doc\web\index\reading.htm Index: Reading Home | Top of Index | Contents

Arthur Hu's Index of Education

(c) Arthur Hu's Index please cite when using data from here arthurhu @ hufamily.com (no space) on how to get more complete data or complete text of these references

Reading Wars!

The big issue in the 90's is Whole Language, which is on the verge of being officially called a disaster, although it is still widely used and highly regarded among many. Every survey on this page shows that although reformers universally object to structured "instructivist" phonics instruction, especially ones as rigid as DISTAR, the only success stories of inner city kids perform at levels at grade level, or best in district are with direct instruction phonics methods. All valid research shows that, especially for the weakest readers, readers must first have "phonemic awareness" before they can simple books such as "The Hungry Caterpillar" or "Dick and Jane" independently by the end of the 1st grade. Some advocates of the most sophisticated phonetics training say that "whole langage" can work, but only if phonetics are first mastered.

By contrast, advocates of Developmentally Appropriate Instruction say some kids should not start reading until age 9, and they criticize programs such as DISTAR, especially when they make other schools look bad. Other programs my kids went through expected kids to exit Kindergarten proficient enough in reading and writing to start 1st grade alphabetizing a list of 10 words and using each word in a written sentence.

Reading Recovery also advocates "developmental" or "invented" spelling so that students can write long before they have mastered reading or spelling in the belief that this is "essential" for the development of reading skills.

Contents



@@Ability Grouping

GROUPING STUDENTS BY READING ABILITY INSTEAD OF AGE
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/WPlate/1997-09/28/112l-092897-idx.htm
\clip\97\26\readabl.txt A New Take on an Old Problem Triangle
Elementary Begins Experiment With No-Grade System to Improve Reading
By Ann O'Hanlon Washington Post Staff Writer Sunday, September 28,
1997; Page V01 The Washington Post


@@Accelerated Reader

TEACHER SAYS AR HAS LIMITATIONS
Kelli Perry AG Bell says to not be mislead by grade ratings which are based
on vocabulary. 2001
z54\clipim\2001\12\21\acread\p1.gif

ACCELERATED READER TOO MUCH WORK FOR ADVANCED READERS
z53\clip\2001\10\accread.txt Montgomery Advertiser, Saturday, Oct.
27, 2001 "Reading program becomes grading tool" Elmore County by
Laura Whittington For the one reading below, she said, it's not
challenging and it challenges her above-grade level reader too much.
"It means they have to read so many books in addition to football Boy
Scouts and other homework."


@@Advanced

Schools traditionally didn't teach reading until first grade, but lots
of kids start earlier.

Steve Sailer 2002: Jodie Foster was reading at 18 months, at least
according to Jodie.


@@Alphabetize sort 

Normal introduction of alphabetize is 2 or 3 words by late 1st or 2nd
grade. Eric was asked to write 9 words in alphabetical order his 1st
week in first grade (combined 1/2) as homework. I had to show him how
to do a computer science insertion sort to do this.

G1 - Eric's 1st homework assignment, write 9 words in alpha order
G2 - G2 write 5 words in alpha order 
     z39\clipim\2000\02\15\spell.gif

@@Alpha-Phonics

"We start out the day by reviewing
Sam Blumenfeld's Alpha-Phonics." 6 yr old reads Cat in the Hat



@@asian language

There seems to be some disagreement whether Asian ideographic
languages are faster or slower to learn than alphabetic systems.

\doc\95\15\index.new Ideographic languages are learned slowly. A
child in Japan is expected to learn only 76 Kanji by the first grade
and only 996 by the sixth grade.  By contrast, many children enter
school already reading kana, which is alphabetic. Whole language
teaches that children read simply by recognizing the shape of a word,
but English is not ideographic. "The Role Of Decoding In Learning To
Read" American Educator, Summer 1995 p. 25 Filed asian.ed.reading.whole

asian.education.reading.faster Vernon p. 131 Asians learn ideographic
languages faster, not slower than Westerners since their reading
achievement in their native languages is ahead. There are almost no
cases of dyslexia


@@Balanced Approach

http://www.nrrf.org/nichd.htm
It says to teach for decoding skills until kids can fluently read.
You can have literature and reading for comprehension if the teacher
reads from words that are in the spoken vocabulary. Contrast this
with the "Kindergarten Reading Companion" which expects kids to read
literature fluently and scan sentences for answers to comprehension
questions in kindergarten.

@@Basal Readers

Dick and Jane - reading stories to learn reading



@@basic ability

3rd grade - some school districts, clinton goal
1st grade - 1st grade K. Bearden teacher
K   - Brenda Huppert's kindergarten

readyr.txt
The vast majority of children can be taught at age
6, but not many teach themselves at a later date.
As a first grade teacher for nine years
I know our goal in Florida, Michigan, and in Georgia was to have the
children reading during their first grade year if they weren't already
doing so.  

\doc\web\97\07\readfail.txt Report on Learning Disabilities Research
Dr. Reid Lyon Acting Chief of the Child Development and Behavior
Branch National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
(NICHD) National Institutes of Health (NIH) [says phonetics is
crucial to learning reading]

the 1994 NAEP data summarizing national trends showed that 32 percent
of Whites, 72 percent of African-Americans, 67 percent of Hispanics,
23 percent of Asians, 36 percent of Pacific Islanders, and 55 percent
of American Indians were reading below basic levels in the fourth
grade. Moreover, 32 percent of the fourth grade children across the
Nation who were reading below the basic levels were from homes where
the parents had graduated from college.

40 PERCENT OF 8 YR OLDS CAN'T READ? THEN WHAT IS GRADE LEVEL, IF NOT
WHAT 50% OF STUDENTS CAN DO??

Clinton state of the union speech 2/97
\doc\97\02\clinspec.txt
"forty percent -- of our 8-year-olds cannot read on their own" That's
awfully close to 50% that defines what grade level is. Whose standard
is he using?
   Let's work together to meet these three goals: Every 8-year-old must
   be able to read; every 12-year-old must be able to log on to the
   Internet; every 18-year-old must be able to go to college; and every
   adult American must be able to keep on learning for a lifetime.


@@black gap

Blacks alienated, or just need phonics?

TWICE AS MANY BLACKS AS WHITES CAN'T READ BY 4TH GRADE Schools: A
Black and White Issue Philadelphia Inquirer David Boldt April 15,
1997 http://www2.phillynews.com/inquirer/97/Apr/15/city/BOLDT15.htm
National test data indicate that more than seven out of 10 black
students in Pennsylvania can't do basic reading by the fourth grade,
compared with three of 10 whites.

MORE BLACKS ENTER KINDERGARTEN READING THAN OTHER ETHNIC GROUPS?

http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/summ_022397.html
\clip\97\05\schsumm.txt Copyright © 1997 The Seattle Times Company
Sunday, Feb. 23, 1997 School summit seeks to close gap by Marc
Ramirez Seattle Times staff reporter 

70% of Seattle Blacks students read below average. According to the
Educational Testing Service, more blacks enter kindergarten reading
than any other group

Arthur complains about books in
school. Cuckoo, Cedars, Harry Potter

%%Harry Potter

Some claim 2nd and 3rd graders can read this, but the book is the 
same size and print as Lewis: Icons of Evolution aimed at adults


%%One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest Ken Kesey 1962

Goddammit. Sh-t F--k Sex with mental defective. Ripping dress off of
head nurse.  Black boys. Jap nurse. Found this one on a high school
class reading rack.


%%Snow falling on cedars David Guterson 1995

Made into movie, student complained to me about sex scene in book (p.
90) about marriage in camp shack. "She could see beneath the fabric
of his underpants how his * stood erect". Japs God--n Sh-t F--king.
Nothing you wouldn't find in Cosmopolitan, but just as graphic, not
something you'd be able to read on the radio. 

Students shouldn't have to read explicit 'Cedars' BRIAN WARD;
Longbranch;


%%Tattoing and body piercing 

Bonnie Graves. LofC says it is 2. body piercing- juvenile literature.
Gives table of healing times: nipple 3-6 mo, female genitalia 4-10
wks male 4wk-6mo. New book at Kirkland library



%%Velveteen rabbit

The toy fairy makes a toy bunny real after a boy loves it. about
4,400 words across 22 pages, pictures on half the pages, claims it is
6th grade reading level according to fry's readability scale, rated
as G3 on another reading list

@@Boys Lagging

\clip\99\01\boyslag.txt Boys slip further behind girls at school 
December 18, 1998
BBC News
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/education/newsid_237000/237369.stm
Girls are performing better in tests at all ages 

" According to the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority, the gap
between the achievements of boys and girls runs throughout the three
levels of tests - at 7, 11 and 14-years-old.  At the youngest age,
girls are better at spelling and punctuation, at 11-years-old girls
are interpreting stories better and at 14 almost 75% of girls reach
the expected levels of literacy, compared to only 57% of boys.  "
[most cognitive tests seem to indicate this is an inherent mental
ability difference]



@@BRAIN

BRAINS OF SOME POOR READERS ARE DIFFERENT \doc\web\97\08\brairead.txt
WINSTON-SALEM -- The brains of some people who read poorly --
especiallypeople with dyslexia -- differ physiologically from normal
readers, according topioneering work at the Wake Forest University
Baptist Medical CenterContact: Bob Conn, Mark Wright or Jim Steele
[1]Rconn@bgsm.edu 910-716-4587 [2]BowmanGray/Baptist Hospital Medical
Center

@@California Disaster

\clip\98\05\newscl01.txt 2/16/98 2/16/98 Baltimore Sun Learning from
Calif., Texas Reforms: Both states have ambitious plans for improving
pupils' reading performances.  By Marego Athans Mentions Carnine,
Joseph.

@@Catcher in the Rye

\doc\web\99\09\catch.txt RESPONSE TO INQUIRY -- CATCHER IN THE RYE
(Adults Only) by Donna Garner July 2, 1999

Why must "adolescent issues" be addressed by studying such an
unsavory character as Holden Caulfield who is the main character in
J. D. Salinger's CATCHER IN THE RYE? Holden defnitely has a problem
with abusive language, acceptance of authority, respect for the
elderly, sexual orientation, respect for women, alcohol and tobacco
abuse, sexual activity, and respect for religion. 

Just because Salinger in CATCHER IN THE RYE chose to use the
following words numerous times does not necessarily make him a great
writer: crap -- 11 times hell -- 74 times goddam -- 145 times [it
gets worse...]

@@Chomsky

WHOLE LANGUAGE INSPIRED BY CHOMSKY 
Susan O 2002: brochure by David Horowitz about Chomsky entitled "The
Ayatollah of Anti-American Hate."  Chomsky's mentioned a number of
times in "The Whole Language/OBE fraud by Sam Blumenfeld. Chomsky, a
linguist, figures in the whole language movement. Blumenfeld says that
Ken Goodman, who wrote that big book about whole language, was
inspired by Chomsky, though Blumenfeld says Goodman misread Chomsky.
Also Chomsky was influencial in the development of the field of
cognitive psychology. 


@@compound word

G1 Peter Hu AG Bell 2000
row bath mail rain space gold foot
sho7 tub boat box print fish coat
connect words in sentence

@@Computer Software




@@Corrective Reading

Promoted by N Carolina as antidote for failing schools

2. Corrective Reading
http://www.sra4kids.com/teacher/reading/default.html#prod

\clip\98\02\readres.txt
http://www.oregonian.com/todaysnews/9801/st01182.html THE OREGONIAN
January 18, 1998 Educators put reading to the test Two UO professors
push for results-driven schooling, but critics call it inhumane By
Scott Learn of The Oregonian staff University of Oregon professor
Siegfried Engelmann, author of one of America's most controversial
reading programs, is certain he knows why children fail in school.
[has direct instruction phonics, does well with poor black children]


@@Decodable Text

Traditional phonics presents students words which are easily decoded
using phonics. Whole language often gives literature with words which
are difficult or impossible to decode using basic phonics.

1/20/98 - WA Legislators Work Session/Public Hearinglink Doug Carnine
says that many whole language programs use texts which are not
"decodable."


@@Developmentally Appropriate

One study claims that some are not ready to read until age 9.
Another expert claims that as many as 1 out of 3 is not ready to
start reading in the 1st grade. Many schools teach reading in
Kindergarten with good results.

What DAP tends to really mean is justify teaching way above or way
below conventional levels. So first graders shouldn't learn reading
but it's ok to have them work on solving algebra equations and
probability.

Catalyst: Voices of Chicago School Reform
http://www.catalyst-chicago.org/09-96/096main.htm
\clip\98\02\distar\distar.htm September, 1996 Direct Instruction
making waves by Elizabeth Duffrin "According to the National
Association for the Education of Young Children, some children may
not be ready to read until the age of 9. "

Not all are ready until 2nd grade
Even if mean were 6 years, there is a significant minority of the
population (perhaps 30-35%) who don't really "get" reading in first
grade and who would benefit from being in a rich language environment
at that time, but without enforced phonetic instruction, which
doesn't make much sense to them at that point anyway. By 2nd grade
almost all of the distribution of children is ready cognitively to
read.
David Marshak 


@@Dialect 

From Massachusetts Standards
http://www.doe.mass.edu/doedocs/frameworks/englishS1.html

PreK-4 Identify variations in the dialogue of literary characters and
explain how these variations relate to differences in the characters'
occupations or social groups, or the geographic region of the story. 

 PreK-2: Robert McCloskey's Lentil, she helps students identify the
author,s use of dialect


@@Dick and Jane
 
Beloved but flawed basal readers of 1920-1960s

DICK JANE 1930-1970, AND BACK AGAIN
z75\clip\2004\02\dickjane.txt
http://www.usatoday.com/life/books/news/2004-02-25-dick-and-jane-main_x.htm
See 'Dick and Jane' — again
By Greg Toppo, USA TODAY
Look, Dick, look!
"Up to 100 years ago, most 6-year-olds in public schools got a steady
diet of Bible stories, fables, patriotic poems and fairy tales."
"The authors believed children learned to read best
by memorizing a small handful of "sight words" and repeating them over
and over — the "look/say" method."
The first Dick and Jane stories appeared in a 1930 primer series..
By the 1950s, an estimated 80% of first-graders were using Dick and
Jane.
... dropped them — and controlled vocabulary — from readers in 1970.


REVIEW OF DICK AND JANE READERS BY GROFF  An Analytic Review  of Carole
Kismaric and Marvin Heiferman (1996).  Growing Up with Dick and Jane.
San Francisco, CA: Collins, 112 pages.  By Patrick Groff Professor of
Education Emeritus San Diego State University


@@Differentiated Classroom

DIFFERENTIATED CLASSROOM SPLITS READING BY ABILITY
z75\clip\2003\11\diflear.txt
nytimes.com New York Times 
November 9, 2003
A Paddle for the Mainstream
By FRAN SCHUMER
"Carol Ann Tomlinson, a professor of education at the University of
Virginia. Dr. Tomlinson did not invent the concept, or even coin the
phrase, but she laid out a how-to strategy for the ''inclusive''
classroom in her book ''Differentiated Classroom,''"
Some fourth graders at the Rand School read at second-grade level;
some have already finished ''Lord of the Rings.'' So Cheryl Caggiano
organizes her class into clusters based on proficiency,


@@Direct Instruction

(Capitalized) Method of scripted instruction of phonics, favored by many back to
basis advocates, but seen as yet another fad by others in the mold of
outcome based education. 

General - teaching skill by skill instead of assuming kids will read and
write naturally if thrown in all at once

ENGLEMAN, CARNINE HELP DETERMINE NCLB ALL-MUST-BE-AT-GRADE LEVEL
z82\clip\2004\07\oreprof.txt
www.registerguard.com | © The Register-Guard, Eugene, Oregon
July 6, 2004
UO professors lead way in U.S. education policy By Julia Silverman The
Associated Press
Over the years, the University of Oregon has developed a reputation as
a hippie haven, home to hacky-sackers, Frisbee-throwers and
anti-globalism activists.


ONLY DIRECTION INSTRUCTION WORKED BUT IT WAS THE WRONG WAY
z60\clip\2002\11\works.txt
http://www.nytimes.com/2002/11/10/edlife/10CHILD.html
Does It Work?
NYT November 10, 2002
By JAMES TRAUB 
But the problem was not only that nothing worked -- the wrong thing
worked. In 1968...The Follow Through study...  involved nine
approaches ranging from a highly progressive Open School model to an
extremely structured design called Direct Instruction. The results,
published in 1977, were stunning: only Direct Instruction
significantly raised scores of third graders on a series of
achievement tests. Children exposed to more progressive models did far
worse than children at ''control'' schools.  Direct Instruction was
thus the first research-proven pedagogy. 

zip36\clip\99\16\otherp.txt Teacher Magazine August-September 1999
The Error Of My Ways [kids need direct reading and writing
instruction] By Carol Jago In the disturbing book Other People's
Children, Lisa Delpit raises the thorny issue of what happens to
minority and underprivileged students when writing fluency is valued
over skills. "A critical thinker who lacks the skills demanded by
employers and institutions of higher learning can aspire to financial
and social status only within the disenfranchised underworld,"

Also See DISTAR Also See Lott, Thaddeus


RASPBERRY: DIRECT INSTRUCTION WORKS FOR THAD LOTT
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/WPlate/1998-03/30/011l-033098-idx.html
\clip\98\07\sounds.txt Sounds Bad, But It Works By William Raspberry
Monday, March 30, 1998; Page A25 "It sounds awful," the woman wrote
in response to my column praising the results a Houston elementary
school has attained with something called "direct instruction."


@@Disorder

Studies of reading disorders tend to support the notion that
phonics must be the foundation of reading.

\clip\98\15\brairead.txt Sunday, October 18, 1998 In Art of Language,
the Brain Matters Discovery: New techniques let researchers observe
neural activity as children read. Understanding how the mind works
could reshape classroom instruction.  By ROBERT LEE HOTZ, Times
Science Writer



@@Distar
@@Reading Mastery


1. Reading Mastery. http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~adiep/rdgtxt.htm

Reading program by SRA for learning disabled. Developed in 1964 by
Sigfried Englemann, now U of Oregeon Eugene, for disadvantaged
preschoolers. It is given high marks by some traditional parents for
strict phonics practice. 

Successful for turning around poor area Houston elementary schools,
but might put limitations on normal students. Whole language
advocates and national standards organizations shudder at scripted
drill and rote learning, point out it's not how kids in the suburbs
learn (but they're not the ones with basement reading scores, and
they can't show equivalent success for inner city kids)

%%Against

DISTAR CALLED "AUTHORITARIAN" AND "ROTE LEARNING"
Catalyst: Voices of Chicago School Reform
http://www.catalyst-chicago.org/09-96/096main.htm 
\clip\98\02\distar\distar.htm

September, 1996
Direct Instruction making waves by Elizabeth Duffrin

'DISTAR's "rote learning" went against the teaching practices
recommended by major professional organizations.'

"It's extremely authoritarian," observes Larry Schweinhart of the
highly regarded High Scope/Perry Research Project in Ypsilanti,
Mich., and can lead children to "dependency on adults and
resentment."  "

"It's like, they're poor, so they can't learn the same way
middle-class kids learn," contends Barbara Bowman,

"The board also contracted with nine other service providers,
including progressive models.  Of the 10, only DI has a history of
success and a solid research base, says St.  James. "So why, why the
intensive scrutiny? Why? I don't know why.""

"According to the National Association for the Education of Young
Children, some children may not be ready to read until the age of 9. "

If the object of of education is to
fill low-level employment slots with compliant workers, I can
attest that DISTAR will assist this effort.  If the object of
education is to provide a child with the skills to succeed in a wide
range of areas, DISTAR will certainly limit their horizons.  Chey
Simonton, Room Mother for 2 Sons and Classroom Volunteer in Special
and Regular Ed for 7 years


%%For
http://www.pacg.com/pvbr/issue_1/hered.htm \clip\98\02\lott\lott.htm
Policy Review January-February, 1998 Number 87 Published by The
Heritage Foundation Houston educator Thaddeus Lott puts failing
schools to shame. Lott purchased the Direct Instructional System for
Teaching and Remediation (DISTAR), a program developed at the
University of Illinois during the 1960s. Known now as Reading Mastery
and Connecting Math Concepts, it is based on the direct-instruction
model of teaching, in which students and teachers engage in a lively,
interactive regimen of structured drills and sequential lessons, each
building on the last.  DISTAR's phonics-based reading lessons are
literally scripted for the teacher, who is required to ask 200-300
questions per day, often in rapid-fire sequence. The children's
high-decibel choral responses may sound like a high-school
cheerleading squad hopped up on No-Doz, but they are learning the
relationships between the sounds and the letters that constitute the
English language. And there's no quibbling with the results at
Wesley. 

\clip\98\02\seedick\seedick.htm See Dick Flunk By Tyce Palmaffy
Policy Review 11/97
http://www.policyreview.com/heritage/p_review/nov97/flunk.html
Curiously absent from the festivities was the Houston education
system’s shining star, former Wesley Elementary Principal Thaddeus
Lott. During the early 1980s, his success in turning Wesley from a
typical urban failure into one of Texas’s highest-performing
elementary schools led almost 300 Houston schools to follow his lead
in abandoning the school district’s recommended curriculum. 

\doc\web\97\09\distarok.txt My daughter (now 17) started 1st grade as
a reader, but was given a Distar reading program to help with
fluency.  After a few months in the Fast Track program, she became a
fluent reader and one of the top readers in her class. Today she
ranks in the top 10% of her senior class, and has a VERY INDEPENDENT
nature. 


Works wonders with learning disabled
Very strict, contrary to new teaching philisophy


@@Dumb Down

SIMPLIFIED TEXTS AFTER WWII DUMBED DOWN EDUCATION?
z40\clip\2000\03\simple.txt Hayes, D. P., Wolfer, L. T., & Wolfe, M.
F.  (1996).  Schoolbook simplification and its relation to the
decline in SAT-Verbal scores. AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL,
33(2), 489-508.  Using the reading levels of widely circulated
newspapers as a benchmark (a remarkably stable standard of literacy
over a 300 year period), he was able to detect a sharp decline in the
reading difficulty level of schoolbooks following WW II owing to the
simplifications made by publishers at the behest of the professional
education community.  Hayes, et al, found that the remarkable drop in
SAT-Verbal scores 1963-1979 may well have been the product of the
postwar dumbing down of elementary and secondary school texts.  His
finding implies that not only does simplified reading material result
in a lessened vocabulary but a lessened fund of knowledge and
correspondingly lessened aptitude for acquiring additional knowledge.


@@Dyslexia

Some students do start out with a genetic disadvantage, but that
makes explicit phonics even MORE important, instead of just an excuse
for failure.

DYSLEXIA LESS COMMON IN SIMPLE SPELLED LANGUAGES
z48\clip\2001\03\dyslex.txt Study: English a Factor in Dyslexia By
PAUL RECER .c The Associated Press they face the awesome task of
learning more than 1,100 ways that letters in the written language
are used to symbolize the 40 sounds in the spoken language.  there
are twice as many identified dyslexics in English-speaking cultures
as in countries with less complex languages, according to a study
appearing Friday in the journal Science. 

\clip\97\27\dyslex.txt nov 12, 1997 Education week [November 12,
1997] Dealing With Dyslexia By Debra Viadero

"most of the studies point to a clear strategy for teaching
reading-disabled children.  Regardless of the specific method used,
they suggest that, at a minimum, poor readers need explicit
instruction in phonemic awareness, in phonics, and in the structure
of language. And they need enough practice to enable them to use
those skills automatically.  The problem, the researchers say, is
that schools have been moving in the opposite direction--away from
phonics-based approaches and toward whole-language methods of
teaching reading."

\doc\web\97\09\phonem.txt From: " McNee" 
Subject: Dyslexia: "Newsweek" Oct.27 1997 Date sent: Wed, 5 Nov 1997
20:15:21 -0000 This issue devotes 8+ pages and the front cover to
"Kids who can't learn.  What causes learning disabilities.  How to
help your child."  The article left you feeling that if someone is
born dyslexic, problems are inevitable.  But while dyslexia is
inborn, it is a latent potential to muddlement which is ACTIVATED by
the wrong (whole-word, Whole Language) teaching.  Dyslexics need to
start at the beginning with letters-sounds and strong left-right
direction through each word - at the beginning. 
1/25/98 Los Angeles Times District Gets Grant to Expand Phonics
Program



@@Early Writing (Not invented spelling)

A different theory is that students should copy sentences and do rote
writing of learned words rather than inventively spelling entirely
new sentences.

From:           	Rovarose@aol.com
Date sent:      	Tue, 30 Mar 1999 13:57:42 EST

<< So how is this early writing different from the invented spelling 
 theory "essential to early reading" school? >>

Night and day, Arthur.   Invented spelling says, "Well, now you know the
letters and their sounds.   Let's see how you would imagine the word
'yacht' is written!"

The correct way:   "Cat is spelled c-a-t.  Please write this word 1500
times, or until you can write it in your sleep!   Then we'll work on the
word /sat/, then /saw/, etc, until you've learned the basic one hundred or
so one-syllable words that exemplify almost all of the basic letter
combinations and their sounds in English". 
Bob

Bob Rose on writing simple words
to help reading 


@@Ebonics

EBONICS BASED TRAINING KILLS READING SCORES IN LA
\clip\99\05\ebonbad.txt
http://www.chron.com/cgi-bin/auth/story.mpl/content/chronicle/editorial/98
/0 5/30/22708519_0-0.html HoustonChronicle 5/30/1998 Tax dollars for
Ebonics? Forget about it By ANDREA D. GREENE "In Los Angeles, test
scores have plummeted in 31 schools where the Ebonics teaching method
was instituted six years ago, some by as much as half."


@@Englemann, Siegfried

One of the fathers of DISTAR and direct instruction I would outright
refuse to do the homework with your child and instead order "How to Teach Your Child to
Read in 100 Easy Lessons," by Siegfried Englemann.  You will
spend 5-20 enjoyable minutes a day with your child, teaching your
him/her how to read without the frustration or struggle common in the
type of program you described from your school.  He/she willl be
reading at a second grade level in 100 reading days.

@@Four Square writing

"Students as young as first graders can learn to write properly structured
paragraphs with a topic sentence and conclusion at a very  early stage; and
if the four-square is used throughout the grade school years, students by
high school can write well-developed compositions of five or more
paragraphs, complete with introductory and concluding paragraphs."

Susan Allison
April 14, 2004 7:19 AM
Oh they start off with this paper that is broken into four squares with a
few lines in each square.  There is a place in the middle of the whole thing
for the theme of the essay - like "I think snow days are fun".   Then you
have to come up with a sub theme for each square - like "I go sled riding
with friends, we have snowball fights, I build snowmen and I have hot
chocolate when I go in."  Then the kid is supposed to flesh out all of those
subthemes in four paragraphs after the introductory sentence or paragraph
about liking snowdays.   The four square method must be all the rage- second
graders in Maryland are using them.


The student takes a piece of paper and folds it in quarters (four squares). 
In the middle in a box they write their topic like, My Favorite Listserve. In 
each of the "four squares" they write a main idea about their topic. 
1. I like the ARN listserv
2. The listserv about testing
3. It has some nice people and some not so nice people. 
4. I write on it sometimes
Then the last sentence is a "feeling" sentence. 

So this is my paragraph
                                                
                                                My Favorite Listserv
    I like the ARN listserv. The listserv is about testing. It has some nice 
people and some not so nice people. I write on it sometimes. Listservs are fun!

As they go up in grades, they add another detail to each box. 

                                          My Favorite Listserv 
    I like the ARN listserv. ARN stands for Assessment Reform Network. The 
listserv is about testing. Testing is hurting children in schools.  It has some 
nice people and some not so nice people. Some are downright mean.  I write on 
it sometimes. I don't always have enough time to write as much as I'd like. 
Listservs are fun!
        
Does that clear it up? If you put Judith Gould's name in a search you'll 
probably get more info. 

@@Gap

10M vs 100,000 words for strong vs weak mid school reader
z48\clip\2001\04\lyonread.txt "Measuring Success: Using Assessments
and Accountability to Raise Student Achievement".
http://www.nrrf.org/lyon_statement3-01.htm Statement of Dr. G. Reid
Lyon
Consider that by middle school, children who read well read at least 
10,000,000 words during the school year. On the other hand, children with 
reading difficulties read less than 100,000 words during the same period. 


 @@Gender

WHOLE LANGUAGE MAKES GENDER READING GAP WORSE \clip\98\06\ukphon.txt
London told how to teach reading By Liz Lightfoot, Education
Correspondent "The new methods are also believed to have contributed
to the the under-achievement of boys in reading compared with girls.
Where intensive phonics are used, boys achieve as well as, or better
than, girls.  " 

@@Genetics

TWIN STUDY SHOWS SPEECH DEFECTS RELATED TO GENETICS From
\clip\98\15\generead.txt
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1998/10/981023073445.htm The
average number of words produced from the list was 48 for the entire
sample of twins, but just 4.2 words for the lowest 5 percent.
Sixty-one children produced no recognizable words. 


@@Giver

Popular but controversial book assigned as early as g4, adult level
1984-type content written in middle school reading level, I bought my
copy at the elementary school book sale. Perfect society assigns
birth and baby education to professionals instead of parents, excess
or imperfect babies, elderly and screw-up workers are killed if they
do not respond to remediation. My take - my gosh, this is the
ultimate OBE society. You fall below "standard", you get to be
"released".  Scary stuff.  

Kosser review
"mental abuse", makes hero of murdering father.

giver review by kjos

Review by Arthur Hu also  mentioned
on list of books challenged by parents.

@@Glossary

Groff's Glossary of Scientific Terms in 
Reading and Reading Instruction

@@Goal

%%All

ONLY 33% OF NY CITY, 48% OF STATE PASS NY READING TEST
June 2, 1999
http://www.edweek.org/ search: standards assessments
\clip\99\12\nytest.txt Poor Districts Fare Worst On N.Y. Assessment
By Caroline Hendrie All students need to be reading 25 books a year
and writing 1,000 words a month."  Richard P. Mills, the state
education commissioner, expressed no surprise at the lackluster
results. The test "challenges students to read and write at a high
level," he said. 

%%1st Grade

"Inglewood is almost a testimonial to the fact that if students have
phonemic awareness in kindergarten and continue to work with phonics
in first grade, kids will learn to read by the end of first grade."
1/25/98 Los Angeles Times District Gets Grant to Expand Phonics
Program \clip\98\03\edclip1.txt (Open Court)

\DOC\WEB\98\06\readgoal.txt
First graders should end the year reading primer level material at
about 60 words per minute with over 95% accuracy.


%%3rd Grade

Clinton state of the union speech 2/97 \doc\97\02\clinspec.txt "forty
percent -- of our 8-year-olds cannot read on their own" That's
awfully close to 50% that defines what grade level is. Whose standard
is he using?  Let's work together to meet these three goals: Every
8-year-old must be able to read; every 12-year-old must be able to
log on to the Internet; every 18-year-old must be able to go to
college; and every adult American must be able to keep on learning
for a lifetime.

MODERATELY WELL BY 3RD GRADE
http://www.latimes.com/HOME/NEWS/REPORTS/SCHOOLS/read_one.htm
\clip\98\10\cantread.txt Los Angeles Times Sunday, May 17, 1998
Reading Blues Teachers Say They Must Water Down Classes Because
Students Lack Basic Skills By RICHARD LEE COLVIN, Times Education
Writer " "Children who do not read at least moderately well by the
end of third grade, long-term studies show, have a very poor chance
of even graduating from high school.  "

%%4th Grade

Catalyst: Voices of Chicago School Reform
http://www.catalyst-chicago.org/09-96/096main.htm
\clip\98\02\distar\distar.htm September, 1996 Direct Instruction
making waves by Elizabeth Duffrin "According to the National
Association for the Education of Young Children, some children may
not be ready to read until the age of 9. "



@@Goosebumps

Huge hit elementary reading story series, scares some parents.

\doc\web\98\03\goosbump.txt Eagle forum EDUCATION REPORTER January
1998 Censorship' Charges about 'Goosebumps' Intimidate Parents 
MINNEAPOLIS, MN - Margaret Byron, mother of three, unknowingly stepped 
onto a battleground when she requested that books from R.L. Stine's 
"Goosebumps" fiction horror series be removed from Johnsville Elementary 
School library in the Anoka-Hennepin school district. There are 180 
million "Goosebumps" books, aimed at children ages 8 through 12, in 
print. 


@@Grade 1

zips63\clipim\2003\01\24\spell\spell.efx
I don't know what this list does with attachments, so
I'll email the original efax or .jpgs of the homework,
but this goes way beyond any "spelling" I did in 1964
1st grade!

Henry's 1st grade spelling assignment:
Select the correct choice:
- Pat must (small tall call) his mom

Note the open constructed response with invented spelling:
Write sentences with these words
[small]
weres the small box
[friend] can you be friends with me.

Note 16 words have to be correctly unscrambled
Spell Correctly
allsm - small
nad - and

Match words against visual tall/short patterns
Visual Memory
XxxX - hand
xxxXX - small

Put in the correct category 
all ball fawn saw want cat can
"a" as in "an"         "a" as in "all"
(c) 1998 Evan-Moor Corp.


@@grade level

Intensive 3rd grade reading tasks

Grade level reading lists
1922: Grades 5 and 6
Warren King Arthur and His Knights
Swift Gulliver's Travels
Kipling The Jungle Book

BELLEVUE RANKS "GRADE LEVEL" HIGHER THAN STANDARDIZED TESTS IN 3RD
GRADE \clip\98\07\readtest.txt http://www.eastsidejournal.com
Bellevue teachers demand more than reading tests By Molly O'Connor
Journal Reporter BELLEVUE -- Third-grade teachers in Bellevue schools
can be tougher on students than standardized tests -- at least when
it comes to reading.

ONLY HALF OF NYC STUDENTS READ AT GRADE LEVEL - BUT THAT'S 
GRADE LEVEL DEFINITION!
New York Times Feb 24, 1997 c:\clip\97\05\read3.txt At Age 8,
Crossroads In Reading 


@@Grammar

:) Good %%Against
I've taken a look at an online document written by George Hillocks (http://www.ncte.org/teach/Hillocks8524.html) who says: "The study of traditional school grammar (i.e., the definition of parts of speech, the parsing of sentences, etc.) has no effect on raising the quality of student writing. Every other focus of instruction examined in this review is stronger. Taught in certain ways, grammar and mechanics instruction has a deleterious effect on student writing." George Cunningham says that is is illegal in Kentucky to correct student writing. %%For Waco reports that grammar has been virtually ignored Donna Garner of Texas has graciously made available her complete packet which teaches grammar to elementary school students. I have translated them to .html web format, enjoy Gardner's Grammar Packets Ready To Read site @@Guns RUN NAT. RUN HARRIET. RUN FROM MEN WITH GUNS AND DOGS My son's 1st grade reading homework passage. (c) 1998 by Sprick Howard and Fidanque. There's a ban on weapons with Halloween costumes, but check out this passage. Yesterday, Harriet was hunted by men with dogs. "Nat ran fast because he was hunted by men with guns. He got to the farm. Harriet's friends hid him. Soon Nat was free!" zip38\clipim\99\10\25\nat.gif

@@Heterogenous Grouping

Bad :( Rather than grouping students by ability, reformers prefer to mix children of varying ability. One teacher was quoted that "it was for self-esteem" and "makes them feel better". This is a bad idea.

2nd Grade in Midwest The teacher immediately corrected my suggestion and told me how important it was for the slower students to know that they were asked to be in groups with the very best readers. "It makes them feel good." The lower performing children need to be grouped with the higher performing students for their self esteem."

@@Hunter, Madeline Malone thinks Hunter is a OBE/ Skinner type approach and doesn't like it. @@Inappropriate http://63.220.28.231/booksal.html Book Titles: A-L Baby Be-Bop - Block, Francesca Lia That n*gger looks like he's got a mouth full of c*m" Beloved - Morrison, Toni Bless Me Ultima - Anaya, Rudolfo A. Chronicle of a Death Foretold - Marquez, Gabriel Garcia Druids - Llywelyn, Morgan Exodus - Uris, Leon Fade - Cormier, Robert Fallen Angels - Myers, Walter Dean Fools Crow - Welch, James Gates of Fire - Pressfield, Steven Girl Goddess #9 - Block, Francesca Lia Growing Up Chicana/o - Lopez, Tiffany Ana Heroes - Cormier, Robert How the Garcia Girls Lost Their Accents - Alvarez, Julia I am the Cheese - Cormier, Robert I Been in Sorrow’s Kitchen and licked out all the Pots - Straight, Susan I Know Why The Caged Bird Sings - Angelou, Maya I Was a Teenage Fairy - Block, Francesca Lia Kindred - Butler, Octavia B. Like Water for Chocolate - Esquivel, Laura Living by the Word - Walker, Alice Love & Sex: Ten Stories of Truth - Cart, Michael Love in the Time of Cholera - Garcia Marquez, Gabriel @@IQ / Intelligence IQ not needed for screening LD students @@Invented Spelling We're not kidding. Also called "phonemic" and "developmental" spelling. It is considered "essential" for developing reading skills, since advocates also insist on writing before students have learned how to read or even spell. Experts have stated that children should make up their own spelling, no wonder kids in many schools simply can't spell. This is a big component of Whole Language instruction. z45\clip\2000\09\invspell.txt Sept 5, 2000 Why elementary schools don't expect correct spelling Rebecca Wigod and Karen Gram Vancouver Sun Parents should no longer expect their young children to be taught correct spelling in the early years of elementary schools. MY SON'S HOMEWORK IS GRADED ON USE OF INVENTED SPELLING see article and report card INVENTIVE SPELLING IS ESSENTIAL \clip\99\03\maine.htm Reading Reform: Lessons From Maine By Brenda Power Education Week 1/18/99 Supports "developmental" (or "invented") spelling in the early grades, Much research demonstrates how essential this component of early writing instruction is for development of reading skills. \clip\98\06\wholphon.txt L.A.Times Phonics & Whole Language Date: 3/19/98 9:08 AM From: david klein Los Angeles Times Thursday, March 19, 1998 STUDY BACKS PHONICS, 'WHOLE LANGUAGE' MIX Education: National panel finds that balanced approach, like California's, is best for teaching reading. By RICHARD LEE COLVIN, Times Staff Writer [Invented spelling is OK to start, but schools must also teach correct spelling] \clip\98\06\invspell.txt http://www.washtimes.com/culture/culture1.html March 19, 1998 By Carol Innerst THE WASHINGTON TIMES. Educators endorse 'invented spelling' " It says invented spelling can help develop understanding of the sounds that different combinations of letters create. One panelist described invented spelling as "phonemic spelling."" Gloria Hoffman 11/14/97: My daughter's writing samples were also full of invented spelling,,,experiment was spelled speriment...would ...wuld,,, etc. went uncorrected. My husband and I talked to our daughter about the spelling errors on her work and a poster another child presented with a book report.( journey...jurny) My daughter's reply to us was " well those are difficult words". We told her to ask how to spell the words. Of course if the teacher is not correcting the words the children will not know their wrong. @@It's Greek To Me Via Bartletts, then the bard himself... Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, Act I, Scene 2...spoken by Casca when relating the story to Cassius and Brutus of how Caesar was crowned by Marc Antony. In a reference to a fellow named Cicero speaking in Greek at the proceedings, Casca laments "...those that understood him smiled at one another and shook their heads; but, for mine own part, it was Greek to me." @@Joseph, Marion: CA's PHONICS PHIGHTER Marion Joseph, Wilson Riles' chief policy analyst when he was State Superintendent, the leading crusader against the deletion of phonics in the wake of Whole Language. \clip\98\03\quest.htm Palo Alto Weekly Apr 2, 1997 One woman's quest Former state education official fought hard for reading reform Marion Joseph Talks to Washington Legislature about how reading stopped working with whole language. 12/4/97 - Subcommittee on Reading Reading - what works - the national perspective. http://www.tvw.org/hcomms/hseed.htm THE WICKED WHOLE LANGUAGE IS DEAD The San Francisco Chronicle Wednesday, September 13, 1995 · Page A21 ©1995 San Francisco Chronicle · All Rights Reserved · All Unauthorized Duplication Prohibited DEBRA J. SAUNDERS "Taking on the entrenched layer of edutocracy that has been behind whole language requires the deep reservoirs of strength found in the godlike Marion Joseph, a retired educrat Eastin appointed to the task force. Without Joseph's wonderfully nagging presence, the reading report could have read like the math report: mush." \clip\98\03\wicked.txt \clip\98\03\marion.htm http://www.sacbee.com/news/beetoday/newsroom/edit/081397/edit04.html Peter Schrag: String-pushing up the mountain of school reform Sacramento Bee (Published Aug. 13, 1997) DURING THE past five years, no one in California has been a stronger and more persistent voice for school reform than Marion Joseph, once a chief aide to former state school Superintendent Wilson Riles, but for the past 15 years simply a private citizen with an extraordinary amount of energy and intelligence. http://www.teachermagazine.org/ew/vol-15/26eng.h15 \clip\98\30\warword.htm Education Week March 20, 1996 A War of Words: Whole Language Under Siege By Karen Diegmueller Ms. Joseph said she combed the state talking to teachers, parents, and school officials. Most told her the new instructional methods weren't working. Others, however, labeled her a "phonics nut." When she and others tried to get the state education department to make changes, she said some in the department blocked them. \clip\98\03\whole.htm whole2.txt http://205.164.116.200/kidsource/content/whole.2.html L.A. Weekly Blackboard Bungle: Why California Kids Can't Read By Jill Stewart "They convincingly pointed out that reading levels among California's white children had dropped to the absolute bottom for their racial group in the U.S.--even below white children in Louisiana--so claiming that the poor performance of Latino immigrants had skewed California's scores was not only cynical, it was dead wrong. And pro-skills advocates revealed that New Zealand--even to this day still much ballyhooed by Sacramento education officials--had not, in fact, benefitted from whole language. Indeed, one-quarter of that country's gradeschool children could not read, and needed costly tutors. New Zealand, deeply embarrassed by its reading crisis, has begun a discomforting internal debate. Meanwhile, an international study found that New Zealand actually lagged behind the U.S. in gradeschool reading ability, despite its widely repeated claim that it was the "most literate" country in the world." @@Kindergarten READING EXELLENCE ACT CALLS FOR TEACHING READING IN KINDERGARTEN \doc\web\index\readkind.txt "The Reading Excellence Act," a report by Robert W. Sweet, Jr. former president of NRRF? www.nrrf.org, Project Follow Through & the NICHD studies? Both recommend reading instruction to begin in kindergarten @@Language Effects The language adopted can affect how the brain processes reading and speech. z39\clip\99\21\lang.txt The Washington Post, Monday, December 27, 1999; Page A11 SCIENCE NOTEBOOK/Compiled from reports by Rob Stein Language and Brain Function researchers from Italy and Britain studied Italian and British university students as they read .. The Italian students read faster overall, even when the words were not in their native language. Brain scans showed that the brains of the Italians and the British worked differently @@Learning Disabled (L.D.) \clip\98\08\ld.txt Learning Disabled is really just failure of whole language techniques Hartford Courant Reading War Rekindles: Literature Or Phonics? By ROBERT A. FRAHM and RICK GREEN This story ran in The Courant on April 20, 1998 from the Hartford, Connecticut, newspaper called The Courant. @@Linchpin also Lynch pin http://www.ag-supply.com/catmain/4900011.htm American Heritage Dictionary : A locking pin inserted in the end of a shaft, as in an axle, to prevent a wheel from slipping off. Or a key element that holds everything together. @@List TerreHaute list, some are controversial. @@Listserv http://listserv.arizona.edu/lsv/www/tawl.html Whole Language list server (yech) @@Look-Say "Dick and Jane" A fore-runner of whole language, largely replaced phonetics teaching starting in the 1930s, lead to the infamous "Dick and Jane" books. Just memorize 2 million words instead of 100 rules. On the other hand, these books are much easier reading than "Treasure Island" or "Moby Dick". doc\web\98\10\looksay.txt I do not know what year Dr Lyon started school, but look-say was almost universal after the war. It is likely, therefore, that ALL the original team doing the 33 years of study learned by look-say. The Reading Problem: Why We Have It? How To Solve It? Most children begin school with a speaking vocabulary of at least 5000 words. The "new" LOOK-SAY method was an attempt to teach children to immediately recognize and read some of the thousands of words they already knew and used in every day speech. In 1936, my first grade teacher used this new LOOK-SAY method in our classroom. Fortunately for me, I was a visual learner and quickly learned to read. Others in my class were not so fortunate. It is estimated that about 30% of all children are not visual learners, hence the beginning of the problem \clip\98\02\seedick\seedick.htm http://www.policyreview.com/heritage/p_review/nov97/flunk.html This method went unchallenged until the mid-1800s, when the influential educational reformer Horace Mann excoriated the drilling methods of the past. Instead of teaching individual sound-letter relationships, Mann thought children should focus on comprehension by learning whole words first. .. progressive educators based at Columbia University Teachers College and the University of Chicago in the 1920s rejected the "code-emphasis" approach as an unnatural, undemocratic way of learning. Phonics was derided as the "drill-and-kill" method, evoking images of stern nuns leading chorus recitals of "a," "oo" and "th." What influential educators such as John Dewey advocated soon became known as the look-say approach. Textbook publishers responded quickly. Whereas colonial children (at least upper-class children) learned to read using Noah Webster’s bestselling Blue-Backed Speller and the Bible, mid-20th-century youngsters were subjected to the simplistic, mind-numbing "Dick and Jane" series. Responding to children’s limited capacity for memorizing whole words, school readers became increasingly repetitive and wholly uninteresting. "We stopped teaching kids rules," says Bader of the AFT, "and expected them to learn 2 million individual words instead of teaching them 100 rules to figure them out." Look-say reigned controversy-free until 1955, when Rudolf Flesch published Why Johnny Can’t Read. @@Level G2 - Some has mastered Harry Potter (Wesley Lau) G4 - Some have mastered "Lord of the Rings" (NYT) How to determine levels Get this book for a formula: Dale-Chall Readability Formula (from Readability Revisited: The New Dale-Chall Readability Formula, Jeanne S. Chall and Edgar Dale, Brookline Books, 1995 ISBN 1-57129-008-7). OHANIAN RAPS LEXILE SCALE From: Susan Ohanian For more on reading levels of newspapers: go to http://www.lexile.com Then click on "How difficult are newspapers to read" you will get lexile scales for many newspapers--and a comparison with some bestselling novels. Elsewhere on the site, the Lexile scale is explained. Some, including me, quarrel with most readability formulas, but it is interesting in terms of comparisons. For example, John Grisham, "The Firm": 680 Lexiles Michael Crichton, "Jurassic Park": 710 Lexiles Tom Clancy, "Patriot Games": 770 Lexiles The best-selling "Harry Potter" book series measure at 940 Lexiles or ower. Most newspapers score above 1,100 Lexiles, meaning doing well on a 10th grade reading comprehension test. @@Lott, Thaddeus (Wesley Elementary, Houston ISD) See Success: Lott, Thaddeus @@Lyon, Reid From: Jimmy Kilpatrick Dr. Reid Lyon's "Overview of Reading and Literacy Initiatives" is must reading for parents, educators, administrators, school board members, policy makers and the media. http://www.readbygrade3.com/lyon.htm .... the magic of this effortless journey into the world of reading is available to only about 5% of our nation's children... Unfortunately, it appears that for about 60% of our nation's children, learning to read is a much more formidable challenge, and for 20% to 30% of these youngsters, reading is one of the most difficult tasks that they will have to master throughout their schooling. @@McGuffey Readers Beloved reading series of 1920s before look and say Dick and Jane took over. z50\clip\2001\07\mcguff.txt >From The Washington Times, Monday, July 16, 2001, p.A3 URL: http://www.washtimes.com/national/20010716-19169314.htm McGuffey Readers making a comeback By Andrea Billups THE WASHINGTON TIMES One of the nation's most beloved schoolbooks, the McGuffey Reader [of 1920s], is making a comeback, particularly among home-schooling families, who are returning to the historic texts to help their children learn reading and language skills. @@McKee, Mona (uk) Step by Step Mona McNee Detailed phonetic method workbook ends with phonics vs whole language, ph is the only method which works with all Britain has a national curriculum which promotes whole language arq= avg reading quotient like iq author cites arq up to 139.7, and 5 yr pld that reads like 7 yr Reading reform foundation uk chapter 2 keats ave whiston Merseyside l.35 2xr mcnee@rapid.co.uk @@Minority Whole Language was designed to be dumbed down for minorities, but it works even worse for them, while Direct Instruction works wonders for poor kids. BASIC SKILLS NOT DESEGREGATION RAISED TEST SCORES, WHOLE LANGUAGE HARMFUL TO MINORITIES \clip\98\09\sandieg.txt San Diego Union-Tribune, Dec. 20, 1995. Was court oversight of schools worth it? SHARON L. JONES Staff Writer @@Moby Dick Moby Dick Gullivers travels assigned to 5th grade ling ago @@Mother Goose MOTHER GOOSE REALLY WORKS \clip\98\16\rhyme.txt November 6, 1998, in the Miami Herald THE MAGIC OF MOTHER GOOSE A slew of studies over the last decade has shown that nursery rhymes help children increase vocabulary and understand language -- the building blocks of reading. By JODI MAILANDER FARRELL Herald Staff Writer @@Multiculturalism %%Stotsky http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0684849615/ref=sim_books/002-3956094-9544404 \zip36\clip\99\15\loselang.htm Losing Our Language : How Multicultural Classroom Instruction Is Undermining Our Children's Ability to Read, Write, and Reason [ABRIDGED] by Sandra Stotsky 1999 CA Standards conference http://www.csun.edu/~hcbio027/standards/conference.html/may21/stotsky.html zip36\clip\99\15\stotsky.htm @@NAEP NAEP SAYS PHONICS EMPHASIS -> WORSE SCORES, LITERATURE -> BETTER \doc\web\99\02\phonics.txt PHONICS: THE "F" WORD? Gerald W. Bracey (Education Week 2/1/99) NAEP asked fourth grade teachers how much they emphasized phonics, whole language, literature-based reading, and the integration of reading and writing. Teachers who said they emphasized whole language had students who tested higher than those who did not emphasize it. Those who emphasized literature had students who tested higher than those who did not. Those who emphasized the integration of reading and writing had students who scored higher than those who did not. Those who emphasized phonics had students who tested lower than those who did not. The phonics differential was larger for the bottom third of students than for the top third (U. S. Department of Education, NAEP 1992 Report Card for the Nation and the States, pages 30-34). @@NCTE Standards National Council of Teachers of English NCTE Home Page NCTE Standards books The National Council of Teachers of English and the International Reading Association- together with teachers, parents, and policymakers from across the country- have spent three years engaged in intense research and discussion to answer this question. The result: Standards for the English Language Arts- national standards designed to prepare all K-12 students for the increasing literacy demands of the twenty-first century. from: http://www.eagleforum.org/educate/1996/june96/briefs.html IRA/NCTE Standards for the English Language Arts 1.Read a wide range of print and nonprint texts to build an understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures of the United States and the world. 2.Read a wide range of literature from many periods in many genres to build an understanding of the many dimensions of human experience. 3.Apply a wide range of strategies to comprehend, interpret, evaluate, and appreciate texts. 4.Adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes. 5.Employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes. 6.Apply knowledge of language structure, language conventions, media techniques, figurative language, and genre to create, critique, and discuss print and nonprint texts. 7.Conduct research on issues and interests by generating ideas and questions and by posing problems. 8.Use a variety of technological and informational resources to gather and synthesize information to create and communicate knowledge. 9.Develop an understanding and respect for diversity and language use, patterns, and dialects across cultures, ethnic groups, geographic regions, and social roles. 10.For students whose first language is not English, make use of their first language to develop competency in English language-arts and develop understanding across curriculum. 11.Participate as knowledgeable, reflective, creative, and critical members of a variety of literacy communities. 12.Use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and exchange of information). Copies of Standards for the English Language Arts are available from the International Reading Association, (800) 336-7323. %%Anti-NCTE NCTE has been hijacked by the constructivists Some Teaching methods are nonsense @@Open Court One of the most highly recommended old-fashioned phonics reading systems by SRA. Hi, The new Open Court reading series is an excellent learning series for the younger grades, 1-4, especially AND includes topics that are relevant to CK! Be sure you get the latest series, as this is the one with the significant improvements. Jo Evarts Lebanon, NH LOS ANGELES TIMES PRAISES OPEN COURT Z39\clip\2000\01\openc.txt http://www.latimes.com/news/state/20000110/t000002976.html Monday, January 10, 2000 Decades Later, Frustrated Father Is Phonics Guru By DUKE HELFAND, Times Staff Writer Open Court better than most, but still some reservations compared to dedicated skilled teachers. 4/98 From: Bruce Crawford Of the 5 books approved in CA for K-5 language arts, Open Court is the only one that meets the minimum phonics content requirements per a recent state law. More can be found on this text from the National Right to Read Foundation. The West Coast rep is Julie Anders. Her e-address is JunglJulie@aol.com Marion Joseph Talks to Washington Legislature about how reading stopped working with whole language. 12/4/97 - Subcommittee on Reading Reading - what works - the national perspective. 1:47 Says that it came out of Sputnik times as a labor of love, not market forces, approved by California, a proven research based system. \clip\98\03\phonte.txt http://www.sacbee.com/news/beetoday/newsroom/local/020198/local02.html Building with words: City schools hope phonics boosts reading By Deborah Anderluh Bee Staff Writer (Sacramento Bee Published Feb. 1, 1998) "Until Open Court, the district had no phonics program. Veteran teachers and principals said that for years they had traded concerns about how little new teachers know about phonics instruction and how little direction they were getting from the district. "They need much more scripting (than was provided)," said Jan Ehlers, principal at Baker." Open Court Reading and Saxon Math win recommendations for homeschooling mom. 1/25/98 Los Angeles Times District Gets Grant to Expand Phonics Program (Open Court reading system makes two elementary schools in Inglewood the best in the system, at grade level) \clip\98\03\edclip1.txt @@Organizations Most industry organizations favor whole language. \doc\web\99\07\lrw.txt Critique of International Reading Association and National Association for the Education of Young Children (1998). Learning to Read and Write. Young Children, 53(4), 30-46. by Patrick Groff Professor of Education Emeritus San Diego State University,

@@Orton Phonograms

From the Riggs Institute: http://www.riggsinst.org/origins.htm Dr. Samuel T. Orton, a renowned neuropathologist, spent his career studying the functioning of the human brain in the learning of language skills. In 1937, he published a book, Reading, Writing and Speech Problems in Children, which is in print and available through our catalog. Dr. Orton was the first brain researcher to warn of the dangers of "look-say" reading instruction for a population approximately 30% of whom were not "visually-oriented" in their learning style. 70 "ORTON" PHONOGRAMS FOR CORRECT SPELLING The Riggs Institute: These consonant phonograms were FORMERLY taught in most basal reading methods though not "explicitly" as compiled research recommends. In this method, two sounds for the letters c, g and s are taught immediately and q is taught with u with which it is always used. Only the sound(s) are dictated as the letters (or symbols) for them are written; the key word shown here is for the teacher to determine the correct pronunciation only. The Reading Problem: Why We Have It? How To Solve It? The scientific basis for phonetics was formulated by Samuel Orton, M.D., a neuropathologist at Columbia University in the 1930s and 40s. He made several major contributions to the science of phonetics. First, he showed how the brain functions in learning to read, demonstrating that there are four avenues to the mind by which we learn: seeing, hearing, saying, and writing (kinesthetic). Further, he discovered that for maximum learning to take place, all four of these avenues must be used together since not all people learn equally well by just one or two of these pathways alone. Dr. Orton called the use of all four pathways to the brain: MULTI-SENSORY LEARNING. Also of major importance, Dr. Orton identified 45 distinct speech sounds we use in speaking English and the 70 letters or combinations of letters that we use to represent these 45 sounds in written English. He called them PHONOGRAMS. (phono = sound and gram = write) Phonograms and phonemes are used synonymously in the literature. see @@Phonics @@Political Correctness REMEMBER SEE SPOT RUN? NOW IT'S SEE NAT AND HARRIET RUN FROM MEN WITH GUNS AND DOGS Text | Image Nat ran fast because he was hunted with men with guns. He got to the farm. Harriet's friends him. Soon Nat was free!" Sprick, Howard and Fidaque @@Portfolio KENTUCKY WRITING PORTFOLIOS INCREASE LEARNING - OR WASTE OF TIME? \clip\99\09\edclip02.txt Published Monday, March 22, 1999, in the Herald-Leader Fourth-graders polish portfolios as debate lingers A lot of ink has been spilled and a lot of hot air spewed on the subject of portfolios, a controversial piece of Kentucky's education reform. Supporters said intensive writing improved performance; opponents argued too much writing took away from other classes. Last year, the General Assembly decided to decrease the number of entries in a fourth-grade portfolio from six to four. @@Power Writing Teachernut writes: Power writing is similar. There was a "power one sentence." For a primary class room it sounded like this I know three things about ARN. ( Power 1 sentence) It is a listserv. ( Power 2) There are nice people on it. ( Power 2) It is against high stakes testing. ( Power 2) @@Predicate The part of the sentence that tells what the subject does G1 Worksheet AG Bell Scott Forseman Level 2.1 G1 Minisink Valley Central School District missing predicate G2 Minisink Valley Central School District main or simple predicate G4 Walton County School District Compound Predicate G9 Virginia Standards of Learning 1st grade worksheet "find the predicate" @@Preschool READING PROBLEMS REDUCED BY BASIC SKILLS IN PRESCHOOL Most reading problems can be prevented by focusing on basic skills starting in preschool, according to a report by a special committee of the National Research Council. The Associated Press, "Preschool skills pay off in learning to read" as published in USA Today, March 19, 1998, D8 @@Prison GA PRISONERS AT 6TH GRADE READING LEVEL From: Rovarose@aol.com Date sent: Mon, 1 Dec 1997 14:47:57 -0500 (EST) A local paper here ran an AP article today on education in Georgia state prisons. It mentioned the fact that the average inmate reads at a sixth grade level on entry to the system. Statistical coincidence? @@Rand http://www.rand.org/multi/achievementforall/reading/ 2/2001 Mentions 4 yr gap in reading: National Assessment of Educational Progress scores, for example, show that 17-year-old African-American students 116 score at the level of 13-year-old European-American students a gap that has decreased only 117 minimally in the last 20 years. This large and persistent gap in reading achievement in the later 118 elementary and secondary grades relates to differences in achievement in other content areas, 119 and to differences in high school dropout and college entrance rates. 120. Also questions high stakes testing - higher dropout rates @@Reading Corps Gov Gary Locke (WA) spends tax dollars to support community volunteers for reading tutoring. It is popular, no organized opposition to it. Blomstrom slams it @@Reading Mastery Phonics based program by SRA favored by Core Knowledge schools, blasted by "curriculum alignment" gurus. %%Bad \DOC\WEB\98\06\align.htm Subj: \"Curriculum Alignment\" Date: 98-06-30 22:43:47 EDT From: sowens@execpc.com According to Evans Newton Inc (hereafter called ENI), 97% of the objectives tested on the Wisconsin Reading Comprehension Test (required of all 3rd grade public school students in Wisconsin) and the Wisconsin Student Assessment System (TerraNova) are either not covered at all by the Reading Mastery program, or are covered only minimally. CA STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION FROWNS ON DIRECT PHONICS http://goldmine.cde.ca.gov/cilbranch/eltdiv/ela_esl.htm The following programs were NOT adopted by the State Board: GRADE LEVELS PUBLISHER PROGRAM K Macmillan-McGraw/Hill Beginning to Read, Write, & Listen K-2 Rigby Literacy Tree K-3 Wright Group Sunshine Series K-5 SRA/McGraw-Hill Reading Mastery Rainbow Edition<----- K-6 Total Reading Total Reading Language Arts Program 6-8 EMC Masterpiece Series 6-8 Prentice Hall Literature Series %%Good Saxe Gotha Elementary School http://www.lex1.k12.state.sc.us/sge/school.htm Programs Enhancing the Core Curriculum: Reading Mastery http://www.kings.k12.ca.us/central/cuesd.a/first.html Akers School NAS Lemoore. The primary focus in first grade is reading. Therefore, Akers' first grade students participate in intensive reading instruction. Students are instructed via Reading Mastery, a structured phonics program. http://www.abts.net/~bunrojj8790/page2.html Lincoln Charter School is a Core Knowledge school that uses Reading Mastery with Saxon math. http://www.cgcs.org/services/whatworks/achievement/p22.htm Teaching All Children To Read A partnership program between Georgia State University and the Atlanta Public Schools to enhance reading performance Uses the Direct Instruction reading materials published by SRA. Teachers are trained in the implementation of the method. The method provides phonemic awareness, letter-sound relationship, blending skills, and comprehension skills which are all taught to mastery and fluency. Regular checks for mastery are done so that a student does not fall behind in reading performance. @@Reading Recovery Remedial Reading program from New Zealand with good reputation and wide adoption in the US. However it is largely whole language based, and has its critics. Doug Carnine says that it its claims are not justified by research, and that phonics based methods have been shown to be more efffective. It is also very expensive, costing as much as $9,000 per student per year, and requires sending teachers to special "leadership" training. San Diego found that it was less effective than control groups with conventional instruction. Advocates in Maine have slammed direct instruction of phonics in favor of literature based literature with "inventive spelling" to support belief that early writing is neccesary. %%Against San Diego 2000 reports RR is expensive and less effective than controls. Word format report Goff says RR is expensive and ineffective, with only a small amount of direct vs WL instruction. From: "James Kilpatrick" John, They lost my interest when they mentioned Reading Recovey and Chicago Math. Reading Recovery is not a classroom program and independent studies have shown all gains made by first grade are lost by third. http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~bgrossen/rr.htm \clip\99\01\rr\rr.htm READING RECOVERY: AN EVALUATION OF BENEFITS AND COSTS Bonnie Grossen and Gail Coulter University of Oregon Barbara Ruggles Beacon Hill Elementary, Park Forest, Illinois Executive Summary Many believe Reading Recovery to be the best available program for preventing reading failure conclusions - claims are exagerated, and not as good as phonics based programs. READING RECOVERY IS NOT PHONICS, DOES POORLY IN NZ href="http://www.theatlantic.com/election/connection/educatio/levine.htm">WHOLE LANGUAGE IS KING, AND THAT'S BAD \clip\97\25\grdeb.txt Atlantic Monthly December 1994 The Great Debate Revisited by Art Levine Perhaps the clearest demonstration that children benefit from such a combination is a program for troubled readers called Reading Recovery, designed by the New Zealand educator Marie Clay. Early research showed that roughly 85 percent of Reading Recovery graduates were reading at levels comparable to their peers' up to three years later--a rate of success that no other remedial program comes close to matching. Criticism of Reading Recovery http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~bgrossen/rr.htm#alternative READING RECOVERY: AN EVALUATION OF BENEFITS AND COSTS Bonnie Grossen and Gail Coulter University of Oregon Barbara Ruggles Beacon Hill Elementary, Park Forest, Illinois Executive Summary \clip\97\25\rr.htm Claims to better reading are inaccurate. The specific vehicle for the spread of whole-language through American public education was a program called Reading Recovery, developed by a teacher in New Zealand named Marie Clay, which supposedly produced nearly miraculous results with third- and fourth-graders who were having trouble reading. Reading Recovery itself draws upon both phonics and whole-language theory, but in America it has served as a transmission device for whole-language. Reading Recovery specifically, and whole-language reading instruction generally, spread like wildfire through the education world during the 1980s. %%for BRACEY SAYS READING RECOVERY DOES BOTH PHONICS AND LITERATURE \doc\web\99\01\readrec.txt READING RECOCERY BLASTS DI, PROMOTES INVENTIVE SPELLING \clip\99\03\maine.htm Reading Reform: Lessons From Maine By Brenda Power Education Week 1/18/99 * heavy writing workshops * literature based reading instead of textbooks * phonics importance is downplayed * research-based reading program" * embedded phonics * "developmental" (or "invented") spelling in the early grades, Much research demonstrates how essential this component of early writing instruction is for development of reading skills. * dislikes " the most lock-step and prescribed instruction in phonics." [direct instruction] @@Rebus stories Stories with pictures substituted for words. G1 AG Bell Peter Hu had to construct a story with pictures as homework. @@Requirements New Standards originally proposed 25 books per grade level. Now Wisconsin DPI is setting a standard for number of books read. @@Research Right to Read on bogus "Research" 30 Years of Research: What We Now Know About How Children Learn to Read The Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning. Reading is learned, and it's not just a matter of learning when "ready", most poor readers remain that way even in higher grades and explicit phonics is the best intervention. Rebuttal of "internet" paper" from tennesee establishment @@Remedial Reading WHOLE LANGUAGE DAMAGE, REMEDIAL READING IS NOT EFFECTIVE Realities of Remedial Reading (brief) The National Right to Read Foundation P. O. Box 490 The Plains, Virginia 20198-0490 1-800-468-8911 Briefing 65 @@Riggs Institute Oregon based institute pushes sophisticated phonics instruction way beyond what is normally taught, but also believes that whole language would be ok if they got this phonics first. Does not agree with all reform opposition. This is what they have to say. > We say parts of whole language programs, including better quality > literature, is OK AFTER kids learn phonics, spelling and handwriting. We > do agree with reform opposition to purist whole language programs which > eliminate basic skills. On Hirsch, we say his stuff would work better if > students had better basic skills. > > We say Saxon "phonics" program is OK but not as good as ours. We don't > do math which is Saxon's mainstay so people might be really confused here. > > Our web site is back to the original after our server move: > http://www.riggsinst.org (our domain name) > BY WEEK 9 30 WORDS PER WEEK, 180 WORDS IN SENTENCES \doc\web\98\08\riggs.txt By week 9: children taught as I've described are ready to tackle any whole language literature around; at 30 words per week (6 per day), they have 180 words in their spelling notebooks which they've analyzed for some rather diverse spelling patterns, can read, and put into sentences which they can read and comprehend. This has prepared them to tackle real literature. SUCCESS IN INNER CITY SCHOOL http://www.teleport.com/~riggs/method.htm Date sent: Fri, 09 Jan 1998 12:34:40 -0800 From: The Riggs Institute Response: This might be of interest; in 1977 I implemented The Writing Road to Reading as the multi-sensory, direct instruction skills package using the very fine Open Court literature but in an inner city, at- risk student body. First grade class averages: 87%tile second grade: 96%, etc. all on a budget of $750/student/annually. All done in mainstreamed classrooms - no special ed, etc. We became ineligible for Title I funding for remedial anything in exactly 2.5 months. You may read more details at: http://www.teleport.com/~riggs/method.htm Riggs responds They think whole language is fine after children have mastered phonics, Hirsch doesn't but should teach basic skills, Saxon is OK, but not as good as their stuff. @@Right Wing The push for phonics and attacks on whole language is blamed on right wing wackos. 2/20/98 Arizona Daily Star Commentary Parental Choice bill requires a state-mandated curriculum By Ken Goodman Many primary children in Arizona schools will suffer greatly if the state Legislature passes HB2130, the Parental Choice bill. Ken Goodman is a University of Arizona professor of "whole" language, reading and culture. This bill is part of a national campaign, loudly spearheaded by far-right groups such as the Eagle Forum, to use state and national laws to control pupils and teachers in American classrooms. @@Risky Writing ADVOCATES WRITING FROM VERY PERSONAL, PRIVATE EXPERIENCE z57\clip\2002\08\risky.htm Risky Writing: Self-Disclosure and Self-Transformation in the Classroom Greta Vollmer Sonoma State University Risky Writing: Self Disclosure and Self-Transformation in the Classroom. Author Jeffrey Berman ...tackles head-on what he sees as a deep-seated prejudice against the use of personal narrative and self-disclosure in composition classrooms... makes a case for creating a safe classroom environment in which students can write on issues deemed “too personal” for academic writing such as depression, divorce, alcoholism, and sexual abuse. Teachers College Record, Date Published: 7/9/02 http://www.tcrecord.org @@Scientific Learning Corporation http://www.scilearn.com/ FastforWord - Uses neuroscience to improve reading learing, but instead of fuzzy, it actually has data to show improvement and tries to get automaticity by paying attention to how the brain perceives sounds. This might actually be a good brain based system. 1995 University Avenue Suite 400 Berkeley, California 94704-1074 @@scores \priv\96b\01\usread.txt Date: Tue, 18 Jun 1996 03:15:55 -0400 From: NewsHound@sjmercury.com (NewsHound) Study: U.S. Kids' Reading Skills Fare Well Against Other Countries By JENNIFER BROWN. US Dept of Education announces that students were tied for 3rd in 4th grade, and tied with 15 nations for 2nd place in 9th grade. --About 70 percent of white students have above average reading levels, compared with 30 to 40 percent of black children and 50 percent of Hispanic students. @@Second Language There is a very dangerous recommendation from the National Research Council that non-native speakers do not learn written english until they have mastered the spoken language. In Los Angeles, since they are not permitted to teach in the native language, they are prohibiting teaching of reading in ANY language in 1st grade. \clip\98\06\invspell.txt http://www.washtimes.com/culture/culture1.html March 19, 1998 By Carol Innerst THE WASHINGTON TIMES. Educators endorse 'invented spelling' [foreign speakers should not be taught to read until they can speak first, or taught in their own language first, research shows no benefit to reading in their native language first] ""Improving Schooling for Language Minority Children," said research was inconclusive as to whether there are long-term advantages or disadvantages to initial literacy instruction in the native language in the primary years, or in English." "If language-minority children arrive at school with no proficiency in English, but speaking a language for which there are instructional guides, learning materials, and locally available proficient teachers, then these children should be taught how to read in their native language while acquiring proficiency in spoken English, and then subsequently taught to extend their skills to reading in English." Absent these conditions, formal reading instruction should be postponed until the child has achieved an "adequate level of proficiency in spoken English." National Research Commision. \clip\98\06\earlread.txt Copyright 1998 Associated Press. All rights reserved. MARCH 18, 10:00 EST Early Preparation for Reading Urged By ROBERT GREENE AP Education Writer "The report by a special committee of the National Research Council also argues for better teacher preparation. ``We need the will to ensure that every child has access to excellent preschool environments and well-prepared teachers,'' said Catherine Snowe, the panel's chair and professor of education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. " [oh oh, sounds like prescription for even more education college based nonsense - whole language must be included] children whose first language is not English should first learn to read in their native language. The child should be able to speak English reasonably well before learning to read it, the report said. @@Six Traits of Writing gobiged.blogspot.com Schools list the six things they’re teaching as: 1) ideas 2) organization 3) word choice 4) sentence fluency 5) voice 6) conventions I list them as: 1) no spelling 2) no grammar 3) no punctuation 4) no sentence diagramming 5) no research techniques 6) no way can these kids write a decent paragraph, much less a cogent, solid, expository report @@Spalding Romalda Spalding, and other teachers who had been trained around the turn of this century, worked under Dr. Orton's close supervision, bringing with them their own knowledge of the structure of English words as English was taught, linguistically, at that time. Mrs. Spalding utilized Dr. Orton's multi-sensory methodology for her method (published in 1957). Riggs Institute: http://www.riggsinst.org/origins.htm The "Spalding" method is the one promoted by the Riggs Institute Spalding method schools in Arizona fall 80-95th percentile in language, even "chapter 1" disadvantaged schools, according to "The Writing Road to Reading" by Spalding SPALDING ADAPTS ORTON METHODS TO NORMAL CHILDREN The Reading Problem: Why We Have It? How To Solve It? Romalda Spalding, a public school teacher in New York City, with the help of her husband, Walter, began working with Dr. Orton. They reasoned that if severely handicapped children could learn to read using the principles Dr. Orton had discovered, certainly normal children could be even more successful. Their adaptation of Dr. Orton's work allowed them to develop their multi-sensory approach to the teaching of reading, writing and spelling which resulted in their teacher's manual: THE WRITING ROAD TO READING, published in 1957. Using this Orton-based method, first graders master the 70 phonograms in the first few weeks of school by seeing, hearing, saying and writing them. Then they begin to read. No one teaches them to read.... they just read! @@Speed Reading Murray and others note that speed reading works for a while, but then regresses back to normal. "In the early 1970s, I took Evelyn Woods' speed-reading course. It was a unique experience. At the end of the course I was, just as the advertising promised, reading at speeds, with unattenuated comprehension, that I would have thought were impossible" @@Spelling Whole language is largely blamed for children utterly unable to spell, and being taught "inventive" spelling. %%Exercises z38\clipim\99\12\05\spell.efx 2nd grade: arachnid poisonous tarantula ... spelling contract %%Invented Spelling %%Whole language TEACHER DOES NOT KNOW VOWEL SOUNDS, YOU CAN TELL WHOLE LANGUAGE KIDS BECAUSE THEY CAN'T SPELL. \priv\97\07\redarr.txt (private file)" I have reached the point where I can look at a child's spelling test and immediately know if the child is a whole language kid. If you ask them to spell mouse, the child is just as likely to spell "rat". There are no discernible error patterns to the spelling mistakes. The child might spell a relatively big word and misspell a word like "tack" or "jump". After looking at one of the spelling tests my student teacher has given, I recommend that the student teacher give a short test on just the sounds to determine which ones the child doesn't know. Two minutes later the student teacher admits to not knowing the vowel sounds and needing some help. I have never had any of my charges not know the vowel sounds and so I ask the student teacher to tell me what she would say for " short a." ....clearly doesn't know the vowel sounds. I help her make a cheat sheet writing the word "at" next to the "a", "in" next to "i" etc. so that she will be able to assess her students." @@Standards http://www.ncee.org/primary/release.html \doc\web\99\13\newread.txt Primary Literacy Standards Press Release May 25, 1999 Nation's Top Literacy Experts Set Out Reading and Writing Targets for Youngest Students (NCEE) $45 @@Standard English Expert says Don't teach standard english it perpetuates class @@Dr. Suess (Theodor Geisel) Dr. Suess says: And then there was Dr. Seuss himself, the late Theodor Geisel, who once said, "Killing phonics was one of the greatest causes of illiteracy in the country." Too bad the Cats in the Hats and the NEA flacks couldn't have focused on that on Read Across America day. Richmond Times-Dispatch, Wednesday, March 4, 1998 "See Spot Run. See Dick & Jane Politico Mug as Cats in Hats" by Robert Holland, editor, the Op-Ed pages. @@Success For All Success for all is a widely laudeded, phonics based program, but still has some critics. It is highly structured, direct instruction, with some exotic twists such as using Venn Diagrams to diagram stories. Some report evidence of success, while in others it falls short of goal of reading parity. The worst study shows it is very expensive, but SFA kids did no better or even worse than controls, kids who stayed the longest ended up at a pitiful 30th percentile reading level. %%Against SUCCESS FOR ALL IS EXPENSIVE, 30TH PERCENTILE K3 RESULTS z39\doc\web\2000\02\sfa.txt Once initial differences were acccounted for there were no differences between the reading groups beyond grade two. In grade two, SFA results were significantly poorer than the control group or SRA.Kids who remained in the same SFA school for 170-180 days continuously from K-3 scored in the 30th percentile on the 3rd grade test. negative review success vs old not vs norms \clip\99\02\edclip11.txt January 19, 1999, in the Miami Herald Costly program falls short in poorest Dade schools Teachers, parents still enthusiastic about Success for All in early grades By JODI MAILANDER FARRELL Herald Staff Writer A nationally acclaimed reading program that costs Miami-Dade County public schools more than $4 million annually has failed to achieve its most basic goal -- getting the students to read at grade level by the third grade...Dade third-graders in Success for All schools, who have been in the program since prekindergarten or kindergarten, are scoring an average 20 percentage points below the national median on the Stanford Achievement Test... [students in other programs including direct instruction scored better] SUCCESS FOR ALL A FAILURE? http://www.edweek.org/ew/current/30walber.h17 [April 8, 1998] [Education Week on the Web] The Diogenes Factor By Herbert J. Walberg and Rebecca C. Greenberg Consider "Success for All," which provides a noteworthy example of the Diogenes factor in a federally supported program. Though its own developers declare it a huge success, independent evaluators find essentially negative evidence. %%For z40\clip\2000\03\sfa.txt http://archives.seattletimes.com/cgi-bin/texis/web/vortex/ display?slug=skul&date=20000312 Sunday, March 12, 2000 Teaching in a harness: A 'magic' fix for reading scores? by Jolayne Houtz and Linda Shaw Seattle Times staff reporters When Success for All works, it looks like magic: After just one year of the program, test scores at Jackson doubled on the state's closely watched fourth-grade reading test, the Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL). Fans are evangelical, sometimes referring to the Success for All teaching manual as "the bible." Some laud it as a tidy toolbox containing the best of proven methods: tutoring, family support, phonics and whole-language learning, smaller class sizes, teacher training. \clip\99\02\readread.txt http://www.theatlantic.com/issues/98nov/read.htm http://www.theatlantic.com/issues/98nov/read2.htm http://www.theatlantic.com/issues/98nov/read3.htm Ready, Read! Nicholas Lehman Atlantic November 1998 Success for All, central control by proven rigid programs is advocated. "Crew replaced four of the nine new principals, and he adopted the Success for All reading program. This time the reading scores at all nine schools (and at three other schools that had been added to the district) rose significantly." url: http://www.kiva.net/~pdkintl/kappan/ksla9801.htm file: \clip\99\05\refmodl.htm file: \clip\99\05\refmodl.txt Schoolwide Reform Models: What Works? By Olatokunbo S. Fashola and Robert E. Slavin Success for All: for language-minority students, the effects of Success for All have been particularly positive.11 Bilingual schools in Philadelphia found substantial differences between Success for All schools and control schools on scales from the Spanish Woodcock, with an effect size at the end of second grade of +1.81 (almost a full grade-equivalent). SUCCESS FOR ALL MAKES KENTUCKY "STUFF THAT WORKS" LIST \clip\98\02\readres.txt http://www.oregonian.com/todaysnews/9801/st01182.html THE OREGONIAN January 18, 1998 Educators put reading to the test Two UO professors push for results-driven schooling, but critics call it inhumane By Scott Learn of The Oregonian staff Only 12 elementary school reading programs made the list [of programs with proven improvement], including both of Engelmann's "Success for All," the phonics-based program that Portland Public Schools started this year to improve dismal reading scores. @@Synthetic Phonics Scheme augments 26 letter alphabets with enriched 42 character scheme. http://www.crispian.demon.co.uk/McDNLArch6.htm \doc\web\99\01\synth.txt "better still was the scheme used in Scotland (researched especially by DR Rhona Johnston of St Andrews University) and called 'synthetic phonics.' In this scheme, children first learn 42 alphabet-based symbols for sounds (at the rate of six per day). Then they are given reading materials using not the traditional 26-character alphabet but the enriched 42-character scheme. This has been "staggeringly effective" according to some teachers: children have often ended up within a few weeks advanced by a full year of reading age. @@Table of Contents Identify table of contents -------------------------- K (1) CA language arts standards (1) http://www.cde.ca.gov/board/standards.html CA Kindergarten standards Structural Features of Informational Materials (Kindergarten) 2.1 Locate the title, table of contents, name of author, and name of illustrator. @@Teacher Training \clip\98\06\earlread.txt Copyright 1998 Associated Press. All rights reserved. MARCH 18, 10:00 EST Early Preparation for Reading Urged By ROBERT GREENE AP Education Writer "The report by a special committee of the National Research Council also argues for better teacher preparation. ``We need the will to ensure that every child has access to excellent preschool environments and well-prepared teachers,'' said Catherine Snowe, the panel's chair and professor of education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. " [oh oh, sounds like prescription for even more education college based nonsense - whole language must be included] @@Test The National Right to Read Foundation's Reading Competency Test is now available for FREE at our new Web site: http://www.nrrf.org. @@Test Prep Teresa Saum April 13, 2004 12:52 PM Subject: Re: [arn-l] Dewey, Individualization & Testing narrowing the curriculum and teaching to the test are huge problems in other Minnesota schools. My district has pretty much abandoned a good model for writing instruction to embrace four-square writing, hamburger essay models, and the five paragraph essay. All of these are teaching directly to the state writing test and a response to reporting of schools' passing rates on the front page of the newspaper. Statewide testing in Minnesota is plenty intrusive. @@Test Scores NORTH CAROLINA REPORT: LANGUAGES SKILLS SUCK BECAUSE WE DIDN'T TEACH FUNDAMENTAL CONVENTIONS OF STANDARD WRITTEN ENGLISH z62\doc\web\2002\12\ncread.txt http://www.ncpublicschools.org/accountability/Reporting/Naep/NAEPITBSWebFinal.pdf North Carolina’s primary instructional focus has been on composing skills and the presentation of ideas, with less emphasis on standard English conventions such as grammar, spelling, usage, and sentence formation. ....caused lowered language convention scores for grades 4 and 7 on recent North Carolina writing assessments. ... additional emphasis should be placed on the fundamental conventions of written expression. @@Textbook %%The Ginn Basic Readers "We Are Neighbors" 2nd Grade 1948-1964 Sample: The three boys were very hapy now. They had all found ways to earn money. teacher is not to reduce or elminate differences @@Tutor SOCIAL PROMOTION: SUES FOR $15K FOR PRIVATE READING TUTOR z74\clip\2003\09\read160.txt New York Daily News - http://www.nydailynews.com By FERNANDA SANTOS DAILY NEWS STAFF WRITER Friday, September 26th, 2003 Joelis now reads at a fifth-grade level, Craynon said. @@Video Feedforward /images/972/112197/p27.gif "New Video Feedforward Technique" Huntly Collins Seattle Times Nov 4, 1997 @@Vocabulary also see LYON CLAIMS 3YR OLD RICH WHITE KID MORE WORDS THAN POOR BLACK MOTHER "A three-year-old child in an affluent family has a larger working vocabulary than the mother of a three-year-old in a welfare family." Reid Lyon ASCD Update, August, 2002 (accessible at www.ascd.org, even for non-members) Bracey: Lyon suggests I look at Hart and Risley "Meaningful Differences". It doesn't come close to random assignment or the conditions of a medical field trial. They studied 42 families. They started with 50, but 8 dropped out. There were 13 professionals, 23 working class, and six were on welfare. So it appears that the largest possible data base for Lyon's comment is 13 kids of professional families and six welfare mothers. Six. One study. Six mothers, thirteen kids. The major finding is alarming but it does not address "welfare mothers." It addresses the rate at which the different families spoke to their kids: 600 words per hour for welfare parents, 1200 for working class, 2000 for professionals. IQ VOCABULARY GAP IN PLACE BY AGE 3 preiq.txt From: "Gregory M. Cochran" <74771.3230@compuserve.com> * U. CAL BERK-145.10) Christopher Jencks & Meredith Phillips, THE AMERICAN PROSPECT, September -October 1998, pp. 44-53, Online, INFOTRAC, When three- and four-year-olds take vocabulary tests, for example, the typical black child's vocabulary score falls below the twentieth percentile of the national distribution. The black-white gap in IQ is in place by age three or four*. AVERAGE CHILD STARTS SCHOOL WITH 5000 WORDS The Reading Problem: Why We Have It? How To Solve It? Most children begin school with a speaking vocabulary of at least 5000 words. The "new" LOOK-SAY method was an attempt to teach children to immediately recognize and read some of the thousands of words they already knew and used in every day speech. High Reach Learning Language Development Training Module http://www.highreach.com/pdfs/TM%20LANG.pdf. For instance, a two-year-old child may have a two hundredword vocabulary and may speak in twoword phrases such as "Car go." By age three, a child generally has a vocabulary of one thousand words and now uses two,three, and four word sentences. Quite anaccomplishment for one year! @@Vowel Identify vowels: ------------------------------ K - CA kindergarten class (1) (1) KINDERGARTEN FROM HELL NOW STANDARD IN CA z40\clipim\2000\03\27\kinder\kinder.htm http://www.ocregister.com/education/kind026w.shtml Kindergarten is no longer kids' play EDUCATION: State standards have students learning math and reading. March 26, 2000 Story by MARIA SACCHETTI The Orange County Register en class @@Whole language Whole language is a philosophy that instead of teaching phonetics, children read by just staring at and being exposed to "quality literature" and guessing. It has been blamed for a wholesale generational disaster in literacy. Dick and Jane are based on look - say, based more on memorization than phonetic decoding, but at least are written to a very simple level. Whole language often doesn't care if words are difficult or uncommon, or "undecodable" by most simple phonetic rules.

Phonetic instruction is criticized because words are not presented in the context of literature and stories, and mindless drills. What do I think? It's ok to add real literature, but the poor and black are the ones harmed most by not teaching the basics, instead of trying to shield them from difficult material and skills. Also see Reform Math Outcome Based Education Education Reform >Dr. Reid Lyon testimony before House Commitee on Education and Workforce > >http://www.ldonline.org/ld_indepth/reading/nih_report.html > >Summary of Thirity Years of Research on Reading > >http://cftl.org/30years/30years.html %%against z54\clip\2002\01\whole.txt Whole language teachers unabashed, hanging tough Conventioneers back method over phonics By Howard Libit Sun Staff November 17, 2001 Though it has been discredited nationally, the whole language approach to teaching reading is alive and kicking at the Baltimore Convention Center this weekend. Baltimore Sun Jan 16 1999 Middle school tackles reading Baltimore principal enlists specialists to solve problem; They `beg' to be taught; `Shortchanged' earlier, pupils have 3rd-grade skills By Stephen Henderson Sun Staff "in later elementary grades and middle schools, the board decided an emphasis on literature would be better. That strategy, some school officials are saying, might have been a mistake." [Article makes no reference to the disaster called "Whole Language" that evidently is the main problem when they decided that phonics was "not working"] CHICAGO TRIBUNE - WHOLE LANGUAGE BRINGS ST CHARLES INTO DECLINE link http://chicagotribune.com/news/opinion/voiceofthepeople/article/0,1051,SAV -9 901100081,00.html THE NEED TO RETURN TO READING BASICSMary DamerJanuary 10, 1999 ST. CHARLES -- Last year's state testing results reveal that MIDDLE SCHOOL LD/BD STUDENTS MAKING WORSE MISTAKES DUE TO WL \clip\98\16\speced.txt (private) very few of these LD/BD students have those most basic of skills anymore. Paralleling research findings, they have a hodgepodge of words they have managed to memorize, without rhyme or reason (sometimes they will be able to spell "Forecast" and yet not be able to spell "ham." )yet faced with a simple 3 or 4 letter word, they omit the vowels, write the word with the wrong vowels, or make consonant mistakes. There is no excuse for a middle school student, however LD or BD, to make these mistakes. We now have to give the test originally designed for students younger than third grade to the middle school students. Frequently the students are totally frustrated with the test for 4th graders and above. Many of them would qualify as being functionally illiterate. " \clip\98\04\newscl10.txt 2/16/98 Associated Press Is experiment a failure? By Matt Crenson AP Science Editor "Although proponents tout it as the best way by far to teach kids how to read, nearly a decade of scientific research and sad experience have shown it can be a miserable failure." "they usually fail to mention that about one in four kids has trouble understanding [phonics]." Teacher sneaks in phonics in Charlton Mass against district orders. \clip\98\03\whole1.txt http://205.164.116.200/kidsource/content/whole.1.html \clip\98\03\whole.htm whole2.txt http://205.164.116.200/kidsource/content/whole.2.html L.A. Weekly Blackboard Bungle: Why California Kids Can't Read By Jill Stewart "They convincingly pointed out that reading levels among California's white children had dropped to the absolute bottom for their racial group in the U.S.--even below white children in Louisiana--so claiming that the poor performance of Latino immigrants had skewed California's scores was not only cynical, it was dead wrong. And pro-skills advocates revealed that New Zealand--even to this day still much ballyhooed by Sacramento education officials--had not, in fact, benefitted from whole language. Indeed, one-quarter of that country's gradeschool children could not read, and needed costly tutors. New Zealand, deeply embarrassed by its reading crisis, has begun a discomforting internal debate. Meanwhile, an international study found that New Zealand actually lagged behind the U.S. in gradeschool reading ability, despite its widely repeated claim that it was the "most literate" country in the world." Marion Joseph Talks to Washington Legislature about how reading stopped working with whole language. 12/4/97 - Subcommittee on Reading Reading - what works - the national perspective. WHOLE LANGUAGE FAILS IN AUSTRALIA WHOLE LANGUAGE IS KING, AND THAT'S BAD \clip\97\25\grdeb.txt Atlantic Monthly December 1994 The Great Debate Revisited by Art Levine "Since 1981 only a few dozen studies in reputable education journals have even attempted to compare the reading scores achieved by the whole-language method. A 1989 overview paper in the Review of Educational Research found that the scanty whole-language research and the more extensive studies on its predecessor, the "language experience" approach, when taken together, show that they produced somewhat worse results in reading comprehension and worse results with disadvantaged students than traditional methods did. " WHOLE LANGUAGE ATTACKS NEW ZEALAND http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/read_102297.html The Seattle Times Company Wednesday, Oct. 22, 1997 Basics work, teachers told \clip\97\25\dickflun.txt http://www.policyreview.com/heritage/p_review/nov97/flunk.html POLICY REVIEW November-December, 1997 Number 86 Published by The Heritage Foundation See Dick Flunk By Tyce Palmaffy The evidence is overwhelming that kids with reading problems need phonics-based instruction. Why aren’t educators getting the message? PHONICS EXPERIMENT PROMISES TO TEACH ALL \clip\97\25\arthur.txt THE OREGONIAN October 23, 1997 REYNOLDS GIVES MAVERICK TEACHER TWO YEARS FOR READING EXPERIMENT by Scott Learn of THE OREGONIAN staff. GRESHAM -- Chuck Arthur, a first-grade-teacher at Wilkes Elementary School, says a way to teach all children with IQs above 65 to read is right in front of educators' noses. \doc\web\97\08\tomor.txt Date: Fri, 17 Oct 1997 12:23:23 -0400 To: education-consumers@tricon.net From: "Daniel R. Connell" \doc\web\97\07\moats.txt Statement of Louisa C. Moats before House Education and WorkForce Committee: (whole langauge reading is a disaster) Teachers - The Key to Help America Read http://www.ldonline.org/ld_indepth/reading/moats.html WHOLE LANGUAGE DAMAGE, REMEDIAL READING IS NOT EFFECTIVE \doc\web\97\08\remed.txt Realities of Remedial Reading (brief) The National Right to Read Foundation P. O. Box 490 The Plains, Virginia 20198-0490 1-800-468-8911 Briefing 65 CALIFORNIA COMMISION ON TEACHER CREDENTIALING ADMITS WHOLE LANGUAGE WAS A DISASTER WITH NO BASIS IN RESEARCH http://cgi.sacbee.com/news/beetoday/newsroom/local/092897/local04.html \clip\97\21\caread.txt Sacramento Bee 9/28/97 "We all share the blame," said [California Commission on Teacher Credentialing] spokeswoman Linda Bond. "We all at the time -- and it was well-intentioned -- were enthusiastic about this (whole language) theory. The flaw, and what I hope we have all learned from this, is that it's very important to have a research base before we go statewide with any theory." Sacramento Bee Playing catch-up in schools: Faltering teenagers get help with reading skills By Jan Ferris Bee Staff Writer EDUCATION WEEK PAPER http://www.edweek.org/context/topics/phonics.htm \clip\97\21\phonics.htm WHOLE LANGUAGE LEADS TO SPELLING DISASTER http://www.latimes.com/archives/ ($1.50) \clip\97\16\spell.txt Los Angeles Times Thursday, May 29, 1997 Page: A-1 How Our Kidz Spel: What's the Big Deel?; A decade ago California schools began teaching that creativity was more important than spelling. Critics say the result was disastrous--and tests tend to back them.; By: ELAINE WOO TIMES EDUCATION WRITER How do you spell failure? WHOLE LANGUAGE IN QUESTION: WHAT? TEACH KIDS TO READ "DIRECTLY"??? http://www.edweek.org/ew/vol-15/26eng.h15 \clip\97\07\warword.txt Education Week March 20, 1996 A War of Words: Whole Language Under Siege " "Sometimes, I get kids who are just clueless. They think everything is trial and error. They have to guess at every word," Ms. Hamby said. "When I tell them there are rules that govern our language, they are stunned." "policymakers across the country are making laws and writing rules that mandate the use of explicit phonics instruction--a "direct" method, " LOW INCOME AND POOR STUDENTS HARMED BY WHOLE LANGUAGE, PHONICS DOES HELP http://www.theAtlantic.com/atlantic/election/connection/Educatio/levine.htm \clip\97\07\GREADEBA.TXT Atlantic Magazine December 1994 The Great Debate Revisited by Art Levine "Low-income and slow students appear to benefit especially from explicit phonics instruction." "Since 1981 only a few dozen studies in reputable education journals have even attempted to compare the reading scores achieved by the whole-language method with those of other methods of teaching reading, and the conclusions are contradictory, at best. A 1989 overview paper in the Review of Educational Research found that the scanty whole-language research and the more extensive studies on its predecessor, the "language experience" approach, when taken together, show that they produced somewhat worse results in reading comprehension and worse results with disadvantaged students than traditional methods did." "language should be learned from "whole to part," with word-recognition skills being picked up by the child in the context of actual reading, writing, and "immersion" in a print-rich classroom." "Frank Smith has argued, "To the fluent reader, the alphabetic principle is completely irrelevant." In fact Jeanne Chall, of Harvard, and other researchers have demonstrated that two powerful predictors of future reading success are a knowledge of the alphabet and an awareness of the speech sounds that make up words--the very skills that are often lacking in disadvantaged students when they enter first grade." "Equally dubious is the widely advertised "Hooked on Phonics" program, which promises miracles for beginning readers, young and old alike. In 1991 a panel of reading experts questioned the effectiveness of this method, since it concentrates on teaching letter sounds without offering any meaningful reading. " PHONEMIC AWARENESS - READING NATURAL IS JUST BULL \clip\97\06\wholnew.txt http://search.tribnet.com/features/56000.htm Times Tribune (Tacoma) 2/25/97 A new way to teach kids to read / As fans of whole-language and phonics continue to battle, researchers have found a new method "If the whole-language movement is teaching that learning to read is natural, that's bull," ..." But in reading, just as in swimming or playing piano, most youngsters need systematic instruction that should foster something reading experts call phonemic awareness." Matt Crenson; The Associated Press \doc\96\01\literacy.txt "Learn to Read, Stay Out of Jail: Failed Teaching Methods Help Breed Criminals" Investor's Business Daily Jan 12, 1996 p. 1 Matthew Robinson. 8% to 20% of Americans are illiterate? Majority of unwed, arrested or on welfare are illiterate. Crime Blamed on whole language movement. \doc\95\14\readideo.txt "Reading and Ideology" Where We Stand, Albert Shanker (advertisement) New Republic Dec 4, 1995 p. 23 A group of articles in the Summer 1995 issue of American Education makes it clear that children lean best in a system that combines the best of phonics and whole language. BALANCED INSTRUCTION - PHONICS AND LITERATURE \clip\97\07\bestboth.txt http://www.edweek.org/ew/vol-15/26read.h15 Education Week March 20, 1996 The Best of Both Worlds " Balanced instruction combines the best elements from phonics instruction and the whole-language approach. That is, children are explicitly taught the relationship between letters and sounds in a systematic fashion, but they are being read to and reading interesting stories and writing at the same time. " >>\priv\95\17\whollang.txt Ways of teaching reading debated: It's phonics vs. `whole language' Boston Globe 11/7/95 \priv\95\12\backbasc.txt whole language method is a dismal failure %%California disaster WHOLE LANGUAGE RESPONSIBLE FOR A GENERATION OF ILLITERATES http://www.latimes.com/HOME/NEWS/REPORTS/SCHOOLS/read_one.htm \clip\98\10\cantread.txt Los Angeles Times Sunday, May 17, 1998 Reading Blues Teachers Say They Must Water Down Classes Because Students Lack Basic Skills By RICHARD LEE COLVIN, Times Education Writer " But underlying all those problems, many reading experts now blame the state's plunge in the late 1980s into an instructional philosophy called ''whole language.'' Two years ago, after the state's fourth-graders came out at the bottom of a 39-state assessment of reading skills, state lawmakers pulled the plug on ''whole language'' and passed bills requiring lessons, textbooks and teacher training focusing on phonics. " "Children who do not read at least moderately well by the end of third grade, long-term studies show, have a very poor chance of even graduating from high school. " %%Deconstruction \doc\web\99\07\wldecon.txt whole language based on destructive and subversive deconstruction %%Origin Kenneth Goodman nad Frank Smith are the founders of Whole Language wl.txt"> By Patrick Groff Since its inception in the 1970s, the Whole Language (WL) movement in America has been headed almost exclusively by an influential cadre of professors of education. The co-founder, and leading proponent of WL since then has been professor of education Kenneth Goodman. Regie Routman is not a professor of education, but instead a "resource teacher." First-grade teachers must stop conducting direct, systematic, intensive, comprehensive, and early instruction of a prearranged sequence of reading skills, and replace it with her "balanced" reading program. In this respect, she abides by the dictum laid down by WL co-founder Frank Smith. He "tells us that everything we need to know about reading and writing we can learn from authors" of children's books, Routman avers. \doc\web\98\08\rollcall.txt Roll Call of Combatants in the Reading Wars by Patrick Groff Professor of Education Emeritus San Diego State University [List of researchers on both sides of phonics/ whole language debate] "both the media and the reading specialists in question ignore, or are unaware of the true nature of the world-wide altercation over what kind of reading instruction is the most effective. This battle began in the 1970s, when the Whole Language (WL) approach to students’ reading development was created, by Kenneth Goodman and Frank Smith. After that point in time, WL increasingly became a dominant force in reading instruction in English-speaking nations." %%Phonics Needed With Whole Language DON'T MEMORIZE ALPHABET AT 4, INVENTIVE SPELLING OK, RICH LITERATURE \clip\98\06\readphon.txt New York Times March 19, 1998 Report Urges Hybrid Approach to Reading Education http://search.nytimes.com/search/daily/bin/fastweb?getdoc+site+iib-site+123+0+wAAA+reading This is bad, very bad. The National Research Council Recommends inventive spelling, and whole language with phonics. It says that 3 and 4 yr olds should learn to tell and read stories, not memorize the alphabet at "such an early age". They say that teachers need training ih reading research, when reading research is where Whole Language and wholesale abandonment of phonics came from. These are the same people who have been telling us that early memorization of math facts (2+2) is harmful to learning. "implored teachers to use rich literature (instead of dick and jane) to hook youngsters as lifelong readers." Also note in the other story, yet another example of whole language working well in Bainbridge Island for the BEST readers, but the weakest readers still needed phonics. Whole Language is NOT a system for all children, when they say not all children need phonics, they never mention that it is those on the bottom, not top that need it. http://www.nytimes.com/yr/mo/day/early/051197read-teachers.html \clip\98\06\readphon.txt WHOLE LANGUAGE GREAT, BUT BOTTOM 10-20% STILL NEED PHONICS New York Times May 11, 1997 Educators Still Disagree on How to Teach Reading By JACQUES STEINBERG [whole language works great in Bainbridge Island] bur for the 10 percent to 20 percent of pupils who struggle to "break the code," Ms. Von Reis said, "we shoot them up with phonics." %%pro Steve Krashen Concerning whole language, you might want to have a look at the extraordinary amount of research supporting it, and some re-interpretation of the claims that skill-building approaches are superior. For starters: McQuillan, The Literacy Crisis: False Claims, Real Solutions Coles, Misreading Reading Krashen, Three Arguments Against Whole Language and Why They are Wrong. Whole Language Umbrella http://www.edu.yorku.ca/~WLU/home.html RESEARCH SHOWS WHOLE LANGUAGE STUDENTS READ BETTER?? http://www.edu.yorku.ca/~WLU/08894f2.htm The research is said to show intensive phonics producing better reading and spelling achievement than traditional basal reading programs of previous decades, at least through grade three. In this context, "achievement" means scores on standardized tests, which-for reading-often contain subtests of phonics knowledge. This body of research says nothing about how children read and comprehend normal texts. WHOLE LANGUAGE TEACHERS REPORTED BETTER NAEP SCORES? \clip\98\18\whole20.txt http://www.edu.yorku.ca/~WLU/ABC_lttr.htm October 30, 1995 From: Sharon Murphy, President, Whole Language Umbrella A closer look at the NAEP actually suggests that children in whole language classrooms may outperform children in more phonics driven classrooms. In both California and at the national level children in the classes of teachers who said they used whole language did better than average on the test while children in primarily phonics classrooms performed at lower levels. This is true across all economic levels2. 2. Goodman, Ken. (1995). Every child a reader: A critique of the California reading task force report. Privately Published Document Date. http://www.readingonline.org/critical/index.html its defense from the perspective of Ken Goodman who is credited, along with others, with its formulation. READING WARS? NO JUSTICE NO PEACE \clip\98\18\wholok.xt www.edweek.org Education Week 11/30/98, No End To The Reading Wars By Gerald Coles Is this guy pushing a "no justice no peace" approach to whole language? He despises the "managerial, minimally democratic, predetermined, do-as-you're-told-because-it-will-be-good-for-you form of instruction. Outcomes are narrowly instrumental, focusing on test scores of skills, word identification, and delimited conceptions of reading comprehension. It is a scripted pedagogy for producing compliant, conformist, competitive students and adults." He likes: "a pedagogy that explicitly asks, "How do children think, feel, and act; and how do we want them to think, feel, and act as they learn to read?" "Our society must provide ample resources to promote cognitive, academic, and literacy growth of all children. The Children's Defense Fund has identified many of the ways in which resources contribute to classroom teaching and learning. Good followup reply Mr. Coles states: "there is no substantial research evidence--despite claims to the contrary--that teaching phonemic awareness and similar skills through top-down direct instruction is superior to teaching skills as children need them through a whole-language approach." "Johnny can't read because Johnny needs phonics" Harold Hochstetter Feb 25, 1998 p. B7 Seattle Times It is commonly asserted that there is no one way to teach reading ... READING IS PHONICS. In 1945, only 2% of new recruits were illiterate, now it's 20% \clip\98\06\uno.tif thread NOT EVERYONE NEEDS PHONICS, OR EVERYONE NEEDS IT?? "Read this, dear senator: U no squt about phonics" David Marshak, (assistant professor in Seattle University School of Education) Seattle Times March 12, 1998 p. B7. Rebuts Senator Hochstatter's "Writing is Phonics" column. There's a substantive body of developmental research that indicates that as many as 30 percent of children in the first grade are not developmentally ready to read. In Waldorf private schools around the world, reading and writing are not formally taught at skills until the 2nd grade when all are ready to read. Jeanne Chall, phonics researcher says that 30 to 50 percent don't need explicit phonics instruction because they get it at home, they need engaging books [but doesn't that mean that all children need to have picked up phonics somwhere??? Doesn't that mean that you can't skip phonics for those who don't have it????] 50 years of research in human cognition shows people learn in different ways. Not all are ready until 2nd grade Even if mean were 6 years, there is a significant minority of the population (perhaps 30-35%) who don't really "get" reading in first grade and who would benefit from being in a rich language environment at that time, but without enforced phonetic instruction, which doesn't make much sense to them at that point anyway. By 2nd grade almost all of the distribution of children is ready cognitively to read. David Marshak MARRIAGE OF TECHNOLOGY AND WHOLE LANGUAGE TURNS AROUND UNION CITY "The Model: A New Jersey school district gets a technology makeover, and the results are astounding" Wall Street Journal Nov 17, 1997 p. R18 Robin Frost "Today, the system's "test scores are now about twice those of the state's other inner-city school districts, and the district is very close to reaching the average passing score for the state." THE NAME WHOLE LANGUAGE IS DEAD \clip\97\26\wholdoom.txt A Newsletter of the National Writing Project Is Whole Language Doomed? by Harvey Daniels The Heinemann Site Heinemann 361 Hanover Street Portsmouth, NH 03801-3912, USA Whole language is a research-based philosophy of learning and teaching, not a method of teaching reading. Whole language teaching reflects the constructivist view of learning that underlies current methods of teaching in most disciplines today—most notably, math and science. Constructivism acknowledges that we learn best by doing—by trying things out for ourselves, with assistance as needed. Because they view all children as successful learners to some degree and reject the sorting and labeling of children according to arbitrary standards, whole language teachers are sometimes viewed as lacking in standards. http://www.heinemann.com/hbbc/08894f14.html Typically the skills-in-context children also scored as well or very slightly better on standardized reading tests and even on subtests of phonics knowledge. On the National Assessment of Educational Progress, children in whole language-like classrooms typically score better than children in classrooms that teach skills mainly in isolation. http://www.heinemann.com/hbbc/08894f8.html Whole language teachers have faith in children as learners. Children can and many will develop a grasp of letter/sound relationships with relatively little direct instruction, just as they learned to talk without direct instruction in the grammar of the English language. http://www.heinemann.com/hbbc/08894f8.html One myth about education is that whole language teachers do not teach phonics. Not true: they simply teach phonics and phonemic awareness (awareness of the "separate" sounds in words) as children read and write authentic texts, rather than in a separate program or separate lessons. Whole language learning involves instruction (primarily in reading) presented in context through _natural_, _authentic_, "real-world" experiences. (these are the same code concepts as reform math) http://ethel.as.arizona.edu/~collins/edtech/strategy_whole.html %%Test Scores STUDY - WL = 17%, DI = 44% From: "James Kilpatrick" Date sent: Fri, 9 Jan 1998 12:18:33 -0600 The whole language bunch scored 17% on the national normed test, the direct instruction group scored 44% (Open Court). Anyone below 25% is considered special education. Jimmy One of the studies done within the NICHD research compares Direct Instruction, Whole Language, and Whole Language with an intervention component. The program they used for the DI portion was Open Court. Leslie Schwarze @@Whole To Part Whole to Part research. Kids read better in story than in a word list. @@Word CHILDREN LEARN BETTER IF TAUGHT AS WHOLE WORDS? "Steven D. Tripp" h-bd@egroups.com University of Aizu Danny Steinberg and others have shown that very young children can learn to read English words if they are taught as "words" not as letters. Letters are abstract and difficult for children to master. They do not think of words as being made up of separate sounds. If "table" is taught as a unitary sign, like an ideograph, children aged three can learn it readily. @@World US NEAR TOP AGAIN - 9th of 35 Gerald Bracey 2003: The results are in for OECD's PIRLS: Progress on International Reading Literacy Study. U. S. 10-year-olds finished 9th among 35 nations In How in the World Do Students Read from 1992, In that study, American 9-year-olds finished second. [Since it was only a survey of OECD developed nations, even the "bottom" nations were probably scoring ok] Here are the top 10 finishers: Sweden 561 Netherlands 554 England 553 Bulgaria 550 Latvia 545 Canada* 544 Lithuania 543 Hungary 543 USA 542 (9th out of 35) Italy 541 *Represented by only Ontario and Quebec. \clip\97\27\littest.pdf US NEAR TOP IN INTERNATIONAL READING VS. NAEP DISAPPOINTMENT download report at http://nces.ed.gov/pubs/96258.pdf (acrobat) Reading Literacy in the United States: Findings from the IEA Reading Literacy Study issued by the National Center for Education Statistics, looks closely at data collected as part of an International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement reading literacy survey, published in 1992. The report concluded that U.S. students are near the international top in reading -- a finding that appears to contradict a recent National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) report that found reading achievement in the U.S. to be disappointing. However, a comparison of the tests shows the new U.S. NAEP test to be much more demanding. "Judged against this world average, American students perform well overall. Among the 4th graders, the reading performance of about 60% of U.S. students meets or exceeds the OECD average in the narrative and expository domains as it does for 70 percent of US students for documents. [9th grade is 52-55% over average]" "Most groups of American students outperform the OECD average. Even the most disadvantaged groups do not differ dramatically from the OECD average" [Hispanics about equal, blacks below average] Percentage above OECD average by race, grade 4th 9th White 70 60 Black 40 30 Hispanic 44 35 How do the results from the IEA Reading Literacy Study compare with results from the U.S.’s own National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)? Although the overall credible performance of American students on the IEA Reading Literacy Test may seem inconsistent with the findings of NAEP, which found that only a small percentage of American students were able to read at an “advanced” level, this apparent inconsistency may be due to differences in the points of comparison used to report findings–IEA reporting is based on comparisons of student performance across countries while much of NAEP reporting is based on comparisons of student performance against a desired standard that has been defined independently of test results. A close examination of the two tests reveals marked differences in definitions of reading literacy and in what students must do to demon-strate their comprehension of material. The IEA test mainly asks stu-dents to recognize details and to make simple inferences and literal interpretations. The NAEP test requires students to do all these things, but in addition, it asks them to identify themes, detect the author’s point of view, make larger inferences, express opinions and support them with citations from the text, and write summaries of the reading selections on the test. How do the results from the IEA Reading Literacy Study compare with results from the U.S.’s own National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)? Although the overall credible performance of American students on the IEA Reading Literacy Test may seem inconsistent with the findings of NAEP, which found that only a small percentage of American students were able to read at an “advanced” level, this apparent inconsistency may be due to differences in the points of comparison used to report findings–IEA reporting is based on comparisons of student performance across countries while much of NAEP reporting is based on comparisons of student performance against a desired standard that has been defined independently of test results. A close examination of the two tests reveals marked differences in definitions of reading literacy and in what students must do to demon-strate their comprehension of material. The IEA test mainly asks stu-dents to recognize details and to make simple inferences and literal interpretations. The NAEP test requires students to do all these things, but in addition, it asks them to identify themes, detect the author’s point of view, make larger inferences, express opinions and support them with citations from the text, and write summaries of the reading selections on the test. The results of these studies are not always encouraging. The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has tracked the reading performance of students periodically since 1969. Its 1992 national report concludes that while most students at grades 4, 8, and 12 have mastered basic competencies, too few have reached levels likely to be required for the 21st century work place.3 The results of the National Adult Literacy Study (NALS) are no more encouraging. Large percentages of adults demonstrate limited skills that may restrict their opportunities for gaining access to and achieving in many occupations.4 The information from the IEA International Reading Literacy Study, however, seems to contradict NAEP’s finding about the reading abilities of American students. On all three dimensions of reading literacy included in the study (narrative, expository, and documents), American students are either second among the nations or their scores are not significantly different from the scores of students from other advanced nations. (Analyses reporting international comparisons are available in several publications.5 ) Comparisons with All IEA Participating Countries Tables1 and 2, adapted from the IEA international report Table 1 Countries Ranked by 4th Grade Reading Achievement: Total Score: (US #2 out of 28) Country Mean Error Finland . . . . .. . . . . . . . 569 3.4 United States . .. . . . . . . . 547 2.8 Sweden . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539 2.8 France . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531 4.0 Italy . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 529 4.3 New Zealand . . .. . . . . . . . 528 3.3 Norway . . . . . . . . . . . . . 524 2.6 Iceland* . . . . . . . . . . . . 518 0.0 Hong Kong . . . .. . . . . . . . 517 3.9 Singapore . . . . . . . . . . . 515 1.0 Switzerland . . . . . . . . . . 511 2.7 Ireland . . . . . .. . . . . . . 509 3.6 Belgium (French) . . . . . . . . 507 3.2 Greece . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504 3.7 Spain . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504 2.5 Germany (West) . . . . . . . . . 503 3.0 Canada (British Columbia...) . . 500 3.0 Germany (East) . . . . . . . . . 499 4.3 Hungary . . . . . . . . . .. . . 499 3.1 Slovenia . . . . . . . . . . . . 498 2.6 Netherlands . . . . . . . .. . . 485 3.6 Cyprus . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481 2.3 Portugal . . . . . . . . . . . . 478 3.6 Denmark . . . . . . . . . .. . . 475 3.5 Trinidad/Tobago . . . . . .. . . 451 3.4 Indonesia . . . . . . . . .. . . 394 3.0 Venezuela . . . . . . . . .. . . 383 3.4 *Iceland tested all students, therefore no standard error was calculated. Table 2 (US out 9 of 33) Countries Ranked by 9th Grade Reading Achievement: Total Score Standard Country Mean Error Finland . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 560 2.5 France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 549 4.3 Sweden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546 2.5 New Zealand . .... . . . . . . . . . . 545 5.6 Hungary . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 536 3.3 Iceland . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 536 0.0 Switzerland . . . .... . . . . . . . . 536 3.2 Hong Kong . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535 3.7 United States . . . . . . . . . . . . 535 4.8<----- Singapore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534 1.1 Slovenia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532 2.3 Germany (East) . . . . . . . . . . 526 3.5 Denmark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525 2.1 Portugal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523 3.1 Canada (British Columbia) . 522 3.0 Germany (West) . . . . . . . . . 522 4.4 Norway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516 2.3 Italy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515 3.4 Netherlands . . . . . . . . . . . . 514 4.9 Ireland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511 5.2 Greece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509 2.9 Cyprus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497 2.2 Spain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490 2.5 Belgium (French) . . . . . . . . . 481 4.9 Trinidad/Tobago . . . . . . . . 479 1.7 Thailand* . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477 6.2 Philippines . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 3.9 Venezuela . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417 3.1 Nigeria* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 —-† Zimbabwe* . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 3.8 Botswana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 2.0 *Sampling response rate of schools below 80% † Insufficient data to calculate standard error Perhaps the most significant points to be gleaned from these six figures are that: n U.S. 4th graders comprehend narrative text as well or bet-ter than students from any other nation except Finland. n Although U.S. 4th graders appear to place third on expos-itory comprehension, only Finland does better and there is very little difference in our performance and that of Sweden, Italy, France, New Zealand, and Norway. n While students in Finland do better than the U.S. 4th graders, our students comprehend documents as well as students in Hong Kong and Sweden, and they do better than the students in the 23 other countries included in this ranking. n U.S. 9th graders do about as well as students from France, Sweden, Iceland, New Zealand, Slovenia, Switzerland, Singapore, Hungary, Canada (British Columbia), Greece, Portugal, and Italy with respect to narrative comprehen-sion, but not as well as those from Finland. n U.S. 9th graders’ expository comprehension ranks equal to that of students in 16 other nations, with 14 countries ranking below the United States in this domain. n U.S. 9th graders’ documents comprehension lags behind that of 9th graders from five other countries (Finland, Hong Kong, New Zealand, Sweden, and Switzerland), but it is not different from that of 11 other countries and exceeds that of the remaining 14 countries. We cannot explain how these between-nation differences come about, but the overall performance of U.S. students is wel-come good news in the face of the bad news about the achieve-ment of American students in other international comparisons. In reading, at least, American students are among the best of the 32 nations involved in the study. With the exception of Finland, no country consistently outperforms the United States. "much of the NAEP reporting is based on com-parisons between actual student performance and desired perfor-mance. It is a comparison gainst an absolute standard or criteri-on that is defined independently of what students do." "scale.” As such, the reporting is referenced to a description of the tasks that students are expected to be able to do, or that someone or some group thinks they should do. This is a criterion-refer-enced comparison. Success or failure in either context does not necessarily imply success or failure in the other context. Consequently, American students do very well based on the relative comparisons used by IEA, but within the NAEP context they do not do as well as NAGB believes they should be doing." [IEA is much simpler than the NAEP, many Americans completed every item on the IEA, but very few on the NAEP] ...One might wonder whether students in the other participat-ing countries would do better than American students on the standards set by NAGB. There is a high probability that the rank ordering or relative performance of countries would remain pret-ty much the same.* Therefore, it seems reasonable to conclude that American students would do well as compared to students in other countries even if the NAEP test had been administered. Comparisons with OECD Nations Heightened competition in a global economy has stimulated public interest in “world-class standards” for American students. Many policymakers and industrial leaders worry about our ability to maintain our scientific, technological, and economic edge in the world economy into the 21st century. They have pressed for the establishment of benchmarks against which the learning of U.S. students could be measured, the performance of our school systems monitored, and the nation’s stock of human capital mea-sured over time. An international average might be considered a useful benchmark. The IEA study, however, does not provide the basis for a particularly meaningful benchmark. The 32 nations are a self-selected group that are neither a representative sample of all nations nor of our principal trading partners (for example, Japan, the United Kingdom, and Mexico are not included). For the purposes of stimulating further discussion of appro-priate world standards, we have capitalized on the fact that 18 of the 32 nations participating in the study are also members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)* to construct an OECD average. Using the OECD average as a reference point, we can make comparisons of the performance of American students overall, and that of particular American subpopulations, against a meaningful benchmark. @@Writing Reform advocates early writing as an aid to reading. Some states require writing as early as Kindergarten, using invented spelling. But how much sense does it make to require kids to write before they've had a proper introduction to reading? Write name Write sentences ------------- K - CA 2000 standards English-Language Arts Content Standards for California Public Schools http://www.cde.ca.gov/board/standards.html (1) 1.0 Writing Strategies (Kindergarten) Students write words and brief sentences that are legible. 1.1 Use letters and phonetically spelled words to write about experiences, stories, people, objects, or events. READING RECOVERY BLASTS DI, PROMOTES INVENTIVE SPELLING \clip\99\03\maine.htm Education Week 1/18/99 Reading Reform: Lessons From Maine By Brenda Power "California's legislation outlaws "developmental" (or "invented") spelling in the early grades, even though much research demonstrates how essential this component of early writing instruction is for development of reading skills."