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School To Work (Arthur Hu's Index of Education)

(c) Arthur Hu's Index of Education, please cite when using data from here arthurhu @ hufamily.com (no space) on how to get more complete data or complete text of these references

Highlights

Contents

School To Work (STW) :(

School to work is a very important part of federally directed school reform. Is it neccesarily a bad thing? Well, it usually comes with OBE, it's the source of the
"Certificate of Mastery" and it emphasizes "higher order thinking skills" over "drill and grill", so it's another outlet for OBE, and process over knowledge and facts.

New Jersey is generating heated outrage over their proposal that every student in 10th and 11th grade be required to spend 1 day at work and spend only 4 days in the classroom, even kids who are prepping for college.

See this link for Henry Hyde's excellent speech on the evolution of School To Work and Goals 2000. It's developed by Marc Tuckers "High Skill, High Wages" report, so it is much of the model for the entire standards based education reform blueprint, whether the intent is to work right out of high school or go to college.

It is a way to attach strings to federal money and get states to align to federal standards like Goals 2000.

Though developed as a response to Russian, German and Japanese programs for students who are tracked away from college, states like Oregon and Texas intend to require internships of ALL students, and legislation covers all students, starting in kindergarten, aligned with the movement to eliminate tracking. Britain has discarded its apprenticeship system.

School To Work is not completely evil for all students, but it's still full of silly ideas. Why do we strive to emulate nations like Germany and Japan where the teachers decide which 30% go on to the college track, and which 70% have to spend 11th and 12th grades working in apprenticeships instead of learning academic skill?

World-class standards means looking up at countries that don't hold a candle to the USA in terms of dominance of space, military and commercial aircraft, computers or software of any size, or entertainment. It would have been a total waste of my time to do an apprenticeship as a college bound student, but this is a big part of stw.

Parents have only bought into this because they buy into the crazy notion that one single CIM credential will qualify you for any position from McDonalds up to designing the kernel to Windows 20002. People will always vary in ability, and holding everybody to the 90th percentile standard will simply leave everybody else up the creek without a paddle. Marc Tucker is the Music Man of education reform, he's a master saleman, but has no common sense when it comes to education.

In case this helps, Shirley Basarab's book has helped me figure out what Tucker's CIM/STW scheme does:

Before: High School Grad = 12 years of college prep College = 4 yr liberal arts or engineering degree United states has most educated, affluent poplation Umited states dominates software, computers, aerospace All students expected to perform as well as they can After: High School Grad = 10 years of vocational ed plus 2 years apprenticeship at low/no wages College = 2 yrs high school plus 1 yr community college to get vocational/technical certificate All students expected to meet one standard for all. Schools like MIT or Harvard will no longer be able to ask for students with 12 years of academic classes because the last 2 years will be mandated to be working apprenticeships. US is no more college bound than Europe US no longer dominates any economic sphere, nor has highest living standard.

Timeline

Frequently Asked Questions:

Q: What Is School To Work?

A: All students will be required to spend significant amounts of time at a work site during normal class hours, regardless of career track in order to receive a diploma or Certificate of Mastery. It is said that this will insure that all students are prepared for a world class work force.

Critics say such experience may be appropriate for some students. But job training is certainly not required for all students or jobs, it is not required by most colleges or employers. This is especially inappropriate if their aim for their children is to be college trained professionals, managers and owners rather than "labor". Federal and state laws are requiring participation on the part of all schools as part of Goals 2000, and other initiatives.

Q: Why do we need school to work?

A: Compared to other nations, the US has few formal programs for the non-college bound to prepare students for work. It is also said that students object to studying academic subjects which do not apply to the job market, so all academic study must be linked to why it is needed in the workplace.

Critics say that most parents want their children to go to college or attend online classes for college after K12, not work. classes after K12, not work. Today, over 2/3 of graduating seniors continue on to college. Even in Germany, the majority of students have chosen the university prepatory track, which does _not_ require any time on a job site.

School To Work is a grand plan to centralize control of the economy to create a seamless "lifelong learning" model where the workplace is simply an extension of school and vice-versa which subjugates the role of education to produce a human resource pool for government regulated industry.

Q: Don't "World Class Standards" require School-To-Work?

A: Researchers found that many or most European nations such as Germany send high school students after age 16 to paid apprenticeships in factories such as Volkswagen or Mercedes Benz with additional job related education. However, see below as only SOME students are required to do this. There is no similar program in Japan. Q: Is School To Work Required of All students?

A: In Germany, the college bound spend high school only studying academic subjects to grade 13. Only non-college-bound skilled laborers do "apprenticeships" in what would be grades 11 and 12. Unskilled laborers exit at grade 9, or can also continue to apprenticehips. Japan has different grades of high schools with different work vs academic emphasis but no formal required apprenticeship system. In Germany, no one is allowed to apply for a job without a skills certificate, STW is moving towards this "ideal".

US proposals would require all 11th and 12th graders to spend some unspecified amount of what would normally be class time at work to graduate. One reason is that if college prep student were exempted, no student would want be classified as a mere "worker", so all students must be "workers". States such as Washington and districts like Lake Washington are adding "work experience" to their graduation requirements, no students will be exempt as such rules are adopted with little or no debate.

Q: Does School To Work reduce unemployment or raise wages?

A: In Germany the result is very high levels of unemployment, and very high taxes to support this expensive training scheme.

The idea is that a centrally planned economy, where local labor boards decide how many of each type of worker will insure a match between skills and actual jobs. By international standards, some believe the US produces too many college graduates, and that most new jobs do not require a college degree.

In practice, the Germans find that everybody is trained in the same half-dozen jobs, many of which are performed by unskilled immigrants who work at a fraction of union wages. Young Germans now have some of the highest unemployments rates of the industrialized world, most Germans are now opting to go to college as they no longer believe apprenticeships will guarantee them high wage jobs. In Japan and Germany, the first choice of most students and parents is going to college, not working.

Q: Who Created School To Work? How is it related to "Higher Standards?"

A: It was first proposed by 1989 "High Skills or Low Wages!" report by Marc Tucker and the National Center on the Education and Economy. Federal law was passed in 1994, followed by similar legislation in most states. Goals 2000 also established the National Skills Board which would produce "skills certificates" for every known job. School To Work is usually treated separately from Tucker inspired "Standards Based Education" but usually appear side by side with SBR, and made to appear to a "grass roots" movement demanded by local people, which it is not. Lake Washington school district proposal integrates a school to work requirement with other Standards (Outcome) based graduation requirements, along with mandatory community service. Both STW and SBR would base proficiency based on tests of actual "performance" rather than "seat-time", both rely on the methods of Total Quality Management to sell unsuspecting victims / customers on pre-determined outcomes

Q: Where do students work and go to school, and for how long?

A: In Germany, apprenticeship students leave high school after grade 10, and go to work full time. They go to classes in the factory one day of a six day week or evenings for instruction at the plant site.

In the US, there is no standard for time spent on a job site. Students would be expected to spend grades 11 and 12 in high school rather than on the job site. They would theoretically commute to jobs either part of the day, week or entire quarter or semester. Sometimes only a few visits are envisioned as a "job shadow" rather than doing actual work. New Jersey quickly scuttled a proposal to require all 11th and 12th graders to spend one day a week working. The part of the day, week, or year spent at work would not be spent on academic subjects, thus high school graduates would spend significantly LESS academic time on subjects than they do now.

However, most jobs are situated at a 15 min to 1 hour 9 to 5 rush hour commute away from homes, much farther away than high schools which are generally no more than a 10 minute drive from home, so this is NOT practical.

Q: Who pays for School To Work?

A: In Germany, students pay by working at half wage, employers also contribute to costs of the system. In the US, nobody really knows. The idea is the federal or state government would jump-start the system, but once seed money runs out, employers will bear much of the costs.

Q: How much money do students earn as "interns"?

A: In Germany, students are paid half the normal wage or below minimum wage. Students are often fired to make room for the next batch of low wage students.

In the US, nobody really knows. US proposals range from unpaid to pay at mininum wage.

Q: How would School To Work insure college for all?

A: NCEE and other proposals would re-define college as it is seen in countries such as Britain where the last two years of non-college students is used for vocational based training, which may lead to specialized degrees or certificates.

However, in the US, few national standards for such certificates have yet been created. Two years of high school + 2 years of college would be re-labeling what is currently seen as a community college or associate degree. It is not the 4 year bachelor degree widely accepted in the US as neccesary for most professions such as engineering or teaching. In fact, by REDUCING time for academic subjects in grade 11 and 12, and setting the Certificate of Mastery at grade 10 rather than grade 12 skills, high school graduates would be LESS prepared academically than under the current system.

Q: Is there any fully working School To Work system in the US?

A: No. No state or district has actually fleshed out the details of a full school to work system which applies to all students. Those who have most fully attempted to implement such systems have encountered the most problems.

Reasons why School To Work Is Bad

Promises vs. reality

We Need a World Class Education Reality: Germany and most other nations stop education for most at grade 10 / age 16. Germany graduates university bound at grade 13 / age 19 The US graduates students at grade 12 / age 18. In a world dominated by the US Armed Forces, NASA, Microsoft, Intel, IBM, Boeing and General Motors, America sets world class.

The Certificate of Initial Mastery Sets One High Standard for All Reality: Germany and Japan do not have one standard for all. No nation bases its diploma on a passing a single criterion-referenced test score at age 16 like the CIM. As is seen below, so-called national standards are not applied equally to all students. The notion that everyone in any country can meet "a level of performance equal to the best nations in the world" is not even met in Germany or Japan where, like anywhere else, half fall above and half fall below the median.

STW and CIM is for all / Eliminate Tracking Reality: Everyone is sorted by test scores into different tracks and different schools. Germany's Hauptschule is for those who will not get any academic study and exist at grade 9, and not recieve any certificate. The Realschule is for most workers who exit into apprenticeships at grade 10, they get the Mittlre Reife equivalent to the 10th grade CIM. The Gymnasium is reserved for the highest scoring students who exit at grade 13 with the Arbitur. Japan similarly uses test scores to sort students into high schools for the ineducable, the average, and the university bound. By contrast, most US students go one "comprehensive" high school for all tracks with the execption of a few examination and remedial high schools. Both Japan and Germany are considering the US system

One Certificate / Standard is Good For All Jobs and the College Bound Reality: Germany's CIM is not good enough for college. Neither the dummy nor the university tracks are are required to get CIM. Likewise, selective high schools pick out the best test scores in rank order, there is no universal "passing" standard for admission. The best schools get the best students, and vice versa. How good is "good enough" depends on the job and institution.

STW Reduces Unemployment Germany has over 12% unemployment, one of the highest rates in the industrialized world compared to only 3% for the US. Half of their unemployed posess their CIM.

STW Matches Skills to Labor Markets Reality - Government and big industry decide what few jobs will be officially sanctioned and taught, not the market. The result is too many trained at too high wages for too few different kinds of jobs, and they will not take work that they have not "trained" for. Many jobs include janitorial and construction work that is taken by immigrants at a fraction of what Germans expect for a "high" wage.

STW Assures High Wage High Skill Jobs Reality - most of the really "high paying " jobs require some or a 4 year college degree. More Germans are opting for college than the dual-education path because they no longer believe their CIM will assure them of a high paying job. Nearly all in Japan also aspire to go to college. The statment that 75% of US students don't go to college is false, that's 25% who get 4 year degrees. 60% of high school students go directly on to higher education, which is twice as high as Germany or Japan.

Conclusion: STW forces university student standards on all students or flunks them. It forces all tracks to take vocational training, essentially eliminating the academic and remedial tracks. It promotes performance-based tests which have been shown to be impractical and unrealisitic. It centralizes labor planning and will increase unemployment and job mismatching. It lies about what "world class standards" are really about.

TX to require ALL students get STW on-the-job vocational credentials

OREGON TO REQUIRE STW OF _ALL_ STUDENTS By 2004, all high schools in Oregon will be required to have school-to-work programs. This is considered a major component of Oregon's school reform effort. As they pursue their certificate of advanced mastery, students will be required to choose one of six career paths and spend at least part of their time in job internships or other career-related learning programs. Brad Cain, Associated Press, "Oregon gives students a peek at workaday world" as published in The Seattle Times, January 4, 1998, B6

The National School-to-Work Learning & Information Center | What is School To Work | Dispelling Myths about School To Work

STW Guestbook

Today's workplaces, and those of the 21st century, require a new kind of worker -- one who excels at solving problems, thinking critically, working in teams, and constantly learning on the job. In this new global and technology-driven economy, the skills of the workforce are a company's major competitive advantage.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

More STW Links

Date sent:        Sun, 01 Mar 1998 20:47:26 -0800
From:             Jim Keeffe 
Subject:          Re: School to Work

So, for anyone interested in the database issue and STW, you\'ll now find
everything updated at http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/stw.html.

1. http://www.industries.net/radio-liberty/school.htm
   "School-to-Work: A Formula for Failure"  (The business mentioned in this
   article is Sizzlers restaurants)

2. http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/stwcollision.html
   "School-to-Work: A Comming Collision"  co-authored by Lynne Cheney.  Presented
   to the Heritage Foundation 2/4/98.

3. http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/Terminology.html
   "Terminology Every Parent MUST Understand"  by Jeanne Donovan

4. http://www.basenet.net/~eagle/educate/1997/may97/holland.html
   "What's Wrong With School-to-Work"  by Robert Holland

5. http://eagleforum.org/educate/1996/apr96/alarmed.html
   STW in Missouri State

6. http://www.fessler.com/stw.htm (read 'School-to-Work: It's the Law!')

7. http://www.compuex.com/eaglecross/OBE.html
   "School-to-Work; Goals 2000; Outcome Base Education" by Hon. Henry Hyde

8. http://www.sover.net/~nbrook/Hillary.html
   Letter to Hillary Clinton by Marc Tucker 'author' of workforce development
   and School-to-Work.

9. http://www.accessus.net/~eagle/educate/1995/sept95/ersept3.html
   "Hillary Letter Lays Out School-to-Work Plan" by Dennis Cuddy Ph.D.

10. http://www.crisismagazine.com/OLDissues/apr96/iacovelli.html
    "Hillary's Scarlet Letter" by Karen Iacovelli (Constitutional Law Schalar)

11. http://www.accessus.net/~eagle/educate/1997/dec97/focus.html
    "NCEE's Human Development Plan" by Virginia Miller

12. http://www.jb.com/~btennison/
    The Tennison family of Oregon.  Their son received the first Certificate of
    Initial Mastery in the nation.  The Tennisons are leading a national campaign
    against School-to-Work and Goals 2000.  They are also in the process of suing
    their school district.

13. http://www.home-ed-press.com/HEM/HEM141.97/141.97_clmn_tkch.html
    "School-to-Work: Problems and Alternatives" by Larry and Susan Kaseman in
    Home Education Magazine.
         
14. http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/Beasley2000.html
    "Goals 2000 and Work Force Development" by Sherry Beasley in 'Hope for the
    World' news letter.

15. http://www.athenet.net/~jlindsay/Educ1617.shtml
    "Educational Tyranny:H1617 = Certificate of Mastery for ALL ADULTS"
    by Katie Levans.

16. http://www.fessler.com/listen.htm
    "School-to-Work - a stupid idea' by Dick Farrell, editor of 'The Times
    Reporter' of Ohio.


Washington State School-to-Work information:

1. http://www.wa.gov/wtb/
   Washington State's 'Workforce Training and Education Coordination Board' 

2. http://www.wa.gov/wtb/stw-what.html
   Washington State's "School-to-Work Transition" report

3. http://www.wa.gov/wtb/hshwexec.html
   Washington State's "High Skills, High Wages" report

4. http://www.stw.ed.gov/ (On left side click on 'States'.  Find Washington and
   click on 'Submit' to go to Washington State's School-to-Work Initiative.)

Implementing the federal Workforce Investment Act
http://www.wa.gov/wtb/wia-impl.html


National School-to-Work information:


1. http://www.stw.ed.gov/factsht/act.htm
   Federal 'School-to-Work Opportunities Act of 1994' (Public Law 103-229)

2. http://www.stw.ed.gov
   National School-to-Work web site

3. http://www.stwnews.org
   School-to-Work news letter



@@Acts

School To Work also obligates you to buy into other acts

stuter
HR 2884 to Work Opportunties Act of 1994 (STWOA).  In order to receive grant monies
under the STWOA, your state plan must also show how you will integrate your
plan with 

     • the Adult Education Act, 
     • the Carl D Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act, 
     • the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, 
     • the Higher Education Act of 1965, 
     • part F of title IV of the Social Security Act, 
     • the Goals 2000: Education American Act, 
     • the National Skills Standards Act of 1994, 
     • the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 
     • the Job Training Partnership Act, 
     • the Act of August 16, 1937 (National Apprenticeship Act), 
     • the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and 
     • the National and Community Service Act of 1990.




@@Age

Most US exit exams are based on examinations at age 16. This is the
same age as German vocational exams, and British GCSE initial exam.
But now most Americans stay in high school until age 18.

MOST USED TO LEAVE SCHOOL AT AGE 16, NOW 18
\clip\98\19\edclip04.txt TUESDAY, DECEMBER 15, 1998 TEEN LABOR
Virtues of work vs. finishing homework Yvonne Zipp Staff writer of
The Christian Science Monitor
"4 in 5 American teens hold some kind of job during the school year,
half more than 20 hours a week."
"At the beginning of the century, a majority of Americans left school for
work at 16. The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 restricted labor for
children 15 and younger and helped transform American teens from workers
into students. Today, 90 percent of teens graduate at 18, and about half
of those go on to college.
"


@@All School To Work Is Vocational Track for All 

STW is based on practices in Europe such as Germany, where
non-college bound students do an apprenticeship after the 10th grade.
Britain and others have abandoned this approach, and it is crumbling
even in Germany as more seek a academic education.

Officials often say that STW will be optional for the non-college
kids, but most legislation would take 1 or more day per week for
EVERY student, regardless of track, and start out in kindergarten,
not after graduation.

STW WOULD FAIL IF EVERYBODY KNEW IT WAS FOR NON-COLLEGE BOUND
STW for All because it would fail
if it were perceived as only for non-college bound.
Z43\doc\web\2000\07\stwall.txt
Z43\clipim\2000\06\28\stwall.efx
Industry-Based Education: A New Approach for School-to-Work
Transition E. Gareth Hoachiander MPR Associates, Inc.  Berkeley.
California School-to-Work What Does Research Say?


NJ STW MANDATES 4 DAY WEEK, 1 DAY WORK FOR ALL
\doc\web\98\10\stwnj.txt The Westfield Leader Thursday, November 12,
1998 Front Page By Michelle H. LePoidevin New Jersey State
"School-to-Work " Mandates Four Day Week; Worries Parents at Forum
"In 11th and 12th grades, the students would be required to work no
less than one day per week in the workforce. Students and parents
must enter into a contract with the school and their child's employer
at this juncture.  "

CUNNINGHAM: 
VOC TRACK FAILED, COLL FOR ALL HAS PROBLEMS BUT 
STW IS VOCATIONAL TRAINING FOR ALL
STW HAS OPPONENTS ON THE LEFT
\doc\web\98\10\vocall.txt
If there is a problem with requiring all students to prepare for college,
there may be a greater problem with structuring high schools so that they
prepare all students for non-college careers and this is what is promoted
by nationally mandated school to work programs. 


The School-to-Work Opportunities Act
of 1994 identifies "academically talented" students in its definition
of "all students."

\clip\98\07\stwok.txt March 25, 1998 Education Week on the Web -
http://www.edweek.org/ew/current/28stein.h17 Trashing School-to-Work
By Adria Steinberg "rejected the misconception that the
school-to-work philosophy is simply about "getting jobs for kids" or
"doing something for the non-college-bound." Rather, school-to-work
encompasses a set of key practices that define a more contextualized
approach to curriculum, assessment, and pedagogy and an easier
transition to the adult world of learning and work--for all students."


WA requires employer contract to get
CIM (thanks to Jim Keefe)

 "All students, before earning a Certificate of Mastery, are to engage in
 career exploration by researching various occupations, visiting work
 sites and interviewing workers. 

 All students engage in work-based learning experiences that coordinate
 with school course work after earning a Certificate of Mastery. These
 work experiences are governed by a contract between the student, the
 school and the employer that spells out what the student will learn both
 on the job and in school. Job placements match the educational and
 career plans that students have developed during their pre-certificate
 education."

"Unpaid work-based learning, appropriate for students still working to
attain the Certificate of Mastery, should include, but not be limited to,
worksite experiences that:...Occur during time usually designated as
the student's normal school day."

** "After earning a Certificate of Mastery  ALL
students will engage in work-based experiences that coordinate with
their school coursework. These work experiences will be governed by a
contract between the student, the school, and the employer that spells out
what the student will both learn on the job and in school."

School To Work: It's the Law
\clip\97\25\stwnews.pdf - STW is for all students, and turns education into
vocational training.


Nebraska Public Television a live
interview show featuring Norfolk (NE) STW coordinator, a former STW
student, and a representative of business from Omaha.  She clearly
stated that STW targets all students, that mentoring may take 1
day/week for the entire year or more


@@Apprenticeship

CANADIAN APPRENTICESHIP PROGRAM FLOUNDERING IN CANADA
z40\doc\web\2000\04\canapp.txt
EXCERPT
http://www.csls.ca/pdf/apprent.pdf
Executive Summary
Apprenticeship in Canada: A Training System Under Siege?
Note their concern that more
individuals are entering post-secondary institutions than apprenticeship
programs. 
*  the stagnation in new apprenticeship registrations in the 1990s. 
*  the inability of the apprenticeship system to expand beyond 
traditional fields such as
the construction trades and motor vehicle repair 
* the inability of the apprenticeship system to increase the
extremely low proportion of women enrolled in apprenticeship programs
(3 per cent);
*  the uneven development of apprenticeship programs by province,
resulting in regional disparities in access to apprenticeship programs;
*  9.5% completion rate, much lower than other types of education and training; and
*  the strong downward trend in apprenticeship completion rates, 
declining one third
over the past two decades.


@@Auto Repair

z40\clipim\2000\04\10\ayes.efx
Dan Flanagan WA High School Gear for Better A-Yes Program High school
auto techs employ youth part time before they graduate from high
school. The Manifold (WA) April 2000

STW BANNED AS REQUIREMENT FOR ALL STUDENTS
E D U C A T I O N R E P O R T E R SEPTEMBER 1999 STW In Chains New
Illinois law prohibits mandatory requirements
SPRINGFIELD, IL - On July 16, Governor George Ryan signed into
law SB 1133, a bill prohibiting the Illinois Board of Education from
requiring a public school district or student to participate in a
school-to-work (STW) or job training program.


@@basic skills

School to Work is based on the assumption that workers need to be
trained in workplace skills, yet employers complain workers lack
basic math and reading skills, not SCANS competencies.

NEW STANDARDS BASED ON FLAWED SCHOOL TO WORK MOVEMENT
z49\clip\2001\04\stwstand.txt
http://www.heritage.org/library/backgrounder/bg1427.html The New
Definition of Standards in American Education by Virginia Miller
Corporations are complaining about workers who lack basic math and
reading skills, not SCANS competencies.  According to a 1998 report
by the National Association of Manufacturers, "40 percent of all
17-year-olds do not have the necessary math skills--and more than 60
percent do not have the necessary reading skills--to work in a
$33,000 per annum production job at a modern auto plant."

Plumber wants schools to teach math,
not plumbing.


@@Berry

MARY FRANCES BERRY: MOTHER OF STW AS CHINA REJECTED IT AS FAILURE
z55\doc\web\2002\03\berry.txt
Here's my Mary FRances Berry contribution:                     
      SCHOOL-TO-WORK  REVOLUTION, ROOTS, AND BLEAK FUTURE 
By Natalie and Gerald Sirkin* 
In 1977, Health, Education, and Welfare Assistant Secretary for
Education Mary Frances Berry toured Communist China's educational
institutions with a UNESCO delegation for nine days...The title of
her prepared text-of which we have a copy-is, "The Chinese Experience
in Education-What America Stands to Learn." ..  his education reform,
a school-to-work plan he adapted in 1969 from Marx, wasn't working.
The Soviet Union had tried it in the 1920s and by 1930 had found it a
failure.  Deng Xiaoping panned it saying there were no scholars left.
STW had "made intellectual cripples of a whole generation of young
people," he told Der Spiegel.  


@@British System

The British have long abandoned a system similar to the Germans -
students were tracked by IQ-like test into an pre-college track, or
to exit at age 16 into apprenticeship into a trade.

Now they have a test at age 15, the GCSE. 2 years later they can take
the college bound GCE A-levels, or a vocational NVQ. Advanced NVQs
can also lead to vocational degrees at universities.

age 15 - GCSE
  high score - age 18 GCE A level --> academic university

  low score - NVQ --> work
        NVQ high level --> vocational degree university

James Hughes explains the 
difference  between NVQs and GCSE levels.

UK WANTS CIM WITH COMMUNITY SERVICE LIKE USA
z50\clip\2001\06\ukcim.txt BBC Online Tuesday, 26 June, 2001 New
certificate for school leavers Teenagers in England could get a new,
US-style school graduation certificate recording all their
achievements - possibly including compulsory unpaid community work.
The proposal is part of the latest big idea from the Education
Secretary, Estelle Morris, aimed at tackling what she calls "a
culture of leaving education at 16".  "The idea of introducing
another certificate, a kind of American-style school-leaving
graduation ceremony attached to a certificate, in my view at this
stage is mind-boggling in its stupidity," [opposition] said.

NEW NVQ BETTER THAN 11 PLUS SHEEP AND GOATS DIVISION VS. GCE FOR ALL
\clip\98\19\moreone.txt Education Viewpoint: There's more than one
path to a good ALAN SMITHERS, Education Viewpoint: There's more than
one path to a good., Independent, 01-13-1994.  There are, however,
others who will fear a rerun of the old 11-plus division into 'sheep
and goats'. They believe that since vocational education is seen as
second- best, many young people will be consigned to a second- class
education and a second-class life. It is fairer, they say, to require
everyone to do the same things during the years of compulsory
schooling.

%%Comprehensive School

One school educates all children, rather than sending the best to
rigorous academic grammar schools. Now the policy in UK.


%%Grammar School

images:  \clipim\99\02\04\proged\*.tif
text: \clip\99\06\proged.txt 
City Journal Winter 19998 Progressive Ed's War on Boys Banishing
rigid academics and discipline has been a disaster for working class
boys. Banishing elite curriculums, grammar schools and age 11
tracking in favor of comprehensive education for all has resulted in
fewer, not more outstanding working class children going to the best
colleges.

\clip\99\06\edclip01.txt BBC Tuesday, February 9, 1999 Published at
16:55 GMT Grammar schools divisive, says PM The prime minister
opposes a return to the 11-plus exam Tony Blair has said that grammar
schools brand children as "failures" at the age of 11. 

"But the whole burden of our policy is geared toward developing
modern comprehensive schools so that we take account - for example by
setting in different subjects - of different abilities without going
back to the old system of the 11-plus. 

\doc\web\98\08\britstw.txt
Although it has been since abandoned, the British had a system
whereby, at the age of eleven, the children were required to take
what amounted to an IQ test.  Those who passed went on to seven more
years of rigorous academic training, the best of them subsequently
admitted to university, depending on the results of national
examinations.  The students who didn't pass the 'eleven plus', as it
was called, were given five more years of school and left at the age
of sixteen to pursue apprenticeships in the trades.  Streaming was
continued in high school, with gradations of the difficulty of the
subject matter being dependent on which of three streams the pupils
were assigned to.

Independent 1994 Newspaper Publishing P.L.C.  Education: A quiet
revolution in post-16 education: NVQs and..  GNVQs originate from a
policy of bringing the very successful BTEC National awards, which
were emerging as practical alternatives to A-levels. They tended to
be taken by people who did less wellat GCSE than those going on to
A-levels. If that continues with GNVQs, it is difficult to see how
GCE and GNVQ A-levels can come to be popularly regarded as
equivalents.

%%Vocational A-level

UK intends to replace old vocational test with "vocational a-level"
intended to have just as much prestige as academic a-levels, but
they are threatened by high failure rates.
The Times (UK) 3/30/01
Nearly all pupils fail vocational A levels
THE failure rate for new vocational A levels is running as high as 90 per
cent in some subjects, throwing government plans to reform work-related
study into chaos.


@@China

China education system
with year-by-year structure, labor education in early grades.

\doc\web\99\02\chintech.txt
School Enterprises: Combining Vocational Learning with Production
by Madhu Singh, 1998
http://www.unevoc.de/publicat/pdf/iug015e.pdf
CASE STUDIES:  CHINA
[Chinese schools incorporate factories or working restaurants]


@@city

http://stw.ssd.k12.wa.us/ Seattle Schools Page


@@Constructivism

School To Work is based on Constructivism

\doc\web\98\10\voccons.txt
Academic and Vocational Integration Myths and Realities by Bettina
Lankard Brown 1998 Current research on teaching and learning supports
a constructivist pedagogy, which contends that people construct
knowledge through their interpretive interactqions with and
experiences in their social environments. 


@@Cost

1 BILLION: STW WILL DIE WITHOUT FED MONEY, INTEGRATION INTO STANDARDS
ASSESSMENTS MOVEMENT
Education Week 12/2/98 School-to-Work Movement Faces Test, Study Says By
Mary Ann Zehr Washington 
\clip\98\18\stwmove.txt

Funding for the act will end in 2001; state governments have received
$1.1 billion so far. 



@@Critics

SCHOOL TO WORK IS UN-AMERICAN - SLIDE SHOW
http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/stwslides.html

\clip\98\11\ibdstw.txt Investor's Business Daily August 27, 1998 WHO
DECIDES STUDENTS\' FUTURE?  School-To-Work Law Gets Feds Heavily
Involved by Michael Chapman

The main architects behind School-to-Work are Robert Reich, Ira Magaziner
and Marc Tucker -- all longtime advocates of central economic planning.
Tucker is president of the National Center on Education and the Economy.
In a November \'92 letter to Hillary Clinton, Tucker described his \"human
resource development system\" -- or student-workers\' training plan.

>Date: Thu, 22 Oct 1998 08:45:15 -0400
>THE AMERICAN SCHOOL BOARD JOURNAL IS CONDUCTING A SURVEY OF STW. THE
>QUESTIONS ARE:
>
>YES,  SCHOOL TO WORK PROGRAMS BEBFIT STUDENTS BY HELPING MAKE THEM MAKE
>AN EXPLICIT CONNECTION BETWEEN ACADEMICS AND THE WORKPLACE . THESE
>PROGRAMS MOTIVATE STUDENTS, GIVE THEM A HEAD START ON PLANNING FOR THEIR
>FUTURE
CAREERS
>, AND EXPOSE THEM TO CAREER OPTIONS THAT THEY MIGHT NOT OTHERWISE HAVE
>BEEN AWARE OF .
>
>NO,  SCHOOL TO WORK PROGRAMS DILUTE ACADEMIC STANDARDS WITH VOCATIONAL
>TRAINING AND TRACK MANY KIDS INTO LOW GROWTH INDUSTRY JOBS . SCHOOL
>DISTRICTS SHOULD NOT HAND OVER CONTROL OF THE CURRICULUM TO BUSINESS
>INTERESTS .
>
>



@@Data Gathering

Data gathering on employment form


@@Economic Justification

Economic Justification for STW
http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/21-EconJustif.jpeg
Worldwide Competitiveness Rankings
http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/23-GraphCompetition.jpeg
America is the most comptitive large economy in the world
http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/24-SachsUSCompetitiveness.jpeg



@@Europe

Vocational Training movement in Europe

Europa - Home page

http://europa.eu.Int/
 Education, Vocational Training, and Youth
 http://europa.eu.Int/pol/educ/index_en.htm
  Detailed activities in above subject
  http://europa.eu.Int/en/comm/dg22/dg22.html



@@example

STUDENTS SPEND 1HR 2/WK AT GEIGER FACTORY \clip\97\27\polwork.txt
From: Nanny714@aol.com Date sent: Mon, 24 Nov 1997 11:09:57 -0500
(EST) "The Burlington (Vt.) Free Press" Monday, Nov. 24, 1997:
Students Polish Work Skills Manufacturer gives lessons youths can use
By Kathleen Schassler; Free Press Correspondent



@@Federal

HERITAGE KNOCKS STW, TEST SCORES NOT HIGHER IN PG COUNTY
z49\clip\2001\04\stwfail.txt THE WASHINGTON POST April 24, 2001 p. A
13 Value of Teens' Work Questioned As U.S. Money Runs Out, Programs
to Introduce High School Students to Careers Are Criticized as Well
as Touted www.washingtonpost.com By Jay Mathews Washington Post Staff
Writer Tuesday, April 24, 2001; Page A13 Tewelde, a senior at Eleanor
Roosevelt High School in Prince George's County, spends 12 hours a
week at Washington Hospital Center [3 school days!]



@@Flowchart

Chris Patterson, author of "School-to-Work: The Coming Collision"
(http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/stwcollision.html), has created three
wonderful flow charts about school-to-work that can be distributed
nationally. They are:

	National School-to-Work System (School Activities)
        Education & Workforce Development (Federal Statutes 1994-Present)
        Federal Governance of School-to-Work Systems

Chris plans to use these in a manuscript, but she has made them available
to the public so long as her copyright appears.

You can access these flow charts by going to

http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/stwflow.html

@@Foreign Influence


Foreign Influences on the STW movement:
http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/9-ForeignInfluences.jpeg
http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/10-RenwickScotland.jpeg
http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/11-NGAScotland.jpeg
http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/12-BottomsGermanyetal.jpeg
http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/13-BottomsEuropean.jpeg
http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/14-GloverGermanAustin.jpeg
http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/14a-OregonGermanmodel.jpeg
http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/14b-OreGerBusiness.jpeg
http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/14c-OreGerStudents.jpeg
http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/14d-GitterGermanconsensus.jpeg
http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/15-BeckMarxist-Leninist.jpeg
http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/16-BeckPolytechnicalEd.jpeg
http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/18-SchoolSocietyLinked.jpeg
http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/45-TuckerQuoteLevy.jpeg
http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/17-BeckFinalSolution.jpeg
http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/71-Unamerican.gif


@@Futurama

Matt Groening's Futurama has
stw-like vision of the future.

@@Germany

: FAILED MODEL

Much of Marc Tucker's School To Work model comes from Germany. But there, they run 3 different grades of high schools, in general, only the students in the elite high schools go to college and only half as many Germans go to college as America, which sends over 60% of its children to higher education immediately after high school.

The 10th grade test largely determines whether you will be in the 70% that spends 11th and 12th grades spending 4 out of 5 days tightening bolts for Volkswagen, while 70% of our kids are preparing for college.

Contrary to Marc Tucker's promises of no tracking, putting all on STW, giving all a CIM, and a CIM guaranteeing hi-paying job marketability, the German model has 3 tracks, only the middle track gets a CIM. The bottom track gets no certificate and finishes at 9th grade. The 10th grade CIM comes with exiting school at grade 10, not grade 12 as in US diploma. The CIM is not good enough for university, and university students don't need a CIM. Germany has 11% unemployment, one of the highest in the industrialized world, and half of the unemployed have the CIM. More Germans are opting out of the apprenticeship system in favor of going on to college since 1993 because they don't think it will give them a well paying job.

%%Against GERMAN SYSTEM PULLS KIDS OUT OF SCHOOL, INTO WORKSITE z47\clip\2000\12\stwgerm.txt Phyllis Schlafly: "Education policy Competition" Washington Times on December 22, 2000. STW's goal is to move American children into "The German Dual System of Vocational Training" under which Germany transfers nearly 70 percent of its students at age 16 from full-time secondary school to spending most of their time as apprentices in the workplace. National training standards have been established for each occupation in Germany, and company training is governed by federal law. The German system requires the student to spend three to four days a week in the work force under an employer's mentorship, and only one to two days a week in traditional education. GERMAN DUAL SYSTEM TRANSFERS 70% AT AGE 16 INTO WORKPLACE APPRENTICE Schafly mentions a GDS brochure, "[Which] explains that STW's goal is to move American children into 'The German Dual System of Vocational Training' under which Germany tranfers nearly 70 percent of its students at age 16 from full-time secondary school to spending most of their time as apprentices in the workplace. National training standards have been established for each occupation in Germany and company training is governed by federal law." link Germany has combined 12% unemployment. However, they have 60,000 unfilled high-tech jobs, and about 90,000 young people who have completed apprenticeships in dead-end skills for which there are no jobs. Much of this is because the gilds simply won't change or give up any control over training programs, and there are no "Meisters" or teachers for the fast moving high-tech industry. Without Meisters there can be no training programs. This has forced the high tech "runners" to import labor from other countries, mainly India, England, and to some degree Turkey, where education is not yet regulated to the degree that it is in Germany. rdickers@micron.net %%Elementary school %%Unemployment "Social Welfare system is under scrutiny" Seattle Times Sept 27, 1998 William Drozdiak Washington Post. 23 yr old Sven Mehlis is one of the few young lucky people from Brandenburg to hold down a full time job at Daimler-Benz. Pays $2700 per month, health insurance, 6 weeks paid vacation, can't get fired. But he pays $1,200, and his employer about the same to pay for social costs. [Does not mention failure of dual education apprenticeship system) GERMAN VICTIM OF SPECIALIZED VOCATIONAL ED "As a teenager I was forced to decide on my future profession and went to a school that specialized in production of technicians and mechanics. The focus of that school was to get young, often clueless, young people to start working in a factory as soon as possible." GERMANY'S WORK CLASS VOCATIONAL TRAINING = HIGH UNEMPLOYEMENT, WRONG SKILLS = LOW PAYING JANITOR CONSTRUCTION WORK \clip\98\11\germunem.txt Los Angeles Times Saturday, April 12, 1997 Qualified, Educated Germany's effort to protect its workers has boomeranged, creating a corps of long-term unemployed. By MARY WILLIAMS WALSH, Times Staff Writer "they say I'm too old, or too big to run this or that type of machinery, or I'm overqualified," he says. "I can't get a job." "Dilsner's $1,200 unemployment comes to about $8.50 per hour--much less than what he made when he was working, true, but still better than four times what those $1.90-an-hour Poles beavering away down on Potsdamer Platz earn."

GERMAN DUAL ED IS A BROKEN MODEL = HI UNEMPLOYMENT, HALF ARE GRADS

web images: http://www.arthurhu.com/images/98/09/02/germstw/Page0001.html filed: \clipim\98\03\wha01.tif excerpts "What works?" The Economist Ap 6th 1996 p19 German apprenticeship is called "a broken model". More going to university than dual ed system. Over half of unemployed are grads of dual ed system. Real benefit but 1/4 wage labor, but they are laid off at when the need full pay as germans stay home while immigrants build roads and houses.

%%For the German Model Marc Tucker's "America's Choice" claims that most european students enter a 2 or 4 year professional program to prepare them for a working life , but in fact top students are allowed to take grade 11, 12 and 13 to prepare for college, average students do vocational/technical apprenticeships 4 days a week a half pay, below average students are kicked out at grade 9 with no additional training. Lake Washington STW Requirements. %%General Model Comparing U.S. and German Education: Like Apples and Sauerkraut Ernest G. Noack. Phi Delta Kappan June 1999. No official web version efax format zip36\clipim\99\09\01\efax1.efx efax version: http://www.arthurhu.com/clip/99/08/11/efax1.efx download windows reader at www.efax.com * Main Hauptschule was once half, now 1/3, from grades 5 to 9 or 10, then to vocational apprenticeship with 10 hours of training weekly, minimal math and writing skills, fast-food cok, janitor * Intermediate Realschule was 1/3, now 1/4 of students grades 5 to 10, enter 2 or 3 year apprenticeship program, more math, 4 to 6 years of foreign language. Auto mechanics, technicians, sales clerks * College Prep Gymnasium was 1/5, now 1/3, soon to be 1/2, to grades 12 or 13. Specialized programs in sciences, languages, health. * New comprehensive schools for urban areas with foreign students. * Sonderschule for handicapped students who cannot succeed in standard schools. * No one in Germany is allowed to apply for a job without a job certification, not even part time fast food. * Work is full time at below minimum wage. Additional 10 hrs schooling per week is scheduled evenings or Saturdays, job specific, not academic. * Schools rank students by academic record, employers pick apprentices from the top of these lists. * Written and verbal comprehensive final exams determine who graduates from high school. * All higher education is free (but fewer can go compare to US) Only masters degrees are granted from specialized colleges for architects, programmers, etc. Universities are for doctoral programs * 3 tier system of apprentice, journeyman, master in white and blue collar professions. * School is in session 12 months per year, six days a week including saturday, equal to 180 US days with short vacations. * Math and science are continuously sequential by grade rather than algebra/geometry/calculus biology/chem/physics, which appears like "integrated" science and math on the surface. Compared to Marc Tucker's "High Skills" vision, standards vary between schools. There is no such thing as a national Certificate of Mastery, "one high national standard for all students. There is no one certificate which guarantees a student is prepared for any job or higher education". There is no notion of part time STW work experience, as an apprentice, you work full time, and take extra classes evenings or saturday at below minimum wage. You cannot apply for a job without a skills certificate, something that Tucker is working towards with the National Skills Board. Problems with German Model High adult unemployment, low pay, only 1 day of school per week. Thread on how School To Work and Apprenticeship / Tracking works in Germany

A Study of Three Cultures: Germany, Japan, and the United States An Overview of the TIMSS Case Study Project \clip\98\08\timss\timss.htm Phi Delta Kappan Magazine March 1998 Japanese do not set exact content standards for each grade except for Chinese characters. Japan has vocational and academic schools, Germany has Hauptschule (for low-achieving students), Realschule (for average students), and Gymnasium (for high-achieving students). Tests and grade decide who goes to which, US, with few exceptions do not require examinations and do not have separate high schools.

z60\clip\2002\10\germsplit.txt October 22, 2002 edition http://www.csmonitor.com/2002/1022/p11s01-lecl.html [ARGH, GERMAN SCHOOLS WERE MARC TUCKER'S MODEL FOR STANDARDS BASED EDUCATION REFORM AND CERTIFICATE OF MASTERY!] JOERG SARBACH/AP/FILE Germany: Schools that divide By age 11 or 12, top students in Germany are headed for high school, or Gymnasium, where they take the Abitur, the high school exit exam that enables them to go on to university. Others go to a less-challenging Realschule, which trains them for white-collar jobs. Less intellectually gifted students are routed toward the Hauptschule to learn trades... may be outdated .. Germans were stunned to learn that 20 percent of their teenagers were almost illiterate, and only in Mexico and the Czech Republic did fewer students go on to higher education. Just 9 percent of German pupils were able to understand complex texts, putting them far behind Britain, with 16 percent, and the United States, with 12 percent. Ore CIM/STW PATTERNED AFTER GERMAN VOCATIONAL MODEL part II, III

Apprentice spends 4 days a week at work, only 1 day per week in school, vs US STW where student would still have most high school classes. Apprentices are paid only 25% of starting salary. Employers pay all expenses, average of $17,000, or net cost of $10,500 after value of labor. Every employer and self-employed must pay into the system.



@@Graduation Requirement

Bellevue WA is considering making a work experience part of the diploma graduation requirement.
@@Heritage Foundation One of the few mainstream conservative organizations to come out against School to Work http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/stwcollision.html "School-to-Work: A Comming Collision" co-authored by Lynne Cheney. Presented to the Heritage Foundation 2/4/98. 4 BILLION FOR GOALS 2000 AND STW SINCE 1990S, STOP IT NOW link Heritage Foundation No. 1324 September 22, 1999 TIME TO END THE TROUBLED SCHOOL-TO-WORK PROGRAM D. MARK WILSON Produced by The Thomas A. Roe Institute for Economic Policy Studies Published by The Heritage Foundation One priority should be to end funding for discretionary programs that are redundant, ineffective, or obsolete. The federal School-to-Work (STW) program is one such program. Created by the School-to-Work Opportunities Act of 1994 (P.L.103-239) Since 1994, all 50 states have received STW implementation grants. In FY 1999, Congress appropriated $503 million for the program. Since 1994, a total of $2 billion has been appropriated. Since 1980, the U.S. Department of Education has granted states enormous sums of money for programs that duplicate STW activities, including $2.3 billion for Goals 2000 and $19.8 billion for vocational education. It also provides $4 billion for education research and development and $22 billion for a variety of school-improvement programs. 4 @@India %%Compulsory INDIA PROPOSES COMPULSORY VOCATIONAL ED = STW z47\clip\2000\12\inded.txt http://www.timesofindia.com/today/28indi42.htm 12/28/2000 Concern at budget plans to privatise education By Aunohita Mojumdar The Times of India News Service. Recommends compulsory primary and secondary and vocational education. %%Examination india.net seattle times Feb 13, 2000 All college entrants are ranked by the Joint Entrance exam, everybody remembers score

@@Injury

SCHOOL TO WORK MORE DANGEROUS THAN GUN ARMED KOOKS
\doc\web\98\09\stwhurt.txt From: WitchyPooy@aol.com (by way of Jimmy Kilpatrick ) according to these statistics, STW and students going off campus to "work" provides more of a hazard to these students than any crazed gunman. In the past 4 years, about 280 teens have died on the job across the nation. 210,000 young people are injured on the job every year. In 1996, about 70,000 teens got emergency treatment for OJIs.

@@International Systems

@@Japan %%High School
The Japanese do NOT follow Marc Tucker's vision of a track-less society where all succeed at the same high standard. Fewer than 6% opt to skip high school entirely, but it is optional. High schools are tracked into night school, vocational, city and prefecture academic schools, and private elite academies. In most districts, students are assigned to one academic high school, some also have few examination based elite schools, and a few remedial schools in large districts like Chicago who do not pass grade-level tests.

The Japanese do not have an apprenticeship system like the Germans do. Their idea of "school to work" consists of vocational schools which have turned into holding pens for those who do not meet entrance standards for the college bound high schools, and night schools which were meant for working teens, but now consist mostly of those not even good enough for the vocational schools.

In other words, Japanese school-to-work was based on an economy when most didn't even continue into high school, and is becoming obsolete in a college-oriented economy. The German system is based on a middle-ages institution when most did not go to high school either, so the United States is seeking to emulate institutions which are no longer needed for a 21st century economy. Most Japanese aspire to college, even if they're stuck with working. STW tracks have become holding pens for losers, now the US seeks to extend this institution to all US students, even the college bound.

Japanese examinations are not a universal credential like the one size fits all CIM. The worst colleges and jobs have no entrace requirements at all besides basic literacy, the worst high schools give out diplomas for anyone who sticks around the minimum number of years.

The best high schools and universities and jobs require the highest test scores and best grades from the best institutions, and all admissions are based on rank ordering scores, not any universal defintion of "mastery".

Speaking of "school to work" the vocational track schools for girls in Japan have problems with girls who get arrested for prostitution, certainly an area of education we can't be caught behind in. You won't hear Marc Tucker telling us about that.

EXCELLENT BOOK- JAPAN'S HIGH SCHOOLS Japan's High Schools Thomas P. Rohlen 1983 University of California Press. Author He outlines 5 different types of high schools from scum of the earth to feeder to the highest university %Go to %Go to Percentile ability Name Type University 2 Yr Coll Range Nada - Private, academic 100 0 99-100 Okada - State, academic 72 14 40-99 Otani - City, academic 62 25 30-90 ------- requires minimum examination score ----------------- Yuma - City, vocational 6 10 4-30 Sakura City Night school 2 6 0-2 In 1980 42% of hs grads went on to jobs only 6% chose to end school at 9, only 4% drop out. #1 in world in high school graduation rate. Night school was originally intended to further study for those who had to work in the day, but often just those who cannot get into a vocational school. Vocational school was once prized when only 50% went to high school, but now is stigmatized when everyone seeks to go to college, they go only because scores were not high enough for academic high schools, there is discussion of getting rid of these, they have turned into holding schools for those who flunk minimum entrance standards. Although overall 4 yr college rates are comparable at 25%, Japan sends boys at 2 to 1 rates vs the US 1 to 1, so 39% of Japanese households vs. 25% have at least the main wage earner with a degree. 1974 Educational Attainment (p. 3) Japan USA M F M F High School 90 91 73 77 Jr College 44 32 47 44 BA 39 12 25 24 (average = 25 in US or Japan) http://www.askasia.org/frclasrm/readings/r000083.htm \clip\98\04\hsjapn.htm High School Students in Japan Article written by Merry White for the Asia Society's Video Letter from Japan II: Suburban Tokyo High School Students, pp. 5-12, 1988. Entrance to high school is determined by examination, and the subjects tested are Japanese, mathematics, science, social studies, and English. Although traditionally there was no tracking or differentiation by ability once students entered high school, recent curriculum changes have included the introduction of tracking. In high school, the homeroom is where most learning occurs, with specialty teachers coming to the classroom rather than students circulating to different parts of the building. Classes are large, averaging 43 to 45 to one teacher. Classes are held six days a week, including a half day on Saturdays, and the school day lasts from 8:30 A.M. to 3:00 P.M. (12:30 on Saturdays), with after-school activities filling the rest of the afternoon. These activities, however, tend to be pursued only by first and second year students at high schools where the majority of students are college-bound, because third year students at such schools are preoccupied with study for the college entrance examinations. educational reformers, critical of the narrowness of the material that is tested in these examinations, are pressing for a more open-ended evaluation that would allow for longer essay questions and testing of analytic ability. Most Japanese see U.S. students as lazy and U.S. schools as having very low standards of accomplishment, they don't mind large classes or lots of time devoted to study. There are reformers who would like to move away from emphasis on academic / college orientation and introduce a well-supported multitrack system at the high school level, including good technical and other specialized vocational schools to draw students into a range of appropriate occupations and interests Typical Japanese high school students rarely date in couples, are not sexually experienced, and have no contact at all with drugs and rarely with alcohol. http://swu.ac.jp/wwc/jed36.html \clip\98\04\probhigh.htm Problems in high school http://www.osaka-kyoiku.ac.jp/educ/index-e.html Lots of Japan Education links http://www.sainet.or.jp/~misatokk/index-e.html A Japanese hs home page http://kids.glocom.ac.jp/schools/index.e.asp Japanese Schools on the internet Japanese system - from co-worker Elementary - 1,2,3,4,5,6 Middle - 7,8,9 High school is optional. (vs. compulsory for most US states) Take a test, score determines which level of high school, working or college track, another test to get into the best high school if you qualify for the track. High - 10,11,12 Japan tracks students into different grade high schools, but the US sends all students into one level of school. JAPAN WANTS MORE CREATIVITY "The Struggle to Create Creativity" Economist June 28, 1997 p. 46 F070397 The Japanese have a high average, but narrowly centered around an average, the US has more bad and very good people, they think those at the top are giving the US an overall advantage. They want to trade equality and conformity for creativity and individualism. They are thinking of judging students by factors other than test scores, and letting down on "examination hell". A Study of Three Cultures: Germany, Japan, and the United States An Overview of the TIMSS Case Study Project http://www.pdkintl.org/kappan/kste9803.htm \clip\98\08\timss\timss.htm Phi Delta Kappan Magazine March 1998 Japanese do not set exact content standards for each grade except for Chinese characters. Japan has vocational and academic schools, Germany has Hauptschule (for low-achieving students), Realschule (for average students), and Gymnasium (for high-achieving students). Tests and grade decide who goes to which, US, with few exceptions do not require examinations and do not have separate high schools. %%Prostitution Japan's High Schools p. 294 "Newspaper accounts of teenage prostitution also draw attention to vocational and low-status private schools. The police arrest about 250 high school girls each year... girls are low on the academic ladder, bored with school and interested in pocket money" @@Laws S1186 is evil Tucker-Inspired School To Work Bill @@Libertarian Party MINNESOTA LP ATTACKS GOALS 2000 STW \doc\web\99\14\libnews.txt Libertarian Party News April 1999 p. 9 Headline: Affliate News: Reasons to oppose Goals 2000 Charles Test on Goals 2000: "It is about resisting the temptation of federal funding". * Minnesota The federal government's School to Work and Goals 2000 education programs treat children as "human resource capital" said LP State Chair Charles Test in testimony to the House Education Committee -- and the state legislature should protect Minnesota children by withdrawing from those programs. @@Minority Opposition from minorities to STW tracking http://www.seattletimes.com/news/local/html98/kozo_040398.html April 3, 1998 Author decries education gap by Dick Lilly Seattle Times staff reporter Jonathan Kozol: Inequity could also be a result of so-called "school-to-work" programs because they’re likely to separate "inner-city kids, particularly black kids . . . for the lower levels of the work force," he said. @@Movies October Sky 4 boys use a rocket project to escape a dying coal town in 1950s. High school's main job was to produce coal miners, not rocket scientists. @@National Skills Board http://www.nssb.org/ A coalition of leaders from business, labor, employee, education, and community and civil rights organiza... .. is building a voluntary national system of skill standards, assessments and certification that will enhance the ability of the United States Workforce to complete effectively in the global economy. On May 11, 2001, the Manufacturing Skill Standards Council (MSSC) released the country's first-ever, nationwide, industry-recognized skill standards for the vast manufacturing, installation, and repair industry sector. This sector covers 15% of the U.S. workforce and contributes $1.5 trillion of U.S. Gross Domestic Product. http://www.nssb.org/mssc/MSSCSkillStandards.htm @@New Jersey EAGLE FORUM WINS, NEW JERSEY REJECTS FORCED 1 DAY / WEEK JOB TRAINING From the New Jersey Star-Ledger Students won't be forced into job training 03/19/99 By Dunstan McNichol STAFF WRITER A controversial plan to make every New Jersey high school junior and senior spend one day a week in on-the-job training is going to be scrapped, Gov. Christie Whitman's nominee for education commissioner told lawmakers yesterday. ..Charles' mother, Carolee, is the president of the New Jersey chapter of Eagle Forum, a conservative group headed by activist Phyllis Schlafly that has campaigned against school-to-work programs nationwide. \clip\99\09\nonjstw.txt NJ STW MANDATES 4 DAY WEEK, 1 DAY WORK FOR ALL \doc\web\98\10\stwnj.txt The Westfield Leader Thursday, November 12, 1998 Front Page By Michelle H. LePoidevin New Jersey State "School-to-Work " Mandates Four Day Week; Worries Parents at Forum "In 11th and 12th grades, the students would be required to work no less than one day per week in the workforce. Students and parents must enter into a contract with the school and their child's employer at this juncture. " NJ OPPOSITION TO MANDANTORY 4 DAY SCHOOL 1 DAY WORK WEEK \clip\98\18\njstw.txt Opposition to School-To-Work: Bergen Record, November 25, 1998 Key parts of high school reform plan opposed Wednesday, November 25, 1998 By DAVID GLOVIN Staff Writer Lawmakers and education groups are rallying against a proposal to require juniors and seniors to spend one day a week at work \clip\98\18\forclabr.txt Copyright 1998 Coming soon to a school near you: Forced labor 11/29/98 By Paul Mulshine The Star Ledger-NJ @@opposition

Opposition Papers

Some opponents %%General CUNNINGHAM: VOC TRACK FAILED, COLL FOR ALL HAS PROBLEMS BUT STW IS VOCATIONAL TRAINING FOR ALL STW HAS OPPONENTS ON THE LEFT \doc\web\98\10\vocall.txt AGAINST STW: Linda Darling-Hammond, John Goodlad, Alfie Kohn, Ann Lieberman, Deborah Meier, and Nel Noddings. %%Parents Coalition of Texas Send for video "Limited Learning for Lifelong Labor" August 1998 80 min P.O. Box 445 Colleyville TX 76034 http://www.parentscoalition.org %%Right N.Y. Times February 3, 1998Limited Horizons By LYNNE CHENEY Cheny's article makes a case against School-to-Work that would be meaningful to both parents and the business community. \clip\98\04\cheney.txt SCHOOL-TO-WORK: THE COMING COLLISION HERITAGE FOUNDATION Discussion Panel 2/4/98 Washington, D.C. SCHOOL TO WORK: IS GOVERNMENT MICROMANAGING THE LIVES OF OUR CHILDREN? \clip\98\04\collis.htm - STW demands comes from industry, nonprofit foundations and educational institutions, not parents. - Because labor demands in Texas and throughout the nation are not for highly skilled, highly paid workers, the "relevant" education that is appropriate for employer demand is not college. Several reports issued by the state of Texas indicate that the projected need for college graduates falls between fifteen to thirty percent.146 -Like Texas, Oregon's STW plan states that "School-to-Work opportunities will be available to all students." (Emphasis in original).154 The notion that this statement indicates voluntary and optional participation for students in Oregon is dispelled by the legal challenge identified above by several Oregon parents who have unsuccessfully requested that their children be removed from the STW program JOHN BIRCH: STW AS COMMUNIST INSPIRED PLOT? \clip\97\24\bircstw.txt The New American (John Birch Society) Vol 12, No. 15 - July 22, 1996 Orwellian Education The totalitarian design behind "School to Work" http://www.ionet.net/~study/tang.htm Joe Esposito on STW School To Work: It's the Law \clip\97\25\stwnews.pdf - STW is for all students, and turns education into vocational training. October 5, 1995 Is the Government Planning Your Child's Career? Phyllis Schlafly\clip\97\24\schlafly.txt

Opposition Papers

JOHN BIRCH: STW AS COMMUNIST INSPIRED PLOT? \clip\97\24\bircstw.txt The New American (John Birch Society) Vol 12, No. 15 - July 22, 1996 Orwellian Education The totalitarian design behind "School to Work" http://www.ionet.net/~study/tang.htm Joe Esposito on STW School To Work: It's the Law \clip\97\25\stwnews.pdf - STW is for all students, and turns education into vocational training. October 5, 1995 Is the Government Planning Your Child's Career? Phyllis Schlafly\clip\97\24\schlafly.txt Articles: SLEEPER: WHAT'S WRONG WITH STW \doc\web\97\08\obebad.txt Fred on STW hogwash STW/German Model in Austin, TX SCHOOL TO WORK AND OBE VS SOVIET MODEL \doc\web\97\08\stw.txt From: XcongressX@aol.com Date: Sun, 19 Oct 1997 23:39:30 -0400 (EDT) Attached is another article on Red Polytechnical Education, STW, and many other related items. GOALS 2000 MASTERS SKILLS CERTIFICATE FOLLOWS GERMAN MODEL \doc\web\97\08\german.txt XcongressX@aol.com Sun, 19 Oct 1997 "Goals 2000 and Work Force Development" MARXIST ROOTS OF STW "The entire 51-page study is devoted to touting the Marxist-Leninist polytechnical education programs and supportive planned economies of the now-defunct Soviet Union and German Democratic Republic." SLEEPER: WHAT'S WRONG WITH STW \doc\web\97\08\obebad.txt Fred on STW hogwash STW/German Model in Austin, TX SCHOOL TO WORK AND OBE VS SOVIET MODEL \doc\web\97\08\stw.txt From: XcongressX@aol.com Date: Sun, 19 Oct 1997 23:39:30 -0400 (EDT) Attached is another article on Red Polytechnical Education, STW, and many other related items. GOALS 2000 MASTERS SKILLS CERTIFICATE FOLLOWS GERMAN MODEL \doc\web\97\08\german.txt XcongressX@aol.com Sun, 19 Oct 1997 "Goals 2000 and Work Force Development" MARXIST ROOTS OF STW "The entire 51-page study is devoted to touting the Marxist-Leninist polytechnical education programs and supportive planned economies of the now-defunct Soviet Union and German Democratic Republic." @@Report Card EMPLOYERS WOULD GET STUDENT REPORT CARD IN "PASSPORT" The Columbian (WA), Thursday, October 22, 1998. High schools to offer would-be employers a "report card" on students KENNEWICK(AP) - Skip classes, arrive late, or skate by with minimal effort in school and a potential employer will hear about it. @@Required - See New Jersey rejectd proposal to require all high school students to spend one day week on job sitess. - Lake Washington SD WA is considering STW as graduation requirement Texas Scholars Program would require STW elements Completion of a TSP portfolio containing "Results of a successful 'mock' employment interview to be administered by representatives of the Society of Human Resource Managers (SHRM)" Successful mastery of a 'mock' employment test Two letters of recommendation which include notation of the student's ability to work collaboratively, problem solve, and act and behave responsibly preferential treatment upon application for employment with participating McLennan County businesses." STW is required of districts in WA for CIM @@Russian System Talk with Igor, a Russian immigrant software engineer: Elementary age 6, 4 yrs Middle school age 11 4 yrs High Vocation age 15 3-4 yrs High Academic age 15 3 yrs Voc College age 18 3-4 yrs Acad College age 18 4 yrs University age 22 1 yr (Masters) Elementary starts at age 6. No kindergarten. Same teacher for entire class and all subjects. Middle school covers algebra, quadratic equations High school covers calculus needed for physics. @@Skill Certificate STW act mentions skill certificates - these may become mandantory, you wont be able to get a job @@Skills WORKERS LACKING IN BASIC SKILLS, NOT "HIGHER" STANDARDS \clip\99\10\skills.txt Washington Post 04/13/99; Edition: FINAL; Section: Financial; Page E01 Category: Applicants Not Making Grade Skills Shortage Plagues Firms Digging Deeper Into the Labor Pool Washington Post Staff Writer More than a third of job applicants nationwide lack the basic math and reading skills to do the jobs they are seeking, up from 19 percent in 1996, according to a new survey of more than 1,000 personnel executives conducted by the American Management Association. 20-30% of Owens Corning workers were found to be working with 3-4th grade level math skills instad of 7-8th grade required to operate a new computer system. Comment - A solid 9th grade level education level is all that is needed for most of these jobs. All you have to do is uphold high traditional standards, not come up with "new" standards for the 21st Century that flunk the best of the traditionally educate. @@Standards Based Movement Although STW comes from Marc Tuckers reform model, STW remains a different initiative. However, STW has been incorporated into most state standards NEW STANDARDS BASED ON FLAWED SCHOOL TO WORK MOVEMENT z49\clip\2001\04\stwstand.txt http://www.heritage.org/library/backgrounder/bg1427.html The New Definition of Standards in American Education by Virginia Miller [most state standards are based on flawed and unvalidated SCANS report, recommends eliminating STW integration from standards, abandoning the movement. Corporations are complaining about workers who lack basic math and reading skills, not SCANS competencies.] Alaska proudly relates that "Alaska Content Standards directly relate to the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) According to a 1998 report by the National Association of Manufacturers, "40 percent of all 17-year-olds do not have the necessary math skills--and more than 60 percent do not have the necessary reading skills--to work in a $33,000 per annum production job at a modern auto plant." 1 BILLION: STW WILL DIE WITHOUT FED MONEY, INTEGRATION INTO STANDARDS ASSESSMENTS MOVEMENT Education Week 12/2/98 School-to-Work Movement Faces Test, Study Says By Mary Ann Zehr Washington \clip\98\18\stwmove.txt "I've long thought the only way school-to-work could survive is if it were plugged into the standards and assessment movement, @@State On the site of the National Conference of State Legislatures, you will find this list of links: http://www.ncsl.org/programs/educ/stw1.htm Alaska School-to-Work California's School-To-Career Net Colorado School-to-Career Partnership Florida School-to-Work Clearinghouse Hawaii School-to-Work Idaho School-to-Work Illinois Education to Careers Indiana School-to-Work Institute Home Page Iowa Statewide School-to-Work Technical Assistance Center Louisiana Works Massachusetts School-to-Work System Michigan Center for Career and Technical Education Minnesota School-to-Work Montana School-to-Work Nebraska Alliance for Learning School-to-Work Opportunities New Hampshire School-to-Work Network New Jersey School-to-Career New Mexico School-to-Work New York State School-to-Work Online Ohio STW Net Oklahoma School-to-Work Tennessee Education Edge Utah School-to-Careers Vermont School-to-Work Home Page Washington School-to-Work Transition Wisconsin Connecting Education and Work Division Jeanne eca@fastlane.net @@Success COLLEGE+WORK FOR ALL: SCHOOL TO WORK SUCCESS STORY? z47\clip\2000\12\rhodes.txt http://www.catalyst-cleveland.org/10-00/1000Rhodes1.htm At Rhodes, work prep puts academics first by Susanne M. Alexander Schools switches from college and vocational tracks to all college track plus career supplements, enrollment doubled, F grades are down by half. @@Texas \doc\web\98\06\texstw.txt Texas will require job skill training for all @@Tucker, Marc see Marc Tucker page for details on original 1989 school-to-work workforce development model based on 10th grade certificate of mastery and 2 "free" years of education based on passing a high stakes test. Ed Doctors ask why Prince George County promises 2 free years of 11th and 12th grade education must require a 10th grade test. @@Unions WASHINGTON STATE LABOR COUNCIL AFL/CIO SUPPORTS SCHOOL-TO-WORK http://www.wslc.org/legis/sch-work.htm The Washington State Labor Council and the Association of Washington Business are two of the lead partners in our state's grant, and have formed the Business/Labor Alliance for School-to-Work. Our legislators need to understand the importance and value of school-to-work. And allowing school policymakers to add school-to-work to the list of worthwhile activities that go unfunded because the money is needed elsewhere is not the way to express that commitment @@United Nations http://www.unevoc.de/ UNEVOC is UNESCO's International Project on Technical and Vocational Education. It is dedicated to developing and improving technical and vocational education in UNESCO's Member States. Its focus is on information exchange, networking and international co-operation. http://indigo.col-ed.org/mine/hydestw.htm Henry Hyde's Attack on OBE/Goals 2000 in 1971 UNESCO’S Secretariat asked George Parkyn to `outline a possible model’ for an education system that resulted in Towards a Conceptual Model of Life-Long Education describing how students would choose a vocational field and work part time, and receive `certificates’ of educational attainment. @@USSR SCHOOL TO WORK TRAINING IN THE USSR, LINKED TO LIFE \doc\web\98\08\ussrstw.txt The book: "Controversy in U.S. Education," An Anthology of Crucial Issues," Harold Full, Queens College CCNY, copyright 1967 FOURTH PRINTING 1968. MacMillan Company. (College Text) "Opportunities for additional education beyond compulsory education are substantial: 16 yr. olds may go on to complete secondary education in either general or technical schools or part-time while working. [STW???] The more talented may continue, after completing any type of secondary education, to higher education." "Education Linked With Life: A major aspect of the education reform of 1958 (USSR) transforming 7-yr. and 10-yr. schools of general education into 8-yr. and 11-yr. 'general education labor-polytechnical schools with production training,' has been largely completed. This represents a considerable achievement toward meeting the state's declared goals for 'education linked with life.'" @@Video video a one hour and a half video tape put out by state Representative Sam Rohrer (Pa.) created 5/4/99 called, "Exposing School-to Work...and What It Means to You." It costs $2O and can be purchased by writing to Representative Sam Rohrer's home address: 100 Love Road, Reading, Pa. 19607. @@Vocational High School Vocational schools have been criticized for tracking students away from high academic standards and better jobs. The original idea was that students who aren't bound for college may better spend their time training for a specific job than learning humanities, calculus, or physics they will never need on a job. School to Work "fixes" this by requiring all students to study "high academic standards" and all students to have "job based learning". Parent's Guide to Washington Public Schoools Tony Bastian 1991 $5.95 + 8.2% tax + $1.50 postage Bastian Books POBox 541 Enumclaw WA 98022 * At grade 10 or age 16, you can switch to vocational / technical "college" at no cost, designed for one of 260 jobs right after graduation, or you can take courses at a "comprehensive" high school. @@Washington State Adobe hosts high tech STW forum 3/31/99 Working and learning together June 1995 The Workforce Investment Act and the Carl Perkins Vocational Education Act Washington Education and Training Coordinating Board website: http://www.wa.gov/wtb Unified Plan for Workforce Development Workforce Investment Act allows each state to develop a "unified plan" to provide the strategic direction for its workforce development system and operating guidance for the system's training programs. Governor Locke has asked that such a plan be developed for Washington State. The U.S. Department of Labor on June 28 notified Governor Locke that it has approved Washington State's Unified Plan for Workforce Development. @@Wisconsin 200 MILLION FOR 91-98 STW FOR ONLY 1,150 STUDENTS, 347 GRADUATES \doc\web\99\12\wiscstw.txt IN WISCONSIN:Inflated Claims, Meager Results MARK C. SCHUG RICHARD D. WESTERN http://www.wpri.org/Vol12no1.pdf 1991-1998, federal and state spending on School to Work in Wisconsin totaled $195.4 million, of this amount ninety-six percent came from federal sources. The actual results are startling. While only 1,150 students participated in the apprenticeship programs, just 347 completed their program. @@work-based learning What is work based learning @@world ORE ED ASSOC: BY US DEFINITION, GERMAN APPRENTICES _ARE_ HS DROPOUTS [they say you don't even need college, they don't get 11th and 12th grade educations] Part 3 Ore CIM/STW PATTERNED AFTER GERMAN VOCATIONAL MODEL Part II GERMANS ARE FIRMLY INTO TRACKING [The germans] come from a tradition that allows them to be more comfortable with tracking than are we. They value their traditions and stability. US BEHIND IN SCHOOL TO WORK, BUT #1 IN COLLEGE RATE WORLDWIDE ISCED level Definition U.S. equivalent 0 Preprimary Kindergarten and below 1 Primary 1st-6th grades 2 Lower secondary 7th-9th grades 3 Upper secondary 10th-12th grades or first 3 years of vocational education Many countries have formalized strategies to prepare non-college-bound youth for employment. Japan, Germany, and Sweden are some of the countries that employ such strategies, including combining schooling with work experience and on-the-job training, providing students with extensive occupational information in school, and offering job placement assistance. While the methods that these countries adopt to meet the needs of non-college-bound youth may differ, the U.S. General Accounting Office reports that the Japanese, German, and Swedish systems share a common underlying featureeach has a national policy focused on preparing non-college-bound youth for employment