\doc\web\index\values.htm Values 10/23/2009 Home | Top of Index | Contents

Values: Arthur Hu's Index of Diversity

(c) Arthur Hu's Index of Diversity, please cite when using data from here arthurhu @ hufamily.com (no space) on how to get more complete data or complete text of these references


Asians have the most conservative, traditionally family and heirachically organized value of all ethnic cultures. This may have the strongest effect in producing postive outcomes of academic achievement, low rates of crime and unwed and teen pregnancy, and long life with fewer of most social problems even with lower incomes and higher rates of poverty. Asian Values


@@african economies

Asian Colonies Thrive, African Colonies Decay - Values?
\clip\97\02\afrituff.txt U.S NEWS & WORLD REPORT February 3, 1997 The
same old excuses A Black American's tough prescription for Africa's

@@american view

\priv\95\18\aswmheal.txt 16 November 17. 1995 ASIAN WEEK "The
of Asian Women's Health: A Compendium of Facts and Findings"
cultural roots are often viewed by mainstream society as "inferior,"

"outdated," "uninformed / ignorant" "superstititious"
or "exotic";

@@Asian Values

Efax: March 1985 Arthur Hu Introduction to Asian Values z63\clipim\2003\01\13\asval\asval.efx

What ARE Asian Values?

While it is easy to stereotype and other ethnic groups, there have been values documented by Asian cultures as being important, and widely recognized as being more prominent than in Western or African cultures.

It might be said that all cultures have the same values. Blacks value education too. But if actions speak louder than words, the extraordinary number of social outcomes that are better for Asians than the dominant Euro-Americans show that values such as education and family are indeed much stronger for Asians, and might be weaker among groups like the African Americans, most, but not all whom prefer to blame their plight on racism instead of values.

On a scale from conservative to liberal, and feminine to masculine, you might put Asians at one end, African at the other, with Europeans somwhere in the middle. This scale also appears to cover academic / intellectual abilities and sexual activity, with Phillipe Rushton making the most outrageous evolutionary theorization as to why this might be so. This also may have a big effect on the inter-racial dating imbalance which seems to favor White men with Asian women, and Black men with White women.

What Are American Values?

American advantages lie in a network structure, which like in computing is much more powerful and flexible than a heirarchical structure which depends more on direction from above.

Good presentation:

Asian American Values, Cross-Cultural Communication and the Work Place - Presentation Transcript
Self Examination: I am… 
Self Examination: I am… 
Why is Ethnicity Important? 
Don’t Stereotype 
Asian American vs. Mainstream (Western) Values 
What Colleagues May Say About Asian Americans 
Asian American Behaviors and Mainstream Perceptions 
Good Organizations for Asian Americans 
Why This is Important in This Context (Jesus, Justice) 
Questions // For Possible Future Discussion or Training 
Self Examination: Ethnic Identity Questionnaire 
Why is Ethnicity Important? 1 
A Good Summary Statement from Paul 
For though I am free from all, I have made myself a slave to all, that I might win the more. And to the Jews I become as a Jew, that I might win the Jews; to those who are under the Law, as under the Law, though not being myself under the Law, that I might win those who are under the Law; to those who are without law, as without law, though not being without the law of God but under the law of Christ, that I might win those who are without law. To the weak I became weak, that I might win the weak; I have become all things to all men, that I may by all means save some. (1 Cor.9:19-22) 
Lesson : God communicates spiritual truths through human languages and cultures. Hence if we are to better understand God, we must understand ethnicity and culture. And if we are to better let God love others through us, we must understand ethnicity and culture. 
Self Examination: Ethnic Identity Questionnaire: Take home: Take 20-30 minutes to answer the following questions on your own. 
Don’t Stereotype 2 
These are generalities and there are always exceptions. These can simply be helpful categories to reflect upon. 
As generalizations, may not totally reflect the values of specific Asian Americans or specific Asian groups. While organizations reward those who hold the dominant cultural values at the managerial level, values of both groups are important 
For those in minority groups, if brought up in primarily mainstream environments, will have had to learn at least some Mainstream (Western) values to survive. 
Those who have lived several generations in the US may find themselves holding values from both cultures. 
What Colleagues May Say About Asian Americans 2 
From a workshop survey of 40 young professionals, ages 23-35, Asian and non-Asian 
General description: 
quiet, don’t speak up 
Good at math/science 
Good producers/hardworking 
Well educated 
Don’t ask a lot of questions 
Not involved with the community 
Cliquish with other Asians 
Not fluent in English/perceived as foreigners 
Loyal/don’t do a lot of job-hopping 
What Colleagues May Say About Asian Americans 2 
From a workshop survey of 40 young professionals, ages 23-35, Asian and non-Asian 
Perceived behaviors: 
They tend to not speak up in meetings or wait their turns in meetings. 
They rarely complain about policies or work initiatives. 
They form Asian cliques. 
They are soft-spoken and don’t make much eye contact. 
They’re not good at self-promotion and marketing themselves. 
They tend to be risk averse. 
They are always busy working and never have time to socialize after hours. 
Asian American Behaviors and Mainstream Perceptions 3 Asian American Behavior Possible Interpretation by Person from Mainstream Culture 
Quiet, doesn’t speak up 
Isn’t interested, doesn’t understand or knows it all 
Not assertive (according to the dominant value) 
Lacks leadership, could not be authoritative when necessary 
Limited facial expression, demonstrative behavior 
Has no investment in the matter at hand, no feeling; therefore seems to have no vulnerability, which could be a threat 
Asian American Behaviors and Mainstream Perceptions 3 Asian American Behavior Possible Interpretation by Person from Mainstream Culture 
Doesn’t complain, good worker 
Not interested, lacks knowledge or information, unwilling to share, secretive, lacks confidence 
Doesn’t socialize after work 
Lacks respect, shows no interest, no confidence, is unable to read nonverbal cues of those he or she is talking to, shifty, untrustworthy 
Asian American Behaviors and Mainstream Perceptions 3 Asian American Behavior Possible Interpretation by Person from Mainstream Culture 
Unwilling to take chances 
Lacks leadership skills to manage a group 
Speaks with an accent 
Is not credible; doesn’t know much; can’t speak, read, write or understand English 
Physically short, small 
Lacks maturity, has limited ability to influence, organize, motivate others 
Asian American Behaviors and Mainstream Perceptions 2 Behavior Perceived Liability Positive Attributes Respect for authority 
Perceived as a yes-man 
Does not push back or speak up about issues 
Genuine loyalty to employer 
Has desire to learn from others; is “teachable” 
May not make decisions quickly 
Not considered innovative or out-of-box thinker 
Afraid to stand out from the pack 
May avoid conflict to save face with the group 
Collaborative decision maker 
Inclusive leader 
Easy to work with 
Asian American Behaviors and Mainstream Perceptions 2 Behavior Perceived Liability Positive Attributes Controlled/emotionally restrained 
Unemotional, lacks enthusiasm and drive 
Lacks passion about organization’s mission 
Arrogant, not interested in work product 
Has internal strength to tolerate crisis situations; does not “lose it” 
Demonstrates a resilience to changes in organizational structure 
Modest/humble about accomplishments 
Work efforts go unrecognized 
May be overlooked during promotion season 
May not get assigned high-visibility projects or to special task forces 
Encourages team members to receive credit for their work 
Team player 
Asian American vs. Mainstream (Western) Values 3 Asian American Values Mainstream (Western) Values 
Self control/discipline 
Speaks only when spoken to 
Inner stamina/strength to tolerate crisis 
Solid performer 
Doesn’t show emotions 
Importance of social skills, informal relationships, small talk 
All right to show all kinds of emotion 
Promote flexibility 
Acceptance of ambiguity and uncertainty 
More patient, more ready to accept things as they are 
Respect for change/control over one’s environment/belief in self-determination 
More risk-taking 
More aggressive 
Concrete/strive for explicitness 
Asian American vs. Mainstream (Western) Values 3 Asian American Values Mainstream (Western) Values 
Obedient to authority/ Respect for elders 
Respect those who lead 
Follow through on assignments 
All right to question authority 
Anticipates problem areas, opportunities and initiates appropriate actions 
No fear of challenging or opposing authority; ability to push the envelope with parents, professors, bosses, clients 
Low individual visibility 
Power is shared with others 
Cites Accomplishments 
Visibility (individual) is all right 
Rewards individual for outstanding actions 
Power is perceived as individual power 
Asian American vs. Mainstream (Western) Values 2 Asian American Values Mainstream (Western) Values 
Collective decision-making and Community over individualist thinking 
Proving the sources 
Collective responsibility and ownership 
Strong sense of teamwork 
Tough, individualistic and authoritative leadership 
Individual leadership 
Individual responsibility 
“ pioneer spirit” 
Characteristics of Organizations That May Be Helpful for Asian American Leaders 3 
Are self-aware about different leadership styles (ie direct-indirect, male-female, loud-quiet, assertive-deferential) 
Value and openly discuss different styles 
Value “processing” as much as making the decision 
Develop minority viewpoints and styles of expression 
Have a corporate ethos that encourages diversity and multiethnicity throughout the entire organization, no just for those who are “into it”; it’s a place where ethnicity and ethnic identity issues are affirmed 
Have top leaders who have an awareness of institutional and systemic injustice within their organization and are doing something about it 
Are willing to fund training opportunities and cross-pollination for Asian American leaders with other Asian American or minority leaders – inside and outside the organization 
Recognize Asian Americans as Americans, don’t refer to Asian Americans as “Orientals” or Asians 
Group Discussions: Possible Challenges for Asian Americans 
Finding Space, Finding Voice: A challenge because: 
allowing space for everyone else to speak, less likely to interrupt or risk interrupting or “jump in” 
responds to the collective group: tracks/stays on topic, less likely to jump topics, likely to listen to what everyone in the group says and then formulate a thought based on that and then respond 
Sometimes only speak if feel have something ‘valuable” to contribute to the group – sensitive to audience, responsive to what others have said, may not repeat what someone else has already said or if the thought is not new 
Being able to speak w. conviction vs. uncertainty (group consensus) 2 
May back down too easily when challenged/difficult to disagree publicly or defend work (obedience, authority) 2 
Suggestions for Group or Classroom Discussion Leaders 
Value both listening and speaking as engagement 
Be aware that cultural values may affect presentation and behavior, but not substance 
One to one meetings may get more thoughts from person 
Try different styles: If soliciting feedback: 
Go around the group, taking turns so that everyone has an opportunity to speak 
Give people time to think or prepare ahead of time 
Allow space for silence 
Why is this important in this context (Jesus, Justice) 
Historical and present oppression: immigration laws & labor, model minority stereotype, perpetual foreigner stereotype, male and female stereotypes 
Church participates in these systems: ethnocentric (demands acculturation or assimilation) 
Need for dominant culture/ culture of power to learn about itself (and also learn about injustice) and submit or include in cross-cultural contexts 
Need for non-dominant groups to learn about own culture and history 
Affirmation and honoring of cultural values in the image of God (ex: friend re: thoughtfulness/selflessness of Asian Americans) 
Validation of group specific ministry for non-dominant groups 
Build bridges in the body 
Both dominant and non-dominant groups model inclusive leadership 
Your culture or ethnic identity: Take a few minutes to jot down some observations and responses– 
Candlestick: light or insights 
?: questions 
Arrows: ouch or conviction 
What are some areas of growth for you and possible next steps to grow in those areas? 
Questions // For Possible Future Discussion or Training 
What was helpful? What would you like to know more about? What bugged you? What are things you would like to discuss more in the future? 
How Do Non-Asians View Asian America? (survey May 2001) 3 
46% believe that Chinese Americans passing on secret information to the Chinese government is a problem 
34% feel Chinese Americans have too much influence in the U.S. technology sector 
32% feel Chinese Americans always like to be at the head of things 
32% feel Chinese Americans don’t care what happens to anyone but their own kind 
19% see the increase of the Asian population as being bad for the United States 
25% of all surveyed had very negative attitudes and stereotypes of Chinese Americans. 
Most non-Asian Americans couldn’t tell the difference between Chinese Americans and other Asian Americans and registered similar percentages about other Asian Americans. 
“ Asian American unfriendly” organizations will likely have… 3 
No Asian Americans in at least middle management positions 
No Asian American board members 
No possible advocates or mentors who have a good understanding of Asian Americans 
Poor funding for training and development of Asian Americans in leadership roles 
Nothing or very little in the long-range plan for recruitment and development of Asian American leaders 
Senior leaders who call Asian Americans “Orientals” or Asians, and don’t recognize them as Americans 
A majority culture ethos with little hope or interest in changing; ethnicity and ethnic identity issues are ignored or bad-mouthed 
Poor track record of retaining Asian American personnel 
Some Statistics 2 
1995: of the top 1,000 industrial firms and 500 largest businesses in the U.S., only 3% of senior managers were professionals of color 
2003: women and minorities make up 2/3 of new labor force entrance annually 
In the silicon valley, where Asian Americans comprise 30% of technology professionals, 1993: white people hold 80% of managerial positions, vs. 12.5% for Asian Ams . 
2003: Asian women make up less than 0.5% of corporate officers at the 429 Fortune 500 companies that provided these data: 
Out of 10,092 Fortune 500 corporate officers in 2002, only 30 (0.29%) were Asian women 
Definitions 2 
Acculturation is adapting to new cultural patterns of the dominant culture while continuing to maintain values, perspectives, and features of one’s native culture. 
Assimilation is adopting the dominant culture’s behaviors, values perspectives, and characteristics at the expense of one’s own cultural characteristics. 
Mako Nagasawa// InterVarsity Training 
Breaking the Bamboo Ceiling , Jane Hyun 
Invitation to Lead , Paul Tokunaga 

googdocs: "notes asian values" http://docs.google.com/View?id=dfthx7q4_2134f2jhkwft 

@@assertive - see assertive


\clip\97\07\chinval.txt " Chinese leaders claim authoritarian rule
is necessary to provide the most fundamental rights to their 1.2
billion people -- adequate food and shelter -- and to prevent
disorder" AP 4-Mar-1997 17:29 EST REF5236 Copyright 1997. The
Associated Press. All Rights Reserved.  China Condemns U.S. Social

Singapore is ranked high on economic freedom, but bans chewing gum.

 \priv\95\02\authparn.txt - Asians most authoritarian parents

but got best grades despite general authoritarian -> poorer
Sanford Dornbusch, et. al



\clip\97\01\asiaval.txt December 29th issue of the LA Times U.S. vs
Asia: Culture as Diplomacy by Jacob Heilbrun

In late November, Disney announced that, despite Chinese threats, the
company would go ahead with plans to distribute Martin Scorcese's coming
film on the Dalai Lama, titled "Kundun".  Since then, Disney has earned
kudos from the U.S. media for standing up to Beijing.  By putting
principle ahead of potential profits, the Magic Kingdom ended up
triumphing over the Middle Kingdom.



\clip\97\09\badass\badass.htm Forbes Magazine
http://www.forbes.com/forbes/97/0421/5908142a.htm Forbes 4/21/97
Here's a quick lesson in hip-hoponomics.  For products to sell in
Greenwich and Grosse Pointe, they better be "butter" on the
inner-city streets of New York and Los Angeles.  Badass sells By
Joshua Levine


\CLIP\97\14\POVVALU.TXT tip: dchiang@juno.com Believe it or not, new
objective study by "Liberal Scholars" finds that income per se has a
smaller impact on how poor children fare than middle class Americans.
Of course, it is still politically incorrect to mention that poor
Asian kids do surprisingly well. But Arthur Hu should feel vindicated
with this new study. - Dave Chiang "Parents' character--their skills,
diligence, honesty, and good health--probably matter more to
children's prospects than money.  "Although children's opportunities
are unequal," she writes, "income inequality is not the primary

Is lack of money the reason kids stay poor?
Liberal scholars reach surprising conclusions
BY DAVID WHITMAN US News and World Report 6/2/97

Novelist F. Scott Fitzgerald once wrote that the very rich "are
different from you and me," which provoked a famous rejoinder from
Ernest Hemingway: "Yes, they have more money." 


  "Tradition of Copying in China Fuels the Piracy of
Intellectual Property" Los Angeles Times March 5, 1995 Frankie
Fook-Lun Leung.  The Chinese have a long honored tradition of
copying. It is considered acceptable.


\clip\96\12\execdrug.txt AP 25-Dec-1996 5:45 EST REF5122 China
Executes 17 Drug Dealers HONG KONG (AP) -- China executed at least 17
convicts on Christmas Eve and sentenced another 12 to death, many of
them drug traffickers and murderers, Hong Kong newspapers reported

  doc\94\3\asiacrim.txt - asians don't want to be lectured by
Americans on how to punish people

@@elder care

\clip\96\04\singparn.txt The Wall Street Journal Interactive Edition
-- September 17, 1996 Act to Provide for Aging Parents Spurs Rash of
Familial Litigation By PETER WALDMAN Staff Reporter of THE WALL
STREET JOURNAL: Singapore passes laws requiring grown children to
support their living parents in old age. "When it comes to money from
your pocket, you see how fast those traditional 'Asian values' can


\clip\97\12\evol.txt USA Today 4/1/97 African origin theory advances
"The new study in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
finds that Africans consistently have a greater number of mutations
than Asians or Europeans, suggesting that modern humans do have an
African beginning. "


Cultural values may be backed up by genetic predisposition

"[Asian's genetic] long attention span, greater self-control, and large
working memory capacity constitute a recipe for academic success
through self-directed study"

The Limits of Family Influence : Genes, Experience, and Behavior by
David C. Rowe Our Price: $19.95

The Limits of Family Influence argues that socialization science has
placed too heavy an emphasis on the family as the bearer of culture.
Similarly, it reveals how the environmental variables most often
named in socialization science - such as social class, parental
warmth, and one- versus two-parent households - may also be empty of
causal influence on child outcomes such as intelligence, personality,
and psychopathology. 


\priv\96\20\BOYSCLUB.HTM Seattle Times Company June 6, 1996 'Street
Soldier' battles the virus of teen violence by Daryl Strickland

Listen to these "Commandments of the Hood": 
-- Thou shalt not snitch. 
-- Thou shalt handle thy business. 
-- Thou shalt do what thou gotta do. 
-- Thou shalt get girls. 
-- Thou shalt get thy respect. 
-- Thou shalt get thy money on. 
-- Thou shalt carry a gat (gun). 
-- Thou shalt be down for thy homeboy: right or wrong. 

Compiled by Joseph Marshall Jr., co-founder of San Francisco's Omega
Boys Club,


asian-value doc934\haggle.txt Asians consider everything negotiable

@@Hong Kong

 Subject:       NR 12/31/97 Hong Kong
 Arthur I wanted to make sure that you did not miss the mighty fine
 article by Milton Friedman in the NR titled Asian Values: Right...


\priv\96\13\MATRMINO.HTM Materialism Among Minorities by Diane
Crispell August 1993 American Demographics Blacks could be more
materialistic than Hispanics or Asian Americans. Or they could be
more willing to talk about their material desires, according to a
recent study by Market Segment Research of Coral Gables, Florida.


\doc\web\99\10\mexpov.txt -
Lorenzo de Zavala, Journey to the United States of North America,
1831 one of the leaders of the Mexican revolution "The Mexican is
easygoing, lazy, intolerant, generous almost to prodigality, vain,
belligerent, superstitious, ignorant and an enemy of all restraint.
The North American works, the Mexican has a good time"


Chinese passive?


\clip\97\11\fargo.txt - Kurdish refugees are viewed as being to
strict with their children, and are told that there are other methods
other than spanking or beating.

"Changing Values" Sesame Street Parents December / January
1995 p. 14 Duane alwin, PhD at the University of Michigan in Ann
Arbor found that parents from the 1920s to 1970s tended to teach
obedience, manners and gender appropriate behavior. By 1980, emphasis
had changed to independent thinking, taking responsibility for one's
own actions and using good judgement.  Only honesty remained constant
over time.

asian-value The lessions we can learn from Asian Parents San Jose
Mercury June 27, 1993 John Rosemond - discipline Latchkey kids need
supervision, even from afar Betsy Bates (Los Angeles Daily News) San
Jose Mercury July 14, 1993 1D Authoratorian and authoritative
parenting was better than unengaged.


CULTURE CAUSES POVERTY? ASIANS VS BLACK / HISPANIC \doc\web\99\10\cultpov.txt Lawrence
Harrison WSJ piece

Harvard U Press Press Release
What Money Can't Buy | Reviews

\CLIP\97\14\POVVALU.TXT tip: dchiang@juno.com Believe it or not, new
objective study by "Liberal Scholars" finds that income per se has a
smaller impact on how poor children fare than middle class Americans.
Of course, it is still politically incorrect to mention that poor
Asian kids do surprisingly well. But Arthur Hu should feel vindicated
with this new study. - Dave Chiang Susan Mayer's What Money Can't
Buy, published by Harvard University Press, and the forthcoming
Consequences of Growing Up Poor, edited by Greg Duncan and Jeanne
Brooks-Gunn for the Russell Sage Foundation, both conclude that
income per se has a smaller impact on how poor children fare than
many believe. "Parents' character--their skills, diligence, honesty,
and good health--probably matter more to children's prospects than
money.  "Although children's opportunities are unequal," she writes,
"income inequality is not the primary reason."

"Can't buy me love" Economist June 21, 1997 p. 29 Review of "What Money 
Can't Buy" by Susan Mayer says that study shows that raising the incomes of 
the poor from $15,000 to $30,000 year would not have much effect on the 
outcomes of the children of the poor. High school drop out rates would only fall 
from 17.3 to 16.1% and teen mothers only from 20% to 18%. Chart ;shows 
behavioral index about same, reading about same, mathematics only up from 
102 to 103, and vocabulary from 95 to 98. Revies mentions Chicago study that 
shows black students improved when they moved to the suburbs, which they 
might be able to do if they had more money.

Is lack of money the reason kids stay poor?
Liberal scholars reach surprising conclusions
BY DAVID WHITMAN US News and World Report 6/2/97


http://www.jewishworldreview.com/cols/horn1.html Do bad
\'authority-fugures\' make good parents?  By Dr. Wade F. Horn
[parents who backed up reasoning with punishment did much better than
kids who got reasoning only, but author says that includes time-out
and other non-physical punishment]

\clip\96\02\japnsuic.txt Date: Wed, 21 Aug 1996 10:28:27 -0400 TOKYO,
Aug. 21 (Kyodo) -- -- The parents of a western Japan elementary
school boy who committed suicide at the age of 11 in 1994 said
Wednesday they will file a suit next month claiming corporal
punishment caused his death.


\priv\95\19\spank.htm - \priv\95\19\spank.htm SJM 12/6/95 Spanking
widespread in U.S. BY BARBARA KESSLER Gallup poll found half of
parents approve of spanking sometimes. 30% had used a hard object. 1
in 20 has suffered severe child abuse.

56% of Parade readers approve of spanking. 1991 General Social Survey
67%, was 84% in 1986 "What Our readers say about spanking"
Parade May 15, 1994


 40% of special ed students / down's syndrome don't graduate -

turning point ABC 9/7/945 


PBS / POV "Girls Like Us" looks at 4 teen working class girls in
South Philadelphia over a 4 year period.


 doc\94\13\asvalue.doc - basic asian values, what are they:


z48\CLIP\2001\02\undclass.txt CULTURE MATTERS Prole Models America's
elites take their cues from the underclass.  BY CHARLES MURRAY
Tuesday, February 6, 2001 12:01 a.m. EST In a disintegrating
civilization, the creative minority has degenerated into elites that
are no longer confident, no longer setting the example... a
"surrender to a sense of promiscuity" (vulgarizations of manners, the
arts, and language) that "are apt to appear first in the ranks of the
proletariat and to spread from there to the ranks of the dominant
minority, which usually succumbs to the sickness of


victvalu.txt - Victorian values good, counterculture destroyed

@@Youth Values


Seattle Times June 26, 1997 Teens said to lack values, poll finds
by Megan Rosenfeld Washington Post Comment - guess which ethnic
culture and whose children are strongest in these values? The Asians.

\doc\95\11\asinwimp.txt - Are Asian values wimpy? Are
Asian men wimps?


 "women and men still see things differently" Wall Street
Journal Jan 27, 1995 p. B1 University of Minnesota study find women
consistently more caring, and helpful, less valuing competition or
material wealth.

@@work (hard work)

There is a stereotype that Asians and to a lessser degree, Hispanic
immigrants work really hard even in the worst jobs, but that African
Americans turn down low paying jobs in favor of welfare or crime.
Unfortunately, the evidence is that this is to some degree, true.
Blacks don't lose out because of Asian or Hispanic immigrants, they
lose out because they don't show up, or behave up to reasonable

\clip\97\18\strive.txt ABOUT FACE by Hanna Rosin New Repulic August
4, 1997 http://www.enews.com/magazines/tnr/ Experts hail an
in-your-face program called STRIVE that molds welfare recipients into
upstanding workers.  And STRIVE deserves the praise. But there's a
secret to its success: it weeds out the likely failures. 

"Of the 319 clients who have graduated over the past two years from
the Boston program where Sykes teaches, 259 found jobs and 170 are
still working-- a phenomenal 81 percent placement rate. The average
salary of graduates is $7.45 an hour, and they're not all sweeping
floors. "

SUBURBS INSTEAD "Business as Usual" Joe Matthews, The New Republic
April 21, 1997 F041097-1 In the Baltimore neighborhood of Pigtown,
PTP industries set up a factory to utilize government incentives to
hire (mostly black? article didn't say) inner city residents. But
they were not prepared for "boring" work, and quit, many showed up
drunk or under the influence of drugs, and they could not keep enough
productive workers.  They turned to Catholic Charities, which sent
them reliable Asian refugees who considered themselves lucky to get a
$200/week salary with limited english skills. Thi Nguyen uses the six
salaries from his household to buy a nice house in a safe suburb and
two new Hondas. PTP no longer checks to see if residents are from the
inner city, as it does not consider the risk of getting a bad
employee to be worth the tax breaks. Community plans now propose
using government redevelopment money to put up houses, and bulldoze
the PTP factory. So Asian labor was key to saving jobs in the inner
city. Or is it a case of Asians taking jobs away from more deserving


"The True Disadvantage" Joe Klein, review of "When Work Disappears:
the World of the New Urban Poor" by William Julius Wilson. The New
Republic Oct 28, 1996 p. 32 F102196-3

12 of 15 African American employers surveyed had negative views of
inner-city black workers, so it's not just a racist issue

black men are more hostile than Mexican American men with respect to
the the low-paying jobs they hold, less willing to be flexible in
taking assignments or tasks not considered part of their job and less
willing to work as hard for the ame low wages.

David Hayes Baurtista found that 2nd and 3rd generation Mexican
Americans are less tolerant of low-end jobs and begin to show many of
the same anti-social behaviors, out of wedlock births and joblessness
as native-born African Americans, and the same is true of other
immigrant groups, but this shows there are differences of belief and
behavior even within the same end of the labor force.

\doc\95\11\wiscwelf.txt "Wisconsin's lesson in welfare
reform" US News & World Report July 3, 1995 Steven V Roberts
- workers must be taught values of work, including getting out of bed.