America's Choice Performance Standards" in 1998 Vt and RI of course are the two states using the New Standards Reference Exams Product sheet Tests renamed See sample problems In the recent past, someone was looking for states in which the New Standards Project was working? Here is an address that will help you: VERMONT ANON COMPLAINS NEW STANDARDS READING TEST SHOCKINGLY DIFFICULT EVEN FOR BEST STUDENTS \doc\web\99\05\nsre.txt "The questions were so high level that even my stellar writers and readers looked at me with a blank face. I felt betrayed as a teacher!! " NSP has not been validated against other norm-referenced tests. Only 2 states participated in New Standards Wow!...well...well...well ......look how many takers of the New Standards Assessments of the New Standards Project (NSP) participated....Only 2 states, both in the NE Regional Resource Center Brown University...(figures) and the list of cities cited. After all these years with dues paying states that "allowed" the NSP to experiment on the children of that state in developing their "new" curriculum, "new" basic skills, for the upcoming "new" "national assessments", only 2 states followed through with Marc Tucker and Lauren Resnick???!!! (Vermont paid the NSP $l00,000 per year just to carry the NSP membership card . More populated states paid $500.000 a year for their cards...) %%Adoption NYC ADOPTS "NEW STANDARDS" 25 BOOKS PER YEAR, SODA BOTTLE FROM HELL AND PROFESSIONAL CARPENTER PROJECT \clip\98\03\newstand.txt 1/24/98 New York Times New Standards Finding Way Into NYC Schools By JACQUES STEINBERG Comment - this is Marc Tucker's final series where 2 4th graders are expected to work with a professional carpenter to come up with 4-view plans with a parts list that includes "counter sink drill bit" and "nail gun", 4th and 8th graders have to read 25 books per year, and 10th graders have to solve the soda bottle from hell by breaking it up into 1/3 sphere and a truncated cone frustrum. God help these kids. RUBRICS SET FOR "B", EVERYONE MUST GET A B. NO "A"s, OREGON SETS, TESTS "NEW STANDARD" Oregon evidently set the standards for everybody, and they're really messed up. Only Vermont so far has standardized on these tests, every other state has devised their own (Ore, WA, Ky, NY) A Report on the Work Toward National Standards, Assessments and Certificates Prepared for the Ohio State Board of Education Researched and compiled by Diana M. Fessler December 10, 1996 To assess how well students meet the Performance Standards, New Standards developed Reference Examinations . . . and a Portfolio SystemE that complements the Reference Examination.62 "Taking into account international standards, New Standards is developing two sets of assessments."63 One set is for use toward the end of elementary and middle school and the other for use at the high school level.64 "It is this last set of assessments that will be available as the basis for awarding the CIM."65 New Standards Reference Examinations are available only through Harcourt Brace Educational Measurement as part of a system of examinations and portfolios based on New Standards standards.66F The exams, available in English and Spanish for fourth, eighth, and tenth grades, include essay, extended open-ended responses, short-answer responses, and some multiple-choice items. NEW STANDARDS RESULTS IN LOW MATH CAT PERCENTILES IN VERMONT Sixth grade test CAT California Achievement Test scores: Median National Percentile (MDNP) 1990 1996 Math Computation: 71.6 48.6 Math Concepts and Appl. 89.5 87.4 Total Math: 86.0 70.3 ONLY 22% OF 4TH GRADERS PASSED PROBLEM SOLVING, 18% MATH CONCEPTS CRIT-REF = POOR, NORM-REFERENCE = GOOD (AGAIN!) \clip\97\28\vtmath.txt 23Nov96 EducationNews State Releases Science and Math Student Performance Results FAIRTEST LIKES VERMONT clip\97\28\vermont.htm ONLY ABOUT HALF OF VERMONT STUDENTS MEET "STANDARD" MANDATORY FOR '98 11/25/97 \clip\97\28\verm8.htm Vermont eighth-graders score well on national English language tests Associated Press, 08/28/97 01:02 MONTPELIER, Vt. (AP) - A national test shows that nearly 60 percent of Vermont eighth-graders met or exceeded state standards in English last year, while about half the state's fourth-graders did. Essex Middle School Essex VT. Evidence of this came to us recently when the New Standards Reference Exam results were released. The results indicated that 90% of our 96/97 8th grade class either met or nearly met high national standards in basic reading and writing skills. \clip\97\28\langtest.txt Vermont Dept Education Education Matters Language arts assessment results released WCAX-TV News, August 30, 1997 State education officials say Vermont students faired well on an exam taken last spring. Harcourt Brace (publishes the examinations) \clip\97\28\newstand.htm The examinations are professionally scored at the Performance Assessment Scoring Center of Harcourt Brace Educational Measurement by individuals trained and experienced in the holistic evaluation of student-constructed responses, according to New Standards guidelines. The standards are set at levels of performance expected at the end of fourth, eighth, and tenth grades. It is expected that some students might achieve these levels earlier and others later than at the end of these grades (set by whom?) Many tasks are derived from real-life situations, so that in constructing responses students can see connections between the skills they are learning and the world outside school. New Standards, founded in 1990, is a collaboration of the Learning Research and Development Center of the University of Pittsburgh, and the National Center on Education and the Economy, in partnership with states, urban school districts, and several private foundations. The New Standards Performance Standards are derived from the national content standards developed by professional organizations, such as the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics and the AAAS Project 2061, as well as input from educators across the nation. Essex Town School District \clip\97\28\newmath.htm Sample 8th Grade Assessment Task - The Sports Bag Most standardized tests produce a score that tells how the student did compared to other students. The new reference examinations produce reports that tell how a child did solely against a set of standards that are higher than many schools have traditionally demanded. Many of the test items may have been more challenging than students are used to. L Little Evidence of Achievement means that the student's performances demonstrate little or none of the knowledge and skill expected in the standards. B Below the Standard means that the student's performances clearly do not meet the standards. N Nearly Achieved the Standard means that the student's performances almost but do not quite meet the standards. S Achieved the Standard means that the student's performances meet the standards as set out in the New Standards Performance Standards. H Achieved the Standard with Honors means that in addition to meeting the standards, a number of the student's responses exceed the basic criteria for meeting the standard or display features characteristic of advanced knowledge and skill. %%National Ranking NEW STANDARDS TO BE LINKED TO STANFORD 9 TEST \doc\web\98\06\newstan.txt See nclb.htm @@NCLB @@Norms SUBURBAN AND PRIVATE SCHOOL NORMS. Date sent: Tue, 09 Mar 1999 14:14:55 -0800 From: Wayne Bishop A good lesson on reality here is the three separate national norms that the Educational Records Bureau provides for its Comprehensive Testing Program (also out of Princeton, so think ETS); the ERB CTP III. I'm operating by memory here so don't hold me to the detail but it's roughly as follows, an 80 National Percentile Ranking on their all-student norm is a 60 on the suburban NPR and is a 40 on the independent school NPR. Maybe it's as bad as 80, 55, 30. There is a difference between the student performance of private versus public schools but not always a desire to see one. Wayne. @@Norm-Referenced Tests (vs. Criterion) There is a big battle between traditional norm-referenced tests, which measure students against average, where ever that is, and criterion based tests, which don't accept the concept that average is good enough and claim to set absolute standards. Anti: Grading on a curve forces half to be grade above average no matter how poorly they did, always grades half as "failure" instead of allowing all to succeed. Most cities claimed to be "above average". Favored by most liberal ed reformers and some conservatives. NAEP and new "performance-based" tests are examples. Pro: Nobody knows that kids can be expected to know - using the actual spread of student performance eliminates the common crit-ref test problem that 80% of students are deemed "below grade level" when 50% normally is the realistic definition of grade level. The moment every student can perform at the "highest level", that will be average again. The best kids always score very high, the worst, very low on the curve. SAT is a good example. %%Against * Only test for low-level skills * By definition no more than 50% can "succeed" vs. "all" * Unfair to low-performing minorities. * Multiple choice is unfair to low performers. Dr. John Cannell found that all the standardized achievement tests (Iowa, SRA, etc.) have been corrupted so that every state gets norms that show its students to be above the national average!!?? ROTHSTEIN SAYS NORM REFERENCE IS BETTER THAN DEMOS WHO WANT CRITERION z56\clip\2002\05\critref.txt 23 May 2002 Testing Reaches a Fork in the Road By RICHARD ROTHSTEIN New York Times "... because judgments as to proficiency are arbitrary. But if the 40th percentile on a norm-referenced test corresponds to minimum proficiency on the criteria-referenced test, then the criteria-referenced report will say the first student failed and the second passed." "Sometimes the outcome on state criteria-referenced exams defies common sense: when, for example, "proficient" scores are achieved by 40 percent of third and fifth graders alike but by only 30 percent of fourth graders. If the criteria were valid, such results would suggest (implausibly) that fourth-grade teachers were awful but fifth-grade teachers terrific." CUNNINGHAM ON NORM-BASED TESTING \doc\web\98\06\norm.txt CRAWFORD PREFERS STANDARDS/CRITERION REFERENCED TESTS \doc\web\98\06\critnorm.txt EDUCATION WEEK PREFERS CRITERION REFERENCED Education Week "Quality Counts" 1998 Standards and Assessments "But six states still rely on norm-referenced tests that compare how well their students perform relative to other students and not against some set standard of performance. These off-the-shelf tests rarely coincide with a state's own content standards. And many of them stress low-level skills rather than the more ambitious goals that states are now setting for students. They also conflict with the premise that all children can achieve at high levels. Such tests distribute students along a bell curve, based on their performance relative to each other. Under that scenario, 50 percent of children can never meet the standard. " (Montana, Idaho, North Dakota, Idaho, Nevada, Rhode Island, Arizona, South Dakota, Alaska Arkansas are NRT) table: \clip\98\01\test\test.htm In scoring this column, we gave an A, or 100%, to states that developed their own criterion-referenced assessments aligned with their standards, as well as performance assessments that present a more multifaceted picture of students' work. We gave a B+, or 88%, to states that developed their own criterion-referenced tests and use a writing assessment. We gave a B, or 85%, to states that have developed a criterion-referenced test only. We gave a C+, or 78%, to states that use a writing assessment and a commercially produced criterion-referenced test that may be only partially aligned with their standards. We gave a C, or 75%, to states that only use an off-the-shelf criterion-referenced test. We gave a D+, or 68%, to states that use a norm-referenced, standardized test and a writing assessment. We gave a D, or 65%, to states that use only a norm-referenced test. We gave an F, or 50%, to three states that have no state assessment system--Iowa, Nebraska, and Wyoming. %%For * Nobody fails * There is no such thing as an absolute measure of performance, it can only be measured against other students. * Can be compared to national and other states. * Criterion based tests can flunk everyone (too hard) or pass everyone (too easy) * Difference of 1 point can make difference between passing or failing * Easier for low achievers * Always one correct answer * 100% accuracy vs. subjective grading @@New York New York has a new 4th grade reading test that most are likely to fail. They also have tied their Regents examination so that instead of only being for the best, all students will have to pass all the tests to get a diploma. %%Math NEW YORK TESTING FIASCO z74\clip\2003\10\fiasco.txt Steven Hoda at Princeton Review, which had initially ranked the Regents 1st among state testing programs: "We're going to have to come up with a fiasco index for a state like New York that messes up a lot of people's lives for no reason," he said. Trail of Clues Preceded Regents Fiasco October 15, 2003 By MICHAEL WINERIP In June, it all came crashing down when the scores on the state Math A exam required for graduation were released. Two-thirds of students had failed and the outcry was so great that Dr. Mills had to dump the results and rescale the test. Then came news that a record 47 percent had failed the June 2003 physics test and that test too has to be rescaled. z68\clip\2003\07\buffmath.txt clipim\2003\07\buffmath\buffmath.htm July 8, 2003 How the Math A exam went so wrong The ill-fated Regents examination had so many problems that the education commissioner threw out the results. In the first of two parts, a look at what might have led to the fiasco. One problem - length of straw diagonal in a box - 3D distance problem. REVIEW OF FLAWED MATH EXAM He still thinks that a "fixed" test will be valid. Notes that "mode" and "box and whisker plot" isn't even common for mathematicians even though mode shows up on the WASL test. MATH COURSE GRADE WILL REPLACE FLAWED REGENTS MATH EXAM z68\clip\2003\06\maththro.txt Regents Math Test Thrown Out (New York-WABC, June 24, 2003) — The state has decided to throw out the Regents Math 'A' exam, and not require students to retake it They said that the Math A Regents test was unfair, and now the state agrees with them. .. will give the district the lattitude to use the local course grade in place of that exam score. ...decided to allow two of four answers for one question deemed unclear to count as correct. Rochester paper, the Democrat and Chronicle, that includes a picture of the demonstration Math A Regents and soring guide. z68\clip\2003\06\062403exam.pdf NY REGENTS PHYSICS HARDER TO GET "A" THAN AP PHYSICS, BOGUS SCORE SETTING0 z63\doc\web\2003\01\regphy.txt William Cala Below is the text of the investigation I have been doing on the June 2002 Regents Physics fiasco. Bill December 12, 2002 In Fairport, we compared AP and Regents Physics 2002. Nine students scored a "5" on the AP Physics exam, while scoring a combined average of only 90.6 (B+) on the Regents exam. Thirteen students scored a "4" on the AP test with a combined average of 85.5 (a low B) on the Regents. Eighteen students scored a "3" on the AP and an average of 80.7 on the Regents. Three students scored a "2" on the AP with a Regents average of 78.6. Is it not curious that our very best Physics students, as judged by national college standards and receiving college credit for their accomplishments, could not score an "A" average on the New York State Physics exam? %%General NY REGENTS EXAMS MANDATORY, BUT DUMBED DOWN z46\clip\2000\11\nyreg.txt November 2000 The American Spectator The Knowledge Deficit ~ by Diane Ravitch ..the Regents' tests have become easier. A remarkable 96 percent of the state's high school seniors passed the English Regents' exam last January (compared to 65 percent in 1997). One social studies teacher said of the global history exam that, "students who did no work all semester, who failed tests all year, passed this exam handily." An English teacher complained that teachers were required to give credit for essays that were "barely comprehensible." z42\clip\2000\06\regny.txt June 2000 Observer Dispatch Utica Higher standards led to tougher Regents tests By ANNY KUO The Associated Press The department is phasing in the passage of one new Regents exam each year as a requirement for graduation. Seniors who entered high school in 1996 are the first subjected to the new mandates: They must pass the English Regents examination with at least a score of 55 percent to receive their diplomas this month. ...will have to pass five separate exams - in English, math, global history and geography, U.S. history and a science - to graduate in 2003. And by 2005, the two-tiered diploma system - a local diploma for a score higher than 55 and a Regents diploma for a score higher than 65 - will be eliminated. ONLY 33% OF NY CITY, 48% OF STATE PASS NY READING TEST search: standards assessments \clip\99\12\nytest.txt Poor Districts Fare Worst On N.Y. Assessment By Caroline Hendrie Taken as a whole, 48 percent of roughly 210,000 test-takers met the state's competency standards on the reading and writing exam. In New York City, which enrolls more than a third of the state's public school students, just 33 percent of the roughly 75,000 test-takers there met the standards. That compares with 72 percent in the group of relatively wealthy districts that the state classifies as "low needs." FAMILIARITY WITH TEST RESULTS IN SCORE INFLATION, RICH BACKLASH \clip\99\02\nytest2.txt New York Times January 18, 1999 New Reading Test Emerges Battered, but Triumphant By ANEMONA HARTOCOLLIS Some state officials, along with outside testing experts, came to believe that this familiarity with the test accounted for some of the steady improvement in scores. In 1997, 94 percent of all students outside New York City passed the old test. Reading passages and questions on the new test, Kadamus said, would be changed every year, and never repeated. The backlash against the new test began not with failing inner-city schools, but with some of the state's best schools -- in the affluent Westchester County suburb of Larchmont, for instance, and in middle-class neighborhoods like Bay Ridge, Brooklyn, and Bayside, Queens. More than 80 and often more than 90 percent of their students passed the old test \clip\99\02\nycheat.txt New York Times January 13, 1999 For Much Heralded Test, Delays and Talk of Cheating By ANEMONA HARTOCOLLIS The stakes are particularly high for New York City, which has 97 of the state's 101 failing schools, and where 35 percent of students failed a state test taken in the spring of 1998, compared with just 6 percent of students statewide. \clip\99\02\edclip03.txt New York Times January 11, 1999 New State Test Sets Schools to Cramming By ANEMONA HARTOCOLLIS " Schools have virtually suspended their normal curriculums to administer practice tests and help pupils brush up on concepts like "the main idea," "topic sentences" and "supporting details." " ... The test is part of a long-term state plan to shake up and transform the education system by returning to the basics, he said \clip\99\02\edclip02.txt New York Times January 9, 1999 New York's 4th Graders Prepare to Take 'the Test' By RANDAL C. ARCHIBOLD NEW YORK -- Linda LoPresti paid a price for her anxiety: $120. "requires students to take notes on passages and write critiques and essays based on what they heard. Spelling, grammar and punctuation all count. " NY TEST: ALL ARE LIKELY TO FAIL \clip\98\17\edclip12.txt New York Times November 30, 1998 New Test for 4th Graders Sows Alarm Across State By ANEMONA HARTOCOLLIS A new reading and writing test will be given to fourth graders across New York State early next year, and it is so different from traditional tests that teachers and parents can barely contain their panic. [note taking, write essays and literary criticism, officials say old tests were too easy, but teachers say new tests may fail everyone] "This is not really meant to reflect the work of the fourth grade," she said. Some teachers contend that not all 9-year-olds are ready for a test that requires so much abstract thinking and writing. "If everybody fails, which is a possibility, everybody will be judged accordingly," %%Physics z68\clip\2003\07\phytest.txt OUTCRY OVER REGENTS PHYSICS TEST, BUT ALBANY WON'T BUDGE New York Times -- July 18, 2003 by Sam Dillon Leonard Morochnick was so upset after 43 percent of his physics students at the New York City Lab School for Collaborative Studies failed the Regents physics exam last month that he sat down at his computer and banged out a lengthy analysis of the test, which on one question required students to "calculate the de Broglie wavelength of a helium nucleus." "This is one of the most esoteric topics in all of physics at any level, let alone a first-year physics course," Mr. Morochnick wrote. @@North Carolina North Carolina appears to be running a system aligned with phonics and real math, and realistic performance levels, but there are still some grumbles. One teacher got into trouble for revealing some bad test items. It was cited by a legislative fact finding mission as a model for Washington state, but one teacher says that the tests are "absurdly easy". Training manual for prompt: integrity NORTH CAROLINA HYPE ABOUT IMPROVEMENT IS BS North Carolina test "absurdly easy" I am an elementary teacher who moved to North Carolina from Colorado last year, having been totally persuaded by the state's hype about radical improvement. I'll cut to the chase and tell you the NC tests are absurdly easy compared to those in CO. ...not 1/4 would have cut it in Colorado. NC HELD AS MODEL BY WA STATE LEGISLATORS Washington Legislature cites North Carolina as model, goal of "first in nation", do we have the guts to do the same? This American Life NPR Among those interviewed is ARN subscriber Teresa Glenn, a middle school English teacher, who was suspended for five days in October after she expressed her concerns (last spring) about NC's end-of-grade tests and paraphrased two bad tests items on an email list maintained by the Dept. of Education. Our struggle is more difficult than most because our system is not so obviously screwed up. For example, Virginia and Washington have such ridiculous tests that it is easier to generate opposition, and Texas is hyped up beyond belief. WE WON'T BACK DOWN FROM HIGH STANDARDS z44\clip\2000\08\nctest.txt Point of View: We're making gains with N.C.'s testing By PHILLIP J. KIRK JR. RALEIGH -- I want to assure those who are concerned about "high-stakes" testing in our schools that the State Board of Education, the Department of Public Instruction, the Compliance Commission for Accountability and others involved in testing and accountability policy-making do not have our heads in the sand about the benefits and limitations of testing. Public support is increasing for our schools, partly because of the high standards we have set. We risk losing support for public schools if we back away from high standards now, and we will not do that. NC STANDARDS PROMTE DI, NOT PROGRESSIVISM FOR FAILING SCHOOLS \doc\web\99\14\ncdi.txt Date: Fri, 01 Oct 1999 12:46:34 -0400 (EDT) From: Martin Kozloff comment - looks like NC has "good" standards and accountability as compared with OBE/STW/Tucker inspired self-inflating tests and tasks beyond all instead of basics that can be mastered by all. The rest placed solidly in the Direct Instruction remedial reading program called "Corrective Reading." In less than one month, you can see unbelievable changes in the children (skills, enjoyment, high involvement), teachers (far more skill, almost ALL time on instruction, smiling, energy), and in the school at large (pride and high expectations). The state looks at every kid's end-of grade test scores in every class in every school, and then says, "You can do better. Raise the percentage who pass from 50% to 60% by next year." If this mandated objective is not met, the school is designated "low performing" and receives an assistance team and money to buy new curricula, such as DI, or Success for All, or Saxon Math. If they do meet the objectives, they get cash and a designation "Exemplary" or "School of Distinction." [See 1. Reading Mastery. 2. Corrective Reading \clip\98\06\moretest.txt From: (MRS COLEEN C ARY) Date sent: Fri, 6 Mar 1998 21:03:39, -0500 RALEIGH NEWS AND OBSERVER, 3/5/98 STUDENTS FACE MORE TESTING o Cures sought for science, math ills Educators target N.C. high schools By TIM SIMMONS, Staff Writer @@NCTM z47\clip\2000\12\nctmtest.txt December 6, 2000 Education Week One Test Is Not Enough, Math Educators Say School officials should not rely on scores on a single high-stakes test to make promotion, graduation, or tracking decisions, according to the nation's largest professional organization of mathematics educators. @@Officials Accountable Keegan of Arizona took her test, but barely passed. Cellucci in defending imposing MCAS on Mass. school kids but not himself being willing to take the test, notes that he is accountable to a far higher form of accountability--an election every four years. @@Ohio HIGH STAKES TEST RIP 2001 Ohio has a criterion based test that passes only about 60% of the 9th grade population, 9th grade test is required to graduate high school. All 4th graders are required to pass to continue on to 5th grade. %%Against 6/14/01 Cincinnati Enquirer (Ohio)(2 articles) Proficiency tests eliminated; new school standards adopted Gov. Bob Taft on Tuesday signed into law a bill that eliminates the state's proficiency tests and makes several changes to its system of academic standards. Under the law, the state will: Ohio changes testing focus Sweeping changes in the way Ohio schools test students will trade high-stakes exams for achievement testing to identify ways teachers and parents can help children succeed. OHIO PARENTS WANT PROFICIENCY TESTING KILLED IN ELEMENTARY GRADES z46\clip\2000\11\ohpoll.txt November 15, 2000 United Services for Effective Parenting-OHIO Releases Results of Parenting Survey A recent statewide survey commissioned by United Services for Effective Parenting-Ohio (USEP-OHIO).. Ohioans strongly supported proficiency tests in high school and in order to graduate from high school, 51 percent of Ohioans opposed proficiency tests for elementary school students compared to 44 percent who favored such testing. 54 percent of Ohioans want proficiency testing to be restricted or eliminated compared to 43 percent who favor the present or expanded use of proficiency tests. z46\clip\2000\11\ohpass.txt Nov. 15, 2000 Wednesday, November 15, 2000 Lower passing grade urged Bill would ease proficiency test By Debra Jasper Columbus Enquirer Bureau "Mary O'Brien, Ohio coordinator for Fairtest, a nonprofit national organization which wants to end the practice of failing children who score low on proficiency tests, said the subcommittee's plan actually steps up testing instead of devaluing it. " "" Stop Ohio Proficiency Tests NO! this centralized method of testing for proficiency is a quick, one-dimensional, overly simplistic, one-size-fits-all attempt to solve a very complex problem. z45\doc\web\2000\09\ohio.txt "SCIENCE FALSELY SO CALLED" By Stephen Rea INTRODUCTION In 1998 I won a landmark education case, State ex rel. Stephen Rea v. Ohio Department of Education (Case No. 96-1997, in Mandamus). Relying on the U.S. Freedom of Information Act and the State of Ohio Availability of Public Records Law, I requested copies of assessment testing materials used on my daughter at West Branch High School, Beloit, Ohio. I specifically wanted copies of my daughter's OPT -- Ohio Proficiency Test -- which is a "high stakes" test based on the outrageous outcomes of OBE \doc\web\99\01\ohtest.txt DESIGN OF MATH TEST ISN'T ADDING UP by Betty Raskoff Kazmin (Forum/Opinion piece) The Columbus Dispatch, Jan 23,'99 *I did see the enormous collection of written public comments on the math exam; they were overwhelmingly negative, and included: "I am horrified by what this committee has deemed critical to survival and productivity. What is Wrong with the OPT & OCAP? (Ohio Proficiency Test & Ohio Competency Analysis Profile) by Anita B. Hoge %%General \clip\99\02\edclip04.txt 9th-graders see jump in state test scores Cleveland Plain Dealer Wednesday, January 13, 1999 By SCOTT STEPHENS PLAIN DEALER REPORTER In all, 80 percent of Cleveland's ninth-graders passed the writing portion of the test, 67 percent reading, 28 percent math, 44 percent citizenship and 32 percent science. Ninth-graders statewide reached the highest overall pass rate to date, with about 58 percent passing all required tests, compared with 54 percent the year before, the education department said. "Fourth Grade Guarantee," which will require all Ohio fourth-graders to pass the reading portion of their test to advance to fifth grade, said Michael Charney, education issues director of the Cleveland Teachers Union. The initiative begins in the 2001-2002 school year. \clip\98\14\ohtest.txt 11,000 did not pass graduation test, denied decent living because of high stakes test. \clip\98\03\ohiotst.txt Cincinnati Enquirer City schools improve test scores But results still behind suburb rate [Ohio Ninth-Grade Proficiency Test] Ninth grade test is required to graduate high school. " Statewide, about 54 percent of today's ninth-graders - the Class of 2001 - passed all five sections of the test. " Some suburbs up to 90% passing. @@Old Tests 1921 Exam Under the heading "Dumbing Down," New York Magazine reprinted Regents High School Examination questions #1 from the Regents (history/algebra) of 1921-2 and 1993-4. 1921: "The achieving of democracy is a long, necessarily slow process and each generation has contributed towards making the ideal a reality. State a contribution towards the achieving of democracy made by each of two of the following colonies: Virginia, Connecticut, Rhode Island, the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Explain how one of these colonies aided in this achievement. 1993: Which feature of the United States system of government is the most essential aspect of democracy? 1. judicial supremacy 2. a bicameral legislature 3. a powerful executive 4. a freedom of choice 1921: 1b. Find the prime factors of four of the following: a^2 -2a - 48 100x^4 - 49y^6 36m^2 + 60mn + 25n^2 12c^2 + 7c - 12 3y^2a - 6ya 1994: 1. Solve for 3x -5 = x + 7 @@Open Response The most significant feature of the new assessments is open response as opposed to multiple choice, but scoring is expensive, subjective, and unreliable. IGAP MOVES TOWARDS OPEN RESPONSE TEST, CITES CA PROBLEMS \clip\97\27\schotest.txt School test plan has more writing, less multiple choice 11-18-97 Chicago Sun-Times BY ROSALIND ROSSI EDUCATION REPORTER [test would cost twice as much, movment gaining since early 90s, 23 states now use them, CA test resulted in 26 lawsuits, scoring difficult, expensive. "``[Critics] felt it was fuzzy and difficult to score,'' said Ronald Dietel, communications director of the National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards and Student Testing in Los Angeles. ``States such as Illinois will be ahead of the game having held off [on such testing].''" Illinois officials said the second scorer agrees with the first one 90 percent of the time on IGAP writing tests--the only IGAP subject currently requiring written answers. @@Opinion @@POLL Some surveys say that the public in general likes the idea of high stakes test, but they are not specific about particular bungled tests like SOL and WASL. MOST OF ALL RACES LIKE TESTING IN ALL GRADES ETS poll on Bush testing plan: A Measured Response: Americans Speak on Education Reform -- Full Report In favor of requiring state testing of all grades all 77 21 whites 76 21 hispanic 82 15 black 82 18 national testing all 78 18 whites 78 18 black 83 16 hispanic 78 22 No mention of bungled tests JUST OVER HALF SUPPORT STANDARDIZED TESTS IN CO z50\clip\2001\08\coltest.txt Rocky Mountain News URL: /drmn/local/article/0,1299,DRMN_15_800496,00.html School testing gains support Poll shows 54% back assessment program By Katie Kerwin McCrimmon, News Staff Writer Asked if they think the CSAP test is a "good idea or a bad idea," 54 percent of respondents said they favored the tests and 36 percent opposed them. Another 10 percent gave another answer or had no opinion. CNN POLL 86% SAY TOO MUCH TIME SPENT ON TESTING CNN High Stakes Test article and Quickvote "Are teachers spending too much time preparing students for standardized tests?" Since yesterday when the article appeared (April 17), one day later the poll is currently: Yes: 85.7482% No: 14.2518% NEARLY HALF OF VOTERS OPPOSE MCAS REQUIREMENT z47\clip\2000\12\mcaspoll.txt Poll: Public souring on MCAS requirement by Cosmo Macero Jr. Thursday, December 21, 2000 "48 percent are against making passage of the MCAS a requirement for graduation " ``There is no turning back,'' Cellucci said after this year's MCAS results were released. BUSINESS ROUNDTABLE, PUBLIC AGENDA POLLS SLAMMED z46\clip\2000\11\poll.txt November 15, 2000 Polls Only Confuse Education Policy By RICHARD ROTHSTEIN the Business Roundtable showed the "strength of support" for ending social promotion. "Fully three- quarters supports requiring children to pass a reading and math test for promotion," the association announced. The Roundtable could just as well have said "nearly all Americans reject tests as the main basis for promotion." SURVEYS SHOW PUBLIC WANTS TO TEST KIDS TO DEATH z45\clip\2000\09\survtest.txt business roundtable New Survey Challenges Extent of Public Backlash Against State Testing Release Date: 09/13/2000 Overwhelming Majorities Support Raising Academic Standards and Linking Tests to High School Graduation and Elementary School Promotion Over-samples in Illinois, New York and Virginia Mirror National Findings (WASHINGTON DC) - Contrary to media reports of a widespread backlash to state standards and testing, a new survey shows that the American public favors setting rigorous academic standards for students and backing them up with statewide tests linked to high school graduation and grade promotion. Eighty-six percent of parents of public school students and 80 percent of the general public agree that some children perform poorly on tests even if they know the material. Seventy-one percent of both parents and the general public say statewide tests cannot measure many important skills children should learn. Sixty-four percent of parents and 65 percent of the general public say when states hold teachers accountable for test results, teachers begin to teach what is on the tests and drop other important ideas and curriculum. PARENTS LIKE STANDARDS BUT NOT HIGH STAKES Recent news reports have suggested a growing backlash by parents in many communities against tougher school standards and standardized tests. .... Nevertheless, most parents would draw a line if important decisions about a child's future rested solely on a single test. Almost 8 in ten (78 percent) agree that "it's wrong to use the results of just one test to decide whether a student gets promoted or graduates." Findings from additional interviews in Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Los Angeles and New York - five cities with highly visible efforts to raise standards - virtually mirror the national results. Funding for this survey was provided by the Thomas B. Fordham, George Gund, John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur, and John M. Olin Foundations. PARENTS LIKE GOF STANDARDIZED, NOT HIGH STAKES PERFORMANCE TESTS z45\clip\2000\08\fortest.txt " the public does not have concerns about standardized testing in general, but does have concerns about make-or-break, high-stakes assessments." July 19, 2000 For Immediate Release Survey Finds Strong Parental Support for Testing; Parents Cite Importance of Educational Assessment National survey released today by the Association of American Publishers MOBILE AL POLL SAYS MOST SUPPORT GRADUATION TEST z42\clip\2000\06\polltest.txt Poll: Let students earn the privilege to walk 05/28/2000 By CASANDRA ANDREWS Staff Reporter Mobile (AL) Register An overwhelming majority of respondents - 78 percent - approved of requiring students to pass a test before they can graduate from 12th grade. "It is fraudulent to raise the bar for all students to a level that is currently being reached by only a relative few, without giving them the help they need to make the grade" National Education Association president Bob Chase wrote in a commentary last April @@Oregon CIM Assessment Oregon passed legislation in early 90s mandating exams that lead to a 10th grade Certificate of Initial Mastery and a 12th grade Certificate of Final Mastery, a variation of Marc Tucker's plan which did not have 12th grade certificate. Flunk rates were still 2/3 as of 2001, and Rob Kremer raised $175,000 by april largely on the issue of CIM. pdf math samples Milestones May 2002 Rob Kremer raises over $200,000 in SPI campaign but loses Aug 2002 Legislature cuts tests in every grade but 10, keeps CIM/CAM Mar 2005 GOP proposes throwing out CIM and CAM GOP plan would eliminate CIM and CAM Report urges cutting state tests to shore up funds for instruction TARA MCLAIN Statesman Journal March 16, 2005 Oregon students would be relieved of certain mandated exams under a plan released by House Republicans on Tuesday. Opponents of the Certificate of Initial Mastery are warming up for a second attempt to toss the optional high school diploma program. This time, they want to include a large portion of the state-run testing system. The House Audits Committee, led by Rep. Jerry Krummel, R-Wilsonville, issued a report Tuesday that recommends throwing out the Certificate of Initial Mastery and Certificate of Advanced Mastery programs. 0333&template=printart z55\clip\2002\04\oregrade.txt Oregon schools given a passing grade Friday, October 5, 2001 By CHARLES E. BEGGS THE ASSOCIATED PRESS "Our schools are among the best in the country, and we continue to improve," Bunn said. HIGH SCHOOL SOPHOMORE TEST PASS RATE 2001 33% 2000 27% 1996 13% %%General ORE CANCELS OBE TESTS EXCEPT FOR 10TH GRADE z57\clip\2002\08\orecan.txt State suspends student tests 08/09/02 STEVEN CARTER [Note Republicans want to return to standardized ITBS testing] The Oregon Board of Education voted reluctantly Thursday to kill student tests next year in writing, math and science because of cuts in the state budget. [saving 2.6M per year] %%Backlash 6/21/200 Seattle Times Oregon Senate defeats bill to derail school reform effort AP. Bill would have made CIM and CAM strictly optional z48\clip\2001\03\oretest.txt 2001 Legislature - March 7, 2001 Senators urge end to state school tests Some want to scrap Oregon’s methods for ones favored by President Bush. DOE ADMITS TESTS WERE NOT DESIGNED TO MATCH STANDARDS linkHere in Oregon we haven't put such barrier exams in place yet, although it was the intent of Vera Katz and her people to make the CIM just that, except that the legislature (breathe a sign of relief) wouldn't go along. It was admitted by the DOE that the original versions of the Oregon state tests were developed without regard to the state standards (different committees, who didn't talk to each other, drew them up). That bureaucratic atrocity has been partially rectified by test changes more compatible with our dumbed down standards CIM - EXCELLENCE FOR ALL OR JUST THE TOP 25%? \clip\99\20\orecim.txt Doesn't this defeat the whole idea of high standards for all if only the top few can meet it? [Oregon] CIM still eludes many sophomores By ANNE WILLIAMS The Register-Guard Christine Sather and 30 of her Willamette High School classmates will be among the first students in Oregon to clutch in their hands a hard-earned, bona fide CIM. but for most sophomores across the state . Just 20 percent - passed all four CIM exams, and only 31 of those also successfully completed the necessary work samples. Statewide, approximately 26 percent passed the exams; in 1997, the first year the state administered tests with the CIM benchmarks in place, just 15 percent of 10th-graders passed all four. "even if a CIM isn't yet required to graduate, and even if universities don't yet and may never require a CIM, Christine believes it will make a difference for her. "When employers or colleges see that you have that, and that you were one of the 31 in your class," she said, "that's going to say something about you." Tennison: students realize the CIM is worthless scam 75% FLUNK OREGON 10TH GRADE CIM, BUT STUDENTS PRAISED FOR "GAINS" \clip\99\17\cimgain.txt Students praised for CIM gains By ANNE WILLIAMS The Register-Guard (Oregon) 9/4/99 It was the Year of the CIM - the first school year in which Oregon 10th-graders could earn a Certificate of Initial Mastery, a document that will prove a student has a keen grasp of the basics at graduation. "But still, three-fourths of the students didn't pass. I just hope that parents and noneducational people don't look at that and want to trash the whole thing. It's a work in progress." High-schoolers in Oregon wonder why test matters. Seattle Times April 12, 1999 p. b8. This is the first year sophomores will have chance to earn CIM adopted in 1996. Initially meant to have dire consequences for job, college and graduation, only one high school will require it for diploma, and most kids don't see it as important, though Intel and others are trying to get employers to look at it (comment- see we've been,trying to tell you these cim tests are bogus) Update on Ore assessment. \doc\web\98\08\testprep.txt This should be interesting since the Oregon tests are poorly constructed and have questions the read more like an IQ test. How does one prep for that? How about the ones with no right answer (best guesses accepted)? Oregon Test does not have a valid construction process, Kentucky similar problems Paper on why Oregon Test does not pass construction requirements. Written explanation, not right answer needed Oregon Statewide Math Assessment: the correct answer wasn't necessary as long as the student could tell the teacher in writing how she got to the answer she gave. Oregon's tests are 9 hours long, are given over several days and replaces the Standford Achievement \doc\web\98\09\oretest.txt % OF OREGON STUDENTS WHO MEET OR EXCEED THE STANDARD AT 10TH GRADE -- '97-'98 Reading/Literature: 48% Writing: 65% Mathematics: 32% RUBRICS SET FOR "B", EVERYONE MUST GET A B. NO "A"s, OREGON SETS, TESTS "NEW STANDARD" 2 STATES ADD CONTEXT TO RAW SCORES January 21, 1998 BY TRACY VAN MOORLEHEM Free Press Education Writer Another state that strives to place test scores in context is Oregon. The state ranks every school district in terms of its socioeconomic status, then compares each district's performance against similar districts. NO RANKING For individual student results, the state won't publish rank orderings or national percentiles. A state percentile is calculated for the multiple choice tests. However, the purpose of the CIM assessment system is not to compare students to one another. Instead the results provide detailed information about how a student's work compares to the standards for performance that have been set by teachers, parents and community members. %%Errors ORE ADMITS MATH TESTS WERE TOO HARD Wed, 21 Apr 1999 08:38:01 -0700 From: To: Oregon Math Tests will be Recalibrated Passing score requires 10th graders to "connect to calculus, the function, the slope of the line and the derivative -- certainly evidence of more than thoroughly developed." There is a story in today's Oregonian about the most recent math problem-solving performance test that was given to Oregon students in grades 5, 8, and 10 in February. The state is now saying that the tests were too difficult and the scores were up to 20% below last year's levels in some schools. ORE ADMITS MATH TEST QUESTIONS ARE TOO HARD \clip\99\09\killtest.txt Oregonian State will recalculate scores for killer math tests A problem-solving part of the exam given to fifth- and eighth-graders was harder than it should have been, the state admits Wednesday April 21, 1999 By Lisa Daniels of The Oregonian staff @@Orlich, Donald Washington State University Professor, longtime critic of standards based reform movement since late 1980s, and lately Washington State's high stakes WASL test. SCIENCE WASL EXPECTS 5TH GRADERS TO DESIGN EXPERIMENT 7TH MATH IS REALLY HIGH SCHOOL report z70\doc\web\2003\09\waslflun.txt Monday, September 8, 2003 Spokane WASL examinations flunk on many levels Guest column Donald C. Orlich Special to The Spokesman-Review School reform in Washington and 49 other states has been reduced to a single high-stakes test. z54\clip\2001\11\dunce.txt The - A dunce cap for our bogus crisis in education Monday, November 5, 2001 How would the state of Washington's 13-year-olds do in mathematics in world competition? Twelve countries would be ahead of Washington's eighth graders. A sampling from that group would include France, Hong Kong, Hungary, Japan, Slovenia, Switzerland and 13th place would go to Washington state. Our children would tie 19 nations and beat 10 others.You want world-class standards? Well, we have them! Science WASL A SUMMARY OF "A COGNITIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL ANALYSIS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON'S SCIENCE ESSENTIAL ACADEMIC LEARNING REQUIREMENTS" by Donald C. Orlich shows benchmarks are beyond known abilities of children as 1shown by NAEP at all grade levels, predicts failure rates on science tests above 50%. Appears in September 2001 issue of the WASHINGTON SCIENCE TEACHERS' JOURNAL. z52\doc\web\2001\09\orlich.txt New Economy High School 14 Page paper on WASL Sept 2001 It is beyond the ability of most students, and predicts that poor and non-english speaking children will score more poorly than affluent white and Asian students. It is equivalent to an IQ test. link CONFESSION THAT WASL IS INVALID "SHE SAID QUESTIONS WERE INCLUDED THAT WOULD BE TOO HARD FOR AVERAGE FOURTH-GRADERS OR STUDENTS WHO COULD MEET THE STATE STANDARD. THESE QUESTIONS MEASURE THE ABILITY OF STUDENTS WHO CAN EXCEED BOTH BENCHMARKS, SHE SAID." [Upper case added by Orlich for emphasis.] ORLICH IN 1994 SAID WASL WOULD FAIL, ORE TOO .htm z42\clipim\2000\05\30\orlich.efx The Sunday Oregonian November 27, 1994 Education Expert doubts school reform will work Don Orlich expresses doubts about Oregon's Outcome Based Education and Washington's ESHB 1209. NAACP QUOTES ORLICH IN 1991 Crisis October 1991 Vol 98 No. 8 The School Reform of the Eighties and Its Implications for the Restructuring of the Nineties MIssissippi Committee For Educating the Black Child Conference By Dr. Beverly Cole Director of Education NAACP page 24 "Donald Orlich in an article entitled Education Reforms: MIstakes MIsconceptions and Miscues stated that too frequently the suggested reforms have been purely cosmetic. They have had not profound impact on instructional strategies, on the organization of schools or on student learning" WSU ED PROF IN KAPPAN: 4TH GRADE WASL MATH IS TOO DARNED HARD zip38\clip\99\19\testhard.txt State's 4th-grade math test too difficult for students' development level, critics say by Linda Shaw Seattle Times staff reporter Yet a number of educators, both locally and nationally, think the low scores may simply reflect standards that are too high - unattainable by many, or even most, students taking the tests. A longtime education professor at Washington State University recently made an item-by-item review of the state's new test for fourth-graders. Donald Orlich concluded the math test was unreasonable, and unfair. ORLICH,DONALD SCIENCE 225 Washington State University PULLMAN, WA 99164-4237 work_phone: 509-335-4844 e-mail: Published article Orlich explains in email waslpdk.doc word 95 format .html @@Pennsylvania Released math items: 2000 @@Performance Based Assessment Standardized Performance ------------- ------------- Cheap-$3 Expensive-$30 Objectively scored Subjectively Scored Simple to respond Difficult to respond Multiple Choice Free response / Essay Timed Take as much time as needed Fast-hrs Slow-days Scores back in weeks Scores back in months Lots of tasks Few tasks One correct answer Many correct answers or no completely correct answer Correct answer known Correct answers not known until test has been given and student responses surveyed and discussed. Math must be correct Full score for incorrect answer (sometimes) Score Right or Wrong Score Better or Worse Computer score Human trained to score Reliable Unreliable Tasks range over Most tasks very difficult wide ability range Based on existing Designed to obsolete curriculum curriculum and drive change Assesses current Drives curriculum change mastery Based on established Based on untested standards NTCM standards Students test on what Students tested on tasks they are taught they have not been taught Standards based on Standards based on committee curve recommendations OK if above average OK if "meets high standards" 50% are 50-70% fail first year, average 80-100% will pass in 5 yrs All can fail All can pass Expect wide range of Serious penalty if student ability, does does not meet high "pass" score not affect student Minorities 25-40 85-95% of minorities fail percentile Lake Wobegon State tests "improve" all above average because tests get easier National, dev cost State, dev cost paid by paid by company taxpayers History of success History of failures (CLAS, KIRIS) Appropriate to grade Most tests do not respect level standards grade level benchmarks Attacked by liberals Attacked by conservatives Teach to test bad Teach to test encouraged %%Race ASIANS OUTSCORE WHITES IN PA MATH, MINORITY 1/2 WHITE PASS RATE z75:\clip\2003\11\penngap.txt Pa. tests show a racial divide New data reveal that blacks and Latinos score well below whites and Asians in reading, math. By Dale Mezzacappa Philadelphia Inquirer Math white 59.2 ****** black 20.6 ** latino 25.6 *** asian 68.3 ******* natam 42.0 **** econdi 29.5 *** Reading white 67.5 ******* black 29.8 *** latino 30.1 *** asian 64.5 ******* natam 52.5 ***** econdi 36.0 **** Pa Dept of Ed, Phil Inquirer Note - Asians significantly better than whites in math More than twice as many white and Asian students in Pennsylvania reached proficiency in math and reading than black and Latino students, data released yesterday show. @@Performance Based Tests %%Accuracy NAEP CONCLUDES PERFORMANCE BASED WRITING TESTS LIKE WASL ARE INVALID \doc\web\2000\03\testinv.txt The front page article, entitled "NAEP Drops Long-Term Writing Data" can be found at: NAEP's discovery "could also reveal potential problems in other performance-based tests and in state testing programs that require students to write short answers and essays, especially when the results are used to make decisions about individual students or to examine trends over time." Gary Phillips, acting commissioner of the National Center for Education Statistics, told Education Week that he's "lost confidence that the data are reliable." From wisconsin parents who fought this years ago. z40\clipim\2000\03\22\write\write.htm From: "J. E. Stone" If you are interested, I recall posting a piece that cited some additional research on this topic--all supporting the view that performance-based testing is less reliable and more expensive. Herb Walberg was one of the sources. Its in the archives. Marc Tucker talking to Seattle in 1991, and the WASL says that 80-85% agreement on scores on a 5 pt scale is considered to be acceptable accuracy. 20% error is far, far from less than 1% error on a standardized test on a 600 point scale. HOLISTIC SCORING JUST AS ACCURATE AND VALID AS COMPUTER SCORES?? \doc\web\98\10\notest.txt "Recent advancements in the area of performance assessment (e.g., the use of holistic scoring techniques) have led to levels of reliability and validity that match and can even exceed those of traditional standardized tests." [Note, this is patently absurd when 80% agreement on a 5 point scale is considered "close enough"] High-Stakes Assessments in Reading: Consequences, Concerns, and Common Sense A Draft Position Statement from the Board of Directors of the International Reading Association. %%Critical PERFORMANCE STANDARDS ARE HARMFUL TO EDUCATION: "MEANINGLESS" Performance Standards: Utility for Different Uses of Assessments Robert L. Linn University of Colorado at Boulder & National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing Abstract Performance standards are arguably one of the most controversial topics in educational measurement. There are uses of assessments such as licensure and certification where performance standards are essential. There are many other uses, however, where performance standards have been mandated or become the preferred method of reporting assessment results where the standards are not essential to the use.It is argued that the insistence on reporting in terms of performance standards in situations where they are not essential has been more harmful than helpful. Variability in the definitions of proficient academic achievement by states for purposes of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 is discussed at it is argued that the variability is so great that characterizing achievement is meaningless. Illustrations of the great uncertainty in standards are provided. Citation: Linn, R. L. (2003, September 1). Performance standards: Utility for different uses of assessments. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 11(31). Retrieved [Date] from STUDIES CONCLUDE PERF-BASED TESTS MORE EXPENSIVE TO DO WORSE JOB 2 studies conclude multiple choice tests offer better results at less cost and time. Lukhele, R., Thissen., D. & Wainer, H. (1994). On the relative value of multiple-choice, constructed response, and examinee-selected items on two achievement tests. Journal of Educational Measurement, 31(3), 234-250. "Overall, the multiple-choice items provide more than twice the information than the constructed response items do. Examining the entire test (and freely applying the Spearman-Brown prophesy formula), we found that a 75-minute multiple-choice test is as reliable as a 185-minute test built of constructed response questions. Both kinds of items are measuring essentially the same construct, and the constructed response items cost about 300 times more to score. It would appear, based on this limited sample of questions, that there is no good measurement reason for including constructed response items (p. 240)." Wainer, H. & Thiessen, D. (1993) Combining multiple-choice and constructed-response test scores: Toward a Marxist theory of test construction. Applied Measurement in Education 6(2), 103-118. "A natural conclusion to reach from the weightings associated with constructed-response versus multiple-choice questions is that the former take more examinee time and resources to measure essentially the same thing more poorly than the latter." link From the Pacific Research Institute: Developing and Implementing Academic Standards What Type of Assessment? In her testimony before the California Standards Commission, Michigan State University Professor Susan Phillips, one of the nation’s top experts on standards and testing, listed a number of critical tradeoffs between multiple-choice questions and performance-based assessments: [Performance based tests are expensive, ineffective compared to machine scored tests] Cunningham do not confuse open response with performance based test. CUNNINGHAM - NO DATA THAT SHOWS OPEN RESPONSE TESTS ARE BETTER \doc\web\99\01\perftest.txt Date: Fri, 29 Jan 1999 00:03:32 -0500 From: "George K. Cunningham" "We use MC items because they are more inexpensive, more reliable and more valid. We select CR items because some people think they may be better for measuring problem solving. We know the advantages of MC items but the best we can say for CR is that someone likes them." HOWARD GARDNER QUESTIONS DUBIOUS QUALITY OF NEW TESTS \clip\98\18\testtest.txt December 4, 1998 What Do Tests Test? By HOWARD GARDNER "We must proceed cautiously before we place students' minds and hearts at risk with tests of dubious quality whose meaning can be overinterpreted and whose consequences can be devastating." z49\clip\2001\04\scars.txt New York Times, 1.4.21 Stick to Testing the Basics By HOWARD GARDNER in the affluent suburb of Scarsdale, N. Y. Yet approximately 100 families will be engaged in a form of civil disobedience when they keep their eighth- grade children at home next month during the testing period. Of course, there should be accountability; the College Board subject tests and advanced placement exams already provide enough of that \clipim\98\11\cizek.pdf "Filling In the Blanks:Putting Standardized Tests to the Test," by Gregory J. Cizek, Fordham Report, Vol. 2, No. 11, October 1998. Cizek provides a helpful primer on standardized testing. He identifies key terms, clarifies important distinctions between types of tests, and explains how to interpret (and not to interpret) their scores. Explains defects of nontraditional (standards referenced subjectively scored) testing vs advantages of traditional norm-reference multiple choice tests. ..the incorporation of content standards begs the question of whether the standards developed by organizations such as the NCTM are worthy in the first place, in the sense of bearing a relationship to the way students learn, the way teachers teach, standard curricula in place in the U.S., and so on (see Finn, 1993). ..context of performance is also neccesary, including knowledge of how students in other districts, states, and countries perform on same or parallel sets of items or tasks... (for example, 50-70% of students in _every_ state are flunking the new standards-based tests, with no comparison to other countries even though they are based on "world class standards") ..standardized tests provide exceptionally _reliable_ and _valid_ information about student achievement... reliability coefficients of .95 or greater on the scale from 0.0 to 1.0.. one investigation of large-scale testing in Vermont was unusually frank, noting that the state's testing program .. has been largely unsuccesful so far in meeting its goals of providing high quality data about student performance. writing ... unreliable scoring.. mathematics .. the vexing problems of validity that confront unstandardized assessments in instruction (Koretz, Stecher, Klein, & McCaffrey) ..objectives tested by s. tests are derived from widely used textbooks series, state and district level curriculum guides.... extensive reviews by content experts and studies demonstrating predictive ability give weight to the argument... measure some of the outcomes deemed important in schools. ..alternative reporting systems are still poorly developed and just as apt to lead to confusion as to provide useful information.. .. permit comparisons of individuals and groups ... porfolios are less useful for system uses such as aggregated performance. yield the greatest amount of information about student peformance for resources invested.. turn-around time .. within a few weeks of test administation. EJ- 522358] Strong, Sue; Sexton, Larry C. Kentucky Performance Assessment of Reading: Valid?. Contemporary Education; v67 n2 p102-06 Win 1996 Researchers surveyed Kentucky high school seniors to collect data on and compare the results of the Kentucky Instructional Results Information System (KIRIS) open-response reading results and ACT reading multiple-choice format. Results found a great deal of disagreement between the KIRIS and ACT reading results. (SM) The paper concludes that authentic measures lack meaningful standards. Major flaws were reported in the areas of "fairness," "transfer and generalizability," "content quality," and "meaningfulness." Bias in assessment of writings by minority students was evident. (JDD) %%Failure AZ AND CA BOTH DUMPED PERFORMANCE TESTS BUT HAVE SCORE INFLATION \doc\web\99\09\testinf.txt "Arizona's situation was quite similar to California, they discarded a performance assessment system and followed it with the Stanford 9, pretty much in the same years as California." %%General \clip\99\13\perftest.txt URL: The Uses and Limits of Performance Assessment By Elliot W. Eisner performance assessment is aimed at moving away from testing practices that require students to select the single correct answer from an array of four or five distractors to a practice that requires students to create evidence through performance that will enable assessors to make valid judgments about "what they know and can do" in situations that matter. [says can't use open ended questions to compare students, maybe we need traditional general tests to compare, and use performance for something else...] Wash Dept Ed resources %%Fake TEXAS PERF TEST IS IDENTICAL TO NORM-REF CTBS TEST \doc\web\98\10\perftest.txt I recently reviewed the Texas exit test for history. It is claimed to be a performance test, but it is a conventional multiple-choice test that is almost identical to the ninth-grade CTBS social studies subtest. The CTBS is considered to be the epitome of the conventional, norm-referenced, objective, miultiple-choice test. %%For WE ARE NOT CONCERNED ABOUT TESTS OF KNOWLEDGE BUT DEMONSTRATION OF PERFORMANCE \doc\web\98\09\perftest.txt School To Work document: "We are not as concerned with whether a student has covered content in, for example biology, as we are that the student develops the abilities to: read science, think critically, collect information, categorize, etc. Therefore, we measure a student's growth based on a demonstration of competencies through actual performance rather than on tests of knowledge." %%Pilot PERFORMANCE TESTS WORK FOR PILOTS, BUT NOT FOR K12 DIPLOMA \doc\web\99\01\pilot.txt @@Politicians One great idea. Require all politicians who want to raise the standard of the diploma have their own diplomas revoked unless they can pass the standards they want students to pass George Schmidt idea David Marshak wants everybody to take the test. @@Politically Normed Sheridan says tests are politically normed when the pass point is deliberately set to fail a pre-determined percentage of persons. @@Poverty The new tests are supposed to give poor and minorites a fair shot, but they do even worse on the new tests. z68\clip\2003\07\highpov.txt NEARLY ALL TROUBLED SCHOOLS IN HIGH-POVERTY, MINORITY NEIGHBORHOODS Ann Arbor News -- July 11, 2003 by Judy Putnam LANSING --Nearly all of Michigan's most troubled schools [under No Child Left Behind] are in high-poverty urban areas and serve low-income, minority children, a report released Thursday concludes. The report, by Michigan State University's Education Policy Center, found only seven out of the 216 troubled schools are in suburban and rural areas. \clip\98\01\copoor.txt Denver Post Jan 1, 1998 Poorer schools do poorly (politicians say there should be no link...) By Carlos Illescas Denver Post Education Writer %Proficient %Assistance: Reading Writing 0 78 50 60+ 29 11 @@Prediction COMPARE TEST TO PREDICTED SCORE BASED ON INCOME/LEP testlu.txt McKeown @@Prep State Test Prep Center Guide to all the state tests @@Preschool HIGH STAKES TESTS FOR 4 YR OLDS z63\priv\2003\01\pretest.txt Education Week American Education's Newspaper of Record January 15, 2003 White House Plan For Head Start Test Draws Critics By Linda Jacobson Education Week Identifying letters, holding a book the right way, and recognizing that a word is a unit of print are some of the skills that all 4-year-olds in Head Start could be assessed on beginning next fall, under a new program planned by the Bush administration that some early-childhood educators contend will not work. "data from the new "national reporting system" will be used to determine whether local Head Start programs are successfully teaching the "standards of learning."" Baby EALRs standards for preschoolers "Framework for Achieving the Essential Academic Learning Requirements in Reading, Writing, Communication, Birth to 5 Years". It is published by the OSPI, and is dated June 2000. "Assumptions reflected in this document - Literacy begins at birth." "For students to be successful at the fourth grade level, there are important benchmarks children need to reach during infancy, toddlerhood, @@Principal Test NEW PRINCIPAL EXAM USES OPEN RESPONSE, COSTS MUCH MORE \clip\97\25\edclip11.txt Nov 5, 1997 Education Week New Exam for Would-Be Principals Provides States a Tool for Licensing By Bess Keller @@Privacy The Grassley Amendment - General Education Provisions Act (GEPA) (20 U.S.C.1232h) Federal Register Volume 40, No. 174, Section 439. [The Grassley Amendment becomes relevant if federal funds are involved ] The amendment states, in part; "Under subsection (b) of section 439, no student shall be required as part of any applicable program to submit to psychiatric examination, testing, or treatment, in which the primary purpose is to reveal information concerning one or more of the following: @@Private WASL scores much higher for private schools Lyn Stuter: Washington Assessment of Student Learning, in 1997, (4th grade level) the private schools in Washington State aced the WASL -- they so far outscored the public schools that their scores were not published when the 1998 WASL scores were published. Aggregated, the following are the private school scores on the WASL: Math: 37.3 Reading: 70.1 Writing: 60.8 Listening: 78.7 folllowing are the same scores for the government schools: Math 21.1 Reading: 47.0 Writing: 41.7 Listening: 61.3 "*Private schools get higher scores mostly because they are wealthier according to bracey @@Proficient Common wisdom: Every knows that we can all agree what proficient means, and we can hold every student to this standard by using the scientific anghoff cutoff method. Reality: There is no such thing as a proficiency standard when it varies wildly between states and tests. Proficiency is billed as being much more meaningful than ranking. Yet the proficiency level varies greatly from state to state when converted to equivalent ranks. A proficiency standard is worthless when there is NO such standard between states or other localities. z75\clip\2003\11\nweval.txt The Oregonian Study: Test standards differ A survey of math and reading scores shows a wide range of expectations for students among schools in 14 states 11/24/03 BETSY HAMMOND Northwest Evaluation Association: Colorado set its reading proficiency standards so low that 82 percent of fifth-graders nationwide meet them, the study says. South Carolina defined fifth-grade reading proficiency so high, only 27 percent of the nation's fifth-graders read that well, the study said. Washington's expectations for how students perform on reading and math tests are among the highest in the nation, while Oregon's standards are mostly in the middle of the pack, a new study says. 60 PERCENTILE = NEEDS IMPROVEMENT 80TH PCT STUDENT FAILS MCAS 2000 Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS)/ Massachusetts DOE/Harcourt Brace Results on the fourth-grade English language arts (ELA) portion of the MCAS were consistently low from 1998-2000. During this time, the level of fourth-graders scoring in the “failing” and “needs improvement” categories remained virtually unchanged at 80% (Massachusetts Department of Education, 2000). A report issued by the National Board on Educational Testing and Public Policy (Horn et al., 2000) found that, at one school, a significant number of students scoring above the 60th percentile on the fourthgrade Educational Records Bureau (ERB) reading exam (described as a difficult test) scored at the “needs improvement” level on MCAS. One student scoring at the 80th percentile on the ERB failed the fourth-grade ELA portion of MCAS. 20% of the fourthgraders scored “proficient” or above on the MCAS ELA exam in 2000, 62% of eighth-graders scored at this level during the same year In a 2001 memo, the Massachusetts Commissioner of Education announced that the fourth-grade MCAS performance levels in reading would be reviewed (Driscoll, 2001). The proportion of students scoring at the “failing” and “needs improvement” levels was originally reported to be 80% in 2000. After the DOE adjusted the fourth-grade performance levels, the proportion of fourth-graders scoring in the bottom two performance categories dropped to 51% for that year (Massachusetts Department of Education, 2000 & 2002a). Gerald Bracey 5/2003: NCLB leaves proficient up to states, but it will ultimately need to match up with NAEP. The Princeton Review's ranking of state testing programs is mostly hokum, but Appendix IV is a discussion of "The question of proficiency" and a graph show by what percent the proportion of kids proficient on the state test exceeds the proportion on NAEP. Texas wins in a walk, 67% with Alabama a distant second at 56%. That is 91% of kids scored proficient on TX test compared to 24% on NAEP. Four states, AZ, LA, MO and ME have lower percentages on the state test than on NAEP. The graph is only for 8th grade math. OHIO WANTS STATE PROFICIENCY LEVEL HIGHER THAN FEDERAL NCLB STANDARD z68\clip\2003\05\prof.txt May 26, 2003 Bill lowers standards to get federal money But legislators hold districts to higher state marks By Doug Oplinger and Dennis J. Willard Beacon Journal staff writers "some state lawmakers maintain the proficiency test standards are too difficult to comply with the No Child Left Behind Act. If the state can't produce better results, at least $356 million in federal aid could be lost." Ohio's proficiency tests, compared to other states' testing, are more difficult, and it would not be fair to use those scores as a national yardstick. @@Progressive Prot "*Private schools get higher scores mostly because they are wealthier according to bracey est (of new tests) \clip\98\03\jstone.txt Who is OUt of Step with Whom 2/4/98 Education Week By Evans Clinchy " And the clearest evidence of that disastrous disconnection is the current national "standards based"/Goals 2000 reform juggernaut that was launched in 1983 with the publication of A Nation at Risk. Since then, we have seen three national education summits, the creation of eight national education goals, the creation of "voluntary" national academic standards in all of the conventional subject-matter disciplines spelling out "what all students should know and be able to do at each grade level" (thus constituting a de facto national curriculum), and all across the country the setting of mandatory state curricula and high-stakes tests based on those standards. The tyrannical hand of traditional authoritarianism has descended on our schools with a vengeance. " @@Promotion, @@Grade Promotion @@Retention Some states propose that standardized or performance based tests be required for grade promotion. Milwaukee requires all 9th graders to take algebra, and pass to move to 10th grade, half of city youngsters, mostly poor minorities, fail. %%Against MANDATORY TEST-BASED RETENTION PROGRAMS ALWAYS FAIL IN NYC "GATES" z75\clip\2004\02\gatefail.txt PRINCIPAL SEES MISTAKE IN PLAN TO HOLD BACK 3RD GRADERS New York Times "On Education" Column -- February 4, 2004 by Michael Winerip In short, New York's 1981 mandatory retention program violated the most basic rule of medicine: first do no harm. Dr. House says this is the history of mandatory retention - most studies indicate it rarely works. A 1998 review of those studies in the Chicago-based magazine Catalyst called New York's program the "biggest flop" of all. x Letter against 2004 NYC policy to retain 3rd graders Dear Mayor Bloomberg and Chancellor Klein: We ask that you reconsider and withdraw your proposal to retain 3rd grade students on the basis of test scores. All of the major educational research and testing organizations oppose using test results as the sole criterion for advancement or retention, since judging a particular student on the basis of a single exam is an inherently unreliable and an unfair measure of his or her actual level of achievement. z75\clipim\2003\12\29\harvlett.efx Harvard Education Letter March 1986 Repeating a Grade: Does it Help? - Most student progress whether retained or not - Retained students score somewhat lower than those who are not - 1981 New York City rigidly enforced cutoff scores for promotion with intense summer school and remedial classes - they did not achieve any faster than previous classes. - Students who are "successfully promoted" were strong to start with, and ended up at the top of their class. Most who are far behind need special services. "Tying Promotion to Test Scores: If we insist that entering fourth graders read at a fourth-grade level, we consign half the nation's schoolchildren to an extra year of primary school; since by definition "fourth-grade level" is the average score of all fourth graders, half of those taking any test will score below this cutoff. Even if we require 3rd grade level, 33% on the Metropolitan Achievement Test score at least a year below grade level on this test. This is not an an indictent of our schools but a result of human variability and the way tests are constructed and scored" FLORIDA REQUIRES 50TH PERCENTILE TO BE PROMOTED TO NEXT GRADE z68\clip\2003\07\fprom.txt RIGIDITY IN FLORIDA AND THE RESULTS New York Times -- July 23, 2003 by Michael Winerip Derek Adamson is a good student at Citrus Elementary in Ocoee, Fla., but he did not pass the state reading test, the FCAT, required for promotion to fourth grade. He was not alone. This spring, 23 percent of Florida third graders, or 43,000 youngsters, failed the test and, under the state's new retention policy, were slated to be held back. At the end, students took the Stanford 9 test and, to be promoted, had to score at the 51st percentile. \clip\99\03\edclip01.txt Charlotte Observer:January 20, 1999 Raising bar to affect thousands of Carolinas kids By FOON RHEE Staff Writer "[propose] to require students in third, fifth and eighth grades to reach standards on state math and reading exams to move on to the next grade, though local schools would still make the final call. To graduate high school, students would have to pass a new 10th-grade reading and math test, plus complete a senior project." GEORGIA ATTACHES TEST TO GRADE PROMOTION EVERY YEAR 1/29/98 Augusta Chronicle House passes accountability bill PASS legislation requires testing at end of each grade before students get promoted Associated Press \clip\98\03\newscli2.txt @@Psychological Screening z42\clip\2000\06\psytest.txt Headline: Student essays spur 251 'alerts' Test graders spot 'personal troubles' Associated Press May. 20, 2000 ST. PAUL, Minn. - State education officials confirmed Friday that a test-scoring company issued 251 "alerts" stemming from essays students completed as part of a required sophomore writing exam. @@Psychological Corp Psychological Corp & SAT Jeanne The SAT, the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS), and other state assessments, are written by the Psychological Corporation and are aligned with national standards. PC is a subsidiary of Harcourt Brace (now under the umbrella of Harcourt General, Inc.) HB was purchased by General Cinema Corporation (now known as GC Companies, Inc.). @@PTA National PTA against tying graduation to standardized testing. %%Against z69\clip\2003\08\reason.txt STANDARDS OPERATING PROCEDURE WILL TESTING PUSH LEAVE CHILDREN BEHIND OR MOVE THEM AHEAD? CNN -- Auust 18, 2003 by Greg Botelho Mark Townsend, president of the Colorado PTA: "Kids are individuals, and teaching is not one size fits all." PTA AGAINST HIGH STAKES TESTING OR RANKING SCHOOLS/DISTRICTS National PTA Position Statement: Student Assessment and Testing The National PTA believes that the overall goal of student assessment and testing programs should be to identify how instruction can be improved and learning increased. Assessments should be used to increase the opportunities for students %%For WA PTA co-sponsors many education reform events. @@Publicity A key to assessments is a huge PR campaign using paid newspaper ads, huge newspaper sections, TV coverage, even fast food tray liners to sell the public on expensive, complex tests that have huge failure rates and standards that nobody can meet. HOW STATES CAN BRACE CITIZENS FOR MASSIVE 1ST YEAR ASSESSMENT FAILURE WITH PUBLIC RELATIONS BLITZ \clip\99\12\year1.txt search "assessments" Education Week 2/3/99 In 1st Year of Tests, States Must Brace For Foul Weather By Lynn Olson "Though many educators described the first-year results from Virginia's new Standards of Learning tests, released last month, as a starting point, and pledged to raise scores in the future, others lost no time in questioning both the tests and the passing scores that were set for them. " "You can't go from telling schools and kids they're average or above to telling them they're all failures and not expect the public to be, at the very least, confused," In 1997, customers at McDonald's restaurants in Washington state could read about that state's tests and answer three sample questions on the tray liners that came with every meal. \clip\98\02\newscli3.txt Milwaukee Journal Sentinel New test scores likely to be a jolt Education officials brace parents for change in how knowledge is assessed By Joe Williams of the Journal Sentinel staff January 20, 1998 ..has aggressively prepared his own public relations campaign on this issue, complete with a videotape selling the virtues of the proficiency scores... Quality Counts Eduation Week Jan 11, 1999 In Search of Better Assessments. Vermont paid for expensive special newspaper sections pitching the new assessments with sample questions. NY WASTES $250,000 ON ADS FOR ASSESSMENTS \doc\web\98\07\testpub.txt This month the State Education Department put out an insert in the Sunday papers across the state -- tabloid size newsprint, with a sampling of questions to be on the new exams for elementary, middle and high school. A small sampling, carefully chosen, with drawings and graphics. The Albany Gannett paper "donated" the layout and typesetting, and the State Ed Dept. spent $250,000 to have it inserted in papers across the state. @@Push Out Substance October 2000 10,000 students pushed out. Despite increasing enrollments in the Chicago school system ,the number of high school students has declined, George Schmidt estimates 10,000 students have been pushed out by "higher standard" and draconian testing from 1995 to 1999. @@Review Test WASL parents could view tests before 2003, stopped in 2004 g:\clip\2005\04\ferpa.htm Federal law gives parents rights to review answer sheet and original test. How can this work with tests where original is shredded? "Because answer sheets are usually directly related to a student, they generally fall within the definition of education records to which a parent has the right to inspect and review. " @@Quality Which tests are good? Very Good GMAT (grad college) SAT (precollege) PSAT (high school) ACT (precollege) GED (high school equivalency) ITBS CTBS ERB Educational Records Bureau Good Stanford 9 Average Terra Nova Bad ISAT (Illinois) ITBS (when used for high stakes) TAAS (when used for high stakes) Very Bad WASL Washington Virginia SOL Oregon CIM KIRIS Kentucky CLAS California MCAS Massachusetts MSPAP Maryland AIMS Arizona New Standards Vermont \eztest.txt Wayne Bishop likes ERB, hates Terra Nova = New Dirt "Basic skills can be easily tested and are a prerequisite for more sophisticated skills that are not so easily tested and tend to be as much native intelligence and culture tests as tests of what has been recently learned in school." @@Quotas Accountability schemes demanding x% improvment sound a lot like quotas. ACCOUNTABILITY IN AFFIRMATIVE ACTION LED TO QUOTAS, EDUCATION NEXT? Forbes Magazine, March 22, 1999 has a large article, "Can You Trust The Test Scores?" by Dan Seligman. Sub-head Educational Accountability is all well and good -- unless the educators monkey with the accounts. "In the realm of civil rights, the logic of numbers-based accountability led to race and sex quotas. Similar perversities are discernible in educational accountability." Arthur Hu 4/2000: Testing is what allows the system to measure output, so that they can set quotas like the communist countries tried to do. Few know that in the Great Leap Forward, 30 million Chinese starved when they ended up melting plowshares to meet their metal production goals. Now we're melting down our kids. @@Race POSTED: Monday, Jul. 20, 2009\ Black students trail whites in Wash. school tests The Associated Press EVERETT, Wash. Despite years of work to improve black students' test scores, they continue to trail white students in Washington state's public schools, a federal report has found. @@Ranking %%Schools UNFAIR TO COMPARE HIGH INCOME OR HIGH MINORITY DISTRICTS? \clip\99\07\schrank.txt Published Thursday, February 25, 1999, in the San Jose Mercury News Davis' plan to rank schools sparks debate about disparity BY MICHAEL BAZELEY Mercury News Staff Writer Comment - they want to account for poverty, yet they don't want to account for race. If they did, they would find out (if they had read my National Review piece) that Blacks did just as poorly in integrated San Francisco as segregated East Palo Alto or Oakland, and that blacks do poorly even in Cupertino, city of high-achieving white and Asian students. No newspaper has dared to compare performance of minorites in affluent suburbs and show that minority gaps exist regardless of income or integration level. " Critics say it will do nothing more than spotlight the achievement gap between wealthy and high-poverty schools and embarrass educators working with the most challenging students. " @@Real Estate Value z45\clip\2000\10\realtest.txt California real estate values may depend on SAT-9 test scores, according to Sacramento Bee columnist Marjie Lundstrom, who wrote "Bad case of List Fever over school rankings," published Oct. 22, 2000. @@Refusal ARROWHEAD STUDENTS BOYCOTT WISCONSIN ASSESSMENT From: Gene \doc\web\99\07\testreb.txt Subject: Students Refuse Test-taking The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel 6/7/99 on its front page reported that students in an affluent suburb-school, Arrowhead refused gto take one of Wisconsin's state-mandated proficiency tests. It is the first such rebellion reported in Wisconsin it states. Some 2O% of 80students of 400 tested didn't fill in answers to the tests. It is affecting the relational measurements of school quality in the area. @@Reliability Performance based tests have been shown to be extremely unreliable compared to standardized multiple choice tests, despite claims of "equal" and "high" reliablitity. Scoring goals are only 80% the same on a five point scale, with 20% off by one point for WA. \clip\98\10\obechr.txt Outcome Based Education by Don Closson 8/98 The Rand Corporation studied Vermont's attempt and found that "rater reliability--the extent to which raters agreed on the quality of a student's work--was low." CLAS SCORES NOT RELIABLE FOR INDIVIDUAL SCORES Peter Schrag, "The New School Wars: How Outcome-Based Education Blew Up," The American Prospect no. 20 (Winter 1995): 53- 62 ( \clip\97\25\schwar.htm What made the prospects for CLAS's performance-based future particularly dim was the fact that the independent statistical validation that Wilson ordered (from a group of psychometricians headed by Lee Cronbach of Stanford) cast grave doubts on the possibility that the test could be made reliable for the individual scores that the test was supposed to provide. It was hard for anyone to develop much confidence that a score of 4 in Bakersfield was the same as a score of 4 in Eureka, much less in what the standards were for either. American Federation of Teachers President Al Shanker, who has vigorously pushed for higher school standards, has predicted that it will take 20 years to develop reliable performance-based tests, and there was nothing in CLAS to suggest he's wrong. @@Reasonable z69\clip\2003\08\reason.txt STANDARDS OPERATING PROCEDURE WILL TESTING PUSH LEAVE CHILDREN BEHIND OR MOVE THEM AHEAD? CNN -- Auust 18, 2003 by Greg Botelho Mark Townsend, president of the Colorado PTA: "Kids are individuals, and teaching is not one size fits all." "We're trying to change the culture of American education into a culture of achievement," said Eugene Hickok, the U.S. undersecretary of education. "All the law is asking, in essence, is that a third-grader read at a third-grade level, a fourth-grader does fourth-grade level math," he said. "Given the amount of money we spend, and the amount of potential there is in that third-grader, I don't think that's a huge demand." Hu: By definition, half of all children will perform at or below grade level. It is a statistical fact that children will perform at a range of levels, and some percentage will fall below any given pass level unless the level is calculated to be above the level of the weakest performing student in the population. Every state test has been calibrated with "proficient" set well ABOVE the 50th percentile, as does the NAEP. And many states such as Washington define grade level such as 4th grade as including median, mode, and stem and leaf plots which most adults have never been taught unless they have taken college statistics. @@Repeat SENIOR TAKES 8 YEARS AFTER HS TO PASS EXIT EXAM z69\clip\2003\08\exit8.txt TAKS renews exit test debate'saen'&xlb=180&xlc=1041340 By Bridget Gutierrez San Antonio Express-News Web Posted : 08/18/2003 12:00 AM Juanita Saenz was ranked in the top 10 percent of her senior class, was a B student and a member of her high school honor society Saenz was unable to graduate with her class at Fox Tech High School in 1994 because she couldn't pass the state-mandated exit test. She finally passed the exit exam and received her diploma in 2002. state law allowed her to continue taking the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills after she left school. And she did - for eight years. @@Sample Problems %%Arizona Arizona 10th grade essay test: "What to tell my Friend Who is Dropping Out of School" %%California CLAS CLAS Subjective Questions The late California Learning Assessment asked this math question, according to Eagle Forum: You have 17 apples and 4 kids. What's the most even way to divide them? Most of you would say 4.25 per kid. THe correct answer actually was, find out who the neediest kid was and give that kid the remaining apple. A math question could also go like this: If sea level is rising one inch per year due to global warming, how long til Florida (highest elevation 60 ft) is drowned? The problem with that question is that it's not agreed if there is such a thing as global warming; Kansas '97 sample questions These test questions are very straightforward applications of what is taught in school. %%California STAR California has a series of tests, the STAR Augmentation Exams, linked directly to the standards for grades 2-11. Many districts have been slow to supply teachers, students and parents with materials that will allow students to master content at the level of the state standards. A new website contains material that makes the material of the state standards concrete and that can be used as a way of assessing student readiness for the STAR Augmentation exam: G4 - compare 1/3 to 2.5, 3/7 < 10/21 (comparing different denominator) convert 1/4 to decimal (decimal division) draw -2 on number line 5,064 divided by 6 boxes list prime numbers between 2 and 14 %%GetSmarter SAMPLE TESTS GIVE WORLD CLASS % CORRECT Slick site has online testing, gives % correct worldwide on different tasks. %%Maryland Publicly Released Tasks from Maryland's "assessment" can be accessed at the following web site. You will need adobe acrobat for access: notes %%Microtest III Microtest III Windows application draws on g3-5 question bank to prepare for Stanford 9 test. %%Japan Japanese Math Challenge 8th grade math problems translated (straightforward algebra instead of "problem solving") From:family Here are some examples of Japanese problems for 12 year olds. Go to the following link for American 9th grade test examples. (Comment, these appear to be straightforward applications of basic math operations, not mental obstacle courses like the WA 4th grade test) %%Kentucky KIRIS 1995-96 KIRIS Open-Response Item Scoring Worksheets Sample problem with detailed scoring rubrics. Explain water in a bottle with drops on top, and what would happen to earth if water didn't do this. Math 4 - #1 picture of yard with what appears to be 1/8 of the yard filled in, how long will it take for the whole yard. #2 create a chart to show samples of candy in bag (this would be a frequency histogram), predict how many will be in the next bag (not appropriate, kids don't know how to calcuate the mean yet) Response students guess from the more frequent values, picking mode (most common) or median Flawed KIRIS Science Questions George Cunningham KY: NEW TESTS ARE STW, NOT OBE AND TOO DAMN HARD Here are some example of what Kentucky means by hands-on, real-world performance assessment. These qustions are for 11th graders. Historically, the north has been an industrial, urban area and the South has been a rural, agricultural area. In the latter part of the 20th century, however, the characteristics of both regions have been changing quickly. Explain reasons for these changes. (1997 Social Studies, Question B) Explain how the United States assumed the role of "world power." Desscibe the role of the United States in the world today, providing relevant examples to support your answer. (1997 Social Studies, Question D) Some objects sink in water, some float, and others remain suspended. Explain in detail how each occurs. Use an example of each to support your explanation. (1997 Science, Question B) More Kiris Samples Kentucky KIRIS One math problem involves independent probablity. Most are very straightforward applications of textbook knowledge, unlike the WA test. Electronic interactive questions Sample performance tests Some objects sink in water, some float, and others remain suspended. Explain in detail how each occurs. %%Michigan \clip\98\05\newscl08.txt 2/29/98 Detroit Free Press Social studies MEAP unveiled New test goes beyond 'mindless recall' February 26, 1998 BY TRACY VAN MOORLEHEM AND PEGGY WALSH-SARNECKI Free Press Education Writers Sample question - figure out that Great Lakes or rocky mountains are common to a region and that one uses water vs. railrods more (5th grade question - but they don't teach this!) 8TH grade Q: Identify and explain two ways the U.S. Constitution prevents these problems from occurring (He made judges dependent on the king for their salaries and tenure; and made the military independent and superior to the civilian government.). A: According to the constitution, judges are paid by the taxpayers. Some judges are elected by taxpayers. Federal judges are appointed by the president and approved by the Senate; Supreme Court judges serve for life. According to the Constitution, the president is commander-in-chief of the military; the military is subject to the same laws as other citizens; military promotions are based on merit. 11th grade: Students are asked to read two pages of charts that show various data about women in the military. They're asked to use the data, as well as what they already know, to write a letter to the Secretary of Defense arguing for, or against, women participating in combat. Fingerprint project, write about a loss in your life %%NCTM National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Standards examples taken from Detroit News Sunday, November 23, 1997 'New' math adds up to big controversy Old - I have a quarter, dime and a nickel, how much money do I have answer - sum value of 3 coins 25+10+5 = 40 cents, simple straight arithmetic New - I have three coins in my pocket, how much money could I have? answer - You have to decode whether the answer is the maximum value or every possible combinations. You have to know what the valid types of coins there could be, it does NOT specify whether 50 cent or dollar coins are possible. A similar sort of example is how many ways can you assemble a certain value, also much more difficult than simply adding coins. Maximum value would be $3.00 based on dollar coins, or you would have to add up not only 1 fixed comination, but every possible combination of 3 coins, 1, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 1.00. That would NOT be a simple test of addition, and is far more difficult, and not what they should be teaching since this is not an answer that is particularly useful in real life (that is, you need to add up 3 coins to find out if you have enough money to buy something, you NEVER need to ask yourself how many much money you could have with 3 coins) NCTM comments: In this situation, students must add the value of the coins to arrive at the total. In this situation, students are required to show their arithmetic skills as well as their reasoning and problem-solving skills to reach a conclusion. The total price of a dictionary and an almanac is $32. The total price of two dictionaries and 3 almanacs is $85. What is the price of each book? Picture $32 = Almanac $85 = Dictionary Dictionary Dictionary Almanac Almanac Almanac The cost of a dictionary is _____ The cost of an almanac is ______ Compuationally equivalent, but you have to actually count the number of books in the picture (another task), and decode the meaning of fill in the blanks. This question is not very different in meaning or difficulty, you still need to use algebra to solve for the price of each book. Old: Find the perimeter (drawing as sides labeled 3,6,2,7, etc) (Do you have to understand perimeter to answer the question correctly?) New: Draw a six-sided irregular polygon with a perimeter of 23 units. Show the dimensions of each side. (If a student answers this problem correctly, does the student understand perimeter?) My comments - a student might guess that adding the numbers of the sides is the answer, since the drawing nearly gives away the concept, but it still tests for addition. The second version is much more difficult because you have to be able to draw an six-sided irregular polygon, and then figure out a set of sides that will add up to 23 units, and then draw the numbers correctly as well. Yes they will know perimeter, but it's going to flunk a lot of kids who have the basic concept down because of everything else they threw in. Conclusions - the curriculum may be dumbed down, but the test questions are much more difficult than the old ones, this is consistent with new assessments that flunk everybody on math. They are IQ tests, not tests of basic skills, and often draw on knowledge over the grade level that assumes knowledge they haved not been exposed to. You really can't and shouln't be spending time on trying to teach kids to figure out these much more difficult problems when many don't even have the basics down. %%New Standards Introduction to New Standards Coke bottle from hell 12th grade assessment question. 4th grader must "guess" next box of raisins from frequency histogram, there is no correct answer short of computing the arithmetic mean with a statistical calculator. Bike Trailer 4th grade project Requires skills = professional carpenter. Students are expected to read 25 books per year. see page 7 "applied learning"'s_Guide.pdf zip36\clipim\99\09\01\Parent's_Guide.pdf NEW STANDARDS PROJECT 8TH GRADE \doc\web\97\09\newstand.txt From: Date sent: Sat, 1 Nov 1997 08:59:47 -0500 (EST) since one of your recent posts mentioned that Rhode Island's tests are based on New Standards Project, I am recopying below my post about Philip Daro's presentation on that subject last summer at Vanderbilt. After that presentation, I obtained a copy of the middle school standards and, though I do not still have it, I remember an example of 8th grade math. Roughly, it asked students (individually, not as a group, as I recall -- the standards identify the method for each problem, some group, some individual, some at school, some at home) to solve this problem: 100 students go down a row of 100 lockers, all of which are closed at the beginning, and change the position of the lockers in the following pattern: the 1st student changes the position of each locker, the 2d student of every 2d locker, the 3rd of every 3rd, and so on. The student solution reproduced in the manual showed an analysis based on factors and prime numbers. There were, of course, many other examples of how students could be asked to demonstrate mastery of the standards, some not quite so tough. New Standards ExamplesThese are extremely difficult, at least the WA test at the 7th grade level is straightforward. 12th grade require memorizing the formula for the volume of a sphere, the frustrum of a cone, drawing a side and top view dimensioned soda bottle, and computing the volume. George Cunningham KY: NEW TESTS ARE STW, NOT OBE AND TOO DAMN HARD Here is the type of tasks the New Standards Project expects high school students to master before they get a CIM. giving a report on the basic uses of logarithmic scales in log-log and semi-log plots, in analog computing devices and in physical phenomena, such as pH scales(acidity), decibel scales (sound intensity), and Richter scales (earthquake intensity). solving the following problem: For a regular m-gon, which "rolls" around a (stationary) regular n-gon of the same side length, figure how many time the m-gon (1) rotates about the n-gon and (2) revolves on its axis before the staring po-sition is reached again. solving the following problem: Given the formula for height of an object thrown upward with velocity v: h(t) = h + vt+(1/2)gt (the last t is squared and the h after = has 0 as subscript) use quadratic functions and the quadratic formula to an-swer questions about the motion of projectiles and falling objects. %%Oregon pdf math problem solving samples zip32\clipim\99\04\21\math9-10.pdf math3-5.pdf Oregon Sample Tests .pdf Analysis of Math in Oregon Samples Only 30% of 10th gr. students statewide who took the math test last year earned a CIM-qualifying score (239), and only 48% qualified in reading. %%Stanford 9 stanf9.efx fax doc - Sample Stanford 9 G2/3 G4,5,6, high school problems are relatively easy, G2/3 is counting, etc. %%Terra Nova From: Date sent: Thu, 26 Feb 1998 16:56:48 -0600 (CST) In Tennessee we are switching to the Terra Nova test for our annual comprehensive tests this April. I just received my copy of the "sample" questions for all disciplines 2-8th grade. If all our children don't make 100% on this test, I don't know what would help them do it! I cannot believe that the "skills" I saw tested at these grade levels are really what they are trying to measure! For instance in Math: grade 3- it was little more than counting to ten. By grade 6 they asked the student to solve this algebraic equation: Xx3=6. I AM NOT KIDDING! They also had on there: "what number is bigger that 362". I am giving this sample test to my daughter who is in 3rd grade and see how she does. The upper grades 6-8th were just as bad. Many times the answers were found right on the booklet in definitions which were provided,( just in case the student didn't know that 1 dozen= 12 for instance!) Charlene Kimmel %%Washington Contact the Commision on Student Learning for a booklet of sample questions zip39\clipim\99\12\09\wasl10a.efx Grade 10 Test Specifications p 1-14 EALR Essential Academic Learning Requirements: Benchmarks Tests Are Suppose To Assess 4th Grade Sample Test local: \clip\98\02\washtest\*.htm 4th grade math: Sort 6 blocks of unknown weight 1st Math Task - Flagpole Test for application of proportionality = 10th grade 7th Grade Sample Test Washington State Sample Assessment with critical notes by me. @@Rhode Island NEW STANDARDS PROJECT 8TH GRADE \doc\web\97\09\newstand.txt From: Date sent: Sat, 1 Nov 1997 08:59:47 -0500 (EST) since one of your recent posts mentioned that Rhode Island's tests are based on New Standards Project 44% OF RI 8TH GRADERS FAIL STATE MATH STANDARD, BUT EQUAL TO NATIONAL AVERAGE \clip\97\25\ritest.txt New Test in R.I. Sends Shock Waves Through State By Jeff Archer Rhode Islanders have heard for years that, overall, their state's students score at or above the national average on standardized tests in math- "The state board of regents has defined how good is good enough, and now we have an assessment for measuring that," Rhode Island's new math assessment for grades 8 and 10 comes from the New Standards project, a collaborative effort of more than a dozen states that developed standards and related assessments for student performance. The standards, which the state board of regents adopted this summer, are benchmarked to national and international expectations of what students should know and be able to do. although boasting some of the highest scores in the state, the 2,700-student Smithfield district's results showed 30 percent of its 8th graders not meeting the state standard in basic math skills. Flunk 44 percent basic skills 18 math concepts 19 problem solving @@Rowling ROWLING/POTTER AGAINST STANDARDS BASED TESTING z68\CLIP\2003\07\rowtest.txt Rowling causes umbrage with her Umbridge... STEPHEN FRASER JK ROWLING is the toast of the teaching profession after consigning education ministers and school inspectors to Hogwarts’ remedial class in her latest novel. "The manoeuvre is described by the ministry as "an exciting new phase in the minister’s plans to get to grips with falling standards", writes Rowling. " @@Rubric Alternative Assessments generally have free-response questions for which there is no single correct answer, and answers may not be fully correct or incorrect. They are generally graded against a "criterion-based" "proficiency standard". Instead, you have to come up with rules on how to score each possible kind of answer, and these are called "rubrics". Critics say this requires expensive human scoring, expensive training of experts, expensive monitoring and re-scoring to insure consistency, and still contributes to a high degree of scoring unreliability. In a traditional test, a computer can easily and quickly determine which answer is right or wrong, and uses the number of questions to come up with a finely graded score. Some rubrics call for reporting "sensitive" answers to the proper authorities. TESTING RUBRICS ARE KILLING WRITING \clip\99\13\rubric.txt Phi Delta Kapan May 1999 Writing to the Rubric: Lingering Effects of Traditional Standardized Testing on Direct Writing Assessment, by Linda Mabry "what has gone wrong when a state-mandated performance assessment is threatening curriculum, creating anxiety, and raising equity concerns? " "I will argue that rubrics have the power to undermine assessment. Scoring rubrics are pivotal in operationalizing large-scale and standards-based performance assessments in writing. Rubrics promote reliability in performance assessments by standardizing scoring, but they also standardize writing. The standardization of a skill that is fundamentally self-expressive and individualistic obstructs its assessment." Currently, 38 states assess students' writing skills through direct writing assessments, and all 38 use a rubric to score students' performances.3 Holistic is "whole effect" vs analytic scoring parts to get one score. "claims of their holism rarely survive analysis" HIRSCH CITES STUDY 30% OF PAPERS RECEIVED EVERY GRADE, 100% 5 GRADES \doc\web\99\09\scoreacc.txt "Glen Moody" As Hirsch explained so eloquently in "The Schools We Need," p. 183- under test evasion= quoting Diederich's study from 1961, "when 300 student papers were graded by 53 graders, more than one third of the papers received every possible grade from A,A-,B+,B,B-,C+,C,C-, and D." So much for the authenticity of 'authentic testing' and subjective (rubric) scoring. The study goes on to say that 94% of the papers received 7, 8, or 9 different different grades and none of the essays received less than 5 different grades. \doc\web\97\08\clasrub.txt "The clue is the any discussion in the rubric that talks about having two scorers whose opinion of the material (opinion is my word for it--they of course use other words--but it's still opinion) doesn't agree then a third scorer (the supervisor) will read the assessment and they will either average the scores or come up with some other way to estimate your child's score--you see in assessments, no one knows how to really determine a "correct" answer because there isn't one. ... material. Also, Ohio's rubric made the same kind of reference to sending student tests with "sensitive" answers to the proper authorities or agencies. @@SAT z70\doc\web\2003\08\fairsat.txt FAIRTEST: NATIONAL CENTER FOR FAIR & OPEN TESTING FairTest also found that state-by-state SAT score trend data fail to support the claim that imposing high school graduation tests will improve the overall quality of public education. “In fact, SAT scores in Texas and Florida, states promoted as models for high-stakes testing, rose more slowly than the national average,” @@Scoring - In, WA assessment correct answers are not determined until AFTER the test is given, and various responses are evaluated and given scores. The passing level is not set until after all individual problems are scored vs. "standard". Even if scoring is faulty, the answers might be wrong, the question might be inappropriate, and all high stakes tests are wrong even if the test is valid. %%Error INCOHERENT JUNK PASSES, A STUDENT FLUNKS HIGH STAKES ESSAY TEST z50\clip\2001\06\essay.txt Essay Test's Failings May Hold Back Md. Students By Linda Perlstein Washington Post Staff Writer Friday, June 15, 2001; Page B01 The first essay, written by an F student, got the higher score. The A student who wrote about homework failed the test. Of four writing tests reviewed by The Washington Post, two strong students failed with cleanly written but short essays, and two poor students passed despite answers riddled with errors. The Maryland State Department of Education and the firm that scores the tests acknowledged that the student who wrote about "rubbing a store" shouldn't have passed. But they stood by the other grades. %%General,0,5976755.story?coll=la-news-comment-opinions EDUCATION How I Gamed the SAT By Karin Klein Karin Klein is a Times editorial writer. Explains impressions on testing new writing session, and how to get high scores without being smart %%Temp Labor z52\clip\2001\10\scortemp.txt Who's scoring those high-stakes tests? Poorly trained temps. | "If most standardized tests are scored in an environment like the one I saw this summer, then I don't put much stock in the results. " z57\clip\2002\08\testgrad.txt clipim\2002\08\testgrad\testgrad.htm Christian Science Monitor from the September 18, 2001 edition "Many of my fellow scorers were young college students, and some of them scored essays written by high school students only a few years their junior." – Cameron Fortner STAFF TEMPS PAID 8.50 AN HOUR TO GRADE HIGH STAKES COLLEGE LEVEL TESTS z39\clip\2000\02\temptest.txt Part-time workers check 30-35 exams an hour Friday, February 25, 2000 By MARK VOSBURGH and SCOTT STEPHENS PLAIN DEALER REPORTERS Nearly 400 miles south of the nearest Ohio classroom, in a North Carolina strip mall, $8.50-an-hour temporary workers gather each spring to decide whether your son or daughter gets a high school diploma. LOW PAID TEMPS GRADE HIGH STAKES ASSESSMENTS Temps making the grade--for others August 17, 1999 BY LON GRAHNKE EDUCATION REPORTER zip36\clip\99\16\tempgrade.txt Chicago Sun Times When essays in the Illinois Standards Achievement Test taken by public school students are scored next year, many will be graded by temp workers in North Carolina or Tennessee. $10 AN HOUR FOR "EXPERT" TRAINED TEST GRADERS \clip\99\20\ncshire.txt NCS to hire up to 500 to score K-12 tests Office in Tucson to pay $10 an hour By RuthAnn Hogue The Arizona Daily Star Wednesday, 10 November 1999 National Computer Systems is looking for up to 500 Tucsonans who can make the grade -literally. NCS operates three divisions, one of which scores tests for students in grades K-12. It's opening a Tucson office to score the tests, which are administered by states around the country. @@Seuss z45\clip\2000\09\seutest.txt Even Dr. Suess had by An Opinion posted 9/26/00 1:38:26 PM Charges grow that schools too often teach to the test Readiness: Experts fear that curriculum is narrowing to the subjects most often covered in reviews and neglecting science, social studies and the arts. Originally published Sep 24 2000 Mike Bowler Dr. Seuss' "Hooray For Diffendoofer Day!" - Diffendoofer School gets the highest scores and no one has to go to Flobbertown. @@Slogan Anti-testing slogans @@SSAT \clip\98\11\ssat.txt INCREASED HIGH STAKES TESTING STILL NOT UP TO INTERNATIONAL LEVELS PRINCETON, N.J., Aug. 27 /PRNewswire/ Secondary School Admission Test Board offers SSAT since students could use more, not less high stakes testing. @@Social Studies %%Elastic Clause Elastic Clause is a favorite of test writers. @@South Carolina SOUTH CAROLINA ENTERS TEST FROM HELL COMPETITION \clip\99\06\edclip08.txt Charlotte Observer February 21, 1999 Students train like athletes for new exams S.C. sets tough standards for PACT tests this spring By JONATHAN GOLDSTEIN Staff Writer Throughout South Carolina, schools are bracing for their first encounter with the Palmetto Achievement Challenge Tests (PACT) this spring. [must show thinking, not just muliple choice, raising standards etc] Children who blow it on PACT may have to go to summer school. Or they could be held back a year, depending on their grades and how well they do on other assignments. @@Spanish 88% BASIC OR PROFICIENT ON SPANISH READING TEST \clip\98\14\spantest.txt Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, October 12, 1998 READING TESTS COME OUT DIFFERENT IN SPANISH Bilingual school pupils read better than statistics indicate, just not in English By Georgia Pabst of the Journal Sentinel staff [you've got to wonder if this test is comparable when most english proficiency based tests are flunking half of the white kids!] @@Special Education Marc Tucker said that all but the most severely disabled should be held to the same standards. But some states are also including the disabled as well. And if all are required to meet the highest standards, anyone who doesn't have a high or average IQ will simply flunk since mediocrity or a D for effort is no longer an option. z75\clip\2003\11\sptest.txt,0,1390436.story?coll=bal-education-top Some parents of special-ed students oppose plan for testing All high-schoolers would have to pass state exams to get diplomas By Tricia Bishop Sun Staff November 3, 2003 If Maryland's special-education teens were required... 90 percent of them would not earn their diplomas. "It is going to raise the expectations for these students, without a doubt," said Carol Ann Baglin, assistant state superintendent for special education. "Some people cannot do algebra or geometry. I do not think that should hold them back from receiving a diploma," In 1994, 74 percent of special-education students passed the low-level Maryland Functional Tests, which the assessments will replace, compared with 94 percent of general education students. Last year, 81 percent of special-education children passed; 2000 saw a high of 87 percent passing. LD STUDENTS SETTLE CLASS ACTION SUIT OVER "HIGH STAKES TESTING" Learning Disabled Students Settle Class Action Lawsuit Against Oregon - Case Has National Implications for High Stakes Testing PORTLAND, Ore., Feb 1 /PRNewswire/ -- Lawyers for children with learning disabilities today announced the settlement of a class action lawsuit against the Oregon State Board of Education, which alleged that Oregon's assessment system discriminated against learning disabled students. z47\doc\web\2001\1\spectest.txt z43\clipim\2000\07\03\alaska\alaska.htm PARENTS: EXIT EXAM UNFAIR SOME SAY DISABLED STUDENTS DON'T HAVE CHANCE AT DIPLOMA By Rosemary Shinohara Achorage Daily News (Published July 3, 2000) Neal Lefler reached Page 10 in the reading section of the Alaska high school exit exam before frustration overcame him. A 3-year-old state law requires that all students pass tests in reading, writing and math to graduate, beginning with the Class of 2002. The tests measure whether students have mastered material required by the Alaska Board of Education. If students fail the tests, they'll leave school with certificates of attendance rather than diplomas. ONLY 33% OF NY CITY, 48% OF STATE PASS NY READING TEST June 2, 1999 search: standards assessments \clip\99\12\nytest.txt Poor Districts Fare Worst On N.Y. Assessment A breakout of the performance of special education students showed that a full 82 percent did not meet the state vs 48% general TESTS WILL HARM SPECIAL ED STUDENTS WHO DON'T MEET HIGH STANDARDS \clip\99\10\edclip05.txt New Tests Worry Special-Ed Advocates Students May Lose Diplomas, They Say By Linda Perlstein Washington Post Staff Writer Sunday, April 4, 1999; Page C01 Most special-education students in Maryland, Virginia and the District now receive diplomas when they graduate from high school. ILLINOIS PARENTS FILE LAWSUIT REMOVE TESTING REQUIREMENT FOR DISABLED STUDENT clip\99\07\edclip06.txt State says lawsuit challenging ISTEP is premature move By Barb Albert Indianapolis Star/News I NDIANAPOLIS (March 2, 1999) -- The state said Monday that the lawsuit she and three other parents of special education students filed over ISTEP testing is premature. Of the 11th-graders in special education who took the test for a second time last fall, about four-fifths of them failed. They have three more attempts to pass, or they can seek a waiver. @@Standards, Pass point TAKS PASSING SCORE IS SET _AFTER_ TEST IS TAKEN The projected passing rate was to correctly answer 44 of 73 questions. But after the tests were graded, the passing standard was set at 34 of 73 questions. TAKS' pass level decided after testing Thursday, February 17, 2005 Fort Worth Star-Telegram TAKS test-takers won't know the passing standard for this school year until after the exams have been scored. 95% PASS RATE FOR MCAS SHOULD BE IN 70S Bracey slams Achieve report @@Standards, Percent Meeting The whole trick to standards based test is "setting the standards", but the problem is that you're always pulling a pass point out of hat, and consistently requiring 95% to pass a test that only 50-60% of students pass now. It is expected that "teaching to the test" and "aligning the curriculum" and good old fashioned wishful thinking and putting a gun to kids heads will cause everybody to pass such "high standards". After all, we owe it to all those poor minority kids, right? Spectrum passing on "Standards-Based" tests ------------------------------------------ 0% WA schools 4th grade meeting 80% pass goal 2% VA school meeting 70% pass goal 2% MA Boston minority 7th grade test 5% WA minority 4th grade math test 9% Vermont science assessment 21% NV Blacks passing HS exit test 20% MA urban districts 10th grade MCAS 20% WA 4th Grade Math Assessment 1997, 7th grade 1998 20% WA NAEP "proficient" in math 25% OR 10TH Grade Cim 1999 25% MD 8TH Grade Reading 1998 26% VT NSRE Math problem solving 29% FL 10th Grade Reading 1997 30% CO 4th Grade Writing Assessment 1997 30% OR 10th Grade Math CIM 1996-97 30% Minneapolis students of color 8th grade grad exam 32% Maryland 1993 32% OR 10th Grade Math CIM 1997-98 33% FL 5th Grade 1math 997 35% Minnesota 5th grade math and reading 1998 40%-50% Council for Basic Education expectation 48% NY reading test 1999 50% MA 10th grade math 1997 50% CT 4/6/8 math and reading 1997 59% CT 4th grade math 60% UK 11 yr old English 61% Michigan 1998 revised hs math 62% UK 11 yr old math 75% Nevada Senior math 80% WA 10 year goal for all tests, all grades. 93% Texas TAAS 11th grade exit %%Adults NEARLY HALF OF TAVERN ADULTS FLUNKED HIGH SCHOOL PROFICIENCY z46\clip\2000\11\optbar.txt Tavern patrons find how proficient they are Ninth-grade test too tough for some Saturday, November 4, 2000 Dennis Fiely (Ohio) Dispatch Staff Reporter the first Short North Tavern Scholastic Challenge. Nine of the 23 volunteers failed at least one of the test's five sections, meaning they would not be eligible to graduate from high school. %%Expected MARYLAND USES BOOKMARKING PROCEDURE z68\clip\2003\07\stanset.txt,0,7605773.column?coll=bal-education-top Setting standards is tricky Scoring: Educators will help decide what's a proficient score on tests that carry a lot of weight. Mike Bowler July 9, 2003 "Working on our own, we book-marked the questions we thought would be the appropriate cutoffs for proficient and advanced. After discussion, we voted again. Our consensus was plugged into a computer that instantly told us how many Maryland fourth-graders scored proficient in March - by our standards. ..Most state tests are more generous in grading than the National Assessment of Educational Progress, .. nearly 80 percent of Colorado kids were deemed proficient by Colorado, while only about a third scored at the proficient level on NAEP. " FOGLEMAN WANTS 40TH PERCENTILE TO BE PASSING STANDARD FOR BLACKS INSTEAD OF 50 z54\clip\2001\11\lowstan.txt,1426,MCA_437_879432,00.html Fogelman urges lower standard for city schools By Aimee Edmondson the state's performance standard for schools is the 50th national percentile on achievement tests. Fogelman wants Memphis's standard to be the 40th percentile. Right now, a 40 is an F on the state report card. PASSING STANDARD WOULD FAIL EVERY SCHOOL IN THE STATE z50\clip\2001\07\fail.txt With School Testing, Unresolved Questions Hill, White House Differ Over Standards By Michael A. Fletcher Washington Post Staff Writer Tuesday, July 24, 2001; Page A03 Despite an overall improvement in test scores, nearly every school in Texas and North Carolina would have been deemed "failing" at some point between 1994 and 1999 under the school accountability scheme being negotiated by a congressional conference committee, according to a report by a team of educational researchers. PASSING IS A MURKY CONCEPT STANDARDS - WHEN BEST ISN'T GOOD ENOUGH z50\clip\2001\07\standard.txt July 18, 2001 LESSONS Who Puts the Standards Into Standardized Tests? By RICHARD ROTHSTEIN In Ohio this spring, 98 percent of students who took the state's graduation exam passed. In California, less than half passed a similar test. Surely, young people aren't that much smarter in Ohio than in California. It's just that passing is a murky concept. In Massachusetts, only 28 percent of eighth graders were proficient on a state science exam, but the national test showed their performance was as good as or better than students in every nation except Singapore. NO TEST SHOULD BE HARDER THAN WHAT MOST ADULTS KNOW When it comes to difficulty level, my guiding star is my friend Deborah Meier's comment, which she called Meier's Mandate: "No student should be expected to meet an academic requirement that a cross-section of adults in the community cannot." Kohn's corollary to Meier's Mandate is: "People who talk piously about making schools competitive in the 21st century and intensifying accountability and standards should not merely be required to take those tests themselves, but to have their scores published in the newspaper." HALF OF STUDENTS ARE EXPECTED TO FAIL THE NEW STANDARDS \clip\98\18\edclip01.txt Christian Science Monitor TUESDAY, DECEMBER 1, 1998 LEARNING, K-12 ACHIEVEMENT TESTS States to public: Improvement will take time "From 40 to 50 percent [of students] aren't going to meet the new state standards. Of course, there has been some backlash, but there will be a period of rising to those new standards," ALL W. VA STUDENTS ARE REQUIRED TO BE ABOVE AVERAGE! \doc\web\98\10\abavg.txt All students are, at a minimum, expected to achieve at the 50th percentile at the eleventh grade level on the norm-referenced component of the statewide assessment program in order to qualify for a warranty signifying their mastery of basic skills. %%Japan Gerald Bracey 4/2000: I recall an article about Japanese education indicating that by high school, a) as many as 95% of the students don't know what's going on in math and b) the passing score for some tests is as low as 5% correct ("The Secret of Japanese Education," Phi Delta Kappan, October, 1993). %%Minneapolis \clip\98\02\charter.txt Investor's Business Daily - National Issue (01/23/98) Catering To Students' Needs Charter Schools Specialize, With Some Success ''Last year in Minneapolis, 70% of children of color failed eighth-grade graduation standards,'' DeBoer said. ''Not one person lost his job.'' %%Percent Passing rates for some tests can be as low as only 25% Gwinnett GA: Results for fourth-grade pilot tests in 1998 and 1999, as well as internal school documents, show each of the four subjects in the test can be passed by correctly answering as few as 24-28 percent of the questions in social studies and math and 45 percent in language arts and science. This is true in NC as well. I have students who got 25% correct and are merely 5 or 6 "points" away from passing. Teresa Glenn %%SAT Many states are setting pass rates that are lower than the % of students who beat the SAT average! AVERAGE ON SAT IS A FAILING SCORE ON MCAS z47\clip\2000\12\gateway.txt Test scores offer puzzle at Gateway Note - I estimated that a 80% failure rate on the WASL means it's easier to beat the SAT average than graduate based on WASL, this is similar since a 500 math is average. Thursday, December 14, 2000 By GEORGE GRAHAM Gateway 10-graders taking the assessment tests last spring experienced higher failure rates than in previous years with 41 percent failing in English, 68 percent in math and 38 percent in science. In contrast, this year's Scholastic Aptitude Test scores were the highest ever for Gateway, with a mean verbal score of 521 and a mean math score of 491. %%Setting Bunch of Guys Sitting Around How Washington and other states set standards. Cunningham: ESSAY TESTS DON'T WORK THERE IS NO GOOD WAY TO SET PERFORMANCE STANDARDS EVEN WITM M-CHOICE STANDARDIZED TESTS NO GOOD BEYOND K-5 At the present time there is no accepted, correct way of setting performance standards. There aren't even any good proposed ways of doing this. The most carefully researched and expensively implemented are the performance standards used by NAEP. These have been savaged by almost everybody. %%United Kingdom \clip\98\03\edclip2.txt Christian Science Monitor 1/28/98 Trash the Calculator, It's Back to Basics in Britain In tests of 11-year-olds, 62 percent currently pass the standards in arithmetic. In test results of 11-year-olds nationally in 1996, fewer than two-thirds reached the standard expected of them in English and maths and just over 60% achieved the required standard in science. The government's aim is that by 2002 80% will reach the standards expected in English and 75% in maths. @@Study %%Against BENEFITS OF EXIT EXAMS OUTWEIGHED BY COST, LOW MINORITY PASS RATES z70\clip\2003\08\examstud.txt (9) Education Reform Can't Rely on High School Exit Exams, Study Says The benefits of high school exit exams -- namely, improved curricula and instruction -- may be outweighed by drawbacks such as high implementation costs and disproportionately low pass rates for minority and low-income students, according to a new study from the Center on Education Policy ( ) Nineteen states currently administer exams that students must pass to receive a diploma, covering 52 percent of the nation's public school students and 55 percent of minority public school students. Study: State High School Exit Exams: Put To The Test ( ) (140 pages, PDF), found that African American, Hispanic, poor, and disabled students had significantly lower pass rates -- than their schoolmates. @@Science VERMONT REFORMS FLUNKS FIRST SCIENCE ASSESSMENTS Vermont In Vermont's first science assessment, just 9% of the students "met or exceeded the standard", while on the NSRE math assessment, the percentages doing so in the vital areas of problem solving and understanding of basic concepts were 26% and 33% @@Standard Setting %%After giving test From: Monty Neill [mailto:monty@FAIRTEST.ORG] Sent: Tuesday, November 07, 2000 8:16 AM To: ARN-L@LISTS.CUA.EDU Subject: Re: CA High School Exit Exam Massachusetts was set after test had been administered twice. It is not uncommon. Supposedly it helps provide some sort of reality check on setting cut scores, but in Mass as elsewhere unreality is preferred, hence current failure rates of over 50 percent. Monty The cut points (scores required for passing) will not be set until after the first administration of the exam. That sounds peculiar to me; I'm not sure how to interpret it. Is it standard procedure to administer a high-stakes criterion-referenced exam to 400,000 kids and *then* decide, after the fact, what the passing score is? --Erwin %%Angoff The Anghoff method is how most "standards based" testing score cutoffs are established, but it makes little or no sense. Cunningham says "There is widespread consensus that the Angoff type approach does not work very well. Standards can be set unrealistically and different judges can set wildly conflicting cut-scores." STANDARD IS SET AFTER TEST IS CONSTRUCTED AND GIVEN Hu (WASL) the passing standard is not set until > AFTER the test is given. In fact, the correct answers for a each > problem and the rubrics to determine aren't created until after > all 200,000 responses are in. So the test is constructed to test > for a standard that does not exist until AFTER the test is given. Victor Steinbock: This is indeed exactly what MCAS does. In fact, on the first MCAS, they did not even know what the cut-off scores were going to be OR how they were going to be determined. Cunningham Of course if you are going to do standards-based testing you have to have performance standards, which is what the setting of cut-points is called. The most widely used method of doing this is the Angoff Method. It is used by many states and one form of it is used by the NAGB board in setting the NAEP standards. To implement this method, you have a group of judges examine each item and estimate the probability that a minimally qualified student would get it correct. The probabilities are pooled to set the cut-point. In its purest form the judges are given no information about actual student performance. As a result, they often come up with cut-points that make no sense. For example they might result in virtually every student failing. Then we have the Modified Angoff Method which permits information about actual student performance to be given to the judges. The more of this information that is given, the more the process begins to resemble norm-referenced testing. This is ironic because the purpose of SBER is to avoid norm-referenced comparisons. ANGOFF IS CALLED "ANTIQUATED" z43\clip\2000\07\r9314.htm 1995 Standard Setting Methods, Gregory E. Stone Stone G. E. (1995) Standard setting methods. Rasch Measurement Transactions, 9(3), p. 452. Practitioners of modern measurement have realized the hazards of using untransformed raw scores in every area except one - that of setting performance standards. The employment of antiquated models, such as Angoff (1971), seems to be more the rule than the exception. Angoff attempts to quantify only one point on a construct by asking judge panels to define "minimal competence". This "quantification" is generated solely from predictions of examinee success and is expressed as a proportion of correct responses on the entire test (e.g. a raw score of 100 out of 150). Such simple, untransformed proportions are useless for the construction of meaning, however, because no variable is defined. ADJUST PASS POINT TO DIFFICULTY OF THE TEST z43\clip\2000\07\passpoints.txt Why Not Use 70% As The Pass Point? Pass points are a critical component of any certification test. It is the standard at which those who have demonstrated minimal acceptable competence are separated from those who have not. Simply writing a test then setting the pass point at 70%, without any supporting rationale, leaves a lot of questions open such as: how do you know if a 70% pass point will result in all competent individuals passing and no one else passing?; why was 70% chosen?; If a 70% pass point is determined under the modified Angoff Method then it can be stated that 70% is an acceptable pass point. TEXAS DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH Bureau of Emergency Management EMS STANDARDS Establishing the Cut (Passing) Score The purpose of a cut score study is to establish the amount of information that a candidate needs to know in order to pass an examination. In the case of the written examination, the cut score represents the standard of knowledge expected of a minimally competent candidate at the entry level. A cut score may be based on the collective judgements of subject matter experts regarding test questions. The Angoff method of cut score determination will be utilized. The steps in the Angoff procedure are as follows: 1. A group of subject matter experts is selected to serve as judges; 2. The subject matter experts agree on a definition of the "minimally competent" practitioner; 3. The subject matter experts read each test item and make their best judgements about the probability that the minimally competent practitioner will answer the item correctly; 4. The subject matter experts' judgements are averaged for each item on the examination; these averages are used to compute the cut score for the examination as a whole. z43\clip\2000\07\ang2.txt ETS E-mail Explaining Angoff Method ACT Research Report Abstract Report Number: 89-2 [050289920] Author: Bowers, John J., & Shindoll, Russelyn R. Title: A Comparison of the Angoff, Beuk, and Hofstee Methods for Setting a Passing Score This study compared four methods for setting a passing score on a 200-item nationally administered professional certification examination. Angoff ratings made without item difficulty available to raters had a moderately low positive correlation with item difficulties and produced a high passing score. Angoff ratings made with item difficulty data available correlated highly with those difficulties and produced a lower passing score. The Beuk and Hofstee approaches seek to produce a passing score that compromises between differences in ratings between raters who focus primarily on an absolute standard (i.e., percent of item correct) and those who focus on a relative standard (i.e., percent of examinees passing). The Beuk and Hofstee methods produced identical passing scores within the parameters set by the two sets of Angoff ratings. further research on the Beuk and Hofstee methods is recommended. %%General FLORIDA PASS LEVEL MOVED FROM 8TH TO 10TH GRADE LEVEL z81\clip\2004\06\florpas.txt A TEST IN FLORIDA Washington Post -- June 15, 2004 by Terry N. Neal and John Poole graduating seniors to pass a competency test for 20 years, The A+ plan merely increased the level of proficiency required for graduation from an 8th-grade to a 10th-grade level. STANDARD ISN'T STANDARD z70\clip\2003\09\makegrade.txt COMMENT MAKING THE GRADE GRADE by Malcolm Gladwell Issue of 2003-09-15 New Yorker According to a recent article by Robert L. Linn, of the University of Colorado, the state of Kentucky gave its middle-school students a reading test and analyzed the results using all three methods. With bookmark, 61 per cent of the students were considered proficient; with the contrasting-groups method, the pass rate was 22.7 per cent; and with Jaeger-Mills 10.5 per cent were proficient. When we say that we want American schoolchildren to be proficient in reading, which standard are we referring to? NO PROFIENCY RATING FOR NAEP SCIENCE Education Week NAEP Assigns No Grades on Science Exam By Millicent Lawton 5/7/97 The executive committee of the National Assessment Governing Board, the independent citizens' panel that sets policy for NAEP and defines the achievement standards, decided April 15 to delay releasing the part of the report that makes a judgment about student performance. Michael J. Guerra, a governing-board member, said in a prepared statement that the board simply wasn't ready to sign off on describing what students should know and be able to do in science. That omission leaves the students comparable only with one another. NATL ACADEMY SCIENCES: PROFICIENCY LEVELS ARE FUNDAMENTALLY FLAWED \doc\web\98\08\notest.txt > FROM: REP. BILL GOODLING > RE: NATIONAL TESTING PROHIBITION > DATE: OCTOBER 15, 1998 NAGB is required to report to > Congress and the White House on their response to the recent National > Academy of Sciences Study which stated that the achievement levels > (basic, proficient, advanced)--- which are intended to be used for the > national tests---are fundamentally flawed; Cunningham says setting proficiency levels is bogus. RUBRICS SET FOR "B", EVERYONE MUST GET A B. NO "A"s, OREGON SETS, TESTS "NEW STANDARD" \clip\97\25\edclip7.txt 11/3/97 Orange County Register Schools chief makes her pick for statewide test EDUCATION: The superintendent chooses Terra Nova `with reluctance,' saying all the choices were`seriously flawed.' By DENNIS LOVE The Orange County Register Eastin was required to make her recommendation to the State Board of Education under a new state law that requires that all California public schools use a single standardized test to measure the academic achievement levels of each student in grades 2- 11 by May 15. Eastin said she made her recommendation ``with reluctance'' because all three tests submitted for her consideration ``are seriously flawed, with the level of test content falling years below grade-level expectations.'' @@Stanford 9 SAT-9 Harcourt and Brace test uses NTCM standards. Offers both norm and criterion referenced measurement, opened ended and multiple choice, has reputation for handing out low scores. Chosen by California to replace cancelled CLAS test. "Stanford 9 Special Report" Harcourt Brace Educational measurement flyer 1-800-211-8378 for copy. 1-800-232-1223 for fax requests customer service for norms booklet. "Stanford 9 is an assessment of mathematical power" "Alignment with NCTM Standards" Results are available both norm-referenced and objective-referenced, four levles of Performance Standards developed through the "expert judgement" of national panels of teachers, are provided, representing what students should know and be able to do with respect to teacher's expectations. Based on NCTM standards, SCANS report, New Standards Reference examinations. %%Critic z43\clipim\2000\06\25\sat9\sat9.htm Reliablility of SAT9 by test-defier. Claims SAT-9 is way above grade level reading metrics, and that test is more difficult for the grade level than the graduate LSAT law school test. Take an algebra course where test is secret and only 1 in 3 questions matches what was taught. %%General Stanford 9 is a crock?? Most T or F are usually T?? \clip\97\28\oemath.htm Open-Ended Mathematics The Stanford 9 open-ended mathematics subtests assess the mathematical content and processes recommended by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). Both the format and the nature of the subtests encourage students to value mathematics and to develop confidence in their mathematical ability \clip\97\26\stanf9.txt Orange County Register News & Features Nov. 18, 1997 (Stanford 9 is tough) New state assessment test could prove a challenge EDUCATION: The exam puts a premium on reading and grammar. Low scores are predicted. By DANIEL M. WEINTRAUB The Orange County Register @@STATES Seems nearly every state is on the testing kick. \clip\98\18\edclip01.txt Christian Science Monitor TUESDAY, DECEMBER 1, 1998 LEARNING, K-12 ACHIEVEMENT TESTS States to public: Improvement will take time Gail Russell Chaddock ( Staff writer of The Christian Science Monitor "But the Bay State took a cue from states that had already weathered dismal first-round assessments, such as Texas, Washington, Oregon, and Colorado. Weeks before releasing the MCAS results, state officials began preparing the public for the low scores - and for the fact that improving them requires a sustained commitment to better content and teaching." HALF OF STATES HAVE OR WILL HAVE GRADUATION TESTS WILL VA TEST FLOP LIKE KENTUCKY FIASCO? \clip\98\16\vastand.txt Will New Va. School Standards Pass Muster With the Public? By Victoria Benning Washington Post Staff Writer Monday, November 16, 1998; Page A01 The movement to hold students and schools to tougher standards has swept most of the country. Twenty-four states have, or soon will, introduce high school tests that students must pass to graduate. More than 30 states rate schools based, at least in part, on their test scores. @@Subjects Traditional tests are for math and verbal skills. Now states are attempting to include social studies, arts, fitness. @@Suicide HIGH STAKES TESTS IN INDIA BRING HIGH RATES OF SUICIDE z68\clip\2003\07\indsuic.txt India's summer heat comes with rash of student suicides June 30, 2003 "Tenth grade exams are crucial, as good results can get a student into a better high school for the final two years. Twelfth grade exams determine who qualifies for one of India's 12,600 colleges and 214 universities. " "southern state of Kerala, which has India's highest literacy rate but also its worst suicide rate, at least nine students killed themselves on May 16, the day 10th grade exam results were released. " @@Superintendent SUPERINTENDENT MUST PASS ENGLISH TEST OR BE FIRED z70\clip\2003\08\suptest.txt Laboy gets time, warning on test by Kevin Rothstein Thursday, August 21, 2003 Education Commissioner David Driscoll has given the embattled Lawrence schools chief until the end of the year to pass an English fluency exam, vowing to recommend his firing if the deadline is not met. @@Teacher Exam TEACHER TEST SCORES USED TO FIRE GOOD TEACHERS IN MASS Educators left in the cark on tests for U.S. teachers Seattle Times July 8, 2001 p. A4 A major testing firm refuses to release validity data to federal investigators, though testign standards say test score should not be only measure, Kerri Begeron was fired in June for twice failing elementary education test in Massachusetts. 2001 z48\clip\2001\03\techtest.htm Education Policy Analysis Archives Volume 9 Number 6 February 22, Teacher Test Accountability: From Alabama to Massachusetts Larry H. Ludlow Boston College Given the high stakes of teacher testing, there is no doubt that every teacher test should meet the industry guidelines set forth in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. [but they don't, with disasterous consequences] There are no legislated penalties for faulty products (tests) nor are there opportunities for test takers simply to raise questions about a test and to have their questions taken seriously by an impartial panel. "the error rate per examination was simply too high” (Richardson, 1989, pp. 822- 24) Thus, none of the examinations that comprised the certification test possessed content validity because of five major errors by the test developer and the test developer had made six major errors in establishing cut scores" "In Alabama, the negative point-biserial correlations led to the discovery of items for which there was no correct answer. Also discovered were items for which there were multiple correct answers" "The developer's work product was accepted by the state largely on the basis of faith" Very tough, open response test from 1880. These are very, very old, and very hard. 1880 Illinois Teacher Exam SEA-TIMES ON OBE TEACHER CERTIFICATION, KNOCKS HOCHSTATTER \clip\98\16\teaccert.txt The Seattle Times Company November 8, 1998 Toughening the standards on teachers by Jolayne Houtz Seattle Times staff reporter TEACHERS TESTS JUST AS INVALID AS STUDENT PERF-BASED TESTS One-third of those would-be teachers, all college graduates, failed the basic-skills section that state officials said could be passed by a reasonably well-educated 10th-grader. [These tests are evidently set to the same level of difficulty as performance-based CIM tests which are allegedly set to the level of a "well-educated" student, but are typically flunked by 50-70% of the age group. The Massachusetts test was failed by a MIT PhD student, and Harvard and Wellesley were the only colleges which met the test-defined accreditation standard - these tests were no better matched to teachers than most standards-based tests are matched with typical students. It's the same plan, with the same problems as OBE for students.] @@Teaching to the test DON'T KNOW MUCH ABOUT GOVERNMENT z39\clip\2000\01\mcasno.txt Danvers Herald, Massachusetts January 13, 2000 MCAS scuttles course in American government By STEPHEN HAGAN HERALD STAFF MCAS made them do it. Danvers school officials this week announced they had ended the American government course taught to ninth graders because the information taught in the course was not on the state-mandated Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System test. ONE QUARTER TO HALF THE YEAR SPENT ON TEACHING TO TAAS EXAM \clip\99\05\exitexam.txt February 3, 1999, in the San Jose Mercury News `Exit exams' already being put to the test Standards: Graduation hurdle favored by Gov. Davis is a tricky undertaking. BY MICHAEL BAZELEY Mercury News Staff Writer By the time they're 10th-graders, the third quarter of the year is devoted almost entirely to preparing for the TAAS, ``The first and last semester, I get to do my regular stuff,'' Angelo said. ``But the two other semesters are exclusively TAAS. @@Tennesee (William Sanders) @@Value Added Testing @@Sanders Tennessee has the TVAS Valued-added test, which attempts to measure not just how well students did, but how well schools help out students who started out with bad scores. The people behind this test make a very good case for sticking with traditional standardized multiple choice machine-scored tests compare with new "authentic" assessments. Tennesee high school students must get 70% of a 8th grade level competency exam to get a diploma, they can continue to take the test later. Sanders claims that his tests show that teachers matter more than income, and there are as many good teachers in cities as in the suburbs. File on Sanders's TVAAS SANDERS ON RITTMEYER DEFENSE I do share the view that reporting of results that merely express the percentage of students that have crossed various arbitrary "bars" can be seriously misleading to the public and may be having some serious negative unintended consequences on students SANDERS SAYS TEACHERS, NOT POVERTY MATTERS, EQUAL QUALITY BETWEEN CITY AND SUBURB z47\clip\2001\01\sander.txt Thursday, 01/11/01 Analyst rocks education boat with theory that teacher, not economic status, is more important By DIANE LONG and MICHAEL CASS Staff Writers "Of all the factors we study class size, ethnicity, location, poverty they all pale to triviality in the face of teacher effectiveness," Sanders said. SANDERS HAS GONE SOLO WITH VAAS VALUE ADDED ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Who is the VAAS Independent School Team? Dr. William L. Sanders, the creator of the Value-Added Assessment System at the University of Tennessee, is the founder and president of Educational Value-Added Assessment Services (EVAAS). He designed the research that has resulted in a different approach to the use of student assessment data by combining statistical mixed model theory and methodology with students' longitudinal data. At the University, Dr. Sanders is Professor of Statistics, Director of the University of Tennessee - Knoxville Value-Added Research and Assessment Center, and Director of the Statistical and Computing Services Unit. He is a frequent speaker at regional and national educational conferences on educational assessment, and consultant to both state and local educational commissions and school boards. SchoolWorks, based in Raleigh, NC, is a service of Independent School Counsel, Atlanta, GA, Consultants to Independent Schools in Planning, Funding, and Governance. SchoolWorks is providing the communications and consulting linkage between EVAAS and independent schools. Edward C. (Ted) Lingenheld, its managing director, is a former Duke University admissions director and head of Rutgers Preparatory School (NJ), Tatnall School (DE), and Cary Academy (NC). The SchoolWorks team, trained in the applications of the VAAS, will serve as the VAAS Program Representatives in assisting schools through the planning and interpretation process. %%General SANDERS HIRED BY SEATTLE Under new yardstick, school is sure winner. Seattle Times 11/7/00 Linda Shaw Keith Ervin Highland Park Elementary scores well under Sanders Value Added System that scored poorly under other tests. Sanders is under contract to Seattle, but some question multiple choice tests. Bergeson says it's cute SANDERS VALUE ADDED POPULAR ON SPEAKER CIRCUIT z41\clip\2000\05\sanders.txt May 2000 He's Got Your Number By David Hill Teacher Magazine These days, the hottest speaker on the education-policy circuit is a soft- spoken 58-year-old professor of statistics who has spent much of his career crunching numbers for agricultural researchers. \clip\98\16\tenntest.txt This story appeared in The Times on Thursday, November 12, 1998. Freshman scores up, but low for region By Kevin Wiatrowski The Chattanooga Times "The competency tests measure skills at an eighth-grade level. Students must pass with a grade of 70 or better to get a diploma. They can take the tests as often as necessary to pass. " %%Sanders, father of value added Paper on value added test Write to Bill Sanders for more information Dr. William Sanders Statistical and Computing Services 225 Morgan Hall University of Tennessee Knoxville, TN 37996 Ask Bill for sure for the following: 1. The principal and teacher's guide. (A great general explanation in lay language). 2. The 1995 Graphical Summary 3. A copy of his remarks to the legislative oversight committee 4. The teacher effect study I'm sure he has some others that are useful, but these should give you an idea of the value of value-added. From: "Jones,Susan" Our statewide results that are sent out to every school district and Education Service Center around the state does include the Asian population in the breakdown of the results. To obtain copies of these results for grades 3-8 and exit-level, you can call our office at 512-463-9536 and we would be happy to mail them to you. Susan Jones Student Assessment TVAAS SANDERS SELLS IDEA TO FLORIDA \clip\99\02\edclip07.txt St Petersburg (FLA) Times Schools grading plan uses new tack A Tennessee professor of statistics says his system examines students' improvement over time. By STEPHEN HEGARTY © St. Petersburg Times, published January 17, 1999 [But they don't say that Sanders believes that performance based tests are a total waste and abomination] SEA-TIMES ON OBE TEACHER CERTIFICATION, KNOCKS HOCHSTATTER \clip\98\16\teaccert.txt The Seattle Times Company November 8, 1998 Toughening the standards on teachers by Jolayne Houtz Seattle Times staff reporter SANDERS OF TENNESEE CONSULTED, BUT HE CONDEMNS WASL-STYLE TESTS! Many of the commission's findings are underscored by some compelling - and controversial - work in Tennessee. Bill Sanders, a statistician at the University of Tennessee in Knoxville, set out in the early 1980s to measure something many educators said couldn't be quantified: the impact of an individual teacher on students. [Bill Sanders has the largest and most detailed indictment of the ineffectiveness and waste of performance based tests such as the WASL ever published] TENNESEE USES VALUE ADDED FOR FAIRER ACCOUNTABILITY \clip\98\09\qvalue.txt By Lynn Olson When local newspapers ranked schools in an affluent Maryland district on the basis of test scores, Broad Acres Elementary School always ended up near the bottom of the barrel. \clip\98\08\tvaas.txt Lawmakers Cave in to Teachers 4/14/98 Kingsport Times-News ( [TVAAS valued added assesment is eliminated because it evalutes teachers as well as students] \clip\98\05\newscl04.txt 2/19/98 Oakridger (TN) Half of state's second-graders taking non-mandated, non-funded tests anyway The Associated Press NASHVILLE -- More than half of Tennessee's second-graders will take a standardized achievement test this spring, even though it's no longer required -- or paid for -- by the state. [terry nova]The state Education Department told the Nashville Banner that 38,039 of Tennessee's 74,333 second-graders will be tested. . Testing of all second-graders would cost $90,000. (or just about $1 per student) 1/21/98 \clip\98\02\edclip3.txt 2 states add context to raw scores BY TRACY VAN MOORLEHEM Free Press Education Writer Before 1992, no one in Tennessee needed to see annual state test results to know how their schools ranked. The poorest schools and districts scored at the bottom while the most affluent ones shone at the top. \clip\98\02\sanders\sanders1.htm \clip\98\02\sanders\sanders2.htm Published Wednesday, January 21, 1998 Report cards for teachers: Can computers measure the art of teaching? Steve Berg / Minneapolis Star Tribune. Value Added Asessment. "Of all the influences in a child's life -- poverty or race or family circumstance -- the quality of teaching stands out as the most important factor in academic progress." have just been released, including "value-added" data. You can read the story and link to the state's education site through I suspect the Tennessean will have its database of individual school data up by Sunday, maybe tomorrow. TOP PRIVATE SCHOOLS LOOKING AT VALUE ADDED TEST (local) \clip\97\25\edasses.htm (4) "Educational Assessment Reassessed: The Usefulness of Standardized and Alternative Measures of Student Achievement as Indicators for the Assessment of Educational Outcomes," Educational Policy Analysis Archives, Vol 3 No 6, March 3, 1995 (available at website: "TVAAS is a process that measures the influence that systems, schools, and teachers have on the rate of academic growth for populations of students. " "For example, the effects attributable to individual systems and schools have been shown to be unrelated to socio-economic indicators such as number of reduced-cost or free lunch students, racial composition of the student body, or location--rural, urban, suburban. Very simply put, each child's own academic history incorporates socio-economic status, ability, past achievement, and many other factors. By modeling a learning profile for each student as part of the mixed-model equations, children serve as their own controls or "blocking factors" in TVAAS." \clip\97\23\tenntest.txt Tennesee test results Go to and click on Measuring Schools Here's the e-mail stuff I have. If you do get a different understanding of TVAAS, I hope you'll post some of your thoughts to the group. A Good Description of TVAAS by Sanders, Horn, et al oVolume 3, Number 6 - This article has been retrieved. times since March 3, 1995. Education Policy Analysis Archives. Volume 3 Number 6. March 3, 1995. ISSN 1068-2341. A... -- Sanders - Man who created system backs it more than ever. By Lisa Benavides, Education Reporter, The Tennessean. Six years ago, William Sanders was answering... -- UTK AULUMNI -- Includes Pictuer of Bill Sanders-- Take The "A" Words. Professor Bill Sanders proves influences on student learning can be measured. By Sharon Littlepage. Dr. Bill Sanders. Remember the... -- An _Educational Policy Analysis_ article looking at standard errors and TVAAS (little from Sanders, et al.: oVolume 4, Number 4 - This article has been retrieved. times since May 1, 1996. Education Policy Analysis Archives. Volume 4 Number 4. March 15, 1996. ISSN 1068-2341. A... --"> Technical Document >From a critic of TVAAS: Sherman Dorn: Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System - Tennessee Value Added Assessment System. Comments and links by Sherman Dorn. Table of Contents. Introduction. Original Sources. References. Introduction... -- @@Terra Nova McGraw Hill's politically correct evolved version of the CTBS series, it may have adopted some bad performance-based free-response ideas. Cunningham says the Terra Nova is a politically correct CTBS-5 Terra Nova vs. SAT No validity established, some studies will compare with SAT and ACT. Evaluation of the California Test of Basic Skills (CTBS) 5: Terra Nova 9th Grade Reading and Math Dianne Cassidy May 2, 1998 Review of Terra Nova in oregon - "reading" has nothing to do with reading, lots of charts and maps that even adults have trouble interpreting. From: Date sent: Thu, 26 Feb 1998 16:56:48 -0600 (CST) In Tennessee we are switching to the Terra Nova test for our annual comprehensive tests this April. I just received my copy of the "sample" questions for all disciplines 2-8th grade. If all our children don't make 100% on this test, I don't know what would help them do it! I cannot believe that the "skills" I saw tested at these grade levels are really what they are trying to measure! For instance in Math: grade 3- it was little more than counting to ten. Charlene Kimmel Norming the Terra Nova Terra Nova norming was conducted with both Spring and Fall administrations for every number grade 1 to 12 and a Spring only administration for Kindergarten. After you crank all the numbers, it works out that the sample was just about 180 kids per state per grade per administration. 11/02/97 CA SELECTS TERRA NOVA TEST caltest.txt From: Cheri Pierson Yecke I was also shocked when I saw the content of the Terra Nova tests. The skills tested appear to be at least 2-3 grade levels BELOW the stated grade level of the test. The test booklets are colorful with flashy graphics and lots of white space - very visually appealing. I would hope that potential purchasers would see beyond the glitzy surface appeal and take a serious look at the content. Sobering. @@Texas @@TAAS @@TAKS The TAAS is used as a graduation test. It includes hand-scored compositions, and tests for "higher order thinking". Score is criterion based % meeting "minimum expectations". Tests are relatively easy multiple choice tests, most students pass. In contrast to WA or New Standards tests, all questions appear to be well within grade level, and fairly complete in coverage. The only downside is that it doesn't have enough "tough" questions to challenge kids at the top of the curve - that's why a true norm-referenced test would be better, rather than a test designed to grade kids on pass / fail. Similarity to Washington State: - Contract with NCEE New Standards / Marc Tucker - School To Work Model based on Tucker's 10th grade Certificate of Initial Mastery - Training by William Spady in transformational Outcome Based Education - TEKS Essential Knowledge and Skills = EALR - TAAS = WASL - Committee on Student Learning vs Commission (CSL) - Based on America's Choice: High Skills or Low Wages A history of Texas Reform 1991-1997 Texas Education Agency Test results broken by race Texas results by Race Technical Document Sample TAAS test %%Achievement Gap May 19, 2005, 2:06PM The results are in: Fewer pass TAKS HISD sees its passing rates fall in every grade and a racial gap grow even wider By JASON SPENCER Copyright 2005 Houston Chronicle HISD=Houston Integrated School District source Grade White Hispanic Black 7 81% 40% 35% 8 79% 39% 36% 9 74% 39% 34% 10 62% 19% 17% 11 81% 45% 45% 95% WHITE PASS TAKS, BUT BLACK, HISPANIC FAIL RATE 3X \clip\2005\05\taksfail.txt TAKS denies nearly 1 in 10 a diploma Class of '05 statistics show achievement gap persists for minorities 09:12 PM CDT on Friday, May 20, 2005 By TERRENCE STUTZ / The Dallas Morning News Under state law, the Class of '05 was the first that had to pass all four sections of the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills - math, science, social studies and English language arts - in order to graduate. Failure rates by race and ethnicity -3.0 15% of black seniors -3.0 14% of Hispanic seniors 1.0 5% of white seniors SOURCE: Texas Education Agency %%Cheating The high stakes attached to TAAS has led some of the most vulnerable districts to cheat. TEACHERS IN PANIC OVER TAAS CHEATING FUROR URL= \clip\99\13\taaspan.txt July 02, 1999 Paranoid? Test was a TAAS-up '98 scandal left teachers tense By MELANIE MARKLEY Copyright 1999 Houston Chronicle "tampering with TAAS results becomes an even more serious offense. A new law approved by the Legislature this year increases the offense from a misdemeanor to a felony. " First came the allegations last year that some Houston Independent School District teachers had tampered with student answers on the TAAS. Then came the security crackdown. And the paranoia. MOSTLY POOR, BLACK DISTRICTS MOST LIKELY TO BE SUSPECTED OF CHEATING \clip\99\07\taascht.txt The Fix is In Are Educators Cheating on the TAAS? Is Anyone Going to Stop Them? \clip\99\07\taasch.txt HOUSTON CHRONICLE ARCHIVES Paper: Houston Chronicle Date: WED 02/17/99 Page: 1 State suspects tampering on tests at 22 area schools By MELANIE MARKLEY Staff State education officials have called for the investigation of 22 Houston-area schools where excessive erasures on the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills tests have prompted concerns of tampering. %%Critic 9TH GRADE TAKS FLUNKS NEWSPAPER WRITER -- To Trying the TAKS is an eye-opener John Kelso Sunday, June 15, 2003 "I just took the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills math test for ninth-graders - and flunked. function y equals x squared plus 5, which describes the shift in the vertex of the parabola if, in the function, 5 is changed to minus 2? The answer I wanted to give was, "What the heck's a parabola?" If I'd answered a measly two more questions correctly, I would have passed. I got the idea for taking this test the other day when I read in this newspaper that 43 percent of Central Texas high school sophomores are in danger of failing the TAKS, the state achievement test required to graduate." MANAGEMENT SYSTEM TO MODIFY BEHAVIOR JUST DESTROYS CURRICULUM z50\clip\2001\06\taasharm.txt THE HARMFUL IMPACT OF THE TAAS SYSTEM OF TESTING IN TEXAS: BENEATH THE ACCOUNTABILITY RHETORIC Linda McNeil Department of Education and Center for Education Rice University Houston, Texas & Angela Valenzuela Department of Curriculum and Instruction and the Center for Mexican American Studies University of Texas at Austin Austin, Texas PASSING TAAS WRITING WITH ONLY 6/40 AND LOUSY GRAMMAR/SPELLING z38\doc\web\2001\02\taaswrit.txt How About the Truth About the TAAS? "Texas Comptroller Rylander's TAAS Task Force" by Donna Garner February 7, 2001 On the Spring 2000 TAAS test (Exit-Level Writing), there were 40 multiple-choice questions. To pass the writing section, a student who made a 4 on the essay only had to answer 6 out of 40 multiple choice questions correctly. The "holisitic" section was based on "effect" and not on syntax or grammar or spelling. z46\clip\2000\11\taassau.txt Not a Miracle, But a Step Up For Minorities Debra J. Saunders Tuesday, October 31, 2000 TAAS IS TAKING OVER EDUCATION October 30, 2000 THE EDUCATION ISSUE Critics Say a Focus on Test Scores Is Overshadowing Education in Texas By JIM YARDLEY A Sampler: 10th Grade Math in Texas Following are math questions included in the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills given to 10th graders this year. 1. In 40 baseball games Juan's team has scored 50 runs. If the team continues at this rate, how many runs could the team expect to score in a 160-game season? A 128 B 170 C 200 D 250 2. Marlena has a housecleaning business. She charges $4.50 per room and gives a $5 discount to customers who provide their own cleaning supplies. Which equation could be used to find t, the total cost to a customer who has r rooms and who provides the cleaning supplies? A t = 4.50(r + 5) B t = 4.50r - 5 C t = 4.50t + 5 D t = 4.50r + 5 E r = 4.50(t - 5) 3. Andy participated in a neighbor's garage sale. He sold 3 items: a picture frame for $8.50, a teapot for $3.75 and a set of 6 cups for $4.75. What were his total sales? A $9.35 B $15.00 C $15.90 D $17.00 E $23.00 ANSWERS: 1. C; 2. B; 3. D For every administrator, teacher, parent and student in Texas public schools, the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills is the sun around which education orbits. Nothing else is as important as the state's standardized test. LIBERALS FINALLY AGREE WITH FAR RIGHT ON TAAS z46\clip\2000\10\libtex.txt Liberals using conservatives' conclusions to bash Bush Dave Mundy's commentary, Oct. 29 The oft-reviled "social conservatives" in Texas have spent six years trying to tell people that George Bush's public education "success" in the state is all smoke and mirrors, z45\clip\2000\10\taasno.txt Something very surprising happened in Texas schools during the 1990s: students stayed in school and learned more. RAND REPORT SAYS TAAS IMPROVEMENTS ARE JUST TEST PREP, DON'T MATCH NAEP RESULTS. z45\doc\web\2000\10\randtex.txt Test scores on TAAS do not match NAEP, indicating teaching to the test. report z45\clipim\2000\10\25\randtaas\randtaas.htm TAAS HAS MOVED BOTTOM UP AT COST OF TURNING CLASS TO TEST PREP REASON * November 2000 Texas’ Big Test By Jerry Jesness friendly pundits have declared Texas a scholarly Shangri-La for blacks and Hispanics. Douglas Carnine, a professor of education at the University of Oregon and a Bush adviser, has boasted, "If you’re a minority, move to Texas." z45\clip\2000\10\randtex.txt Subject: AP Article on Rand on TX with link On the Net: Rand: Oct 24, 2000 Report Derides Education in Texas By THE ASSOCIATED PRESS WASHINGTON (AP) -- Texas schoolchildren may be soaring on their high-stakes, statewide test, but their progress in national testing is about the same as students in other states, a new report says. %%Coaching TEST PREP SYSTEM INCREASES TAAS PASS RATE \clip\98\16\taasup.txt NCE AND TEXAS - ALLIANCE FOR ACHIEVEMENT- PISCATAWAY, N.J.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Nov. 12, 1998 New Century Education has recently compiled results of their integrated instructional system. Throughout Texas, the New Century System has been successfully implemented by a number of districts who selected New Century for its focus on student by student improvement of TAAS results. For example, Brownsville, achieved a 77% success rate. TAAS pre test of 38% was documented, after completing the program the TAAS post test revealed that 69% of students passed the TAAS requirements. In Valley View I.S. D., the TAAS passing rate in Math (pre-New Century) was 18% compared to a passing rate of 100% in 1997. %%Conflict of interest Conflict: TAAS test creator also creates Textbooks "Only program to have tests written by the same company that helps to write the TAAS tests and actually wrote the Parents' Study Guide for TAAS: Harcourt Brace Educational Measurement!" %%Critical TAAS LOWERS PASS POINTS z62\clip\2002\taks.txt From the Canadian National Post Wednesday » November 20 » 2002 Texas: miracle or mirage? The Lone Star State is held up as a model of how mandatory standardized testing can improve academic achievement. But critics say if you dig a little behind the scores, all is not what it seems Sarah Schmidt National Post Tuesday, November 19, 2002 CREDIT: Allison V. Smith, Dallas Morning News "She was like, 'If you don't pass this test, you're not going to the fourth grade.' I was like, 'Oh my God,' " the Dallas youngster remembers. ..Between 1998 and 2002, the cut grade for tests has decreased by as many as 11 points, including in the math tests for Grades 4, 8 and 10. The board says the fluctuations simply reflect the varying level of difficulty ....politicians are wrestling with the prospect of skyrocketing failure rates. 97% PASSING ON TAAS IS MINIMAL ACT COLLEGE SCORE z40\doc\web\2000\04\taasact.txt Testimony by Don McLeroy, Member Texas State Board of Education, an interesting presentation I heard at the Science Summit in San Antonio this January on the ACT. The attached handout (attachment #1) shows the relationship of the ACT's tenth grade test the "Plan" and the TAAS. A tenth grader taking the ACT's the "Plan" test and scoring a 19 has a 97% chance to pass all of the TAAS. Note this 19 score only represents a level of performance considered by most colleges to be a minimum to enter credit-bearing courses(attachment #3-6). A 16-19 score is just beginning to get on the ACT's "radar screen". It is mediocrity. TEACHING TO THE TAAS z40\clip\2000\04\testmy.txt The New Republic The Texas education myth. Only a Test By JONATHAN WEISMAN Issue date: 04.10.00 "While TAAS had shown virtually no correlation between socioeconomic status and academic achievement, the RAND tests showed a correlation that nearly reached the statistical limit. "We have the empirical data to show that something is really out of the ordinary in terms of these kids' behavior on these tests," says rand's Stephen Klein about the taas. "Something is definitely screwy." Ask Texas teachers, and they'll tell you what's screwy: They're teaching their students how to take the TAAS. z40\clip\2000\03\taas.txt er&p agename=story&storyid=1150300205446 Validity of Texas tests questioned Schools: Scores improve in state exams but stagnate in national tests, sparking debate over educational gains in Gov. George W. Bush's state. By Jonathan Weisman Sun National Staff Skeptics suggest the Texas test scores have been inflated by intensive test drills, the selective exemption of disadvantaged students from the test -- and even cheating by schools and districts that want to improve their images. A University of Texas study begun last year concludes that the increases in test scores are not the result of higher levels of student learning. In Your Backyard: The Truth about Texan Teachers by Jerry Jesness Thursday, January 13, 2000 The Houston-based Tax Research Organization -- working with Mathematically Correct and the Harvard School of Education -- and California State University analyzed the TAAS. It determined that the graduation math test was written at a fifth-grade, eighth-month level. The reading test, it determined, was below grade level at every grade and has been getting easier over the years. MathCorrect Says Texas TAAS Only Assures 5-6th Grade Math Level \clip\99\10\taas\taas.htm more Statewide Mathematics Assessment in Texas Paul Clopton, Wayne Bishop*, and David Klein** Mathematically Correct "This finding raises the possibility that students could pass the TAAS exit level examination and still not be ready for the study of algebra. This possibility is consistent with the fact that Texas students enjoy greater success on the TAAS exams than on the algebra 1 end of course exam. " Reading tests got easier TEXAS TAAS SHOW FRAUDULENT PROGRESS TO PROVE "IT WORKS" BUT SAT SCORES FALL \clip\98\18\edclip02.txt With TAAS as god, all things are possible by Roddy Stinson, San Antonio Express News, Wed. Dec. 3, 1998 Buried in a graphic on Page 14A was the grim information that the average SAT score for San Antonio School District students fell from 823 in 1994-95 to 818 in 1997-98. During the same period, across Texas, the average SAT score dropped from 996 to 995. Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) scores have gone up while Scholastic Assessment Test scores have gone down. (TAAS) produce more harm than good because they give the public a false sense of educational progress when there is none. ..the TAAS sham creates a smug atmosphere that precludes effective change because "the rising test scores prove that what we're doing is working." LAW MANDATES TEXAS PERFORMANCE BASED TAAS TEST DISASTER \doc\web\98\10\perftaas.txt Senate Bill 1 May1995) "The State Board of Education by rule shall create and implement a statewide assessment program that is primarily performance-based to ensure school accountability for student achievement.." the essential knowledge and skills developed by the State Board of Education under this subchapter shall require all students to demonstrate the knowledge and skills necessary to read, write, compute, problem solve, think critically, apply technology, and communicate across all subject areas." Because SB 1 contained the words "performance-based," the Texas Education Agency used the wording to drive the schools into a complete paradigm shift from knowledge-based, academic content to performance-based content. TAAS is not too easy because SAT's are good? Actually, scores are lower than average, but they have shown "improvement". \clip\98\16\taasez.txt November 09, 1998, 08:57 p.m. Outside analysis says TAAS too easy By MELANIE MARKLEY Copyright 1998 Houston Chronicle The Texas Assessment of Academic Skills has been given a poor grade by a group of out-of-state researchers who say the test to measure student achievement is too easy. Long Document details of why TAAS is weak in math, has Japan examples. Press Conference TAAS getting easier, math test is below grade level. TAAS NARROWS FOCUS TO TEST TAKING, GETS POOR SAT SCORES \doc\web\98\07\taas2.txt we have narrowed our curricula to only that which is tested, we have given more emphasis to test-taking gimmicks than to academics. Instead of reading books, students in reading classes read sample TAAS passages. FOCUS ON ONE MINIMAL STANDARD FOR ALL IGNORES GIFTED \clip\98\13\textest.htm HoustonChronicle Oct 4, 1998 Let's stop giving short shrift to Texas' gifted children By ALCESTIS COOKY OBERG "The school's goals were Texas Assessment of Academic Skills test scores -- expressed in incremental annual improvements in the percentage of kids passing the test -- nothing more. Our educators, like most in Texas, were focusing on the small minority of slow kids who cannot pass the state-mandated test instead of the majority of bright and mainstream children who can. " %%Gains TAAS IS A GOOD SOLID ACADEMIC NO-SHORTCUTS TEST z46\clip\2000\11\taasgood.txt Steve Blow: TAAS is testament to teaching 11/05/2000 By Steve Blow / The Dallas Morning News I need help with a little problem. MOLLY IVANS SAYS EVERBODY BUT GWBUSH DESERVES CREDIT z44\clip\2000\08\molly.txt Who deserves credit for Texas' education improvements? what Texas did is what works: smaller class sizes, early childhood education and equalized spending. Testing and accountability were born when Ross Perot was put in charge of a reform commission. TEXAS GREAT, CALIFORNIA FAILS BOTTOM STUDENTS z44\clip\2000\08\randte.txt Washington Times, A6, Wednesday, July 26, 2000 Texas school reforms lead nation Bush use study to affirm achievements for disadvantaged By Lisa Ing, The Washington Times A new education study finds Texas leading the nation in improving math and reading scores among all ethnic groups. for article links April 21, 2000Tenth-grade TAAS scores hit new record AUSTIN -- Texas education officials on Thursday said 90 percent of 10th-graders who took the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills in February passed two of the exam's three sections. Houston Chronicle Sophomores show off skill on TAAS test Ninety percent of Texas sophomores passed the reading and writing portions of the standardized test required for high school graduation this year, a first in the 10-year history of the exam, the Texas Education Agency announced Thursday. TEXAS TAAS "GAINS" NOT REFLECTED ON SAT, ACT \clip\99\11\taasgain.txt Texas scores mixed under Bush Performance is average or low in many categories 05/25/99 By Terrence Stutz / The Dallas Morning News Although Texas students have made significant progress during his 4 1/2 years in office, they remain at or below the national average on leading tests. from post TAAS brief 2000 Grade 10 TAAS results Afr His Whi Disad 1994 29% 35% 67% 33% 1995 32% 37% 70% 35% 1996 38% 44% 74% 42% 1997 48% 52% 81% 50% Only rates for whites have reached 80%, even that is a built-in 20% flunk rate. %%General z57\clip\2002\08\taks.txt August 7, 2002 Making the grade gets harder Back to school: Texas students about to face higher academic threshold 08/07/2002 By JOSHUA BENTON and TERRENCE STUTZ / The Dallas Morning News "predicted that only 43 percent of Texas eighth-graders would have passed all sections of the TAKS this year, including less than one-third of minority students. Seventy-two percent of eighth-graders passed all sections of the TAAS.... high school math will include elements of algebra and geometry for the first time, and some of the questions will require a written answer rather than a fill-in-the-bubble multiple choice. " TAAS to be replaced by fuzzier TAKS z50\doc\web\2001\06\taks.txt June 18, 2001 Texas Education Agency Release says TAKS will cover more subjects, be more rigorous (that probably means way over grade level) and cover all grades from 3 to 11, with high stakes graduation level moved to grade 11. Contrast to original Marc Tucker proposal of grades 4, 7, and Certificate of Mastery at 10. \clip\98\18\edclip05.txt Education chief seeks TAAS changes; if plan is approved, tests could add subjects by 2002 By Matt Frazier Star-Telegram Staff Writer More tests to be added, exit test moved to grade 11 from grade 10. Problem is with scoring and new OBE standards 8/20/98 TAAS DISTORTS EDUCATION, AIDS STW \doc\web\98\06\textest.txt TEXAS NAEP MIXED RESULTS KENTUCKY DOWN IN ALL 3 TESTS TAAS HAS 86-89% PASS RATES AT G3/G4 - TOO HIGH? \clip\98\09\taas.txt HoustonChronicle 5/22/1998 TAAS scores rise, but `much work to do' 86 percent in 3rd grade, 89 percent in 4th pass By KATHY WALT Copyright 1998 Houston Chronicle Austin Bureau Pass rates for TAAS 1998 1997 86 81 3rd grade 89 82 4th grade 72 10th grade 1st time 92 8th grade white 71 8th grade black 75 8th grade hispanic (a test that passes 92% might be OK for minimum competency, but it's useless for distinguishing performance in the top 10%) 77% 1998 overall pass rate 55% 1993 overall pass rate all grades (how do we know the test is just as hard as it was in 1993?) Black HIsp 8th grade math gap 1994 s 40 32 1994 points different 21 17 1998 points different (claims gap is smaller, but this is not a mathematically \valid comparison when 92% of whites pass - it looks lie a 21 point arithmetic gap, but the failure rate is 29 vs. 8 or nearly 4 to 1 ratio) 1998 pass rates by race Black 71 white 92 hisp 75 > And all for what? The TAAS? > > The TAAS is a test of basic skills that most anyone who paid > attention half the time during school could pass with flying colors. > I found the exit TAAS to be a joke and a slap in the face to Texas > students. > To the contrary, comparing the TAAS to Washington's assessment, the TAAS appears to be a very carefully designed 4th or 9th grade level SAT test. By comparison, the WA 4th grade test incorporates 7th and 10th grade level content, and even the 4th grade level stuff is mixed in to make them difficult even for adults. It's good that the 4th grade TAAS actually is contrained to 4th grade benchmarks, and can be passed with flying colors by anyone who has a 75% to 80% retention of basic concepts. The point of a basic skills test that all are expected to pass is that it SHOULD be easy to pass - but norm referenced tests are better because they can show a range of performance and give credit to those kids who ARE 2 or 3 grade levels ahead. (These are tests which include hard problems not because students are expected to know them, but to provide measuring capability for the the few who ARE that good.) New tests which are specifically designed to flunk half or more of the population end up flunking nearly all minorities, and are completely pointless except to create an artifical atmosphere of crisis. ------------------------ TAAS shows improvement while students are doing worse > Today's news stories are about the TAAS and testing in general. For > commentary about the validity of TAAS test scores and problems with the > TAAS, go to > > Jeanne Donovan, Coordinator > Texas Education Consumers Association > > > =============================================================================== > > Researcher aims to dispel `myths' about public education > > By Michelle Melendez and Martha Deller > Star-Telegram staff writers > > FORT WORTH -- The success of Texas students on national tests keeps > surprising the experts, but Texas teachers have known all along what they > are > doing right, an education guru told a teacher convention here yesterday. > > The Rand Corporation, the National Commission of Education Statistics and > other agencies have had to recheck their data because they can't believe > that > Texas is performing so well, said Uri Treisman, a researcher who serves on > several national education boards and heads the Charles A. Dana Center at > the University of Texas, an education think tank in Austin. > ================================================================================ > > The following three links were taken from today's paper (Sunday). Thus, the > links may expire by midnight as they're moved into the Star Telegram > archives. The updated URLs will be made available before noon on Monday at > > > ================================================================================ > > Test scores up, but critics fear students are shortchanged > > By Michelle Melendez > Star-Telegram Staff Writer > > Beverly Nabors' third-graders don't do as many science experiments as her > students did a decade ago. Instead, they're busy learning to pick out "code" > words they'll see on the TAAS test. > > Many teachers, parents and students complain that the TAAS is taking > freedom and fun out of teaching and learning. They say it narrows > instruction, > puts too much emphasis on one test and doesn't necessarily produce a better > education. Indeed, some college officials and business leaders say that > steadily rising TAAS scores have not guaranteed better students and workers. > ******************************* > > Schools whip up student enthusiasm, confidence before TAAS > > By Bill Bowen > Star-Telegram Staff Writer > > On March 3, students throughout Texas will begin to take the tests that not > only chart their academic progress, but also grade their schools and serve > as > the basis of cash rewards for good performance: The Texas Assessment of > Academic Skills. > ********************************* > > Essay: What students are saying about TAAS > > By Colin Porter > Arlington High School > > So you went to sleep early, got up and ate a bowl of oatmeal with brown > sugar and practiced every stress-relieving technique you could think of > doing. > And all for what? The TAAS? > > The TAAS is a test of basic skills that most anyone who paid attention half > the time during school could pass with flying colors. I found the exit TAAS > to > be a joke and a slap in the face to Texas students. > 7% MAY BE DENIED DIPLOMA DUE TO TAAS SCORES \clip\98\04\newscli4.txt 2/11/98 Austin American Statesman 16,000 seniors have yet to pass TAAS, state says Students will get study guides to prep for last-chance exams in March, May By Peggy Fikac Associated Press More than 16,000 of the state's high school seniors -- about 7 percent of last year's junior class -- still haven't passed all sections of the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills required for them to graduate, according to state education officials. 61% fail end of algebra course, 70% of biology students pass. Algebra 1 only recently became a required math course for most students. Biology 1 traditionally has been a required course in most Texas high schools. Algebra Spring 1997 W48% B15% H20% EconDisad 20% \clip\96\05\testbias.txt 10/18/1995 NAACP alleges racial bias in skill assessments Houston Chronicle A report on 10th-grade TAAS scores this year showed that 68 percent of black students failed the test on their first try, while 63 percent of the Hispanic students and 30 percent of the white students failed. The failure rate for low-income students was 65 percent. The True State of Texas Education What the School Public Relations Officer Won't Tell You There are very significant racial disparities in the passing rates of the TAAS. On the 1996 exit level test, statewide only 60.7 percent passed all tests. However, for Hispanics the figure was 45.1 percent and for African-Americans, it was 39.3 percent. This is a failure rate of 54.9 percent and 60.7 percent respectively. Texas schools are dangerous places for minorities academically. This is massive failure to meet minimum expectations in reading, writing and math. At the same time, 74.9 percent of whites passed all tests, as did 73.8 percent of Asians. Texas Public Policy Foundation P. O. Box 40519 • San Antonio, TX 78229 • (210) 614-0080 Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) Problem or Solution? Test is curve-based, and not very rigorous "Unfortunately, the most rigorous elements in the 10th grade, exit level TAAS test 8th grade level material. 71 percent of the math elements of the exit level TAAS actually test material from only the 5th, 6th, and 7th grade levels.2 This means we ask our school children to pass something more like a 7th grade level test to graduate from high school. In addition, students are given up to eight opportunities to take the test and pass it." " %%Grade Promotion TEXAS TO TIE GRADE PROMOTION TO PASSING TAAS Social promotion debate focusing on TAAS' role By Anastasia Cisneros-Lunsford Express-News Staff Writer %%Grading 4TH GRADER NEARLY READY TO PASS 10TH GRADE EXIT TAAS z56\clip\2002\06\taas5.txt Jerry Jesness: My daughter may not be ready to graduate, but ... 06/04/2002 my daughter's scores from the reading section of the exit-level Texas Assessment of Academic Skills. She came up a bit short, having earned a score of 65, two answers short of the 70 that would have indicated a mastery of subject material worthy of a high school graduate. She is in the top reading group in her fourth-grade class HALF WRONG GOOD ENOUGH TO PASS TAAS. z56\CLIP\2002\05\taasstan.txt Forty-eight percent enough to pass some TASS tests DIANA REINHART, The Enterprise May 19, 2002 Sudents who passed TAAS met the state's lowest expectations, and, in some grades, getting half of the test right was enough to do that. TAAS PASSING SCORE GOING DOWN - JUST EQUATING HARDER TEST? z56\clip\2002\05\taaslow.txt May 16, 2002, 9:35AM With scoring standards lowered, more passing TAAS By JANET ELLIOTT and SALATHEIA BRYANT Copyright 2002 Houston Chronicle "Particularly on math tests, students now are required to correctly answer significantly fewer questions than they had to a few years ago. State education officials said the passing standards were lowered as the tests got more difficult." TAAS GRADING PASSES WITH TERRIBLE GRAMMAR, SPELLING z50\doc\web\2001\06\taasgrad.txt I wasn't permitted to lower a student's score because of bad spelling or other specific grammar flaws. However, off the record, they do count to some degree. When grammar sinks to a certain level of incompetence, a writing piece can be practically incomprehensible... he could get 34 out of 40 grammar/spelling/punctuation questions wrong and still pass the writing section! by Donna Garner June 25, 2001 %%Opinion MOST STUDENTS WHO PASSED HATED TAAS Student Views of TAAS students at Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi who were enrolled in first-year composition (English 1301) were given the opportunity to write about their experiences with the English portion of TAAS: Completely negative 63% Largely negative, with a few positive comments 15% Largely positive, with a few negative comments 14% Completely positive 08% the 402 comments are from students all of whom succeeded in passing the TAAS tests or its equivalent. "We spent countless days and hours preparing for this test and I greatly feel that this time was wasted. I feel that this test should undoubtably be taken out of the school system " %%Race Gains Three El Paso school districts worked together to increase math test scores. But looks like the gap is actually the same, since whites are also gaining. Thinking K-16 Education Trust Year Whit Hisp Black 92-93 63.1 36.2 32.3 93-94 72.9 50.4 45.5 94-95 75.5 53.2 49.5 95-96 83.3 66.9 61.6 96-97 87.7 72.2 69.0 97-98 94.2 86.4 85.2 Students passing TAAS Math by ethnicity Combined 3-8 10 This shows the same unbelievable gains as the WA WASL test. Blacks in 95-96 scored as well as Whites only 3 years earlier, in WA, blacks perform as well as whites 5 years earlier. The El Paso Collaborative for Academic Excellence 1998 %%Pass Rates z63\clip\2002\12\stagtak.txt Staggering failure rate feared on TAKS tests By Bridget Gutierrez San Antonio Express-News Web Posted : 12/18/2002 12:00 AM Last year less than half of all students who took the [TAKS] end-of-course tests in algebra, biology, English II and U.S. history passed. While 42.1 percent of Anglo students were unable to pass those tests, nearly three-quarters of African Americans, two-thirds of Hispanics and 70 percent of low-income students flunked. %%Sample Sample TAAS test available on line < /a> @@Too Much Testing NAEP TAKES 90 MIN, THEY DON'T GET RESULTS BACK, SO FED WAY WANTS WAIVER \clip\97\29\tootest.txt Seattle Times dec 2, 1997 Tests too much of a good thing? by Dionne Searcey Seattle Times South bureau Usually it's the students who gripe about taking tests. But in several Seattle-area school districts, teachers and administrators are complaining their students this year are being required to take one too many standardized exams. @@Trusty-Murphy Michelle Nevada woman running for state board, Democrat opposes high stakes portion of testing, has suceeded in getting county Demo party platform to oppose high stakes testing. z44\clip\2000\08\tests.txt NEVADA REPUBLICAN DEFENDS HIGH STAKES TEST AGAINST MURPHY VIEWS Tuesday, July 25, 2000 2:09 AM Candidate should see tests in the real world KARL EDWARD NEATHAMMER, Jacks Valley Michelle Trusty-Murphy is the classic example of the liberal who quite willingly trades her common sense for an academic degree, and then becomes so affected with her own self-importance as a result of that degree, she somehow believes she is qualified and deserving to the seat now held by Dave Cook on the Nevada State Board of Education. I am very interested in reversing the "high-stakes" portion of this exam. @@Union Some teachers unions have taken a position against high stakes testing, but in a lot of states, they go along with the ed reform program just to have a part of it. 6/5/2000 George Sheridan Testing is "out of control" in California, California Teachers Association President Wayne Johnson told CTA's State Council Saturday, June 3. CTA's legislative advocates will be instructed to work for suspension of the standardized test (SAT-9) and STAR augmentation until the system is redesigned to reduce the number of tests and to ensure that the tests are valid (that is, that they are testing the curriculum we are teaching). ASCD SmartBrief October 23, 2001 Connecticut Teachers Union Harshly Criticizes State's Mastery Test %%NEA CONSERVATIVE WSJ SLAMS NEA FOR OPPOSING HIGH STAKES TESTING z50\clip\2001\07\neatest.txt July 19, 2001 Wall Street Journal Commentary Teachers Union Flunks a Test By Andrew Rotherham. Mr. Rotherham, a former education advisor to President Clinton, directs education policy at the Progressive Policy Institute. the National Education Association approved, at its annual convention in Los Angeles, a resolution effectively supporting parents who boycott standardized tests, and directed its lobbyists to work against mandatory testing provisions now before Congress. National NEA is against high stakes testing, as is PTA 5/2000 George Cunningham says Kentucky PTA and KEA went along with KIRIS NEA SAYS FRAUD TO EXPECT ALL TO ACHIEVE AT THE LEVEL OF THE FEW z42\clip\2000\06\polltest.txt Poll: Let students earn the privilege to walk 05/28/2000 By CASANDRA ANDREWS Staff Reporter Mobile (AL) Register "It is fraudulent to raise the bar for all students to a level that is currently being reached by only a relative few, without giving them the help they need to make the grade" National Education Association president Bob Chase wrote in a commentary last April Mickey Vanderwerker [WMZEMKA@AOL.COM] says Virginia NEA supports the SOL although they claim to be against high stakes testing. Roxanne Grossman: In VA 1999, only PTA had legislation introduced to prohibit use of standardized test scores as the sole criteria for promo., retention, graduation, or accreditation and to prohibit any use until found valid, reliable, and fair by independent assessment experts. %%Kentucky 2000 George Cunningham says PTA and Kentucky NEA went along with KIRIS. %%Washington WEA QUESTIONS WASL, BUT STILL BACKS IT WEA: Members question impact of statewide testAs students take WASL, questions and concerns about the test remain PI Cartoonist Horsey jabs at WASL z42\clip\2000\06\answea.htm Fourth Grade Assessment — What’s It All About? Some Helpful Answers from WEA These students and their teachers were trailblazers in the assessment frontier. They traveled into a territory where they had no map (much of the curriculum hadn’t yet been developed) and little experience (the lessons hadn’t yet been taught). What is WEA’s position on all of this? WEA has been a solid supporter of educational reform from the mid-1980’s when now-State Superintendent Terry Bergeson was WEA president. Carla Nuxoll, Terry’s successor, was a prominent member of the Governor’s Council on Educational Reform and Funding (GCERF) in 1992. The recommendations of GCERF resulted in the legislation called House Bill 1209, creating the Commission on Student Learning. MASS TEACHERS UNION BIDS TO KILL MCAS HIGH STAKES TEST z39\clip\2000\02\masstea.txt Teachers union targets MCAS Seeks measure to kill graduation mandate By Doreen Iudica Vigue, Boston Globe Staff, 2/18/2000 The Massachusetts Teachers Association will file legislation to eliminate the mandate that students pass the MCAS exam to graduate high school. 5/2000 California CTA considering a moratorium on standardized testing @@United Kingdom @@UK z75\clip\2003\10\testboy.txt BBC News: 10/23/2003 Teachers denounce national tests "There was strong support for a boycott of the tests" Compulsory national tests for schoolchildren are an unnecessary and stressful burden, according to a survey of teachers in England and Wales. Only 6% thought the tests a reliable way of evaluating pupils' achievements. UK TEST IMPROVEMENT HITS A WALL AT 25% FAILURE z70\clip\2003\08\uktest.txt UK teacher union is against the tests. One in four primary pupils fails tests for reading and maths By Richard Garner, Education Editor August 2003 A Government campaign to drive up school standards has failed, with a quarter of primary pupils still missing targets for reading and arithmetic. Doug McAvoy, general secretary of the National Union of Teachers, said: "It was inevitable that a plateau would be reached and that improvement in test results would not continue for ever. The Government should have recognised that reality before it plucked its targets out of the sky and imposed them on schools." z48\clip\2001\03\worltest.txt,,2-95626,00.html THURSDAY MARCH 08 2001 Boys beat girls in tests for the brightest BY JOHN O'LEARY, EDUCATION EDITOR BOYS are outshining girls in trials of the Government’s "world-class tests" for the brightest [top 5%] nine and 13-year-olds, it emerged yesterday. SAT tests are given at ages 7, 11, 14. link The main instruments adopted have been: * the National Curriculum (1988) * a national testing regime at ages 7, 11and 14 (in addition to the national exams at 16 and 18. * a draconian inspection regime (Ofsted) whereby every school is inspected thoroughly every 4 years. (Ofsted also inspects education authorities and teacher-training establishments) * national literacy and numeracy strategies imposed on all primary schools. These measures have only been partially successful. CHIEF INSPECTOR QUITS 10/2000 Chris Woodhead, Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Schools, has resigned. Of course all the softies and lefties have been out for his blood for many years. %%For UK CONSERVATIVE RIPS INTO TESTING MANIA z57\clip\2002\08\green.txt [] Damian Green: Our pupils are suffering from exam overload 14 August 2002 Exam overload has now reached ridiculous proportions. The average pupil sits 45 exams in a school career. The most able sit more than 100. AS-levels were meant to widen the experience of 17- and 18-year-olds beyond the traditional three-subject A-level. Instead, the exam treadmill is forcing young people to give up sport, music and drama at exactly the wrong time. %%For UK GOVT SAYS TESTS PROVE BASICS WORK September 15, 1999 Published at 11:01 GMT 12:01 UK Pupils shine in tests The results of National Curriculum tests sat by 11-year-olds across England have shown a dramatic improvement. The BBC's Education Correspondent Sue Littlemore: "There's an emphasis on more traditional ways" The standard assessment tests - SATs - were taken in May The government says the results are proof that its focus on basics - with daily hours devoted to literacy and numeracy - is working. z40\clipim\2000\04\19\blame\blame.htm Thursday, 13 April, 2000, 17:16 GMT 18:16 UK Adults blamed for pupils' test stress. Most responses to article appear to be critical of testing 7 yr olds. You do not promote quality of learning by cramming children to pass tests. A school should be a happy learning environment. It should be fun, exciting and imaginative. Schools have lost the magic, they have become rigid and linear UK TEACHERS SLAM HIGH STAKES TESTS z40\clip\2000\04\uktest.txt Tuesday, December 29, 1998 Published at 14:14 GMT Education:Tests 'doing more harm than good' The danger is that lower ability pupils will be turned off learning A study claims that tests for 14-year-olds are not only of doubtful value but may be doing harm. study was carried out by the Association of Teachers and Lecturers, working with the National Association for the Teaching of English and the Association of Teachers of Mathematics. \clip\99\03\edclip02.txt BBC January 21, 1999 Education School tests performance gap Pupils sit National Curriculum tests at age seven, 11 and 14 Across England, 64% of 11-year-olds reached the expected level for their age in English, with 58% doing so in maths. By 2002, the government wants 80% of all children at schools in England to reach the expected level in English, and 75% in maths. \clip\98\20\edclip04.txt UK ATTACKS 14YR OLD NATIONAL TEST Guardian UK Tuesday December 29, 1998 Scheme at testing at 14 'a waste of time and money' By John Carvel, Education Editor Tuesday December 29, 1998 The Government was wasting £13 million a year on a national scheme for testing 14-year-olds that distorts the school curriculum and may do pupils more harm than good, the Association of Teachers and Lecturers said yesterday. [introduced by conservatives] \clip\98\02\uktest.txt 1/19/98 London Times 'Dream' primary school has country's lowest London Times 'Dream' primary school has country's lowest achievers by Judith O'Reilly, Education Correspondent In test results of 11-year-olds nationally in 1996, fewer than two-thirds reached the standard expected of them in English and maths and just over 60% achieved the required standard in science. The government's aim is that by 2002 80% will reach the standards expected in English and 75% in maths. @@Urban League Supposed black civil rights organization has sold out to the testocracy, at least in Chicago and Seattle. SEATTLE URBAN LEAGUE BACKS "HIGH" WASL STANDARDS z62\clip\2002\12\stabwasl.txt Wednesday, December 04, 2002 - 12:00 a.m. Pacific Mindy Cameron / Guest columnist A pitch for stability in Seattle schools Kelly [president of the Urban League of Metropolitan Seattle] is .. adamant about staying tough with standards. To those who suggest standards should be relaxed, he says simply: "The bar has been raised; get over it." Each year, the Chicago Urban League gets about $1 million in consulting fees from various agencies of city government, with the biggest chunk of it coming from the Chicago Board of Education. @@Utah Utah in 2001 has introduced proficiency levels to its tests, but has not attached high stakes (yet). As of 2003, it was proposed to drop the test in favor of grades and existing tests by teachers. z68\clip\2003\06\hsexit.txt June 18, 2003 High School Exit Exam in Peril By Ronnie Lynn The Salt Lake Tribune Utah's million-dollar high school exit exam might be history before it ever becomes operational. "The state Board of Education proposes using a combination of course grades and existing end-of-year tests to measure competency, removing the need for the basic skills test and the $5 million to $7 million cost to implement it" z47\clip\2001\01\utah.txt Report: Many Utah Pupils Not Mastering Subjects Friday, January 12, 2001 BY HEATHER MAY THE SALT LAKE TRIBUNE The majority of Utah students have mastered core subjects like language arts, math and science well enough to be successful in their next grade level. The state Office of Education. office created the proficiency levels to help teachers and parents understand the skill level of their students. It will be up to individual school districts to decide if they will hold back students who perform at low levels. @@Vendor HARCOURT IS NOW LARGEST PROVIDER OF HIGH STAKES TESTS z39\clip\2000\01\harco.txt Harcourt wins testing contract in Massachusetts snowlin@express-news.netBy Sanford Nowlin Express-News Business Writer San Antonio-based Harcourt Educational Measurement, a division of publishing giant Harcourt General, last week won a five-year, $75 million contract to administer tests for the Massachusetts Department of Education. the company now oversees standardized testing for six states, including Texas and California, where it last year made highly publicized errors grading thousands of tests. "The Massachusetts contract makes us the largest provider of high-stakes testing in the United States," National Computer Systems (NCS) Expands Services with Ohio Department of Education Minneapolis, MN September 11, 1997 For more than three decades, NCS has helped school systems collect and interpret data to manage the process of education more efficiently and effectively. NCS is the nation's largest commercial processor of student assessment tests, providing total support for the large-volume, complex testing requirements of over 40 states as well as the Federal Department of Education. In 1996, NCS processed in excess of 100 million test sheets, scored over 20 million performance-assessment items, and printed over 30,000 miles of evaluative reports @@Vermont VERMONT NEW STANARDS ASSESSMENT TIME CONSUMING, EXPENSIVE, UNRELIABLE zip35\doc\web\99\10\assess.txt [Vermont] Valley News on July 20, 1999: SCHOOL BOARDS MUST SOMETIMES ASSESS THE ASSESSMENT TEST by Margaret Cheney McNally Vermont's newly required assessments of public school students may take too much time. ...They assess students relative to standards set by the state. Whether these standards are too high, too low, or just right has yet to be determined. These fourth-grade assessments, known as the New Standards Reference Exams, can consume the better part of two weeks. the Norwich Board proposes asking the state a question: "Can performance be measured in a less time-consuming way?" Are the assessments cost-effective? Are they reliable? Last month ... some students had scored too high because of inconsistencies in scoring techniques. NOT ENOUGH VT STUDENTS FLUNKED 8TH GRADE TESTS, SO THEY RESCORED IT \clip\99\13\vtscore.txt June 15, 99 VERMONT WILL RE-EVALUATE TEST SCORES Student Assessments For 1998 Will Be Revised, Officials Say By Anne Wallace Allen Associated Press Writer Harcourt Educational Measurment, the company that scores the assessments, agreed to score the 1998 tests again after education officials in Vermont and Rhode Island questioned the results they got last fall. In 1998, 86 percent of the eighth graders met the standard, compared to [only] 35 percent of fourth graders and 46 percent of tenth graders. .."They just seemed higher than we would have expected," Bisson said yesterday. "The standard wasn't as high as we wanted it be be." In Vermont, we are using the New Standards Project Reference Exams. These exams were spearheaded by Lauren Resnick, a cognitive psychologist. She is not a psychometrician and not an expert in the field of testing and measurement. @@Violence 7/18/2000 From: acronin Sent: Monday, July 17, 2000 6:51 PM Subject: [wa-ed-deform] School Shooting and WASL Did anyone see the report of a thirteen year old who fired a gun at summer school today in Skyway, WA? This kid was a student who had the new thing in ed reform--mandatory summer school for kids who are at risk of failing the WASL. Are we surprised that kids are so angry about their lives that they feel like taking a gun to their classmates when they are labeled losers in the ed reform battle? Anne @@Virginia Sol Standards of Learning @@SOL Virginia is said to have good, tough standards (SOL = Standards of Learning or Simply Out of Luck), but it's still a bad idea to subjectively set a criterion-based pass point. Most high school students are flunking the tests. All are expected to pass algebra, which traditionally fewer than 25% take. 98% of schools flunked in 1998. 70% of students have to pass all tests. Virginia had absolutely the worst reported failure rate of any state with only 2% of schools passed this standard the first time around. Nearly half of N. Va suburban teachers say the SOL should be abandoned, only 33% say to keep it. The SOL tests in Virginia are entirely multiple choice, except for the prompted writing test. Allen Flanigan ....... %%Conservative For STAY THE COURSE FOR SOL z45\clip\2000\08\fairsol.txt Fairfax Journal URL:§ion=op But the Atlanta-based group says states reporting the most success have ``stayed the course," continuously improving and developing their accountability process. The administration of Republican Governor James Gilmore and the Republican school board members, Commonwealth-wide, are correct. %%Cut Score VIRGINIA RESETS "BARELY PROFICIENT" CUT SCORE FOR GRADUATION z75\doc\web\2003\11\solcut.txt What ever happened to passing only those who meet "high" standards? ...they more closely followed accepted methods for choosing the cut scores, selecting the median of the recommendations of the cut-score setting committees which are made up of teachers.... at the urging of the State Superintendent, they set cut scores to represent ''barely proficient" which is what the cut scores are supposed to represent. %%Links Parents and Students for Standards evil support page with links to conservatives %%Black BLACKS IN NORFOLKS ABOVE STATE AVERAGE z47\clip\2001\01\norftest.txt January 27, 2001 Black students in Norfolk closing test gap with whites By STEPHANIE A. CROCKETT AND DENISE WATSON BATTS © 2001, The Virginian-Pilot Black students in Norfolk closing test gap with whites The biggest jump was in fifth-grade writing, where black scores rose 34 percentage points during the three years -- 44 to 78 percent -- and white scores moved 24 percentage points, 67 to 91. 22 percent of Norfolk's black fifth-graders passed the state's math test in 1998, just below the state average of 24 percent. Last year, 46 percent of black fifth-graders passed the math test, compared to the state average of 40 percent. Close to 70 percent of the division's black students receive free or reduced-price lunch, the government's measurement of poverty. 40% OF SCHOOLS PASS, UP FROM 23% z53\clip\2001\10\solup.txt Schools Making Headway On SOL Va. Passing Rate Nearly Doubles By Liz Seymour Washington Post Staff Writer Wednesday, October 17, 2001; Page B01 Virginia schools nearly doubled their rate of success on the Standards of Learning exams this year, with 40 percent meeting the state's benchmarks, up from 23 percent last year %%General \clip\2000\05\vaback.txt VIRGINIA RELENTS ON FLUNK ON TEST ONLY PROVISION VIRGINIA BOARD ENDORSES CONCESSION ON TESTING Washington Post -- April 29, 2000 by Victoria Benning The Virginia Board of Education has endorsed a key change in its requirement that all high school students pass graduation exams, adding a provision that would allow a student who failed the exams but had an otherwise strong academic record to receive a diploma. (yeah, but what defines "strong???") ED HIRSCH EXPRESSES SUPPORT, RESERVATIONS FOR VIRGINIA SOL TEST From the Washington Post Metro Section, B2, Friday, November 26, 1999 Professor Urges Help for Teachers On Virginia Tests ~ by Jay Mathews. Washington Post Staff Writer "An Associated Press story said Hirsch wanted the state to lower the stakes of the SOL tests until the problems are fixed. Hirsch said that his comments were misunderstood and that he supports the state's timetable for the program. Hirsch said he is strongly opposed to parents and teachers who want to scrap the SOLs. "I am a friend of the SOLs," he said. " BEST VA HIGH SCHOOLS TO BE PUNISHED FOR NOT MEETING IMPROVEMENT QUOTA \clip\99\20\sol1.txt Washington Post Fairfax Schools Feel Push Test-Based Goals Creating Debate By Victoria Benning By any standard measure, Fairfax County's Langley High is one of the country's best public high schools. Its average SAT score of 1,177 is 161 points higher than the national average. It was among the 7 percent of Virginia schools that met the state's benchmarks last spring on rigorous new achievement tests. And it ranks fourth among 139 Washington area high schools on a scale that measures how much schools encourage their students to take advanced-level courses. ... [but school will be punished if they don't meet their improvement quota on the SOL test, parents says this can harm what is already a good school by forcing everything to the test] VA IMPROVES: ONLY 93% OF SCHOOLS FAIL IDIOTIC SOL TEST \CLIP\99\16\vafail.txt State Tests Fail 93% Of Schools In Virginia Educators Renew Push for Changes "[only 6.5% of schools met state performance standards] Although this year's success rate was higher than last year's figure of 2.2 percent, some local school officials and state lawmakers said that the timetable is too demanding and that the Virginia Board of Education needs to adjust the standards, extend the schools' deadline or soften the penalty. " Saturday, August 14, 1999; Page A01 Aug 99 Hampton Roads Daily Press Area teachers embracing new, tougher standards When teachers first laid their eyes on the state Standards of Learning in the mid-1990s, jaws hit the floor across the state. Elementary school teachers were shocked when they read that 7- and 8-year-old children would be expected to regurgitate facts about the ancient civilizations of Egypt, China, Greece and Rome. Math teachers were amazed that even the youngest elementary children were required to know some basic functions of geometry, statistics, functions and patterns. Aug 99 Hampton Roads Daily Press The high cost of SOL success Some nights during the past school year, Heritage High School geometry teacher Beverly Simmons got just three hours of sleep. Instead of resting, she'd plan creative lessons or design practice exams to help students prepare for the Standards of Learning tests. ONLY 34% OF N VA TEACHERS SUPPORT SOL VS 45% SAY DUMP IT \clip\99\13\techwary.txt Teachers Wary of New Exams Poll Finds Support For D.C. Program By Victoria Benning Washington Post Staff Writer Monday, July 5, 1999; Page A01 only 34 percent of the Northern Virginia teachers surveyed said the state's Standards of Learning (SOL) testing program should be continued in its current form, while 45 percent said it should be abandoned and 21 percent said it should be continued but changed. "The teachers' ambivalence contrasts sharply with the wide consensus among area policymakers that test scores are essential in judging how much students have learned and how well schools are teaching them. " "If they were going to be used for information purposes, to help students grow and improve, fine," she said of Virginia's SOL tests. "But as the be-all and end-all they are now, no, I don't support them." "[in d.c] more than seven in 10 of the teachers surveyed said they favor requiring high school students to attain a minimum score on the Stanford 9 Achievement Test or pass a proficiency test in order to graduate. In follow-up interviews, several teachers said the requirement will ease doubts about the value of a D.C. diploma. " SOL TEST SHOW *SURPRISE* IMPROVEMENT BUT STILL FLUNKS MOST \clip\99\12\alex.txt Alexandria Students Improve State Test Scores By Victoria Benning Washington Post Staff Writer Thursday, June 24, 1999; Page B02 Alexandria students performed much better than they did a year ago on tests given to third-, fifth- and eighth-graders throughout Virginia, although the results are still below the state's benchmarks in many academic subjects TEACHERS FEAR SOL TESTS ARE HARMING LEARNING \clip\99\06\edclip08.txt Teachers: Pressure now is on / Frantic pace, push for passing scores bring calls for changes Sunday, February 21, 1999 BY KRISTEN NOZ Richmond Times-Dispatch Most teachers expressed concerns about the effects the Standards of Learning tests are having on learning. And many of them think the state's new testing process needs modification. \clip\99\05\edclip03.txt Tests earn praise for reliability, validityThursday, February 4, 1999 BY ELIZABETH WILKERSON Times-Dispatch Staff Writer Experts say the state's new Standards of Learning tests earned passing grades on validity and reliability, the Virginia Board of Education announced yesterday. [if half of kids flunk, how many are actually being taught the content, and what about the difficulty level?] VA pass rates imply 87th percentile is not good enough for a school to be certified. \clipim\99\02\pass.xls Pass Rates results Stanford 9 percentile by school Only 3 high schools in the state pass US history --------------------------------------------- SOL / Stanf 9 Math / SS Jefferson sci/tech 96.66 / 99 / 98 Governor'school richmond 85.32 Richmond Community High Richmond 80.95 Langley High Fairfax 69.3 / 82 / 87 \clip\99\03\fairstan.htm Stanford 9 percentile by grade State/ FCPS Math Asian Black Hisp White All G5 73/75 34/39 47/49 62/74 55/69 G11 67/76 26/42 39/44 55/76 48/71 Science A B H W All G5 73 39 51 59 72 G11 67 42 46 78 72 SocSci A B H W All G5 62 35 44 70 64 G11 77 60 61 85 81 %Passing Fairfax county sol/S9 History 44/71 Biology 76/72 Chemistry 60/72 Algebra II 49/81 BRACEY SAYS FLUNKING 80TH PCT SCHOOLS > IOWA WHICH BEAT MOST OTHER NATIONS \doc\web\99\01\bracfail.txt Virginia Department Releases Results from First SOL Test Administration "The overwhelming majority of Virginia’s schools have a long way to go to meet the 70% passing targets set forth in the Standards of Accreditation for full accreditation." [Note, WA "goal" is 80% of students passing, by this measure, ZERO percent of WA schools passed the WASL] \clip\99\03\vafail\vafail.htm Education Week Jan 20,1999 Massive Failure Rates on New Tests Daze Va. By Jessica Portner * Some are now saying that the low scores are forcing them to question the credibility of the tests as a true measure of student achievement. * only 2.2 percent of schools met the performance goals on exams linked to the state's Standards of Learning * "This is a goal that does not kick in until eight years from now, and a lot can occur in eight years." Math pass rates G3 63.5 G5 46.6 G8 58.0 HS 41.3 \clip\99\02\edclip05.txt Richmond Times-Dispatch The SOL Results Show What Must Be Done Wednesday, January 13, 1999 Robert Holland "If my own shaky math is correct, that means 97.8 percent of schools flunked. Ouch!" [don't blame the messenger] an elementary school called Arlington Traditional, in Northern Virginia.. scores were top-of-the-chart -- i.e., 92 percent passing third grade English, 96 percent fifth grade English, 98 percent third grade math; \clip\99\01\edclip09.txt 97 Percent Of Schools In Va. Fail New Exams Local Officials Say Results Are Worse Than Expected By Jay Mathews and Victoria Benning Washington Post Staff Writers Saturday, January 9, 1999; Page A01 More than 97 percent of Virginia's public schools have flunked the first round of the state's new student achievement tests, according to figures released yesterday -- a failure rate so high that some local school officials and parents say it threatens the credibility of the state's testing program. Only 39 of more than 1,800 schools statewide, and 17 of 398 schools in Northern Virginia, met the state's benchmarks for performance on the Standards of Learning (SOL) exams, which students took for the first time last spring. All the other schools will lose their state accreditation if they do "How can anyone expect our parents and students to take the SOL exams seriously when they know that students in Fairfax are setting standards on every national exam and benchmark, sending students to some of the finest colleges in the country and yet failing the state tests?" Emery said. WILL VA TEST FLOP LIKE KENTUCKY FIASCO? \clip\98\16\vastand.txt Will New Va. School Standards Pass Muster With the Public? By Victoria Benning Washington Post Staff Writer Monday, November 16, 1998; Page A01 Eight years ago, Kentucky embarked on a plan to impose rigorous new tests on students and to judge every public school by its scores on the exams. 60% FAIL ALGEBRA IN VA TEST ALEXANDRIA TO TIE PROMOTION TO TOUGH TESTS \clip\98\16\vaflunk.txt Most HS Students Flunk New Va. Exams By Victoria Benning Washington Post Staff Writer Tuesday, November 3, 1998; Page B01 More than half of Virginia's public high school students flunked in at least one basic subject on new state exams given in the spring and would have fallen short of the requirement for a diploma if penalties had been in effect, according to figures released yesterday. Starting with the Class of 2004, high school students will need to have passed six of the 11 high school end-of-course exams to graduate: both tests in English, one in math, one in science, one in social studies and one in an elective course. By 2007, schools where fewer than 70 percent of students have passed the exams will face the loss of their accreditation. In Alexandria students will have to pass the fifth- and eighth-grade tests to be promoted. "Among the students tested in the spring, there was a 60 percent failure rate on the high school Algebra I exam, a 69 percent failure rate on Algebra II and a 48 percent failure rate on geometry." VIRGINIA SETS TOUGH PASS POINTS \clip\98\16\lean.txt Richmond Times-Dispatch Board leaning to high scores/Passing rates on state tests weighed http://www.gatewayva . com/rtd/special/sol/sol30.shtml Friday, October 30, 1998 VA HAS TOUGH STANDARDS, BUT COMMITTEE STILL SETS PASS POINT SUBJECTIVELY \clip\98\13\vatest.txt Board to set passing scores on new tests / Stakes high for students, accreditation of schools Sunday, October 4, 1998 BY PAMELA STALLSMITH Richmond Times-Dispatch Staff Writer The state Board of Education will start grading new statewide tests this week when it receives recommended passing ranges for the exams, which will be decided by the end of the month and will ultimately determine whether schools remain accredited and students graduate. This year's seventh graders --the class of 2004 -- must pass at least six end-of-course tests to graduate from high school. By the 2006-07 year, 70 percent of a school's students must pass the tests for the school to remain accredited. Although Virginia has been lauded for having better standards than some more Tucker-inspired states, setting the pass points seems little better than the process used by WA state. The pass points are set AFTER the test is constructed and given to students, and it doesn't matter that the test actually contains 40% questions at levels higher than the 4th grade benchmarks. Effectively, there is NO written standard that people can see, and you're either stuck with one standard for all years, or the standard is re-defined every year, with every state setting its own "standard", which is useless for comparison. You can't set pass points by "consensus" anymore than you can build a 747 or Windows NT by consensus. It's completely subjective. (a. hu) \clip\98\06\vatest.txt Washington Post, Wednesday, March 11, 1998; Page B04 NEW STATE EXAMS GET FIRST TEST 44 Questions Said to Measure Virginia Students' English Skills By Jay Mathews "It was pretty easy," said Selwyn Avelar, a 17-year-old junior at J.E.B . Stuart High School in Fairfax County, "although you had to be careful with questions where the spelling was off by just one letter." \clip\98\05\newscl10.txt 2/27/98 Richmond Times-Dispatch Learning standards tests start in March Core academic subjects emphasized BY PAMELA STALLSMITH Times-Dispatch Staff Writer After Reconstruction, white Southerners who supported the Northern view of government were called: A) Loyalists B) Carpetbaggers C) Scalawags D) Rebels If you're a fifth-grader in a Virginia public school, you had better know the answer is C if you want to do well on your Standards of Learning test in social studies this spring. Del. Marian Van Landingham, D-Alexandria, called the explosion of testing "a fad" and said essay tests gauge students' performance better than multiple-choice exams. HIGH REGARD FOR VIRGINA Some academics, including the American Federation of Teachers, consider Virginia's "Standards of Learning" for math, English, science, and social studies to be a national model. Beginning this school year, all students in Virginia will be tested for proficiency in Grades 3, 5, and 8, and with end-of-course exams in high school. \clip\97\30\reform.txt 9-2-97 Christian Science Monitor *15 Years of School Reform: New Ideas, Modest Results %%Science Ohanian on 5th grade science 3. Which of these belong to the kingdom Monera? a) Ferns b) Mosses c) Mushrooms d) Bacteria [For adults fortunate enough to have attended school in low-stakes days and who don't have a fifth-grader handy to ask, the kingdom Monera includes prokaryotic cells without nucleus or membrane-bound organelles. It is divided into two subkingdoms: eubacteria and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae).] %%zend @@Vocational Particularly in Mass, there is question why vocational students must pass an MCAS that is clearly aimed at college-bound students. VOCATIONAL GET ONLY HALF ACADEMICS BUT STILL MUST PASS MCAS z48\clip\2001\03\mcasvoc.txt By Heidi B. Perlman, Associated Press, 3/2/2001 18:43 "Board of Education chairman James Peyser says vocational education students should be held to the same academic standards as every other high school graduate in the state." MCAS WILL FAIL NEARLY ALL VOCATIONAL STUDENTS z47\clip\2000\12\vocmcas.txt html [vo-tech] Principal criticizes MCAS tests Thursday, December 7, 2000 By NANCY H. GONTER at Dean Technical High School, the average reading skills of the students was below fifth grade level. "I looked at these students' MCAS scores and they all failed. (If the MCAS graduation requirement was in place,) I couldn't give these kids diplomas," Dupont said. TownOnline (Massachusetts) May 14, 2000 Vocational schools hammer MCAS test By NICOLE SIMMONS NEWS STAFF WRITER Vocational school superintendents want state education officials to change the way they assess their students, arguing that the MCAS exams don't account for the valuable trade and technical skills taught in their schools. @@Vocational A-levels UK intends to replace old vocational test with "vocational a-level" intended to have just as much prestige as academic a-levels, but they are threatened by high failure rates. The Times (UK) 3/30/01 Nearly all pupils fail vocational A levels THE failure rate for new vocational A levels is running as high as 90 per cent in some subjects, throwing government plans to reform work-related study into chaos. @@Voluntary National Test At first glance, this test seems to be pretty good, but it's criterion referenced like the NAEP, there doesn't seem to be any provision for a norm-referenced score, so we can still get the problem that newspapers will be reporting that 50% of students aren't at grade level, when 50% of students IS the normal definition of grade level. Home Page \clip\98\01\math_fnl.pdf Item and Test Specifications for the Voluntary National Test in 8th-Grade Mathematics 10/14/97 The Mathematics Committee Recommendations to The National Test Panel is now available for download. Original Mathematically Correct slams the new Clinton Math Test. It will be changed and scoring scales changed over time. It does not test for algebra. @@Washington @@WASL %%Access to test \clip\2005\06\waslpeek.txt Seattle Times June 02, 2005 Editorial Peeking into WASL Parents interested in viewing their children's WASL tests have every right to do so. State educators were smart to figure that out and end eight years of rebuffing parents who want access to the test booklets. %%Accomodations Orlich reads accomodations4th-10th Grade Benchmarks \doc\web\98\05\mathbenc.txt Commission on Student Learning (CSL) Essential Academic Learning Requirements (EALR) (March 3rd, 1997) Barbara Chamberlain at the Commission on Student Learning explains why problems that appear to be 7th and 10th grade level aren't that. %%Bergeson, Terry 1997 Superintendent, leader of education reform movement and the new assessment and Certificate of Mastery see %%Bias BILLS WOULD ELIMINATE ITBS IN FAVOR OF FLAWED WASL noitbs.htm testimony regarding both HB 1068 and SB 5071. Public Testimony Nancy Vernon February 10, 2005 A publication produced by the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory addressing School Improvement in January 2005 acknowledged that "[a]n extensive portion of the Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL), the state's student achievement test, includes higher-order thinking questions, which can be especially challenging for students from low-income families and students with disabilities." %%Cheating A.G. BELL MATH 2003-04 DOUBLED IN 02-03, DECLINED IN 03-04 2001-02 Read 54.5 Math 47.3 Write 40.0 2002-03 Read 82.4 Math 72.5 Write 51.0 2003-04 Read 74.5 Math 52.9 Write 49.0 Sci 46.0 A.G. Bell also sent kids science WASL homework that looked identical to Hot Wheels track and loop problem that was in previous year's test Not surprising that scores should go up. 2002-03 A.G. BELL 4TH GRADE SCHOOLWORK LOOKS LIKE UNRELEASED TEST Kirkland teacher | 2nd page 4th grade worksheets my son brough home appear to mimic unreleased 2003 WASL problems. Principal and Superintendent of Lake Washington conclude that any improper resemblence is "impossible". Problems give hints as to how to classify triangles (actual problem was which triangles were similar), and what kid of chart (actual problem did not instruct what kid of plot was to be used). Math scores at AG Bell nearly doubled from 40 to 70% passing, as it did at couple of other district schools. 2004 - reports of high school students sharing problems with other students. %%Certificate of Mastery CANNOT RECOMMEND WASL AS VALID FOR GRADUATION 2003 Final Report of the certificate of Mastery Study Committee Presented to the State Board of Education by Gary Gainer, Chair COM Study Committee (On behalf of the COM Study Committee) May 21, 2003 "Lacking this information, we cannot recommend to the State Board of Education at this time that the 10th grade WASL is valid for the purpose of conferring or denying a high school diploma. POSITION 3" z68\CLIP\2003\06\finalcim.htm %%College Placement Test The WASL is actually MORE difficult than college placement tests. Community college 2nd year students actually passed the college test at a LOWER rate than WASL, and passed at a lower rate than the 2008 goal of 80% passing. WASL PASS BAR HIGHER THAN COMMUNITY COLLEGE STANDARDS z62\clip\2002\11\waslcoll.txt Nov 2002 10th-grade exam harder than college test? By Linda Shaw Seattle Times staff reporter of 2nd year sophomores... 88 percent passed the community-college writing exams, which determines whether they are ready for college-level work. But fewer — 73 percent — passed the writing section of the 10th-grade Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL). ..The WASL includes a wider variety of content than the college tests. [note that college sophomores don't meet the state goal of 80% passing] State college math placement test WASL IS HIGHER STANDARD THAN 2 YR COLLEGE TEST z56\doc\web\2002\05\waslberg.txt Bergeson and A-Minus Commission on TVW 5/2002 ... what it really means is that A) WASL is MORE difficult than what they expect college bound students to be able to do and B) as far as admissions or placement goes, WASL skills don't matter since they've never tested for or asked for these skills. %%Copy HEY, YOU _CAN_ LOOK AT A REAL COPY OF THE WASL TEST waslqa.htm Can I get a copy of the tests? No. The tests are not released publicly because many of the same questions will be used on future tests. You can, however, receive sample test questions from your local school and a few examples are included in this booklet. In addition, by going to your child's school and signing a confidentiality agreement, you can review an actual copy of the test. Enrico Yap 360-753-6755 Asst Superintendent Rosemary Fitton 360-586-0303 Bob Silverman .. but only if your child is actually taking the test??? %%Cost Don Orlich estimates the state has spent 25-30 million. $75 million was budged just for 2002 for WASL and WASL remediation. 2003-05 $200M budgeted 200m.txt 2002: $74 MILLION BUDGETED TO PAY FOR WASL Don Orlich 4/12/2002 The new contract for the WASL to the Riverside Publishing Company is only $61,348,910. Plus $13,000,000 to place her School Improvement Specialists (spies) in schools not scoring well on the WASL. Yakima Herald Sept 8, 2000 State pays $5M per year to score the exams (that's $1 per person in the state!) 5/2000 Orlich estimates $25-30M spent so far, $60M planned. 1/1997 Costs start at $15 million, up to $21 for more subjects %%Critics By person ---- [[Baumgardner Curriculum, Instruction and Technology Assessment and Education Reform Curriculum Staffing Technology Washington State Commission on Student Learning Director of Instructional Support - Jim Bumgarner, (360) 681-0928 Assessment and... 95% [[Coombs we have to ask ourselves *why* does an education establishment dedicated to defending and funding itself set itself up for "failure" by writing tests that are too abstruse for students to conquer. WHY, is the question. Yes, the ed. establishment has been stung by criticism that it has "dumbed down" the entire curriculum -- which of course for practical, everyday purposes it has -- but why are these performance-based tests so out of character for our educrats? Marian K. Coombs (Maryland) [[Coomer z45\doc\web\2000\10\wasldog.txt by Oct 2000 WASL, The Tail that Wags the Dog By Joseph C. Coomer [[CURE z38\clip\2001\02\citzrept.txt CITIZENS' MINORITY REPORT REGARDING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AND ACCOUNTABILITY COMMISSION'S RECOMMENDATIONS ON ACCOUNTABILITY SPI published the "Study of the Grade 4 Mathematics Assessment - Final Report" and revealed: · In 2000, "16 percent, or ten of the total points on the test (62 points) were non­aligned items." (p.31) (In reference to the WASL) · "A few items were beyond the developmental level of most 4th grade students." (p. 47) "... the test, as currently constructed, is too long for 4th grade students." (p. ii) [[EPAA WASL DOESN'T TEST ANYTHING THAT WE ARE TEACHING z68\doc\web\2003\07\waslvan.txt EDUCATION POLICY ANALYSIS ARCHIVES. Local Impact of State Testing in Southwest Washington Linda Mabry Jayne Poole Linda Redmond Angelia Schultz Washington State University Vancouver Citation: Mabry, L., Poole, J., Redmond, L., Schultz, A. (July 18, 2003). Local impact of state testing in southwest Washington. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 11(21). Retrieved [date] from "one observing that the WASL "doesn’t measure anything that we teach our kids" (Ms. Apple). Another teacher complained that test content was insufficiently aligned with the curriculum" Inappropriate for at-risk students, may be more harmful than helpful. [[Evergreen Freedom Foundation \clip\98\16\edreform10-97.html "performance-based tests are extremely costly and they vary widely in quality. Yet we have instituted them as the new assessment system. It is from these tests that the dismal, new, 4th grade achievement results were obtained. " [[General (ANTI) Washington State Assessments Petition What happens to certificate of mastery / diploma if you don't pass the test? [[Hochstatter Hochstatter slams WASL 8/29/00 in gov campaign. [[Hu, Arthur TACOMA NEWS TRIBUNE ACKNOWLEDGES EXISTENCE OF CRITICS \clip\98\12\waslt.txt,,, Tacoma News Tribune Sept 13, 1998 The fundamentals of the Washington testing program Debbie Cafazzo; The News Tribune " THE CRITICS: Some opponents contend the WASL is too difficult and that it tests fourth-graders on higher-level concepts. Others say the laborious scoring of essay tests is too expensive and too subjective. " SMALL BUT VOCAL GROUP HAS ATTACKED THE TEST - NO NAMES The Seattle Times Company Posted at 06:47 a.m. PDT; Tuesday, September 8, 1998 Questions, answers regarding the new test A small but vocal group, made up particularly of political conservatives, has attacked the test and Washington's education-reform movement. Specifically, they say: [[Kenny, Shea "It's far too difficult for fourth graders and they'll never do very well on it. Listen to and approve of anything that sounds good. Make it sound good, it must be good. [[Klarich, James H WASL requires teaching at age inappropriate levels with no curriculum or approved methods. I know that this bicycle question is ridiculous! It is not something I would expect my daughter to be able to do at age nine. My daughter did take the fourth grade test last spring and she passed all four areas. All this job and communication stuff has been added without eliminating any trivia. Perhaps we could call it 10K wide and 10K deep? Then you have the test. On the critical thinking/integrated test (I refuse to call it math) in the tenth grade I am still trying to find how we match it with the ELARS. Is it worth the cost to the kids, teachers, families, schools? James H. Klarich Toppenish High School [[LeMiex, Jeff We are on the verge of either re-creating public education - or destroying it, and quite frankly, I am worried. Jeff LeMieux Oak Harbor [[Bickel, Burt Believes the test is way over the heads of grade level, has taught k-12 Burt Bickel 253-833-0186 P.O. Box 2240 Auburn WA 98071 [[Cunningham, George Critic of KIRIS also familiar with high failure rate on KIRIS test. [[Pohlman, Steve Tests get easier at each grade SCORE AT MCAULIFFE HI BECAUSE TEACHER HELPED MAKE TEST?? \doc\web\98\06\testcht.txt Sits on the fairness committee believes 4th is very hard (G6 or 7), 7th is not quite as hard (8/9) and 10th is easy (9th) which will give the impression of progress. [[Seattle GET RID OF WASL #1 REQUEST OF NEW SUPERINTENDENT z68\clip\2003\06\newsup.txt June 20, 2003 Seek leader who boosts confidence, citizens tell Seattle school officials Several participants in the Gatzert meeting... "Get rid of the WASL (Washington Assessment of Student Learning)!" said .. volunteer tutor of Ethiopian immigrant children. [Both previous superintendents had no educational background whatsoever, and strongly backed WASL or bust policies] [[Selwyn z46\clip\2000\11\selwyn.txt SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER WASL fails students, teachers, parents Sunday, November 19, 2000 By DOUG SELWYN Guest columnist Newspaper headlines tell us that our students are failing the Washington Assessment of Student Learning test, but those headlines have it backward. WASL is failing the students, parents and educators. [[Stuter, Lynn What Parents Need to Know About the WASL Test was likely easier and contains many questions from last year that students got correct. QUESTIONS ACCURACY OF "IMPROVED" 1998 SCORES \DOC\WEB\98\06\WASL2.TXT STUTER: 21ST CENTURY SCHOOLS DID WORSE THAN AVERAGE ON WASL TEST \doc\web\98\06\stuttest.txt [[WEA State Board of Education gets a lesson on accountability z56\doc\web\2002\05\waslreg.txt The WASL: Who makes up these crazy regulations? Features from the April 2002 WEA Action WEA CALLS FOR END OF USE OF WASL AS HIGH STAKES TEST z56\doc\web\2002\05\weawasl.txt "That the WEA call on the legislature to bring about the following changes to the WASL Program: 9. Eliminate the use of the WASL for high stakes and use it as a systems check." %%EALR Essential Academic Learning Requirements Kirkwood notes there are no grade-level reading requirements, science is politically correct, and some tasks are ridiculously advanced for a minimum standard of what all shall know and be able to do. Fordham state of standards: Washington math gets F. Most states also flunk, due to NCTM inspiration. z85\clip\2005\01\mathstandards05FINAL.pdf "They also trace the source of much of this weakness to states' unfortunate embrace of the advice of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), particularly the guidance supplied in that organization's wrongheaded 1989 standards. (A later NCTM publication made partial amends, but these came too late for the standards—and the children—of many states.) " Don Orlich: Arthur: You will love reading this. Even though I think very lowly of Chester Finn and his crowd, this report is what we needed. This is not a gang of "knee jerk liberals." They gave the math EALRS an "F." Don Orlich...And their analysis is exactly what Arthur Hu and I have been saying since 1999! Good Luck and best for 2005. Don %%Errors Cathy Taylor of uw, other WSU professors believe WASL math isdevelopmentally appropriate. in study zip38\clip\99\20\testerr.txt Seattle Post Intelligencer Friday, August 27, 1999 Grading gets low score on state exam Writing test results may be discarded By REBEKAH DENN SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER REPORTER The lowest score on a statewide writing test may go to the people who graded the exam. TRAINERS USED WRONG RUBRICS TO GRADE (SO WHAT ELSE IS NEW?) zip36\clip\99\17\error.txt Seattle Times September 1, 1999 Error on student essays to cost firm $600,000 by Jolayne Houtz Seattle Times staff reporter "About 205,000 students in grades 4, 7 and 10 took the Washington Assessment of Student Learning last spring" BERGESON APOLOGIES FOR ANOTHER BIG WASL SCREW UP \clip\99\16\scorflub.txt August 26, 1999 Scoring flub mars results of state academic test by Jolayne Houtz Seattle Times staff reporter "a large number of Washington students got perfect scores for spelling and grammar on the state's high-stakes test but this is apparently the result of an enormous scoring snafu." "Bergeson said fourth-graders in '98 were asked to write a persuasive letter and create a story, questions that proved tougher than the previous year's questions, which asked them to write a descriptive essay and retell a favorite story. [which proves the tests are useless for comparison between years] " "Last spring, two fourth-grade math questions published in the widely distributed sample test also mistakenly appeared on the real exam." %%Failure TOPPENISH NEAR YAKIMA IS LOWEST 7TH GRADE WASL 2% PASS z45\clip\2000\10\gearup.txt As UW program reaches out, some communities pull back Wednesday, May 31, 2000 By RUTH SCHUBERT SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER REPORTER Toppenish Middle School, home to the state's lowest seventh-grade scores on the Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL) tests. Last year, only 1.8 percent of the school's seventh-graders met state standards in math and just 8 percent met standards in reading. %%Flow Paper flow of WASL from OSPI to students. %%Gain PI: CLAIMS SCHOOLS GETTING BETTER ON WASL MATH BUT TEST GETTING EASIER \clip\2000\03\waslgain.txt Schools find keys to lift state scores despite odds 'Heartening' study spotlights successes Wednesday, March 29, 2000 By DEBERA CARLTON HARRELL SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER REPORTER [Of course, they didn't interview anyone from the opposing viewpoint who could have told them that EVERY school in the state is showing similar gains. Texas's TAAS also showed the same rate of gain, which was shown to be only proof that the test was getting easier and teachers are teaching to the test - AHU] %%Goal SEATTLE BOARD FOOLISH ENOUGH TO PROMISE 100% WILL MEET WASL STANDARDS \clip\99\09\readsea.txt March 16, 1999 Seattle trustees split over achieving basic reading skills by Dick Lilly Seattle Times staff reporter It sounds simple enough: By the end of third grade, every student in Seattle Public Schools should read well enough to meet the state's standards. %%Grade Level Analysis \doc\web\98\02\washtest.wk1 Washington Assessment Survey Comparison of question with Essential Learning Skills Benchmarks By Arthur Hu 1/23/98 Only 40% of problems are clearly within 4th grade 31% are clearly at 7th grade or higher level by benchmarks %%Hearings February 11, 1999 Work Session: An overview of the Commission on Student Learning's work on the Washington Assessment of Student Learning. - Public Hearing: Z-0610, SB 5178 - Executive Session: SB 5298 Norm referenced changes and goal 2 changes Riverside runs ITBS, got a good deal. 3 tests WASL NAEP ITBS + 2nd grade reading test accuracy fluency. Core basic skills ITBS, WASL application more complex thinking, 3rd proposal - aligned system. Moved CTBS from 4 to 3, 6th grade ITBS to go with 7th grade WASL, move 8th to 9th. Career inventory. 10th grade certificate CIM, eliminate 11th basic skills. 11th grade will have little meaning [huh? what skills are the exiting with??] vs CIM. $400,000 for CTBS. Iowa was less - WASL criterion Iowa norm health + fitness arts. Timelines in legislation - extension of deadlines. Science exam piloted this year. used to hold off on fitnes and arts - district level people says to keep assessment because it makes difference in curriculum. had 850 at commission conference this year linda golfie focus groups + 1700 conference at spokane. Study arts, social studies, fitness essential learnings. HS graduation requirements agreed on delay. 3 and 4 thinking goal, work goal, development of reform legislation. review - arts too comprehensive. Not just talent, look at knowledge - apply social studies to art? how it applies to other "everyday" aspects of life [there are _no_ effective standardized tests in these fields!]\scomms\senedu.htm 9/18/98 - Work session Topics Include: Presentation on the process used to set the standards for the Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL) by Gordon Ensign, Commission on Student Learning. Presentation on the scoring process used for the Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL) by Nina Metzner, National Computer Systems. Washington State Senate Education Committee--Full Committee September 18, 1998 1:30 pm (TVW) 1. Presentation on the process used to set the standards for the Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL) by Gordon Ensign, CSL 2. Presentation on the scoring process used for the WASL by Nina Metzner, National Computer Systems %%High Score BASICS CORE/HIRSCH SCHOOL IN KENNEWICK ACES WA'S REFORM-BASED TEST \doc\web\98\06\coretest.txt In Washington State, students at Ridge View Elementary in Kennewick achieved one of the highest percentages of students meeting the standard in all four areas on the Washington Assessment of Student Learning at 51 percent. The average Washington fourth grader scored at the 21st percentile. Thought the state did not prepare a report comparing schools, Ridge View's score would most likely rank it in the top ten percent, according to Ridge View principal Ted Mansfield, who also serves on the accountability task force for Washington's Commission on Student Learning. At Kennewick's Ridge View, 52.7 percent of students met the math standard (compared with 22 percent statewide), 74.2 percent met the reading standard (compared with 42 percent statewide) and 86 percent met the listening standard (compared with 62 percent statewide). Ridge View Elementary School 7001 W 13th Ave Kennewick, WA phone (509) 734-3650 fax 509-734-3652 School home page %%Improvement Stuter gets data that shows how scores were manipulated to show improvement STUTER QUESTIONS VALIDITY OF ASSESMENT "IMPROVEMENT" \doc\web\98\06\wafraud.txt %%Income z62\clip\2002\12\waslinc.txt The News Tribune - Tacoma, WA Sunday, December 8, 2002 Lui Kit Wong | The News Tribune Poverty vs. achievement: WASL test score analysis shows low-income students face greater hurdles Debby Abe and Paula Lavigne Sullivan; The News Tribune %%Incorrect Answers Not just math answers, but the reading answers for WASL test samples are just flat out wrong. - Seattle PI example says to count the bricks when you're supposed to use similar triangles to measure a flagpole using a ruler, fireplug and shadow. - Seattle Times Lacitis shows state thought a poem that the author says is often requested for dedicating skyscrapers should give full credit only if used for a wedding. %%Initiative Initiative was abandoned for lack of money and organization in 2002. z53\clip\2001\10\wasltext.txt Draft 8 of ban on high stakes for WASL 10/2001 2002/I-780: Require candidates to take WASL and have scores posted. z55\clip\2002\04\newstrib.txt Is too much weight placed on students' WASL scores? NO: Test is a vital, effective tool April 21, 2002 Jennifer L. Vranek I-780 Is too much weight placed on students' WASL scores? YES: High-stakes testing will backfire April 21, 2002 Doug Selwyn %%ITBS susan says 1/2002: the ITBS is available for purchase from BJU Press (and others may sell it as well). They make it available in all levels for homeschoolers who want to test their own kids. So, for a mere $32, you can look at the whole darn thing! You can also order the grade-level SAT's, WASL flunks kids that are above avg on ITBS! z40\clip\2000\03\itbs.txt Seattle Times Company June 23, 1999 State's students beat national tests' median by David Ammons Associated Press Washington's results: Third-graders scored at the 55th percentile in reading and 60 in math, and eighth-graders scored 52 in reading, 52 in language arts and 56 in math. Hispanic third-graders, for instance, tested at the 28th percentile in reading and 36th in math, and Hispanic eighth-graders scored at the 24th percentile in reading and 33rd in math. .. costs about $3 per student to administer and score, with state taxpayers picking up the tab. About 200,000 pupils were tested. %%Lawsuit z44\clip\2000\08\wasllaw.txt Fisher's Landing teacher sues Evergreen, principal Suzanne Heinzel alleges she faces retaliation after raising concerns about directives on subjects to be taught Thursday, July 13, 2000 tronorth/n5_esuit13.frame %%Math Study: Sorry, we Goofed just a little bit.... OSPI studied the math test because of the Legislature which had heard too many complaints about the 4th grade math. They concluded that it wasn't a big deal, only 10% of the problems were way off, not enough to change the passing standard. The pencil problem was one of the only problems mentioned in the article as being bogus (choose between mm, cm and meters for distance around the center of a pencil), and you're not supposed to have students devise a method, they're supposed to apply a method. z45\clip\2000\08\4thtest.htm, .txt 8/23/00 Aug 23, 2000 4th-grade math test too hard? Yes and no "Hu called the study "a piece of garbage" and said his own analysis found more than half the test problems are not aligned with academic standards. "The WASL is not even compliant with its own rules," he said. " \doc\web\2000\08\nerl.txt Cronin: The so-called independent Northwest Education Research Laboratories is anything but. NERL has long pushed high stakes testing and performance/OBE. Marc Tucker worked there. Tucker, father of ed deform reforming, corporate darling, and confidant of Presidents, is using the Educational Regional Labs to do his bidding. %%Median State tests are all "benchmarked to international levels of performance" yet WASL rates 55% of students as knowing nothing, including the MEDIAN student, but every norm referenced test puts Washington students equal or above national and international averages. Fed Way Boardmember 2/2001: "This past week I attended a regional meeting of school board members in which it was reported that more than 55 percent of our seventh-graders, statewide, scored in the lowest category on the math exam. This is a very graphic example of the size and nature of the problem. The new standards are designed to allow Washington students to compete with students from all over the world. There are over 100,000 seventh-graders in the state. Well over half of them cannot yet meet that benchmark." Note - 50th percentile is the definition of grade level, state 7th graders are equal or above average compared to other states and nations. .doc word file %%Minority impact 95% of minorities, and mostly minority schools failed to meet the 4th grade math standards. In 1999, seattle blacks improved so that only 88% flunked. SEATTLE WELCOMES NAACP TO CLOSE WASL GAP zip54\clip\2001\12\naacp.txt Wednesday, December 19, 2001 NAACP, schools team up to reduce racial gap By Keith Ervin Seattle Times staff reporter Olchefske welcomes a partnership with the NAACP to help children of all races meet the tough standards tested in the Washington Assessment of Student Learning. WASL SCORES WAY UP WHEN GENDERS SEPARATED AT THURGOOD MARSHALL z52\clip\2001\09\marsgend.txt September 25, 2001 Test scores improve after girls and boys separated Seattle elementary school likes result of experiment Associated Press In the 1998 tests, only 7 percent of students at Marshall met reading and writing standards on the annual exam, and none met the mark for math. When WASL results were released last week, 51.2 percent of Marshall pupils met state standards for reading, 9.8 percent for math, and 58.5 for listening. BLACK FAIL 4.5X, ASIAN 1.6X IN 4TH GRADE SEATTLE WASL MATH Seattle Times July 7, 2000 Frustrations led tpo board protest. Minority students' gap has failed to narrow despite talks with parents. Blames olchefske for not attending racism workshop WASL 4th grade math failure 1.00 54W -1.58 34A -2.16 25NA -2.37 23L -4.5 12B BLACK PARENTS GROUP DISAPPOINTED BY TEST RESULTS \clip\98\03\parent.txt Seattle Times Company Monday, January 26, 1998 Parents give minority students a boost by Dionne Searcey Seattle Times South bureau %%NEA Teachers Union %%WEA WASL NOT RELIABLE ENOUGH FOR GRADUATION TEST z63\doc\web\2003\01\weawasl.txt 1/10/2003 WEA: Studies support call for major WASL fixes WEA continues to be watchdog for WASL validity and reliability. WEA researchers John Brickell and Doris Lyon have recently completed a thorough review of all statewide WASL studies and technical reports regarding WASL reliability and validity. Some of their key findings reinforce WEA's call for the 10th-grade WASL to be de-linked from high school graduation requirements: The standard error of measurement for WASL tests is too large to warrant use of the scores alone when making decisions regarding a student's academic achievement levels. WASL is more difficult for seventh-graders than the 10th-grade math test is for 10th-graders, or the fourth-grade math is for fourth-graders. Twelve percent of the math problems on the seventh-grade WASL didn't provide enough in the question for students to know how to answer them. Seventeen percent of the student's score is based on test questions with excessive or inappropriate information load. NEA promotes WASL Are the standards too high? The numerical scores required to meet the fourth grade benchmarks were set by a CSL committee, a majority of which were your colleagues across the state who teach fourth graders WEA has been a solid supporter of educational reform from the mid-1980’s when now-State Superintendent Terry Bergeson was WEA president z40\clipim\2000\04\17\nea\neatest.htm %%News \clip\2005\06\wasllife.txt Monday, June 13, 2005 Why passing the WASL is a test for life By ROBERT L. JAMIESON Jr. SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER COLUMNIST You've got to hand it to those kids over at Rainier Beach High. The kids think the Washington Assessment of Student Learning, or WASL, stinks. \doc\web\2005\04\wasltruth.txt Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL) Myths and Truths Prepared by Nancy Katims, Edmonds School District April 2005 BILLS WOULD ELIMINATE ITBS IN FAVOR OF FLAWED WASL noitbs.htm testimony regarding both HB 1068 and SB 5071. Public Testimony Nancy Vernon February 10, 2005 A publication produced by the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory addressing School Improvement in January 2005 acknowledged that "[a]n extensive portion of the Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL), the state's student achievement test, includes higher-order thinking questions, which can be especially challenging for students from low-income families and students with disabilities." MOST OF 7TH GRADE WASL IMPROVEMENT DUE TO CUT SCORE CHANGE z82\clip\2004\08\wasl2.txt September 02, 2004 Improvement on WASL carries asterisk By Linda Shaw Seattle Times staff reporter "46.3 percent in math, up 9.5 points. ...Without [cut score] changes, the seventh-grade gain instead would have been much smaller: 3.6 percentage points in reading, and 1.8 in math." z84\priv\2004\08\backwasl.txt Monday, August 30, 2004, 08:12 A.M. Pacific Back to school + WASL = anxiety test By Cara Solomon Seattle Times Eastside bureau Jason Brown did everything a good teacher should do. He browsed through bookstores. He stockpiled snacks. He got his first-grade classroom all dressed up and ready. KIRO POLL 72% TO 22% WASL IS NOT FAIR EVALUTION April poll Is the Washington Assessment of Student Learning [WASL] a fair way to evaluate students? Choice Votes Percentage of 1415 Votes Yes. 306 22% No. 1016 72% Not sure. 93 7% z75\cd\clip\2004\01\wasldeb.txt Tuesday, January 27, 2004, 12:24 A.M. Pacific Prospect of dismal test scores renews debate over WASL By Linda Shaw Seattle Times staff reporter Faced with the prospect that tens of thousands of high-school students might not graduate because they failed the Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL) Is the exam fair? Too hard? A valid measure of learning? z75\clip\2003\12\yakwasl.txt Yakima Herald December 1, 2003 State's on Right Track With Education Reforms, Re-tuning WASL "We must abandon our obsession with the WASL and get the focus back on learning: communicating, thinking and applying knowledge and skills for the 21st century," she told a gathering of school superintendents and board members. z74\clip\2003\09\waslref.txt SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER WASL reform is still the test ahead Friday, September 5, 2003 SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER EDITORIAL BOARD z70\clip\2003\09\wasltalk.txt Skagit Valley Herald 'Talking points' belittle results of student tests In preparation for the release last week of the Washington Assessment of Student Learning, or WASL, scores, the state education office issued a list of "Talking Points for School Leaders." 90% OF AFRICAN ACADEMY CLASS PASSES ALL 4 WASL SECTION (?!) z70\clip\2003\09\afrwasl.txt September 04, 2003 - Page updated at 12:00 A.M. African American Academy sees payoff in WASL scores By Sanjay Bhatt Seattle Times staff reporter On this year's Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL), 18 of Pinchback's 20 looped fourth-grade students — all of them African American and most of them from low-income households — passed all four sections: reading, writing, math and listening. Few teachers in the state matched that achievement with poor and minority students. [Only Bellevue's Challenge = 90.2 and Seattle's Lowell 93.0 were this high - sounds very suspicious. Schoolwide was only 33.9. AG Bell went from 40 to 70 passing in math, but my kid got schoolwork that looked like answer keys to unreleased live WASL problems z70\doc\web\2003\08\freebk.txt There's No Such Thing as a Free Breakfast Juanita Doyon August 25, 2003 “You can test some of the children all of the time. You can test all of the children some of the time. But there just ain’t no Lake Woebegone, man!” z69\clip\2003\08\teststan.txt Monday, August 18, 2003 State still needs testing standard SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER EDITORIAL BOARD The Center on Education Policy examined how states are implementing requirements that high school students pass standardized exams to graduate...the study found indications that dropout rates could be increasing in some locations as a result of the test requirements. THURGOOD MARSHAL DOES WELL ON WASL Seattle Weekly May 14 - 20, 2003 EDUCATION Put to the Test The WASL is too difficult for most students. What happens when it’s a graduation requirement? "four years ago, not a single student passed 4th grade math. Last year it jumped to an astounding 45 percent" "without the pressure it has wrought, Thurgood Marshall students would still be written off as unable to learn. by Nina Shapiro TESTS: WEAPONS OF MASS INSTRUCTION James Harvey thinks we've badly missed the boat on school reform, Sunday May 04, 2003 (NCLB is bad, but WASL and senior project graduation requirements are good??? He doesn't get it) Commentary z67\doc\web\2003\04\waslleft.txt 4/24/2003 [wa-ed-deform] TNT: Letter to the Editor: Many children will be left behind with WASL testing Many children will be left behind with WASL testing MAUREEN BERNARDY; Federal Way; HIGHER STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT OR TRAIN WRECK? z63\clip\2003\03\adjust.txt Seattle Times Tuesday, December 10, 2002 Guest columnist Adjust the WASL or face a disaster By Bob Dean Special to The Times The leader...Terry Bergeson. ..will lead to higher student achievement, but many others believe that these strategies are leading us to a spectacular "train wreck." Fourth-Grade Test Shortened to One Day Eastside Journal Apr 6, 2000 Catherine Hawley. Writing test shorted from 2 to 1 day, teachers complain students need more time, [how can scores be comparable?] z63\clipim\2002\12\30\wasl4.efx wasl4.jpg No cuts for 2003, WASL to be expanded for retakes. 7TH GRADE WASL IS HARDER THAN G4 OR G10, 14% ABOVE GRADE LEVEL z6\clip\2002\11\sriwasl.txt Local News: Friday, December 06, 2002 Study: Math in 7th-grade WASL is hard By Linda Shaw Seattle Times staff reporter "A group of experts convened by SRI International found: • Fourteen percent of the math problems on the seventh-grade WASL in 2001 were above a seventh-grade level, and 2 percent of problems were below. (The rest were at grade level.) On the 10th-grade test, no items were above 10th-grade level, 22 percent were below. " z62\clip\2002\12\waslfed.txt SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER Schools failing federal test; could lose millions in aid Thursday, November 28, 2002 "Much of the problem, Heuschel said, is a result of a decision to set high standards on the WASL, the benchmark tests created under the state's own 1993 education reform law. Only about half of the state's fourth-graders meet WASL standards in math and reading. " By GREGORY ROBERTS SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER REPORTER z62\clip\2002\11\chanwasl.txt Seattle Post Intelligencer Monday, November 25, 2002 Changes to WASL aimed at students Goal is to make it easier to achieve success "Business leaders fear that educational standards will be weakened, while unionized teachers oppose a high-stakes test of any kind as a sine qua non for graduation." By GREGORY ROBERTS SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER REPORTER z60\clip\2002\11\tribwasl.txt The News Tribune - Tacoma, WA Tuesday, November 19, 2002 SPI right to tinker with WASL test The News Tribune WASL foes want to do away with the test - or at least not make it a graduation requirement. But either move would be going too far. z60\clip\2002\11\waslpi.txt Seattle Post Intelligencer [big graphic] Sunday, November 17, 2002 P-I Focus: Minority students missing the WASL mark By JAMES HARVEY and MARY BETH CELIO GUEST COLUMNISTS "Everyone supports high standards. But if the standards are the wrong ones or the assessments are inappropriate or the system places imposing hurdles before minority students from the most troubled circumstances, standards may do the cause of quality more harm than good. Are our standards too ambitious? They're apparently too broad. ..everything but the kitchen sink wound up in the standards" z60\clip\2002\11\waslpi.txt Saturday, November 16, 2002 WASL must be changed, state superintendent says Retakes and other options at issue before test is ready for the class of 2008 Goal 2 assessment Bergeson rejects call to eliminate listening, calls for developing more WASL tests instead of abandoning them. z60\clip\2002\10\waslless.txt October 25, 2002 Student testing needs revision, Locke tells forum By J. Patrick Coolican Seattle Times Eastside bureau z58\Clip\2002\09\seatwasl.txt September 10, 2002 Test scores rise, but 10th-graders struggle By Linda Shaw Seattle Times staff reporter z58\clip\2002\09\cimaid.txt Certificate of Mastery aids students, schools Sunday, September 1, 2002 By ROLLAND JOHNSON PRINCIPAL We believe all students, regardless of a school's demographics, have the potential to meet high standards and succeed in school. REPLY TO GARDNER z56\clip\2002\07\coldfeet.txt July 11, 2002 Guest columnists Let's not get cold feet on improving our schools By Frank Shrontz and Bill Krippaehne Special to The Times 2002 10TH GRADE MATH PROBLEM GIVES WRONG FORMULA z55\clip\2002\05\wasl10.txt If A=3 And B=4, What's C+D? May 3, 2002 By Joe Furia SEATTLE - It's a controversial test given to measure the progress of fourth, seventh and 10th graders in Washington State. But, in the math section of this year's WASL test, students and teachers found a mistake -- an answer students couldn't get right, because the question is wrong. z55\clip\2002\05\wasl1.htm, .txt Seattle Times May 02, 2002 Why Washington needs the WASL By Steven Grubb Special to The Times But what should be stopped are calls for the WASL to be delayed or eliminated. Our children's education is too important to be held hostage to special interests. TB WASL DAMAGE CONTROL z55\clip\2002\04\tbwasl.txt Sunday, April 28, 2002 6:06 PM State schools aim for standard; WASL is just one piece of effort Terry Bergeson The Washington Assessment of Student Learning or WASL is making a lot of headlines lately. Given each spring to fourth-, Olive 25 Apr 2002 I have it on the word of a state school board member-- Warren Smith-- that WASL will never be a graduation requirement!!! DOYON WEBSITE CITED AS WASL PROTEST BY SEA PI. z55:\clip\2002\04\stuwasl.txt State's students go WASLing Standard test program both attacked and defended in a philosophical divide Monday, April 22, 2002 By DEBERA CARLTON HARRELL SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER REPORTER Ad campaigns. Protests. Press conferences. Assemblies. BERGESON: SOMETHING OUT OF WHACK WITH 7TH GRADE MATH SCORES Seventh-graders sing WASL Blues Dismal scores have educators wondering if bar is set too high Linda Shaw. Mcquarrie says 4th grade pass level is 40th percentile on ITBS, but 60th percentile on 7th grade. Bergeson: "something is out of whack" % who failed from, previous wasl test 34% read 31% math 7th grade from 4 5% read 5% math 10th grade from 7 WHY DO SO MANY FAIL MATH z54\clip\2002\01\waslmid.txt state looking into why many students fail WASL math test 01/15/2002 he Associated Press OLYMPIA - Just 27 percent of seventh-graders and less than 40 percent of 10th-graders passed the math portion of the Washington Assessment of Student Learning last year. "There is something happening at the middle-school level we have to figure out, and I don't know what it is," said Terry Bergeson, state superintendent of public instruction. WASL WILL REPLACE ITBS zip54\clip\2001\12\mccune.txt Seattle Times Company December 20, 2001 School testing programs likely to be disrupted By Linda Shaw Rod Paige will require states to give reading and math tests tied to their learning standards. In this state, that would be the WASL and not the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS), a national test given here in grades three and six. WASL TO BE EXPANDED TO FULFIL FEDERAL TESTING MANDATE zip54\clip\2001\12\waslexp.txt Under education bill, state can keep WASL, but it may be expanded Thursday, December 20, 2001 By DEBERA CARLTON HARRELL SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER REPORTER "WASL will be added in at least third and fifth grade.. into compliance with new federal testing guidelines..Paige .. for states to develop their own systems and monitor them carefully to ensure all students meet high standards." BUSH PLAN DOES NOT FUND EXPENSIVE WASL EXPANSION z54\clip\2001\12\testref.txt SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER Tests are not education reform Friday, December 21, 2001 SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER EDITORIAL BOARD ACTUAL WASL QUESTIONS RELEASED z53\clip\2001\11\waslrel.txt Public to get its first look at controversial WASL itself By Linda Shaw Seattle Times staff reporter ED REFORM FOES PRESSURE PATRICK TO RESIGN FROM APLUS z53\clip\2001\10\patrick.txt October 11, 2001 School-reform panel's chairman steps down By Linda Shaw Seattle Times staff reporter Patrick Patrick has resigned as chairman of the commission. "I was becoming a focal point for those fighting education reform," Both Dick Lilly, Pat Griffith Seattle School Board candidates support standards / WASL. 9/2001 KOMO did a report on WASL scoring training in which teachers who were critical of the WASL, etc., appeared on darkened screens with digitally altered voices to protect their identities. * WASL scores puzzle educators (Olympian) * WASL tests trouble Mercer Island (Seattle P-I) [why don't we do better, 40% don't meet high standards] * Schools try to explain declining WASL scores (Seattle Times -- Saturday) * EDITORIAL: Improving WASL scores will take effort from us all (Skagit Valley Herald - Sun.) SPI is publishing WASL promo piece complete with WASL examples and test results in spanish?? 2001 WASL GAIN FLAT, BERGESON TO FOCUS ON MINORITY GAP z52\clip\2001\09\waslseat.txt September 20, 2001 2001 test results met with chagrin, determination By Linda Shaw Seattle Times staff reporter Test scores flattened out this year on the Washington Assessment of Student Learning, the state's most important exam, and Superintendent of Public Instruction Terry Bergeson pledged to make sure they don't stagnate by making changes that start with her. ORLICH PROCLAIMS WASL A PILE OF NONSENSE z52\clip\2001\09\wasltrib.txt Fourth-graders make small gains on WASL Mixed results: Educators say the next step is more reform September 20, 2001 Debby Abe (Staff writer Kris Sherman contributed to this report.); The News Tribune Donald Orlich takes a different view. "It's all a pile of nonsense," "The commission's primary focus this year, he said, will be developing goals for schools to reduce the achievement gap between minority and white students" z51\clip\2001\09\bergscor.txt August 30, 2001 Raising the learning curve [Bergeson proposes more teacher prep days, scoring WASL by teachers in state] Whitman County Democratic Central Committee Opposes High Stakes WASL z50\doc\web\2001\07\waslres.txt July 20, 2001 MAY 2001 PARTNERSHIP FOR LEARNING z49\doc\web\2001\50\orlwasl.txt 5/19/01 at 10:30, Channel 28 will air the Partnership for Learning video on WASL. Orlich reviews, it appears to be the first time hte PFL has ever acknowledged controvery over WASL being appropriate. 5/4/01 Ch9 Connects 15 min at 7:30 featuring Juanita Doyon z49\clip\2001\05\olymwasl.txt South Sound Thursday, April 26, 2001 Mike Salsbury/The Olympian Black Hills High School sophomore Zach Mandeville reads a Far Side comic book as he sits out WASL testing Wednesday in the school's career center. Sophomore Tim Sarkela (right) took the test earlier in the day. Student stages one-man WASL protest ALMA D. SHARPE, THE OLYMPIAN z49\clip\2001\04\waslhack.txt Test answer calls to mind a scandal New York Times April 29, 2001 The correct answer was: (C) Mayri, then Clay, then Lee, then Turno. Mayri. Clay. Lee. Turno. Wait. Say that out loud. Does that sound like Mary K. Letourneau? BERGESON DEFENDS WASL, STUDENTS WRITE ANTI-WASL ESSAYS IN WASL z49\clip\2001\04\yakwasl.txt$rec=3D22835?home> Supporters Stand by Exam, Critics Decry Results Emphasis (Yakima Herald-Republic) WASL Supporters Stand by Exam, Critics Decry Results Emphasis Published in the Herald-Republic on Monday, April 23, 2001 By JESSICA LUCE YAKIMA HERALD-REPUBLIC PRIVATE STUDENTS z49\clip\2001\04\waslpriv.txt WASL debate simmers at private schools; test not required, yet many take it By Tan Vinh Seattle Times staff reporter WASL SHOULD MAKE TEACHERS, STUDENTS SWEAT WITH WORRY vortex/display?slug=wasled02&date=20010302&query=wasl z48\clip\2001\03\wobbwasl.txt March 02, 2001 Editorial Too early, too easy to give up on WASL The Legislature is beginning to wobble over the WASL. It should get a hold of itself. It may make teachers, students and parents sweat with worry. But that's good. It needs to do that. z48\clip\2001\02\waslmonst.txt TNT 2-28-01 Your Voice: Education system has created WASL monster Mark Bratlie ...old story of a famous doctor who created an infamous monster. In like manner I am convinced that the main legacy of the current Washington state education system will be the creation of a monster named WASL. From Tacoma News Tribune 1/2001 In the real world, WASL isn't working ROBERT P. WARD; Bonney Lake z47\clip\2001\01\waslwork.txt PEOPLE ARE TERRIFIED OF WASL COMMISSION Z47\CLIP\2001\01\WASLTERR.TXT Commission debates goals for state test (AP/Bremerton Sun) WASL Commission debates goals for state test The Associated Press "We're in a precarious place right now," Bergeson said. "People are terrified about what this commission is going to do." z47\clip\2001\01\lowmark.txt Education : Thursday, January 11, 2001 Study gives schools low marks By Richard Martin and Katherine Long Seattle Times staff "the state received a D-plus in standards and accountability. The study looked at whether testing programs adequately measure student achievement against state standards, and accountability measures" BERGESON + APLUS VERSUS TEACHERS UNION z47\clip\2001\01\waslconf.txt ticle?zsection_id=268448411&text_only=0&slug=reform09m&document_id=134259067 State schools test faces critical conflict by Katherine Long Editor, Seattle Times School Guide "We're in a very precarious place right now," said Bergeson, a commission member. "People are terrified about what this commission is going to do." SEATTLE TIMES NIXES CALL TO KILL WASL z47\clip\2000\12\seatwasl.txt Seattle Times editorial, with blomstrom comments in brackets: Monday, December 04, 2000, 12:00 a.m. Pacific Editorial Don't abandon tests in Seattle schools z46\doc\web\2000\11\seawasl.txt A Resolution of the Seattle Education Association Passed at the November 20, 2000 Representative Assembly Whereas, the unreliability of scoring alone is sufficient grounds to discount all results of the WASL SEATTLE TEACHERS UNION WANTS TO DUMP WASL z46\clip\2000\11\suspwasl.txt Metro Seattle 2000-11-29 Throw out standardized test, Seattle teachers union says By Rebekah Denn Seattle Union Record In a blow to education-reform efforts, teachers in the Seattle Public Schools have condemned the state standardized test meant to measure student achievement as "neither valid nor reliable." FREE FRIES FOR EXAMINATION HELL z46\clip\2000\11\dickswas.txt Jim Spady of Dick's Drive-In is on the A+ committee. Dale Hale students score well on the test -- and score free burgers from principal Thursday, November 2, 2000 By LEAH KOHLENBERG SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER REPORTER z45\clip\2000\10\waslno.txt JUST A MATTER OF TIME! Many are the problems in education By Albert Burns [most students are failing, students realize reform doesn't work] CARLSON SAYS WASL TEST SCORES ARE VALID, AND LOCKE SHOULD NOT BE PROUD Tuesday, October 24, 2000 Carlson, Locke tangle on education by David Postman Seattle Times political reporter CARLSON FINALLY MENTIONS THE WASL - HE'S FOR IT! RIGHT - LOW WASL SCORES ARE A PROBLEM WRONG - CARLSON SAYS TO STAY THE COURSE WITH WASL THAT FLUNKS EVERYBODY Carlson said he was "baffled" that Locke, a Democrat, still boasts about scores that show only one out of four fourth-graders passed all parts of the Washington Assessment of Student Learning last spring. "Test scores have risen dramatically in the past few years," Locke told reporters after the debate. "I do not think that because only a fourth (of students) passed all the subjects we should get rid of the tests, or get rid of these high standards." Carlson agrees it would be a mistake to lower the standards or weaken the tests. [JOHN, THE WASL _IS_ A MISTAKE. WOULD IT BE A MISTAKE TO VOTE FOR YOU??] But he says Locke has not done enough to improve student performance. z45\clip\2000\10\carllock.txt z45\clipim\2000\24\carlocke\carlocke.htm 20% G4 18% G7 20% G10 FLUNK WASL TESTS October 24, 2000 Majority of state's students flunk fourth-, 10th-grade assessments GIGI TALCOTT - GET LITERACY FIRST BEFORE SCIENCE z45\clip\2000\10\sciwasta.txt Science part of test on hold NOT READY: Terry Bergeson says students' performance not accurately measured by WASL's science portion 10/17/2000 Debby Abe; The News Tribune State schools chief Terry Bergeson says the science portion of the statewide academic test won't be ready for next spring's eighth- and 10th-graders. Bergeson 10/16/2000 memo Science WASL test still not ready after 2 pilots, still go on 5th grade test $1.3M SCIENCE TEST TO BE JUNKED FOR NEXT YEAR z45\clip\2000\10\waslpi.txt Standardized science test fails to make the grade Wednesday, October 18, 2000 By RUTH SCHUBERT AND REBEKAH DENN SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER REPORTERS The science portion of the Washington Assessment of Student Learning, which cost the state $1.3 million to write, was scheduled to become mandatory for all eighth- and 10th-grade students next spring. z45\clip\2000\10\waslsci1.txt SeattleTimes.woa/wa/gotoArticle?zsection_id=268448480&text_only=0&slug=wasl18m&document_id=134240267 October 18, 2000 State science exam delayed: Test flunks pilot program keyed to reform by Linda Shaw Seattle Times staff reporter In a setback for the state's testing program, a new science exam, will instead go back to the drawing board. Superintendent of Public Instruction Terry Bergeson yesterday said "There were too many facts and not enough science-inquiry thinking skills," she said. Z45\CLIP\2000\10\FOCUS.TXT vortex/display?slug=kirby12&date=20001012&query=WASL Seattle Times Company Editorials & Opinion : Thursday, October 12, 2000 Guest columnist Focused strategies and the WASL can boost student achievement By Easter Kirby Special to The Seattle Times [note-Campbell hill is a school where 95% of students did not meet math standard the first year, about the same as for black students across the state] Campbell Hill was featured in Partnership for Learning's Making Standards Work research report released last spring. TEST SCORES UP, NOT MENTION OF HU CHALLENGE \clip\2000\09\seatwasl.txt Wednesday, September 13, 2000, 12:00 a.m. Pacific Test scores rise in nearly every subject by Linda Shaw and Jolayne Houtz Seattle Times staff reporters Test scores inched up in nearly every subject and across grade levels this year on the state's most important exam, the Washington Assessment of Student Learning. From Blomstrom: Testing Complaints Seminar It's about time! June 1 2000 The Seattle Education Association and the Seattle Area Rethinking Schools Group are sponsoring "An Open Forum for Educators on the Impact of Testing" at Mercer Middle School. Panelists include Peter Sacks (journalis and author of Standardized Minds: The High Price of America's Testing Culture), Carolyn Busch, Executive Policy Advisor for Governor Gary Locke, and Bob Howard (Professor, Dept. of Education, University of Washington). The panel presentation will be followed by a small group discussion. Broadcasts -Slide says that 4th grade math will be studied - developmental level required to meet standard -Requires consultation with experts with different views on math instruction -Outside experts will examine process used to develop the test -Each item and test as a whole Also available is the Jan Spokane speech where she says ed reform scares her to death, she apologize for all the pain and confusion caused by scoring errors, she says that teachers hate the test and the Fordham group gave WA a "D" but we're doing the right thing. 4TH GRADER DRAWS WASL AS CHILD EATING MONSTER WHO GROWS FROM THEIR FEAR z42\doc\web\2000\05\waslmons.txt Spokesman Review May 11, 2000 SEATTLE 10TH GRADERS SKIP OUT OF WASL - DELIBERATE BOYCOTT? \clip\99\18\skipout.txt September 15, 1999 Large amount of Seattle 10th-graders skipped assessment test by Lynne K. Varner Seattle Times staff reporter "About one-fourth of Seattle 10th-graders didn't take the reading portion of the Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL) last spring. Nearly one in five bailed on the math and listening portions. For Garfield's Jones, the WASL poses a dilemma with no easy solution. Faced with embarrassingly low scores, he is thinking about instituting a rule that students cannot get into 11th-grade advanced-placement courses until they master the WASL. But his unease with that idea highlights another fear among educators: In a long line of education reforms, where will the WASL fall? " [NO MENTION OF NATIONAL MOVEMENT TO BOYCOTT HIGH STAKES EXAMS, STUTER TELLS PARENTS TO KEEP KIDS OUT OF THESE TESTS] BERGESON PREDICTS 80% WILL PASS WASL ON SCHEDULE (YEAH RIGHT) \clip\99\18\updown.txt Education : Tuesday, September 07, 1999 Reading, math scores rise on statewide test by Jolayne Houtz Seattle Times staff reporter If the state continues to see the steady increases it has enjoyed the past three years on the Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL), Bergeson predicts the goal of 80 percent of Washington students meeting the state's academic standards in 10 years is within reach. [ONLY THE TOP HANDFUL OF ELITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL MET 4TH GRADE MATH -- PROMISE IS THAT _ALL_ SCHOOLS WILL PERFORM AS WELL IN 10 YEARS????] -- 4TH: Thirty-seven percent met math standards, up from 31 percent last year and 21 percent in 1997. [THAT'S STILL MOST STUDENTS FAILING] 7TH: -- Twenty-four percent met math standards, up from 20 percent. 10th: 31% met math standards [but it's the easiest of the 3 grades!] The test also is considerably more expensive than traditional multiple-choice tests - about $29 each, compared with about $2.50 for a fill-in-the-bubble test. TEACHERS REDUCED TO CRYING OVER WASL TEST SCORE STRESS \clip\99\18\updown.txt search Education : Wednesday, September 08, 1999 Who's up, who's down on student assessment tests by Jolayne Houtz, Linda Shaw and Lynne K. Varner Seattle Times staff reporters The principal of Mount Pilchuck Elementary in the Lake Stevens School District discovered four of his teachers huddled in the parking lot, crying together from the stress and emotional toll of leading the school's effort to raise test scores. And that's in a school that did well on the test. 4TH GRADE TESTS WERE TOO HARD THIS YEAR MT VERNON STUDENTS COPE WITH WASL zip36\clipim\99\07\30\test\test.htm Putting tests to the test By PETER KELLEY t's a big day at Mount Vernon's Washington Elementary School. Lint's fourth-graders are about to take the Washington Assessment of Student Learning. The test, now in its third year, is written in a new style, with fewer multiple-choice questions and much more writing than most students have worked with before. Why such a big deal about a test? Tests such as these are the centralpieces of the whole school reform movement, which began five years ago. Last year, the fourth-graders had to write a letter of complaint, and writing scores slumped statewide. The impression from teachers and administrators was that such a question was a little sophisticated for fourth-graders. Bob Silverman, testing coordinator for the state schools superintendent's office, said this year the state tried to make the assignment a little more consistent with fourth-graders' worldly experience. \clip\98\12\bergtest.txt Bergeson expecting test scores to improve State schools superintendent says last year's tests were 'horrifying' to teachers August 13, 1998 Debbie Cafazzo; The News Tribune %%Database OSPI PLANS WASL SCORE DATABASE z47\clip\2001\01\scorbase.txt Test-score database plan gets mixed reviews (Seattle Times) Wednesday, January 10, 2001, 12:00 a.m. Pacific Test-score database plan gets mixed reviews by Katherine Long Editor, Seattle Times School Guide It's an electronic world, but when it comes to vital records about how students perform in school, most teachers are still using pencil and paper. %%Drivers Licence hb1568.txt WASL NEEDED FOR DRIVERS LICENCE proposed %%EALR 1997: z60\clip\2002\10\mathealr.htm 2001: %%Financial Ai FINANCIAL AID TIED TO PASSING STATE TEST z76\doc\web\2003\04\mcasaid.txt Kids must pass MCAS to get fed financial aid by Kevin Rothstein Thursday, April 24, 2003 Uncle Sam won't help Bay State public school students pay for college unless they have passed the MCAS, Massachusetts officials learned this week. %%Grade z67\doc\web\2003\04\waslgrade.txt The newest carrot the FWSD is Pass the WASL, Improve Your Grades 1. Students can get a .5 credit and a passing grade in a Language Arts class or a Math class they failed in 9th or 10th grade. 2. Students can raise their grade one letter increment in a Language Arts or Math class they have already taken. (For example: from C+ to B-, or from B+ to A-) %%Lowest z55\clip\2002\03\wasllow.txt an opinion piece can be found at By Shirley Wentworth Herald Basin bureau MATTAWA -- The Wahluke School District is one of the poorest in the state. And its Washington Assessment of Student Learning tests are among the state's lowest. %%Math Study z60\clipim\2002\10\11\Gr4Math.pef Grade 4 released items Reaching higher 2002 z60\clipim\2002\10\11\2002-reaching-higher-eng.pdf Has 4th grade marble problem. 8% OF 4TH GRADE ITEMS WERE NOT ALIGNED, OTHERWISE, NOTHING'S WRONG. z52\clipim\2001\09\20\mathstudy.pdf Note - Only 16 out of 40 problems had any students scoring at or above 2 = standard on 0 to 4 scale page iv (8 percent of the items ) on the tests from 1998, 1999, and 2000 were not aligned with the 4 th grade EALRs. Seven of these 10 items were not aligned with one EALR benchmark—they required students to “create a plan” rather than “follow a plan.” The remaining three items that were not aligned were found to be above the developmental level of 4 th grade students... therefore students could still have passed with other items. OK, Not OK, Pass 1998 95 5 66 1999 87 12 55 2000 85 15 55 Nearly all the experts OSPI consulted about the assessment believed that the mathematics test, as currently designed, is too long for 4 th grade students. 13 - raw to scale score 400 = meets standard The EALRs and benchmarks are fairly general in some areas and subject to interpretation, making it difficult to say if certain items are aligned with the 4 th grade benchmarks. Adults view test items differently than do 4 th grade students. Adults may view an item with greater sophistication than is required to solve the problem. Seen from the adult perspective, an item may not be aligned. [This is in response to fact that many 4th grade problems appear in middle and high school text books ] What is the distance around the middle of an unsharpened pencil? a) 25 mm b) 25 cm c) 25 meters 1. 4th grade has no metric units in benchmark 2. pencils are of different sizes 3. middle is confusing They didn't mention: - circumference is 2* PI * R which is middle school - benchmark that says to pick correct unit - CM vs M is grade 7 So it's got 5 problems! p. 58 shows only items 6 and 16 in first section got any scores or 3 or 4. Only 7 items had any students meeting the standard. All other items, 100% of students scored nothing , or below standard. p. 92 shows bell curve distribtution %%Minority z54\clipim\2001\11\15\capaa.pdf NOv 2001 CAPAA newsletter - Multi Ethnic Think Tank concludes WASL is valid measure of ethnic gap, calls for multiethnic EALRs and alternative assessment. %%Opinion PARTNERSHIP FOR LEARNING STUDY SUPPORTS CIM/WASL 60 percent of the parents surveyed back a requirement that students earn a Certificate of Mastery by meeting standards on the 10th-grade WASL in reading, writing and mathematics in order to graduate - even if students already have passing grades in their required classes. The Certificate becomes one of several new state graduation requirements, starting with the class of 2008. Aug 8, 2002 z58\clipim\2002\09\23\pflwasl.pdf Opinion of EALRs 32% somewhat positive 9% very positive 13% Neutral 11% Somewhat negative 5% Very Negative 30% Haven't heard Support for tying Certifcate of Mastery to college and college prep incentives 35 36 Strong support 37 33 Somewhat support 13 12 Neutral 6 8 Somewhat Oppose 8 8 Strongly Oppose 2 2 DK NA %%Opposition No coverage at all of opposition. Nada See @@backlash above. Starts in Nov 1999. %%Pass Rates In 1999, just 21 percent of the state's 10th-graders passed the WASL, meaning they met the minimum standard in all four subjects. Of last year's seventh-graders, 15 percent passed. Nineteen percent of fourth-graders passed. Pass all 4 1997-2002 Grade 4 14 17.8 19.5 23.9 26.7 29.1 Grade 7 NA 12.1 15.7 18.7 19.5 22.1 Grade 10 NA NA 21.9 20.8 29.5 30.2 %%Practice Test Here's an interesting link. "Show What You Know Publishing" had a booth at the Washington Homeschool Organization Convention. They were selling WASL prep workbooks and flashcards. Note: the flash cards do many of the out-of-bounds problems found 4th grde high stakes tests, including solving an algebraic equation for y = mx + b. z40\clipim\2000\04\12\wasl\wasl.htm Anxiety about test boosts sales of WASL workbook Fourth-graders prepare for statewide assessment Wednesday, April 12, 2000 By JUDI HUNT SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER REPORTER "Practice Makes Perfect," written for parents by Shoreline teacher Stacey Neble, has sold more than 1,100 copies, mostly by word of mouth, from Lynnwood to Puyallup. %%Prep HS WASL PREP IS ELEMENTARY LEVEL "DISCOVERY" LEARNING z50\clip\2001\08\waslprep.txt Monday, August 06, 2001 WASL prep class as much for teachers as students By Linda Shaw Seattle Times staff reporter. 9th graders build sugar cubes and cut up cereal boxes instead of solving linear and quadratic equations, and they dare to call it WASL prep. %%Public Relations How the heck are parents and citizens supposed to fight this beast?? \doc\web\98\02\tberg.txt Spokane Spokesman Review Thursday August 14, 1997 Bergeson leads PR blitz on state's education reform She says certificate of mastery will boost meaning of diploma Bergeson, who was elected schools chief last year, laid out a public relations strategy to tell taxpayers about the results of a revolutionary assessment test that 68,000 fourth-graders took earlier this year. Bergeson said her office has hired Campaign Connections, a Seattle public relations firm that often works for Democratic candidates, to help publicize the results of the fourth-grade assessments. A videotape and CD-ROM, titled ``Mentor,'' are being produced for administrators and others to use at public meetings. The superintendent's office also plans to paper the state with education reform literature delivered to every parent and community leader. %%Publicity $12,000 in PUBLIC RELATIONS FOR NEW ASSESSMENT / REFORM They used a PR firm that normally promotes democratic candidates. Lynn Stuter: I have the contract. It's for $9,999.00. The actual cost of the contract went over that amount. There are two invoices, both from Community Connections, one for $9,999.00, the other for $1,221.00. %%Results %%Scores 2002-03 Ranking by Arthur Hu \doc\web\2004\05\heartwd.txt Rank by ITBS 3 math TT Minor 8% white 37 pct ITBS 15%!! WASL 80% black T. Marshall 5% white 43 pct ITBS 59%?? wasl 62% black Campbell Hill 12% white 37 pct ITBS 3 math 30% WASL4 Math (Renton) 46% black AfAm Academy 4% white 43 pct ITBS 3 math 42% WASL4 91% black Tacoma 54% white 60 pct ITBS 3 math 48% WASL Renton 51% white 66 pct ITBS 3 math 49% WASL Heartwood 75% white, 70 pct ITBS 3 math, 50% WASL4 math (McChord AFB) Seattle 40% white 71 pct ITBS 3 math 53% WASL AG Bell 68% white 72 pct ITBS 3 math 72% WASL4 Math Lake Washington Shoreline 70% white 76 pct ITBS 3 math 74% WASL4 Math Carter Lake 58% white 77 pct ITBS 3 math 44% WASL4 Math (McChord AFB) Bellevue Dist 68% white 77 pct ITBS 3 math 70% WASL4 math Lake Wash 79% white 78 pct ITBS 3 math 72% WASL4 Math Northshore 82% white 81 pct ITBS 3 math 72% WASL4 Math Island Park 80% white 87 pct ITBS 3 math 86% WASL4 Math (Mercer Island) Somerset 57% white 88 pct ITBS 3 math 85% WASL4 Math Bellevue 41% Asian! MOST STUDENTS, NEARLY ALL DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS FAIL WASL 7/10 MATH 2/3 WHITE, 90% OF BLACK, 96% SPECED 7TH GRADERS FAIL MATH 7 2003: All Amind Asian Black Hisp White SpecEd Bil LowInc Goal 4th Math 52 36 59 29 29 57 23 18 38 35.6 7th Math 30 15 39 10 12 34 4 7 16 24.2 10th Math 37 221 45 13 14 42 4 9 19 31.1 Source: Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction Seattle Times Chart z70\clipim\2003\08\waslgoal.gif 2001: 4th Grade 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 Reading: 47.9 55.6 59.1 65.8 66.1 Mathematics: 21.4 31.2 37.3 41.8 43.4 Writing: 42.8 36.7 32.6 39.4 43.3 Listening: 62.3 71.3 71.2 65.3 72.4 7th Grade 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 Reading: 38.4 40.8 41.5 39.8 Mathematics: 20.1 24.2 28.2 27.4 Writing: 31.3 37.1 42.6 48.5 Listening: 80.2 87.2 79.6 82.5 10th Grade 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 Reading: 51.4 59.8 62.4 Mathematics: 33.0 35.0 38.9 Writing: 41.1 31.7 46.9 Listening: 72.7 77.8 84.0 1998: 95% BLACK FAILURE G7 MATH, 87% FAIL G4 MATH [Tacoma News Tribune ]Minority students lag in test scores, but improvements seen September 19, 1998 David Ammons; The Associated Press MATH PASS G4 ALL31 B13 A34 AI14 G7 ALL20 B5 H6 A25 AI6 MINORITIES DO WORSE, BUT NOT BLAMED ON TEST BIAS \clipim\98\04\wasl.tif - image from Seattle Times Seattle Times September 19, 1998 Minority test scores go up, but gap remains by Jolayne Houtz Seattle Times staff reporter [blamed on poverty, does not mention gap is bigger than ctbs gap on most tests like this] 7TH grade asians did better in math and writing 1997 4th grade by building \clip\98\12\bweb497.pdf by district \clip\98\12\dweb497.pdf %%Rising scores "Math and reading scores up for 4th graders, but writing slips" .. but the number of students passing writing has declined in almost every district. From "Communities Count" 2000 newspaper insert by SAFECO and Seattle times %%Riverside 277 people in the agency ralph munro - 360-902-4151 ellen lunde Helene Gniadek x6094 1-800-323-9540 says there will be a meeting on math problems 11/23/98 %%Sample problems %%Sample test .efx EFAX 1996 WASL Pilot test with outrageous proportionality and rate problems, shows that test was created BEFORE EALR standards were approved 7th grade Jars iq test problem is probably beyond 90% of 7th graders, 50% of teachers. %%Schedule Implementation Schedule: 2001: z48\clip\2001\03\systimp.htm (Meeting standard on WASL-M,R,W,L required for graduation by 2008 %%Science z75\clip\2003\11\waslsci.txt Seattle Times November 28, 2003 Guest columnist Transforming the way science is taught By Mark Windschitl 2/3 FLUNK WASL SCIENCE z75\clip\2003\10\sciwasl.txt Saturday, October 18, 2003, 12:00 a.m. Pacific Only one-third of students pass first WASL science test By Linda Shaw Seattle Times staff reporter WASL SCIENCE TOSSES QUESTIONS MOST STUDENTS KNOW 7/2003 Orlich: Now I do know that in the science WASL the state is deliberately tossing out questions that kids answer correctly in the early practice versions. This is a total violation of the canons of Criterion Referenced Tests. Spring 2003 letter to parents: Grade 5 WASL is only a test of a test, it will not be scored, nor scores returned. ORLICH CONDEMNS HIGH WASL SCIENCE FAILURE RATE The State of the Science WASL: Fall 2001 By Roy Q. Beven, Science Assessment Specialist, OSPI z54\clip\2001\11\WASL_Review_D.doc Orlich: I have published my FAILURE RATES IN THE WSTJ, SEPTEMBER ISSUE: RANGE OF FAILURE WILL BE 50 TO 59%. %%Scoring z45\clip\2000\09\waslscor.txt * EDITORIAL: WASL Scoring Practices Don't Make the Grade (Yakima Herald-Republic) "Terry Bergeson said she has full confidence in NCS and the scores. While we admire the things Bergeson has done as schools chief, we can't share her view on this one." * COLUMN: Scoring of student tests was sound and reliable (Seattle Times) z45\clip\2000\08\waslscor.txt Sunday, August 27, 2000, 12:00 a.m. Pacific Temps spend just minutes to score state education test by Jolayne Houtz Seattle Times staff reporter Arthur Hu is not mentioned %%Specifications These are the item specifications which show the WASL is bogus Grade 4 math z43\clipim\2000\06\30\testspec\testspec.htm %%Standards Q. Is WASL a minimum competency exam or is it not? What's the official ruling? A. Standards are supposed to be set at "internationally competitive levels." (RCW 28A.655.010) Art Burke [aburke@@VANSD.ORG] Recommendations: Grade 4 standards (1997) Percent correct to meet standard: L3 L4 L2 Content Area: Meets Above Below Standard points of total Reading 31 of 43=72% 37 of 43=86% 19 of 43=44% Mathematics 40 of 62=65% 48 of 62=77% 30 of 62=48% Writing 9 of 12=75% Listening 7 of 10=70% score 400 above 400 below 400

Level 4 Above Standard: This level represents superior performance notable above that requiredd for meeting the standard at grade 4

Level 3 -- MEETS STANDARD: This level represents solid academic performance for grade 4. Students reaching this level have demonstrated proficiency over challenging content, including subject-matter knowledge application of sucy knowledge to real-world situations, and analytical skills appropriate for the content and grade level.

Level 2 -- Below Standard: This level denotes partial accomplishment of the knowledge and skills that are fundamental for meeting the standard at grade 4.

Level 1 -- Below Standard: This level denotes little or no demonstration of the prerequisite knowledge and skills that are fundamental for meeting the standard for grade 4.

From: Deanna M. De'Liberto Washington does have very good standards
and an excellent test specifications document though.  I use it as
model for other states. [a. hu: too bad the actual test doesn't pay
attention to these documents!]

%%Standard setting

The News Tribune - Tacoma, WA   
 Wednesday, November 26, 2003  
Test bar higher in Washington, study shows 
DEBBY ABE; The News Tribune 
To meet the Washington 10th-grade math standard, for instance, a
student must score at the 73rd percentile or higher.  Of the seven
states...10th-grade math test, Washington's was the most difficult.
California's was the easiest, allowing students at the 13th percentile
to meet its math standard.

Work session How they "set the
standard" and score this crazy thing.

Performance Standards

In June, 1997, the Commission convened an ad hoc standards setting
committee to recommend what level of achievement on the 4th grade
state assessments should represent four performance levels: Above
Standard, Meets Standard, Below Standard, and Well Below Standard.

The committee was comprised of thirty-three Washington fourth grade
teachers (eight with experience in special education, ESL, Title I
and gifted programs), four elementary principals, four parents, three
business representatives and two education specialists. The
Commission adopted their recommendations on July 8.


Standard setting procedure Judges took test and "bookmarked"
where the standard should be set between easiest and hardest
questions. Note that judges did not compare question with benchmarks,
or evaluate if questions were even compliant with the benchmarks.

BENCHMARKS!  Paul Englesberg notes
that the technical manual does not mention judges comparing questions
against any benchmarks, only setting a difficulty level of problems
already "established" to be appropriate to the grade level.

%%Scale Score


Scale Scoring

Scaling Procedure



9/98 csl scoring document

Table 1: Scoring Reliability: Correlations and Mean Scores Between First
and Second Readings for all Open-ended Questions (Total Score) by Content

                            Mean     Mean
    Content                Score    Score      Total
     Area     Correlation   1st      2nd    Items/Points
                           Reader   Reader
  Listening       .90       2.28     2.28       2/4
  Reading         .98      13.07    13.05       9/22
  Writing         .96       7.60     7.55      4/12*
  Mathematics     .99      16.64    16.59      16/42

(claims .90-.99 correlation, but what does that mean, and how does it
compare with CTBS with zero error?)


\clip\98\02\riding.txt 1/18/98 Everett Herald (WA) Riding the
learning curve State standards drive children to think in new ways "
Despite the fact that 26 percent of its students receive a free or
reduced-price lunch based on family income, Martha Lake's performance
(80 vs. 42% state avg) placed it alongside schools from the wealthier
communities of Bellevue and Mercer Island.  " "Seattle Hill, a
Snohomish School District school in a well-to-do community, had 51
percent of its students meet the math standard last spring. That may
not sound overwhelming on the surface, but it was more double the
21.5 percent state average."  By ERIC STEVICK Herald Writer


April 23, 2002  
All Is Testy at WASL Time 
Published in the Herald-Republic on Monday, April 22, 2002
SANDY SUMMERS/Yakima Herald-Republic 
"Last night I couldn't sleep," Edgar said. 
"Why not?" Pedro asked. 
"Thinking about the WASL.



z55\clip\2002\04\wsrc.txt z55\clipim\2002\04\22\wsrc.pdf
Executive Summary. Washington School Resource Center /
Seattle Pacific University.
The Power of Early Success: A Longitudinal Study of Student
Performance on the Washington Assessment of Student Learning,
of students who scored at Level 1 reading in 1998 (4th grade), only
3.1% of those students were able to meet the standard (Level 3 or
Level 4) by 2001 (7th grade)."  "The likelihood of a student moving
out of Level 1 between 4th and 7th grades was greatest for
Asian/Pacific Islander students and least for Black/African American

%%Technical Document

Technical information on test CSL web page 9/98

%%Testimony on test

Bergeson explains
assesment as new superintendent - realaudio 1/97 some questions
were dropped because they could not be scored.  "in all the other
countries, they teach to apply content, difficult to test for
application in multiple choice" "no member believes that by 2001 that
we will be able to deny that many people a diploma" "frank shrontz
doesn't with agree me"

9/18/97 - Work Session/Public Hearing linkTopics Include:
Certificate of Mastery, Fourth grade assessment results.  40 out of
62 was passing. We set standards 17:21 Jeff Estes Dept Mgr at Pacific
Northwest National laboratory Richland operated by Batelle. Setting
standards for science committee.  Took part in performance standard
setting over summer. 33 4th grade teachers in the group. 4 elementary
principals, some parents, 3 business 2 curriculum specialists.
Recommend what students should know or be able to do. Standards
setting process. The test is tough.  Got scoring of what items were
hard vs easy. (Passing level was set AFTER test was designed and
problems picked out!) Cut score. What is a challenging standard.
Teachers said they'd have to teach different ways to test. This is
desirable stuff to do. It is do-able (it's 7th-10th grade level!).
35:20 Did you compare to rest of world?  We're told we lag (4th
graders ARE world class?) 41:07 What about level 1 kids? (that's half
of kids! 50th percentile=1) 43:28 Find good poor schools.  The 1st
year you get a jolt, but stay the course 49:49 questions 57:00 CIM 3
hrs session 1 month ago on ed reform. Brian Benzel (Marc Tucker
buddy) It will be required for graduation. In year 2004 when current
4th graders graduates, students will take CIM test. Why not quite
after passing in the 10th grade? They never explain why it's 10th
grade.  1:15 What happens to GED Accountability task force, Bergeson
Co-chairing with Frank Shrontz 1:23 Only flunkers can retake test
1:34 - when you attach exit exam, and lots of kids flunk out, states
lower standards. American Association of University Women supports
the CIM. Keep it separate from diploma. Pacific Northwest Laboratory
Address: Q Avenue Richland, WA 99352
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 
(509) 375-4462
Jeff Estes 375-2820
test items were created by professional testing companies which
  were told to make them compliant with the benchmark.
verifies that test committees were not in a position to judge whether
  items were invalid, they were assumed to be matched against the
  benchmarks before.
the questions that I saw (and I taught 4th graders) were ones that
  I felt that 4th grader should and can be taught to get.
fax 509-375-2576


Most students took about 8 hours, test was not timed.


State board decides WASL is credible test 
By Linda Shaw Seattle Times staff reporter 
The state Board of Education yesterday agreed that the 10th-grade
Washington Assessment of Student Learning is a good test. 
Whether it's time to make it a graduation requirement is another


In 2004, parents are no longer
allowed to view WASL tests

Parents allowed to 
view WASL test before

%%Wassie the Whale - web page features song,
sheet music, .wav file

@@Why Test?

* We need to raise standards for the 21st century
* Diploma has to mean something
* Seat time is worthless, we need a performance based system

z42\doc\web\2000\07\valread.txt Substance editor George N. Schmidt
[Csubstance@AOL.COM] Chicago Board of Education President Gery Chico
told a group of reporters on May 22 that prior to 1995 the school
system was graduating “valedictorians who couldn’t read." He claimed
that part of the reason why the Vallas administration had to use the
Iowa Tests of Basic Skills against the advice of test experts and the
test publishers was that the school system was so terrible that
“valedictorians who couldn’t read was not an uncommon occurrence.”
When pressed for details, however, Chico was unable to provide any
evidence to support his statement.


Wisconsin tests in 1997 have a proficiency scale, but norm-referenced
comparisons to other states will be kept. Officals are careful to say
that scores aren't lower than before, just relative to a higher
standard. Educators set level of "standard". State law prevents any
students who fail more than a few sections from moving on to the next
grade. Easy 4th grade
sample question. Dept of Public
Instruction Wisconsin Student
Assessment System - will be using CTBS Terra Nova High school exit
examination to be required in the future of all districts. Knowledge and
Concepts Examinations - tests are criterion refernenced AND national
norm conversions are available, mostly machine scored, but
open-response are taken as an average to two trained scorers. How proficiency cut
points were determined The standard setting procedure selected for
use in Wisconsin was designed and conducted by the testing
contractor, CTB/McGraw-Hill. The panelists placed "bookmarks" at the
item in their item ordered booklets that represented the breaking
point between the proficiency categories: minimal performance, basic,
proficient, and advanced. The panelists were asked to define the
proficiency score standard(s) for each subject area using the
Bookmark Procedure (Lewis, Mitzel, & Green, 1996), developed by CTB
research scientists.

Wisconsin Standards links (good, but pro-standards)
z47\clipim\2001\01\15\wiscstan.pdf Wisconsin Policy Research
Institute March 2000. Standards Based Education Reform in Wisconsin:
What It Will Take to Make It Work the tendency has been to blame the new
standards-based examinations. There must be something wrong, the
argument runs, with standards and examinations that describe most
students in the respective testing populations as failures (see,
e.g., Steinberg, 1999, December 3).
% of students who fall in criteria categories
not tested / minimal / basic / proficient / advanced
4th grade math: 8% 9% 33% 38% 13%
National comparison group
4th grade math: 
20% 38% 31% 11%


passages Third-graders' exams are becoming more difficult, experts
say By Alan J. Borsuk From the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel December
29, 1997 Which job were people more likely to have in the past?  A.
barrel maker B. computer expert C. astronaut

\clip\99\07\edclip05.txt Milwaukee Journal Sentinel Graduation test
may lose some clout Parents persuade key state legislators to
consider other high school factors By Marie Rohde of the Journal
Sentinel staff March 01, 1999 "Parents now can demand that their
children be exempted simply by writing a letter to officials within
their school districts. Gov. Tommy G. Thompson has said the option
must be eliminated, large numbers of students in Michigan have opted
to not take graduation tests. For the most part those were students
with good grade-point averages who had received scholarships that
they feared might be affected by a poor showing on a graduation test.
..we're dealing with flesh-and-blood human beings and not factory

\clip\99\05\edclip04.txt Teachers want advanced courses in earlier
grades By Anne Davis Milwaukee Journal Sentinel February 08, 1999 In
Wisconsin, some worry about whether it will be fair to test students
who haven't had courses to prepare them in certain subject areas by
the first time they take the exam.  Wisconsin schools must move
advanced subjects like physics, economics, chemistry and geometry to
earlier grades [and requirement of all students] if students are
going to have a fighting chance to pass a rigorous new graduation
exam, testing experts and teachers say.

\clip\99\03\edclip01.txt Executives in West Bend struggle with sample
of state graduation test By Anne Davis of the Milwaukee Journal
Sentinel staff January 20, 1999 "To score at the proficient level,
test-takers had to score in the 69th percentile in science, the 84th
percentile in math, the 51st percentile in social studies and the
80th percentile in English."

"She is sure that reasonable standards for passing the test will be
set.  "

Beginning with the 2002-'03 school year, students will be required to
pass all sections of the four-part test to receive a high school

Legislators to rethink school testing law Measure to end 'social
promotions' emphasizes one test score, critics say By Anne Davis of
the Journal Sentinel staff December 28, 1998
"at least 6,300, or 10%, of the state's fourth-graders and 24%, of
the state's eighth-graders would have been retained under the law. In
Milwaukee,53% of the eighth-graders would not have been allowed to go
on to high school.  "

\clip\98\06\newscl10.txt 3/1/98 Milwaukee Journal Sentinel Test
changes bring dismal reports Few MPS students able to meet state
expectations By Daniel Bice and Joe Williams of the Journal Sentinel
staff March 1, 1998 Cedarburg had a good reputation, but 67% of its
eighth-graders and 51% of its 10th- graders rated as less than
proficient in writing and language arts skills, 50% of the eighth-
and 10th-graders were rated less than proficient in math.  The
proficiency levels were developed last April by a representative
group of state educators and other citizens.  Benson warns that
scores may appear low at first but says that the goal is to gradually
increase the number of students who are proficient in the state.

Test results will be reported on
proficiency scale but tests scores will NOT be lower.  From:

\clip\98\02\newscli3.txt Milwaukee Journal Sentinel New test scores
likely to be a jolt Education officials brace parents for change in
how knowledge is assessed By Joe Williams of the Journal Sentinel
staff January 20, 1998 Never before have standardized test results
that haven't even been reported been the cause for so much commotion.
.. low scores.. as school superintendents from around the state
fought hard against the move...They also believe the standards in
some areas are too high and not consistent among subject areas.
..has aggressively prepared his own public relations campaign on this
issue, complete with a videotape selling the virtues of the
proficiency scores...While Wisconsin students typically have ranked
around the 70th percentile on nationally normed tests, the new
scoring system is expected to show that 40% to 60% of student work is
less than proficient...The proficiency measures are another way for
the state to take control over what should be a local issue,
Wasserman said...The proficiency levels were developed last April by
a representative group of state educators and other citizens.


Also see stw for more on how other nations
track their students between vocational and college prep

The Guardian/The Observer
Testing ... testing ... testing
Is the nation's obsession with examining its pupils placing a continuous
burden of toil and stress on teachers, parents and children?

Tests are set by state, not nationally.
six onwards: Pupils are assessed by coursework and end-of-year tests in the
"sitzenbleiben" system, which means "to remain sitting". If pupils do not
perform well enough they are made to resit the year.
10: Sitzenbleiben record is assessed before entry into secondary school.
19: "Abitur" university entrance exams in two main subjects plus three
subsidiary subjects.
Article also has UK, France, claims US has no national tests but does
not detailed standards based testing from hell.


Sent: Tuesday, June 18, 2002 6:38 PM
Subject: Exams in Italy

 Alex writes, " Right now Italy is on its first day of high school
exit exams, which for the first time are being run by each school's
teachers. Up until last year, there was a centrally-managed system of
exchanging teachers among schools all over the country. A teacher from
Palermo could come up north to examine students in Milan or Venice,
and vice-versa. Very expensive, very bureaucratic and very
controversial. An exam, people always used to complain, could ruin the
outcome of someone who had always been a good student, but maybe that
one day had the cramps or got hysterical because of stress (you know
how fragile and sensitive we human beings are...).  Now that the exam
is run by the schools themselves, they complain that it's worthless,
that the teachers already KNOW the students, so why bother having
exams at all? You can't win.

No national exams. Tests are set by district.
12: Junior high school entrance exams in four to six subjects, referred to
as "exam hell". These exams determine stream of high school and affect
university entrance.
15: Senior high school entrance exams
18: University entrance exams comprising at least 10 papers.


Problem Writers Wanted


z46\clip\2000\11\wyograd.txt Student accountability delayed by board
CASPER, Wyo. (AP) - The State Board of Education has voted to delay
by two years holding students accountable for state graduation
requirements... in September, all Wyoming high school graduates had
to demonstrate proficiency in language arts and math beginning in

(c) Arthur Hu, part of the Index of Diversity, please cite when using
data from here arthurhu at hufamily com (no space)

fix: washington