14:46 JST = 05:46 UTC, subtract 9 hours The General Dynamics prop powered NB-36 tested flying around
with a nuclear power plant which would power jets. See Nuclear Bombers In 1961, there were articles
about a jet powered B-52 class NX-2. On landing, the reactor would be removed
and put in to a pool, while the crew would go into a specially shielded vehicle
to drive away from the bomber. B-52s worked just fine to get all around the
planet with in-flight refueling with KC-135 tankers, and still do today. from Wikipedia
Date: Year 1952
In 1952, General Electric staked its claim on the nuclear future with
this promotional film to calm nuclearfears. It fortold that nuclear
power would be useful for power stations (with a PWR diagram, they
would eventually settle on BWR) locomotives, ships and even aircraft,
and illustrated atomic transmutation as badly behaved citizens in a
town of nuclear atoms. GE didn't start its reactor business until
A is For Atom: 1952 GE Promo Film
Date: Year 1955
Date: Year 1961
K-19 Submarine Nuclear accident
14:46 JST = 05:46 UTC, subtract 9 hours
The General Dynamics prop powered NB-36 tested flying around with a nuclear power plant which would power jets. See Nuclear Bombers In 1961, there were articles about a jet powered B-52 class NX-2. On landing, the reactor would be removed and put in to a pool, while the crew would go into a specially shielded vehicle to drive away from the bomber. B-52s worked just fine to get all around the planet with in-flight refueling with KC-135 tankers, and still do today.
On 4 July 1961, under the command of Captain First Rank Nikolai Vladimirovich Zateyev, K-19 was conducting exercises in the North Atlantic close to Southern Greenland when it developed a major leak in its reactor coolant system, causing the water pressure in the aft reactor to drop to zero and causing failure of the coolant pumps. A separate accident had disabled the long-range radio system, so they could not contact Moscow. The reactor temperature rose uncontrollably, reaching 800 °C (1,470 °F) — almost the melting point of the fuel rods — and the chain reactions continued despite the control rods being inserted via a SCRAM mechanism. The reactor continued to heat up as coolant is still required during shutdown until the reactions decrease. Despite Zateyev's and others' earlier requests, no backup cooling system had been installed.
As a cooling back-up system had not been installed, Zateyev made a drastic decision; a team of seven engineering officers and crew worked for extended periods in high-radiation areas to implement a new coolant system by cutting off an air vent valve and welding a water-supplying pipe into it. Since the ship carried chemical suits, instead of radiation suits (not available at the time and developed after accidents like this), they were certain to be lethally contaminated, but the repair team was unaware of the degree of risk, believing the suits they wore would protect them from contamination. The released radioactive steam, containing fission products, was drawn into the ventilation system and spread to other sections of the ship. The cooling water pumped from the reactor section worked well.
The incident contaminated the crew, parts of the ship, and some of the ballistic missiles carried on board; the entire crew received substantial doses of radiation, and all seven men in the repair crew died of radiation exposure within a week, and twenty more within the next few years. The captain decided to head south to meet diesel submarines expected to be there, instead of continuing on the mission's planned route. Worries about a potential crew mutiny prompted Zateyev to have all small arms thrown overboard except for five pistols distributed to his most trusted officers. A diesel submarine, S-270, picked up K-19's low-power distress transmissions and joined up with it.
Construction starts (source: movie)
1985 Film released
From: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cTshYXmN1AY (1985 27min) In 1966, Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) started construction of this nuclear plant in Fukushima, Japan. This movie explained the mechanism of nuclear electric power generation, and the procedure of construction of the power plant. Many Japanese people visited the movie theater to watch this movie at that time. This movie was digitized by the support of Saitama Culture Promotion Grant. This movie was kindly provided by Science Film Museum for free (http://www.kagakueizo.org/english/). I have personally obtained permission of the head of the museum, to upload this video . If someone can translate this film to any language, please feel free to do so. We truly appreciate your cooperation.
Paint scheme is gray lower, white upper reactor buildings with red/white towers
translation of comments: 05:20 The state of radioactive waste disposal. 6:40 men's clothing into the? washing radiation controlled area. Check 7:50 into the region during the radiation controlled area. thermoluminescence dosimeter mounting. 09:40 check when leaving the controlled area. 10:45 radiation monitoring equipment 01:10 fuel pellet, a description of? the fuel assembly. 02:10 inserted in a nuclear reactor fuel assemblies. 02:45 Pull the control rod critical. 3:40 feeding steam to the turbine started generating power.
3 GE nuclear engineers resigned over nuclear plant safety
http://www.reuters.com/article/video/idUSTRE72A0SS20110322?videoId=197802178 Reuters video: GE engineer reflects on Fukushima concerns (2:51) Mar 23 - More than 35 years ago a GE engineer resigned over concern about the safety of the nuclear reactor used in the Fukushima plant in Japan. Deborah Lutterbeck reports. Dale bridenbough quit. Unit 1 built by GE for tepco when he visited. Worried when all power was lost. Headline: GE Nuclear .... Too dangerous they say... feb 3, 1976
http://in.reuters.com/article/2011/03/16/idINIndia-55640020110316 ANALYSIS - Japan crisis a blow to GE, reactor design an issue GE engineer reflects on Fukushima concerns (2:51) Mar 23 - More than 35 years ago a GE engineer resigned over concern about the safety of the nuclear reactor used in the Fukushima plant in Japan. Deborah Lutterbeck reports GE wholly built one of the six reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi power plant that has been in a state of crisis since being hit by a massive earthquake and tsunami last week, and it built two others jointly with Toshiba Corp. Toshiba built two on its own and Hitachi Ltd built one The design of the GE-built reactor, and particularly the Mark I containment unit that is supposedly designed to ensure that radioactive material did not escape, has drawn criticism. One unusual characteristic of the Fukushima facility involves the spent fuel pools -- where fuel rods are held to cool down after they are moved from the reactor but before they are sent to long-term storage. At the Fukushima site, the fuel pools stand over the the reactors, which means there is a possibility they can spill radioactive material onto the reactors if there is a major accident, one expert said....."It's the only reactor built in that way that I know of. It was a poor decision and we are living with the results of that poor decision. It's a really odd design." Former GE engineer David Bridenbaugh, who resigned 35 years ago over concerns that the containment system was not strong enough, this week told reporters it had "not been designed to withstand the loads" of a large-scale accident. ...earthquake and tsunami went beyond the risks engineers had anticipated. The GE-Hitachi nuclear joint venture generates about $1 billion in annual revenue through maintenance on existing plants and fuel sales. GE has not built a new nuclear power plant in more than a decade --
The Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant was shut down for 21 months afre the July 2007 6.6 earthquake which shook the plant beyond design basis (never mind the 9.0 earthquake that hit fukushima)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant is a large, modern (housing the world's first ABWR) nuclear power plant on a 4.2-square-kilometer (1,038 acres) site including land in the towns of Kashiwazaki and Kariwa in Niigata Prefecture, Japan on the coast of the Sea of Japan, from where it gets cooling water. The plant is owned and operated by The Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO).
It is the largest nuclear generating station in the world by net electrical power rating. It was approximately 15 miles from the epicenter of the second strongest earthquake to ever occur at a nuclear plant, the Mw 6.6 July 2007 Ch?etsu offshore earthquake. This shook the plant beyond design basis and initiated an extended shutdown for inspection, which indicated that greater earthquake-proofing was needed before operation could be resumed.
The plant was completely shut down for 21 months following the earthquake. On May 9, 2009, one unit (Unit 7) was restarted, after seismic upgrades. Units 6, 1, and 5 have since been restarted as well.
Journalist takes a tour of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant, a bigger, newer BWR and films inside reactor operation floor
Inside a Japanese nuclear power station
Video walks through largest BWR by power output built in 1990s.
View of green "Toshiba" refueling platform and giant overhead crane similar to Fukushima. Window appears to be similar to that punched out at Unit 2. Note vent ducts which were destroyed in hydrogen explosions, and size on concrete beams which were blown out in Unit 3.
In the spring of 2008, TEPCO estimated that a 15.7-meter tsunami could hit the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant in the future, which was about the size of the March 11 tsunami.
The utility came up with another estimate in December that year, modeled on the Jogan tsunami that hit northern Japan in 869. This estimate was 9.2 meters.
In June 2009, when a working group met to discuss earthquake and tsunami risks, Yukinobu Okamura, a government researcher, said, “I cannot accept this report because it does not mention it [Jogan earthquake and tsunami] at all, [even though] it hit the Tohoku area in 869 with huge impact” (Joint Working Group on Earthquake/Tsunami, 2009, emphasis added). The researcher was complaining that the new report by the advisory committee—of which he was a member—did not thoroughly consider the Jogan tsunami. Further, Katsuhiko Ishibashi, a former member of an advisory committee for the Nuclear Safety Commission—which advises the prime minister, oversees NISA’s activities, and establishes basic safety guidelines—also expressed similar warnings in a paper published in Science in 1997: “For nuclear power plants, a disaster caused by an earthquake can be especially dangerous because it could cause multiple failures at the same time, unlike a normal accident” (Ishibashi, 1997: 723, emphasis added).
Sep 8, 2010 - Nuclear Engineer Arnie Gundersen discusses radiation releases from the TMI Accident. Italiano. URL:
Three Mile Island Alert.
Gunderson will later slam Japanese on minimizing disaster and speculate on prompt-critical chain reaction explosion on Russia Today.
(547 posts) Thu Mar-17-11 05:45 3-12-11 #1 It very well could be the worst
nuclear disaster ever... it would be impossible to prevent the fuel failure of
a plant after a design basis earthquake and a tsunami loss of all offside power
and all of the emergency generators, if that is what has happened. There is not
likely enough batteries to last more than 4-8 hours... and little pumping
capacity even then. This would be the first
time that multiple reactors (3) would be lost at one site. Both TMI and
Chernobyl only involved the loss of 1 unit at a site. The big unknown in
my mind is what is the status of the spent fuel pools. I haven't heard whether
these are PWRs or BWRs... That would say a lot about he spent fuel pool
configuration. If the spent fuel pools are not cooled and an adequate water
coverage maintained, the danger is off the map
The hydrogen explosion that has destroyed one containment building could very well be from "melting" fuel cladding,.. offsite power... No emergency generators... No containment... Expanding evacuation zone... I'm worried! .. they lack the ability to take the reactor(s) to shutdown. Low pressure injection has probably been lost. .. report that they were injecting sea water into the containment means that normal emergency systems have failed and the situation is pretty desperate. The other 2 plants? Fuel pools?
The fuel pools are probably OK, because they could keep them full with a fire truck tanker... As long as radiation levels onsite stay reasonably low. I don't think any plants, but the most recent designs, would do well after control rooms become uninhabitable. The collapsed reactor building probably eliminated most, if not all, remaining capabilities of that stricken reactor. If it was a sub, you would get out and sink it. Not good...
When I was a young, rookie engineer, a mentor told me about the hidden
terror in the fuel pool. He said to me that if a crane operator latched onto a
fuel bundle and hit the UP button (there are interlocks to prevent that), by
the time the top of the bundle reached the surface, everyone on the refuel
floor would be dead... nobody would make it off the floor. There are hundreds
of bundles in the pool. I don't know if this story is true, but I never had any
reason to doubt it. Hydrogen burning will accellerate the loss of water in the
pool. The pool liner and structure can't handle fuel meltdowns. Once the
1/4" or so stainless steel liner is breached, the pool will never hold
water again. Hydrogen explosions could be devastating in spreading radioactove
material, a hazard worse than just radiation "shine." It may look a
lot like explosions to the lay person. I would rather see a core meltdown than
an empty fuel pool. I think we are looking at something similar to Chernobyl.
Hopefully, less devastating in loss of life... but something that may be even
harder to control. I am not sure how long we have to turn this around... maybe
a couple days... maybe not. I'm not smart enough to caculate the answer, but
there are people that are. Chang, the amount of radioactive materials in these
pools is many multiples of what was in Chernobyl. As the water level lowers,
you are going to have steam "explosions", hydrogen burning and
explosions... there are calculations to calculate Keff for each bundle to
insure that no bundle can go critical, even in localized areas... how good do
you think those calculations are now, Chang. I don't know how bad it will be,
but I am not so certain that it won't be aweful. Will the whole pool meltdown?
No, but it doesn't have to to still be very bad. Once the pool is filled and
cooled, the water needs to be cleaned up. It is probable very acidic right now...
The worst case I see is the fuel overheating and melting its way into the earth. It would contaminate groundwater and air. Once they decide this is inevitable, they should be using drilling equipment equipped with liquid nitrogen to freeze the ground around the meltdown sites (the way they do to construct tunnels in soft soil), combined with lots of concrete, to entomb the site as Chernobyl was. Atmospheric contamination is bad, but will disperse quickly.
What you don't have here is a nuclear explosion like Chernobyl, which spread fission products over thousands of square miles, contaminating crops and livestock. If the cores burn their way down to the center of the earth, so be it. I think our focus then is on ring fencing the underground contamination, using drilling and concrete.
Day 3: Unit 3 cooling fails, melts down, hydrogen is building up, Unit 4 pool heading towards boiling, "no meltdown"No time:
http://allthingsnuclear.org/post/3842650618/sunday-update-on-fukushima-reactorsTokyo Electric reported that after multiple cooling system failures, the water level in the Unit 3 reactor vessel dropped 3 meters (nearly 10 feet), uncovering approximately 90 percent of the fuel in the reactor core. Authorities were able to inject cooling water with a fire pump after reducing the containment pressure by a controlled venting of radioactive gas. As they did with Unit 1, they began pumping sea water into Unit 3, which is highly corrosive and may preclude any future use of the reactor even if a crisis is averted.However, Tokyo Electric has reported that the water level in the Unit 3 reactor still remains more than 2 meters (6 feet) below the top of the fuel, exposing about half the fuel to air, and they believe that water may be leaking from the reactor vessel. When the fuel is exposed to air it eventually overheats and suffers damage.
The dosimeter they had with them was giving off readings of about 20 millisieverts at the time. (how much after the explosion??)
.. was not informed of possibility of explosion... "would be reluctant to send my men there"
the Kan government essentially left the handling of the nuclear crisis in the crucial first three days to Tepco, focusing instead on relief efforts for the hundreds of thousands left homeless, Mr. Terada and other aides said. Then on March 14, the gravity of the plant’s situation was revealed by a second explosion, this time at Reactor No. 3, and a startling request that night from Tepco’s president, Masataka Shimizu: that Tepco be allowed to withdraw its employees from the plant because it had become too dangerous to remain. When he heard this, Mr. Kan flew into a rage, said aides and advisers who were present. Abandoning the plant would mean losing control of the four stricken reactors; the next day, explosions occurred at the two remaining active reactors, No. 2 and No. 4. “This is not a joke,” the prime minister yelled, according to the aides. They said Mr. Kan convened an emergency meeting early on March 15, asking advisers what more could be done to save the reactors. Then he gave Tepco barely two hours’ warning that he planned to visit the company. At 5:30 a.m., Mr. Kan marched into Tepco headquarters and stationed one of his most trusted aides, Goshi Hosono, there to keep tabs on the company. Mr. Kan gave a five-minute impromptu pep talk, said his aide, Mr. Terada. “Withdrawing from the plant is out of the question,” Mr. Kan told them. ...the placement of Mr. Hosono in Tepco was a turning point, helping the prime minister to take direct control of damage-control efforts at the plant. “For the first time, we knew what Tepco was debating, and what they knew,” said one adviser, who asked not to be identified.Kan: “At around 3 a.m. March 15, three days after the accident, I got a report from then Economy, Trade and Industry Minister Banri Kaieda that Tokyo Power Corp. was about to withdraw from the nuclear facility.”
“I thought nuclear plants were safe as they were supported by Japan’s technology. But I changed my mind after the experience of the March 11 disaster.” “”When I think of safety not being outweighed by risk, the answer is not to rely on nuclear.”
http://www.canetalk.com/2011/03/1300936887_1300932214.shtml TEPCO wanted to withdraw all nuclear plant workers 3 days after quake Posted by JAC on 3/23/2011, 10:21 pm http://mdn.mainichi.jp/mdnnews/news/20110318p2a00m0na009000c.html
Tokyo Electric Power Co. (TEPCO) told the government on March 14 that it wanted to withdraw all of its workers from the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant, it has been learned.
TEPCO's suggestion came two days after a cooling system failure caused by the March 11 quake and tsunami triggered a hydrogen blast at the plant's No. 1 reactor. Though Prime Minister Naoto Kan rejected the proposal, the finding suggests that the power company was aware from an early stage that damage at the plant could develop into a nuclear disaster exposing workers to high levels of radiation. It is believed that TEPCO was prepared to let Japan's Self-Defense Forces and the U.S. military handle the situation.
Several government sources said that TEPCO officials told Chief Cabinet Secretary Yukio Edano and Economy, Trade and Industry Minister Banri Kaieda over the phone that the company wanted to withdraw all of its workers. Both government officials turned down the requests and reported them to Kan.
Shortly after 4 a.m. on March 15, Kan summoned TEPCO President Masataka Shimizu to the Prime Minister's Office and told him pulling out was not an option. He added that a joint countermeasures headquarters would be set up.
Afterwards, the prime minister visited TEPCO's head office in Tokyo and said, "This is not a matter of TEPCO going under; it's about what will become of Japan."
Government officials confirmed that TEPCO's suggestions on the night of March 14 indicated the company wanted to pull out all of its workers.
At the same time complaints are smoldering within TEPCO over Kan's response. TEPCO officials said that the company has 4,000 to 5,000 workers at the plant, including those from cooperating firms, but now only about 300 remain. They are working to control and restore power-generation stations.
"Saying, 'I won't allow you to pull out,' is like saying, 'Get exposed to radiation and keep going until you die,'" one member of the company commented.
· Japan Nuclear Watch: New Explosion at Fukushima Daiichi Unit 3 6:49PM shows a dark plume rising hundreds of feet in the air, a bad sign if there is significant radiation involved
· after multiple cooling system failures, the water level in the Unit 3 reactor vessel dropped 3 meters (nearly 10 feet), uncovering approximately 90 percent of the fuel in the reactor core. Authorities were able to inject cooling water with a fire pump after reducing the containment pressure by a controlled venting of radioactive gas. As they did with Unit 1, they began pumping sea water into Unit 3 … the water level in the Unit 3 reactor still remains more than 2 meters (6 feet) below the top of the fuel, exposing about half the fuel to air, and they believe that water may be leaking from the reactor vessel. Tokyo Electric is reporting there are three persons injured and seven person missing. [Update: they've reportedly been found] BBC says there may be 11 persons missing. At this point, we don’t have any indication of the damage done to Unit 3 reactor, but utility/govt officials are claiming the reactor vessel was not damaged. As for the building housing the reactor, before/after images captured by Jim White indicate this latest explosion blew the roof and walls off the reactor building. See below.
· The plant operators have been struggling with the loss of the cooling system and a resulting rise in pressure in the reactor. They have been injecting sea water, using fire pumps, to sustain at least some cooling and may have attempted another controlled release to relieve the rising pressure. new explosion appears to have caused substantially more external damage to the outer building than the first explosion. The NYT also reports the same thing.
· new explosion appears to have caused substantially more external damage to the outer building than the first explosion. The NYT also reports the same thing.
Map shows tan plume 4:00-12:00 cruising by Tokyo
Map shows red plume creating dark red northwest patch 18:00-25:00 after midnight
It appears that the wind was blowing in a northwesterly direction when the largest on-shore releases occurred. These releases apparently occurred on March 15.7
March 15, four days after the accident, an additional 354,000 people living between 20 and 30 kilometers of the plant were advised to stay indoors to reduce exposure to radiation (Japanese government,
He explained the reason why he went to TEPCO headquarters on March 15, 2011, 4 days after the accident, was the words from Former Minister of METI Banri Kaieda around 3pm on the same day, who disclosed TEPCO was planning to abandon Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Energy Plant
Kan felt “If TEPCO abandons Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Energy Plant, 10 nuclear reactors and 11 nuclear fuel storage pools, nuclear reactors and nuclear fuel storage pools would be empty and rapidly melt down. ” , then he ordered to set up the Integrated Headquarters Measures of TEPCO and government at TEPCO headquarters.
“If TEPCO had abandoned Fukushima Nuclear Energy Plant, there would have been nobody in Tokyo. It was the most critical moment for Japan as a country to keep surviving as it is. The amount of radiation leakage could have been more than several score times than Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident.” , Kan explained and this experience changed his old idea of being confidence in Japanese nuclear technology into the new idea to aim not to rely on nuclear power plant energy society.
http://www.abc.net.au/pm/content/2011/s3164723.htm Well it was the starkest
language that we've heard yet from the government. What emerged that we didn't
know was that there had also been an explosion and a fire in reactor 4 at
Fukushima. Number 4 had an explosion as well and then a fire which is what was
revealed in that press conference. Yes, number 4 was not in operation at the
time of the earthquake. There were no active fuel rods in there but there is
spent fuel. Now the fire apparently started through a similar hydrogen
explosion that we saw in number 1 and 3 and that the chief cabinet secretary
said that they have assumed that some radioactive substances are being released
as a result of that explosion and fire at number 4. "Explosion at No 4
Pictures of Reactors 4 and 3 upclose after explosions - I captured off Live
Japan News Shows shattered Reactor 4 building. SPENT FUEL STORAGE POND ON FIRE
AT REACTOR 4
Fukushima Nuclear Accident Update Log Updates of 7 April 2011 Tue Mar-15-11 05:27 AM Response to Reply #8 13. Fire confirmed Japan Earthquake Update (15 March 2011, 06:15 CET) Japanese authorities informed the IAEA that there has been an explosion at the Unit 2 reactor at the Fukushima Daiichi plant. The explosion occurred at around 06:20 on 15 March local Japan time. Japanese authorities also today informed the IAEA at 04:50 CET that the spent fuel storage pond at the Unit 4 reactor of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant is on fire and radioactivity is being released directly into the atmosphere. Dose rates of up to 400 millisievert per hour have been reported at the site. The Japanese authorities are saying that there is a possibility that the fire was caused by a hydrogen explosion.
divvy (547 posts) Tue Mar-15-11 07:13 PM explosions are not good Reports of explosions are not good... No kidding. The zircolloy reaction of clad melting gives off a lot of hydrogen, which can accumulate in the top of the reactor vessel. Such a bubble of explosive gasses is very dangerous. Large scale fuel failure is probably happening at multiple plants. My guess is that the explosions are from hydrogen vented from the vessel. That is a sign of fuel clad "melting." Core melting doesn't necessarily mean that the worst case scenario will result... It didn't at TMI. As long as they can prevent reactor vessel failure, the impact on the general public can be minimized. I know the GE Mark I plant had design provisions for pumping seawater into the reactor... I don't know if the other plant designs did. I haven't heard what resources are being brought in to help plant personnel. They need help... Not just advice! What is being done to restore power to these stricken plants? ... And when will they have it? No plant, even one originally in cold shutdown, can operate indefinitely without AC power. I guess I am frustrated to hear of casualties... People can't go into primary containment under these circumstances. Venting should be to primary containment, which could then be vented through a standby gas treatment system in the RX building, if there is AC power to run it. That could be where the hydrogen explosion occurred. The system has a heater that wouldn't be good with an explosive mix of hydrogen. PWRs actually have glow plugs or some type of heaters to burn hydrogen inside their much larger containments. BWRs don't have these systems. The Mark I containment could not accommodate open flames... too small.
On April 7, during an NRC staff briefing to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, a committee member challenged the NRC staff on this evacuation recommendation: [L]et me reverse this. Thirty-two years ago, if Japan would have done a what-if calculation about Three Mile Island, and said all the Japanese within 50 miles of Harrisburg should get out, what would be our response to that, from a policy standpoint? (NRC, 2011b: 91–92)
He could also have noted that 17 million people—including most of the population of New York City—live within 50 miles of the Indian Point Nuclear Power Station on the Hudson River (Donn, 2011).11
In Japan, statements had said that the water in the pool was “boiling” and the water level had “considerably decreased,” but there had been no report that the water was completely gone. Takahashi, Mariko; Katsuda, Toshihiko (2011-09-25). Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Disaster: What Happened in March 2011 (Kindle Locations 259-260). The Asahi Shimbun. Kindle Edition.
The following are some updates:
#The smoke/seam from reactor No. 3:
The company said that the smoke/steam from the reactor No. 3 came from the spent fuel pond (not from a possible leak from the containment).
The cooling system of the pond is out of order and the temperature of the water is getting higher to make steam. As you know, the building of this reactor already is broken down and there is no cover/ceiling over the spent fuel pond. It is open to the air now.
Then, they are planning to drop sea water from helicopters and fill the pond with water to stop the damage of spent-fuel rods.
A team of “Defense Force” started the training to do the task. They are ready to start now.
However, the radiation level over the pond is still high. It was measured “far more than 50 mSv/h”. (They actually measured it by a helicopter.) So, they decided not to pursue this operation today. There is no guarantee that the radiation level would become lower tomorrow, though. (The government has decided yesterday to set up the maximum exposure level at an emergency situation from 100 to 250 mSv, as I wrote you yesterday.)
#The reactor No. 4:
The government has just ordered the “riot police” to go to the site as they have a special car which has a “high pressure injection system”. (I do not know the proper words for such a car in English. I suppose a car which might be usually used against “riot”….or sometimes against a demonstration, as some of you might know?) They will try to fill the spent fuel with water using the special car. The defense force will lend protective suits to the “riot police”. They will start to work tomorrow morning.
#The result of the radiation level measurement today:
Today, a team from the Ministry of Education and Science, measured around the 20-60 km zone:
about 20km: 0.33 mSv/h
30-60 km: 0.0253 – 0.0125 mSv/h
The government and media emphasized, “the level is not a immediate danger for the people’s health, though it might be problem to live in such area continuously for a year.”
day 7 in japans nuke delemma conspiracy blog has claims of radiation sickness in Japan already
After watching the helicopter effort on TV, Kazunori Hasegawa, president of Chuo Construction, calls the government and offers the use of his two truck-mounted concrete boom pumps to spray water directly into the reactors. TEPCO did not respond for three days, and then stated it would wait until for the arrival of similar pumps obtained elsewhere.
source: Japan weighs need to bury nuclear plant; tries to restore power March 18, 2011 reuters http://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2011/03/japan-weighs-need-to-bury-nuclear-plant-tries-to-restore-power/ http://www.foxbusiness.com/markets/2011/03/18/japan-weighs-need-bury-nuclear-plant-tries-restore-power/
Tokyo Fire Department dispatched thirty fire engines with 139 fire-fighters and a trained rescue team at approximately 03:00 JST. These included a fire truck with a 22 m water tower.
Japan Unit-4 Pool’s Heat Exceeded Three-Times Normal, IAEA Says By Jonathan Tirone - Mar 18, 2011 2:40 AM PT Temperatures in a cooling pool at the crippled Japanese nuclear plant have exceeded three times normal values, causing radiation to leak directly into the atmosphere and complicating efforts to stop three reactors from melting down, the UN Atomic Energy Agency reported. The pond at reactor No. 4 covering uranium fuel rods at the Fukushima Dai-Ichi nuclear plant heated to 84 degrees Celsius (183 Fahrenheit) the last time data was available on March 13, the IAEA said today on its website. Temperatures normally should be kept below 25 degrees Celsius, according to the agency
Other Ponds Hot Temperatures in fuel ponds at units No. 5 and 6, also loaded with uranium fuel assemblies, exceeded two-times normal values, the IAEA said. Unit 5’s temperature rose to 65.5 degrees Celsius from 64.2 degrees Celsius yesterday afternoon. Unit 6’s temperature fell 0.5 degree to 62 Celsius.
Electricity could be restored Friday or Saturday to recover the lost cooling functions at the No. 2 reactor building, which he said takes priority over other the troubled reactors as it cannot be doused since the roof of its building is still intact. http://injapan.gaijinpot.com/2011/03/18/radiation-slightly-down-around-fukushima-reactor/
Radiation is streaming into the atmosphere from the used uranium rods at reactor number four, after a 45ft-deep storage pool designed to keep them stable boiled dry in a fire. And some of the radioactive material could reach Britain within a fortnight, according to experts.
TEPCO Video on crane looking into reactor 4 as water is
FAILURE OF VENT SYSTEM TO SAFELY RELEASE HYDROGEN LED TO
BLAST, NO. 2 VENTED BY OPEN PANEL
U.S. Experts Blame Fukushima 1 Explosions and Radiation on Failed Venting System By PETER BEHR AND JOHN J. FIALKA see @@Hydrogen Explosion
TEPCO UNDERPREDICTED MAXIMUM EARTHQUAKE, TSUNAMI HEIGHT
Fukushima Tsunami Plan: Japan Nuclear Plant Downplayed Risk YURI KAGEYAMA and JUSTIN PRITCHARD 03/27/11 04:47 PM ET while TEPCO and government officials have said no one could have anticipated such a massive tsunami, there is ample evidence that such waves have struck the northeast coast of Japan before – and that it could happen again along the culprit fault line, which runs roughly north to south, offshore, about 220 miles (350 kilometers) east of the plant. A TEPCO reassessment presented only four months ago concluded that tsunami-driven water would push no higher than 18 feet (5.7 meters) once it hit the shore at the Fukushima Dai-ichi complex. The reactors sit up a small bluff, between 14 and 23 feet (4.3 and 6.3 meters) above TEPCO's projected high-water mark, according to a presentation at a November seismic safety conference in Japan by TEPCO civil engineer Makoto Takao. However, the wall of water that thundered ashore two weeks ago reached about 27 feet (8.2 meters) above TEPCO's prediction. The flooding disabled backup power generators, located in basements or on first floors, imperiling the nuclear reactors and their nearby spent fuel pools.
...As early as 2001, a group of scientists published a paper documenting the Jogan tsunami. They estimated waves of nearly 26 feet (8 meters) at Soma, about 25 miles north of the plant. North of there, they concluded that a surge from the sea swept sand more than 2 1/2 miles (4 kilometers) inland across the Sendai plain. The latest tsunami pushed water at least about 1 1/2 miles (2 kilometers) inland. The scientists also found two additional layers of sand and concluded that two additional "gigantic tsunamis" had hit the region during the past 3,000 years, both presumably comparable to Jogan.
TEPCO's latest calculations were started after a magnitude-8.8 subduction zone earthquake off the coast of Chile in February 2010. ...TEPCO's tsunami modelers did not judge that, in a worst-case scenario, the strong subduction and coupling conditions present off the coast of Fukushima Dai-ichi could produce the 9.0-magnitude earthquake that occurred. Instead, it figured the maximum at 8.6 magnitude, meaning the March 11 quake was four times as powerful as the presumed maximum.New Aerial Video of Fukushima w/ Analysis 3/28/11 Expert believes crane #3 has collapsed on fuel rods, identifies yellow reactor cap
With TEPCO unwilling (or unable) to disclose consolidated detailed information about the status of its reactors, the task has fallen on third party analysts. Luckily, Jorge Stolfi of the state university of the State University of Campinas in Brazil, has compiled what is probably the most comprehensive data dump of all key Fukushima reactor indicators including water level, core, drywell and torus pressure, as well as temperature at the core bottom and nozzle. Below are the detailed results for each of the fuel loaded reactors since the start of the crisis.
Misplaced trust: 30-foot tsunami wall didn't save Japanese village By Paula Hancocks, CNN April 1, 2011 2:37 a.m. EDT One hundred years ago a tidal wave wiped the village out and is believed to have killed 90% of its residents. This time it was supposed to be different but the force of the water bulldozed a path through one part of the wall and simply came over the top of it in other parts destroying everything in its path. .. In Iwate prefecture, 96% of the boats were destroyed, ruining the fishing industry
JAPANESE CAPTAIN SETS SAIL INTO TSUNAMI TO SAVE HIS BOAT Defiant Japanese boat captain rode out tsunami By Paula Hancocks, CNN April 3, 2011 3:19 a.m. EDT "When the tsunami came, everyone ran to the hills. But Sugawara ran to his boat and steered it into deeper waters. "I knew if I didn't save my boat, my island would be isolated and in trouble," he tells CNN. As he passed his other boats, used for fishing abalone, he said goodbye to them, apologizing that he could not save them all. Impact of Japanese disaster Searching for Japan's missing Japan mourns unidentified victims 30 ft wall couldn't stop second tsunami Then the first wave came. Sugawara says he is used to seeing waves up to 5 meters high but this was four-times that size"
UPDATE, 4:30 pm Tuesday, April 5, 2011. Japan’s NHK TV is reporting that a plant worker at Fukushima Daiichi says that radiation levels inside the reactors buildings of Units 1-3 are “immeasurable”—so high that their radiation monitors have been rendered useless. The report states that levels of 10 rems/hour (100 msv) have been measured even outside the buildings.
Universities come through in monitoring for radiation. The amount of radioactive material reaching Washington and the rest of the West Coast from Japan's crippled nuclear reactors is dropping off sharply — but you'd be hard-pressed to know the details if you relied on government agencies for your information. By Sandi Doughton Seattle Times science reporter "A team at the University of Washington rigged up a detection system as soon as it became clear the Japanese reactors were damaged. Unlike some agencies, they have shared their full results with the public — including the newest measurements that show levels are now a tenth of what they were on March 20, when concentrations of radioactive material peaked in Seattle. "It's starting to drop below our threshold for detection," said Michael Miller, UW research associate professor of physics. " chart shows amounts peaked 9 days after earthquake, now barely detectable from University of Washington, and much smaller than Chernobyl effects as measured in Seattle.
Inside report from Fukushima nuclear reactor evacuation zone
reads 106usv south of the plant, got within 1.5 km of plant
Since then, residents have left their homes, and the "no man land" has been out of touch with the rest of the world. A Japanese journalist, Tetsuo Jimbo, ventured through the evacuation zone last Sunday, and filed the following video report. He says that, inside the evacuation zone, homes,building, roads and bridges, which were torn down by Tsunami, are left completely untouched, and the herd of cattle and pet dogs, left behind by the owners, wonders around the town while the radiation level remains far beyond legal limits. On Russia today
Suprisingly low to 10 km certain point then it gets high. No police, no power
URANIUM HITS WEST COAST
http://www.llrc.org/: EPA RadNet Air Filter report EPA data shows Fukushima Uranium in California Elevated levels of Uranium have been found in air samplers (filters) operated by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the north Pacific. Recent data for the Mariana Islands (2800 km south of Fukushima) Hawaii, California and Seattle have been found in the RADNET EPA website. The graph left has been created from the very limited data provided. It shows that uranium (and probably also therefore plutonium) particles have been or are being released by the Fukushima catastrophe. They are appearing in California some 8000km away at levels which are greater than background. (article posted April 20 on April 6 data)
FROM http://www.democraticunderground.com/discuss/duboard.php?az=view_all&address=115x289512 The increasing trend with proximity to Japan suggests that Japan is far more heavily contaminated than any of these sites, as we have predicted. It is of the greatest concern that no data on uranium and plutonium have been published by the authorities there.
7.1 EARTHQUAKE KNOCKS OUT POWER TO HIGASHIDORI REACTOR, EVACUATE FUKUSHIMA 3:15 pm, Thursday, April 7, 2011. Today’s earthquake (which we have seen variously reported as between 7.1 and 7.9 in magnitude) has knocked out power in some sections of northeast Japan. The single-unit Higashidori Boiling Water Reactor and the Rokkasho reprocessing plant have lost offsite power and are running on emergency diesel generators. Offsite power may also have been lost to the three unit Onagawa nuclear complex, although there is a report that power remains for the reactors themselves, but not for the fuel pools and that those are relying upon emergency diesel generators. UPDATE, 12:30 pm, Thursday, April 7, 2011. A 7.1 earthquake struck northeast Japan about an hour ago (11:30 pm Japan time); workers were temporarily evacuated from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear site. There are no immediate reports of additional damage at the site.
LOW LEVEL RADIATION CAMPAIGN
swollen lymph nodes and sores in their nostrils. These are indicators that they have probably inhaled particles of Plutonium and Uranium.
http://www.llrc.org/indexpage.htm: Monday 11th April 2011 1st paragraph updated 12th April Advice for the people of Japan Large areas of Japan are contaminated to measured levels around 1 microsievert per hour. This figure is just for Caesium 137; it does not measure the alpha-emitting radionuclides Plutonium and Uranium. These contaminants are the real threat to health. No official sources are saying anything about this hazard although hundreds of tonnes of Uranium and Plutonium are missing from the spent fuel ponds. It's known that up to 1760 tonnes of spent fuel was stored on site.
Early signs of health damage: We have received information from people in the Tokyo region stating that they have swollen lymph nodes and sores in their nostrils. These are indicators that they have probably inhaled particles of Plutonium and Uranium. LLRC advice: unless it is absolutely impossible to leave, evacuate to areas where there has been no fallout - check MEXT data (English) or MEXT data (Japanese) .
Also duplicate posted by http://www.nuc.berkeley.edu/node/2847 UC Berkeley Nuclear Engineering, but I can find no other official reports, so far it may be a rumor.
REMOTE CONTROLLED HELICOPTERS, DUMPER AND LOADER IN USE
Fukushima Nuclear Plant Video Taken by Remote Controlled Helicopter japannewstoday
Tokyo Electric Power is putting remote controlled machinery to use at the stricken Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. This video, released Monday, was shot by a remote-controlled helicopter a day earlier and shows the plants number four reactor building.
ONE-TENTH SCALE CHERNOBYL DISASTER A 7 NOT A 5
> Japanese Officials on Defensive as Nuclear Alert Level Rises The government announced Tuesday morning that it had raised its rating of the severity of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station to 7, the worst on an international scale, from 5. Officials said that the reactor had released one-tenth as much radioactive material as the Chernobyl accident in 1986, but still qualified as a 7 according to a complex formula devised by the International Atomic Energy Agency
based largely on computer models showing very heavy emissions of radioactive iodine and cesium from March 14 to 16, just after the earthquake and tsunami rendered the plant’s emergency cooling system inoperative. The nearly monthlong delay in acknowledging the extent of these emissions is a fresh example of confused data and analysis from the Japanese, and put the authorities on the defensive about whether they have delayed or blocked the release of information to avoid alarming the public.
“If we immediately decided to label the situation as Level 7, we could have triggered a panicked reaction.”
Welcome to Democracy Now! It’s great to see you again.
The situation is not stable at all. So, you’re looking at basically a ticking time bomb. It appears stable, but the slightest disturbance—a secondary earthquake, a pipe break, evacuation of the crew at Fukushima—could set off a full-scale meltdown at three nuclear power stations, far beyond what we saw at Chernobyl.
I think the Japanese military is the only organization capable of bringing this raging accident under control. And that’s what Gorbachev did in 1986. He saw this flaming nuclear power station in Chernobyl. He called out the Red Air Force. He called out helicopters, tanks, armored personnel carriers, and buried the Chernobyl reactor in 5,000 tons of cement, sand and boric acid. That’s, of course, a last ditch effort. But I think the Japanese military should be called out.
At Chernobyl, there were 600,000 people mobilized, each one going in for just a few minutes, dumping sand, concrete, boric acid onto the reactor site. Each one got a medal. That’s what it took to bring one raging nuclear accident under control. And I think the utility here is simply outclassed and overwhelmed.
DR. MICHIO KAKU: Think of driving a car, and the car all of a sudden lunges out of control. You hit the brakes. The brakes don’t work. That’s because the earthquake wiped out the safety systems in the first minute of the earthquake and tsunami. Then your radiator starts to heat up and explodes. That’s the hydrogen gas explosion. And then, to make it worse, the gas tank is heating up, and all of a sudden your whole car is going to be in flames. That’s the full-scale meltdown.
So what do you do? You drive the car into a river. That’s what the utility did by putting seawater, seawater from the Pacific Ocean, in a desperate attempt to keep water on top of the core. But then, seawater has salt in it, and that gums up your radiator. And so, what do you do? You call out the local firemen. And so, now you have these Japanese samurai warriors. They know that this is potentially a suicide mission. They’re coming in with hose water—hose water—trying to keep water over the melted nuclear reactor cores. So that’s the situation now.
TEPCO has released a detailed analysis of the tsunami that hit the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear plant on March 11th, 2011. The analysis specifies the Inundation height, Inundation area, and the Run-up Height
Inundation Height – Considering the marks left on building facilities the height of the Tsunami waters reached 14meters to 15meters above the base level (Base Level = O.P. 0 meters) Inundation Depth was approximately 4 to 5 meters.
Inundation Area – Most of the ocean-side area (height of site: O.P. +4 meters) and the main building area
Run-up Height – Considering the vestiges in slope and the surface of the road, approximately O.P. +14.5 meters
It appears the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant was designed to be able to handle Tsunami waters that are only 5.7 meters above the Base level O.P. 0 meters. As the Tsunami waters reached 14 to 15 meters above base level, it easily exceeded the existing countermeasures.
Aftershocks prompt precautions at Fukushima 15 April 2011 World Nuclear News Following a series of aftershocks - some as great as magnitude 7 - plant owner Tokyo Electric Power Co (Tepco) has said that workers at the plant are moving emergency diesel generators and the pump control switch panel to higher ground, over 20 metres above sea level. Back-up power trucks and fire engines have been brought to the plant, should those currently being used be lost in another tsunami. Tepco said that work is in progress to reconnect two grid power lines to units 1 to 4 of the plant, to act as back-ups if the current connections fail. The company is also considering setting up a second system, utilizing temporary storage tanks, for pumping water into the reactors.
Japan eyes possible damage to spent nuclear fuel By Matt Smith, CNN April 14, 2011 9:21 a.m. EDT Japan says high radiation probably due to debris (but where did the debris get radioactive? what caused the big fire at the fuel pond???)
the radiation levels are far lower than they would be if there were damage to the fuel rods, said Hidehiko Nishiyama, the chief spokesman for Japan's Nuclear and Industrial Safety Commission. "We need more analysis to identify the precise status of the spent fuel in unit 4," he said. Tokyo Electric said Thursday night that the sample was the first time they have taken a reading off one of the spent fuel pools. The water temperature in the No. 4 pool was 90 degrees Celsius, more than twice a normal reading, and more coolant water was poured into the reservoir on Wednesday."
NHK reports: The operator of the troubled Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant is carefully monitoring the situation at the Number 4 spent fuel pool, where the water temperature is rising despite increased injections of cooling water. Tokyo Electric Power Company, or TEPCO, says it will inject 210 tons of water into the pool on Monday, after finding on Sunday evening that the temperature in the pool had risen to 81 degrees Celsius. On Friday, TEPCO found that the pool's temperature had reached 91 degrees, so it began injecting 2 to 3 times the amount of water. The Number 4 spent fuel pool stores 1,535 fuel rods, the most at the nuclear complex. Nuclear engineer Arnie Gundersen notes that the spent fuel rods in reactor number 4 have no water, and the rods are exposed: In addition, the official Japanese atomic energy website shows 4,250 sieverts/hour of radiation inside the xxcontainment vesselxx at reactor 4 ("S/C" stands for suppression chamber - that's the torus):
Posted on Tue Apr 26 2011 05:55:27 GMT-0700 (Pacific Daylight Time) by TigerLikesRooster
The map released Sunday shows high levels of radiation in different parts of the site, including 300 millisieverts per hour from debris near the No. 3 reactor, the outer building of which was damaged in a hydrogen explosion more than a month ago.
As part of monitoring activity of the surrounding environment, we conducted an analysis of plutonium contained in the soil collected on March 21st and 22nd at the 5 spots in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. [...]
Besides, as the result of the americium and curium analysis in the soil from 2 samples among the 3 periodic sampling spots in which plutonium was detected on March 28th amerium 241, curium 242, 243, and 244 were detected.
Sombody has drawn dimension on the explosion similar to my estimate based on
height of towers:
Dimensions of the blast, based on landmarks, yup about 1000 ft high mushroom cloud
Detonation vs deflagation (really interesting point about the rates of shock wave travel and what results from each)
The fact that traces of uranium isotopes were found as far away as 2 kilometers following #3's blast.
Detonation vs deflagation (really interesting point about the rates of shock wave travel and what results from each)
The fact that traces of uranium isotopes were found as far away as 2 kilometers following #3's blast.
The flame visible out of the south end of #3, wherein #1 had no such flame visible also bolsters the detonation vs deflagration analysis.
Last part of his presentation essentially says we don't have all the evidence of all this yet, but he thinks our government does, as our military was nearby monitoring when #3's blast occured and they no doubt have air samples.The flame visible out of the south end of #3, wherein #1 had no such flame visible also bolsters the detonation vs deflagration analysis.Nuclear Nightmare: Japan in Crisis premieres Thursday, April 28, 2011 at 10pm ET/PT only on Discovery Channel.
Nuclear Nightmare: Japan in Crisis - Managing Unstable Nuclear Energy
Everything on the line:
Part 1 of 3
Part 2 of 3
Part 3 of 3
Pixeldust Studios Animates Japan's Crippled Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Complex for Discovery TV Special "Nuclear Nightmare: Japan in Crisis" Bethesda, MD, May 20, 2011 | SHOOT Publicity Wire | --- Pixeldust Studios, a multi-award winning digital animation and broadcast design studio, was retained by Weinberger Media Partners to create and produce original animations that were featured within a recently aired Discovery TV special entitled "Nuclear Nightmare: Japan In Crisis." Ricardo Andrade, President and Creative Director, Pixeldust Studios, made the announcement. To view Pixeldust Studios' animation work that was featured within this special TV presentation, please see: http://dsc.discovery.com/videos/nuclear-nightmare-japan-in-crisis-nuclear-meltdown.html
Ryota Takakura was packing low-level radioactive waste into drums when the ground started shaking. It was 2.46pm on March 11, ... It buckled roads, toppled electricity pylons and rattled Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the sprawling six-reactor facility where Takakura worked doing basic maintenance. As the ground heaved, he and a group of colleagues clustered around a pillar in the plant’s waste disposal building, clutching each other to stay on their feet. Then the lights went out, leaving them in pitch darkness amid the groans of the building...
Ryota Takakura, the plant maintenance worker, ....has no work, and when bosses at his company, a Tepco sub-contractor, called to offer him a 100-month contract to return to the plant, he refused. “I don’t want to do a job if it means I might die in 10 years’ time,” he says.
With the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident now approaching the ninth week and still out of control, the situation remains grave as the Japanese government and industry desparately struggle to bring the severely damaged multi-unit reactor complex into cold shutdown in order to prevent more hydrogen gas explosions and even greater radioactive releases.
New radiological monitoring data jointly collected and published on May 6, 2011 by Japanese and US authorities reveal ground level radioactive cesium contamination beyond Japan's declared twelve (12) mile “no entry zone” higher than radiation levels that prompted the mandatory evacuation of populations from around the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986. Radiation readings taken by helicopter and plane found levels of radioactive cesium137 (30 year half-life) registering between 3 million and 30 million Becquerel per square meter (Bq/m2). Following the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Ukraine, populations in Ukraine were ordered out of areas contaminated at 550,000 Bq/m2. Those areas are still officially declared to be an uninhabitable zone now more than twenty five years later.
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