Police
@@police
  also see -affirmative-action.police

  Summary:

  Issue - if blacks are equal or nearly so to local population, should
  they be entiled to racial preferences even if population quota is
  met?

  Asians consistently least represented race, with Hispanics close
  behind. Blacks are nearly always within a factor of two, and often
  very close to parity, especially in California.


  d:\doc\94\17\citycop.wk1 Asians least represented of all races, but
  best in Seattle

Police Representation by Race
Ranked by Asian Representation
------------------------------------------------------------------
         Index vs. Whi   White    Black    Hispanic Asian    W-Avg
         Seattle(1)  WA   1.00     1.33     2.12     1.01     0.90
         Seattle     WA   1.00    -1.29    -1.53    -1.69     1.10
         USA total        1.00    -1.16    -1.77    -3.0
         Ventura     CA   1.00     1.1     -2.2     -3.3 
         San Jose    CA   1.00    -1.35    -1.53    -3.41     1.29
         Los Angeles CA   1.00    -1.49    -2.88    -4.24     1.61
         San Francisco CA 1.00    -1.71    -2.04    -4.82     1.53
         San Diego   CA   1.00    -1.68    -2.39    -5.27     1.34
         Dade County FL   1.00    -2.32    -2.94    -5.57     1.86
         Chicago     IL   1.00    -2.80    -4.66   -13.21     1.78
         New York    NY   1.00    -3.83    -2.41   -23.20     1.63
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Index White=1.00 -2.00=1/2  
W-Avg is white police divided by population

Seattle is closest to white for all races compared to other cities.
Blacks are within 30%, and Asians are within a factor of 2. Seattle
appears to be the only city where Asian police applicant are equal to
whites in representation. New York has the lowest rate of Asian
participation, despite relatively large Asian population.

(1) - 1995 Seattle Police applicants


%%statistics

\doc\96\04\lapdrace.wk1
Composition of Los Angeles Police and Sheriff Department
        Percent                 Index
        Sheriff Police  1990 popSheriff Police
Male       86.8%   83.0%   50.0%   -1.07    1.18
Female     13.1%   17.0%   50.0%   -7.06   -4.13
White      69.0%   52.4%   37.3%    1.85    1.40
Black       9.2%   14.5%   13.0%   -2.61   -1.26
Hispanic   18.9%   27.7%   39.9%   -3.91   -2.02
Asian       2.2%    4.0%    9.2%   -7.74   -3.23

Sheriff - Feb 96 Police Dec 95

Source: "Success of Reforms at LAPD, Sheriff's Dept" Jim Newman
Los Angeles Times March 10, 1996 p. A1
Comment - At 1/8 and 1/3, Asians are approximately as unlikely to be
police as women in general.

        Percent Index
        Sheriff Sheriff
White      69.0%    1.85
Male       86.8%   -1.07
Black       9.2%   -2.61
Hispanic   18.9%   -3.91
Female     13.1%   -7.06
Asian       2.2%   -7.74


\doc\96\03\polrace.wk1 US FBI survey of police departments nationally:

Asians are by far the least likely to be police officers, Blacks are nearly at parity, 
Black women are far over parity with white women.
Blacks are 12-18% of large city police forces.
US overall  W1.00 B-1.16 H-1.77 A-3.0
women US W1.00 B2.37 H-1.10 A-3.24
*A includes native American

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics "Local Police Departments 1993"
Brian A. Reaves Ph.D.  U.S. Department of Justice April 1996,
NCJ-148822 http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/

Percentage within Gender
                                White                   Black
                                Total   Men     Women   Total   Men     Women
Population served                  73.8%   73.8%   73.8%   12.0%   12.0%   12.0%
All-sizes                 100.0%   81.0%   82.5%   65.5%   11.3%   10.0%   25.3%
1,000,000-or-more         100.0%   68.3%   74.7%   51.4%   17.5%   13.6%   33.3%
500,000-999,999           100.0%   66.1%   68.5%   49.6%   21.0%   18.4%   39.8%
250,000-499,999           100.0%   73.8%   73.0%   62.8%   18.1%   16.2%   28.1%
100,000-249,999           100.0%   81.3%   81.6%   71.1%   12.6%   11.3%   23.3%
50,000-99,999             100.0%   86.3%   86.8%   78.6%    7.2%    6.8%   12.9%
25,000-49,999             100.0%   90.2%   89.8%   86.8%    5.4%    5.3%    9.4%
10,000-24,999             100.0%   91.6%   91.7%   91.8%    5.1%    5.1%    6.1%
2,500-9,999               100.0%   92.8%   93.0%   90.7%    4.1%    4.0%    7.0%
Under 2500                100.0%   91.7%   91.9%   82.1%    5.3%    5.1%   10.7%

                                Hispanic                Other
                                Total   Men     Women   Total   Men     Women
Population served                  10.0%   10.0%   10.0%    4.2%    4.2%    4.2%
All-sizes                           6.2%    6.0%    8.0%    1.5%    1.5%    1.1%
1,000,000-or-more                  11.8%   10.6%   13.9%    1.2%    1.1%    1.4%
500,000-999,999                     7.0%    7.0%    7.3%    5.8%    6.2%    3.3%
250,000-499,999                     9.3%    9.3%    7.4%    1.4%    1.4%    1.7%
100,000-249,999                     5.4%    5.4%    4.4%    1.6%    1.6%    1.1%
50,000-99,999                       5.1%    5.1%    7.1%    1.4%    1.4%    1.4%
25,000-49,999                       4.3%    4.3%    3.8%    0.6%    0.6%    0.0%
10,000-24,999                       2.6%    2.6%    2.0%    0.6%    0.6%    0.0%
2,500-9,999                         2.6%    2.5%    2.3%    0.5%    0.5%    0.0%
Under 2500                          1.9%    1.9%    3.6%    1.2%    1.1%    3.6%





Index Vs. National Population White vs. population, Others vs. White=1.00
Percentage within Gender
                                White                   Black
                                Total   Men     Women   Total   Men     Women
Population served                  73.8%   73.8%   73.8%   12.0%   12.0%   12.0%
All-sizes                 100.0%    1.10    1.12    0.89   -1.17   -1.35    2.37
1,000,000-or-more         100.0%    0.93    1.01    0.70    1.58    1.12    3.99
500,000-999,999           100.0%    0.90    0.93    0.67    1.95    1.65    4.94
250,000-499,999           100.0%    1.00    0.99    0.85    1.51    1.37    2.75
100,000-249,999           100.0%    1.10    1.11    0.96   -1.05   -1.17    2.02
50,000-99,999             100.0%    1.17    1.18    1.06   -1.95   -2.08    1.01
25,000-49,999             100.0%    1.22    1.22    1.18   -2.72   -2.78   -1.50
10,000-24,999             100.0%    1.24    1.24    1.24   -2.92   -2.95   -2.44
2,500-9,999               100.0%    1.26    1.26    1.23   -3.68   -3.80   -2.11
Under 2500                100.0%    1.24    1.24    1.11   -2.81   -2.90   -1.25

                                Hispanic                Other
                                Total   Men     Women   Total   Men     Women
Population served                   0.10    0.10    0.10    0.04    0.04    0.04
All-sizes                          -1.77   -1.86   -1.10   -3.07   -3.06   -3.24
1,000,000-or-more                   1.28    1.05    1.99   -3.24   -3.93   -2.11
500,000-999,999                    -1.28   -1.33    1.09    1.54    1.58    1.15
250,000-499,999                    -1.08   -1.07   -1.14   -3.00   -2.89   -2.16
100,000-249,999                    -2.04   -2.03   -2.17   -2.89   -2.85   -3.64
50,000-99,999                      -2.29   -2.33   -1.49   -3.51   -3.53   -3.13
25,000-49,999                      -2.84   -2.83   -3.12   -8.56   -8.11#DIV/0!
10,000-24,999                      -4.77   -4.72   -6.10   -8.69   -8.26#DIV/0!
2,500-9,999                        -4.84   -5.02   -5.28  -10.56  -10.12#DIV/0!
Under 2500                         -6.54   -6.72   -3.12   -4.35   -4.62   -1.31


 \doc\95\04\miampoli.wk1 - Miami police
            White    Black    Hisp     Asian/Oth
 Total        1.86    -2.32    -2.94    -5.57
 Leadership   2.46    -4.73    -5.80   #DIV/0!
 Black women are no less represented than white women
 Asians are the least represented.
 Black and Hispanic men are not under-represented

d:\doc\94\18\chicpol2.wk1 - Chicago Police Exam
source: Chicago police department phone call

Asians only slightly under-represented among applicants, but 1/4,
just as low as Blacks in sargeant's exam after passing, despite
higher pass rate because of 1/3 at applicant level. Asian pass rate in
officer exam is close, but only 1/2 at sargeant level.

Top 500 Sargeants Pass Rate W1.0(16.4%) B-6.10 H-3.74 A/Other -2.29
Officer Pass Rate W1.0(45.2%) B-1.52 H-1.58 A-1.32

Vs Population White = 1.0               
Sargeant's Examination              

            White   Black  Hispanic As/Other
Applied     1.49    -1.22   -1.83   -2.94
Passed      1.98    -2.49   -2.36   -2.95
Top 500     2.29    -4.83   -4.45   -4.38

Officer test                
Applied     1.13    -1.08   -1.07   -1.13
Well Qual   1.41    -1.31   -1.36   -1.20

  d:\doc\94\17\priv\chicpoli.txt - Chicago police test
  1987 W71 B22.5 H5.2 O0.4
  1994 W65 B25   H8.3 O1.7
  Among top 500 in sargeants test, 8% black, 4.4% hispanic
  rate H-2 B-3 Not off by THAT much...


  doc921\sjpolice.xl* san jose police 
     W1.3 B-1.3 H-1.5 A-3.4 NA 2.2

  doc922\ventcop.wk1 Ventura Sherrif has enough blacks 
     B1.1 H-2.2 A-3.3 O-4

  doc932x doc937\lapolice.xls Los Angeles police breaksdown - enough blacks,
   more black women than white women! 
   Men   B-1.2        H-2.4 A-4.5
   Women B 1.3 NA1.1  H-2.1 A-4.2

  doc\94\15\priv\nypolice.txt NYTimes police survey - no mention of
Asians NYC 29%B pop vs. 11.6% police Chicago = 39/25 Los Angeles = 14
/ 14 PARITY Department of Justice 1992 Sourcebook has chart on p. 47 

    NYC         0.40
    Los Angeles 1.00
    San Jose    0.85
    Oakland     0.60

%%chief

\PRIV\96\13\ASPOLCHF.HTM San Francisco Chronicle Tuesday, January 9,
1996  Page A11 "New S.F. Police Chief Is Widely Respected First
Asian American to head force " Summary: Mayor Willie Brown selects
Fred Lau as 1st Asian American police Chief.  Susan Sward, Chronicle
Staff Writer 



%%Testing, about testing


TRADITIONAL POLICE TESTS ARE SIMILAR TO OTHER STANDARDIZED TESTS,
UNLIKE ERGOMETRICS TEST SAMPLES.

Arco Law Enforcement Exams Handbook (c) 1996 Arco Publishing (New
York) Eve P. Steinberg F053097

I checked this book out from the library. It has a sample question
include one very similar to the Ergometrics sample asking what should
be done in response to an arguing couple, but it says that actions
should be based on a short passage which describes what should be
done. The ergometrics test gives no clue as to which is the correct
answer, and thus is dependent largely on the values of the person
tested. This may explain why Asians did unusually poorly on the video
test given in Seattle. There is a big difference between interpreting
instruction in a test, and being tested for values and knowledge
which are not covered by the US educational system, which is the only
prerequisite for most police jobs.

Other questions are based on memory, vocabulary, logical reasoning,
math, reading charts, graphs, time, traffic diagrams, codes, reading
comprehension, and interpreting instructions, all strongly correlated
with general intelligence and academic ability. Such tests would put
Asians at a slight disadvantage due to language and familiarity with
reading charts and tables (Asians also did poorly on the national
literacy test which included these), but other minorities would do no
worse than in other standardized tests.

%%testing by city

Asians do slightly worse in Chicago police test, much
worse in 1994 written Seattle police test, and 
spectacularly worse, even worse than blacks on the
1995 video test.


Summary by city
-----------------------------------------------------
Chicago 1994              W1.00 B-1.11 H-1.05 A-1.03
Seattle 1994 Writ Police  W1.00 B-4.65 H-2.37 A-2.76
Seattle 1995 Vid  Police  W1.00 B-5.42 H-1.85 A-5.86

-------------------------------------------------
[[Chicago

\doc\94\17\priv\coptest3.txt - Chicago controversy over police test
  Chicago Tribune 7/27/94

 % right on 150 multiple choice problems
 W 67   B 60 H63 A65 AI 65
Chicago 1994  W1.00 B-1.11 H-1.05 A -1.03

----------------------------------------------------------------

[[Denver

\doc\97\01\blaknews.txt Newsweek May 6, 1991 p. 31 Mark Whitaker et
al F020397-1 In Denver, police and fire departments didn't lower
standards for test scores, they started to tutor blacks, and their
scores improved dramatically.

---------------------------------------
http://www.arthurhu.com/index/police.htm#seattle

[[Seattle

"Clarification of July Article on police testing" Seattle Post
Intelligencer Monday March 4, 1996 p. A2 F080897 "The new video test
was designed by Ergometrics and Applied Personell Research Inc, a
nationally known Seattle-based company with help from six Washington
police departments"

SEATTLE POLICE VIDEO TEST FLUNKS ASIAN WORSE THAN OTHER MINORITIES

\doc\95\10\testdist.wk1
Print out of table
\doc\95\11\badtest.doc
\doc\95\10\testdist.wk1

Analysis by Arthur Hu July 18, 1995

Test Score Distribution Comparison -
New Seattle Video Police Test vs. CLAS and SAT

          1995   1994Calf Math G10US Math G12
        Seattle PolicCLAS (1994)  SAT (1993)    Fail    Pass
        Video Written    35     93    35      93IncreaseReduce
White     34.5   93.2    35     93    35      93   9.63   2.70
Black      8.8   74.8     9     86     8      75   3.62   8.50
Hisp      22.2   85.3    12     87    14      88   5.29   3.84
Asian      8.2   83.3    46     94    48      95   5.50  10.16
Fail increase is increase in percent failures from 1994 to 1995 police test
Pass reduce shows white passing down by 1/3, blacks by 1/9

Pass / Fail Ratio
White   0.526713.70590.538513.28570.5384613.2857

Index White = 1.00  -2.00 = 1/2
White    1.00   1.00  1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00
Black   -5.46  -4.62 -5.44  -2.16  -6.19  -4.43
Hisp    -1.85  -2.36 -3.95  -1.99  -3.31  -1.81
Asian   -5.90  -2.75  1.58   1.18   1.71   1.43

Pass rates for Seattle Police Exams, May 1994 written and March 1995 video
test based on 70% correct. Equivalent distributions for CLAS and SAT tests are
for math tests based on 35% and 93% pass rates for whites, compared to
equivalent percentage of minorities who achieved the same score. Pass / Fail
ratio index shows that regardless of whether a test passes 35 percent or 93
percent of whites, the pass / fail ratio remains between 4 and 6 times better for
whites than blacks.

The only other known standardized test where Asians score as poorly as
African Americans is the National Literacy test, which is very culture dependent.

Sources: California Department of Education, College Board Seattle Public
Safety Civil Service Commision "Police Video Exam Stirs Ire" Seattle Post
Intelligencer July 17, 1995 p. 1
March 1995 Video Exam
                     Pass  Pass   Pct of Pct of Pct     Pop Index
Group   TestedPassed Rate  Index  Tested Pass   Pop     Tested Pass
White      695    240 34.5%  1.00   66.4%  83.6%   73.7%  1.00 1.00
Black      124     11  8.9% -3.89   11.9%   3.8%    9.9%  1.33 -2.93
Asian      109      9  8.3% -4.18   10.4%   3.1%   11.5%  1.01 -4.16
Hispanic    72     16 22.2% -1.55    6.9%   5.6%    3.6%  2.12 1.36
AmInd       23      7 30.4% -1.13    2.2%   2.4%    1.3%  1.88 1.65
UnSpec      23      4 17.4% -1.99    2.2%   1.4%        White vs. pop
Total     1046    287 27.4% -1.26  100.0% 100.0%          0.90 1.13
Index 1.00 = white rate 2.00 = twice -2.00 = half       ^ Note that every minority is
                                                        equal or better represented
Men        848    249 29.4%  1.00                       than whites among applicants
Women      188     38 20.2% -1.45
Index 1.00 = male rate 2.00 = twice -2.00 = half

May 1994 Written Exam
                     Pass  Pass   Pct of Pct of Pct     Pop Index
Group   TestedPassed Rate  Index  Tested Pass   Pop     Tested Pass
White      784    731 93.2%  1.00   75.0% 254.7%   73.7%  1.13 3.05
Black      119     89 74.8% -1.25   11.4%  31.0%    9.9%  1.27 2.76
Asian       96     80 83.3% -1.12    9.2%  27.9%   11.5% -1.13 2.14
Hispanic    75     64 85.3% -1.09    7.2%  22.3%    3.6%  2.21 5.46
AmInd       24     18 75.0% -1.24    2.3%   6.3%    1.3%  1.96 4.25
UnSpec      35     19 54.3% -1.72    3.3%   6.6%        White vs. pop
Total     1133   1011 89.2% -1.04  108.3% 352.3%          1.02 3.46
Index 1.00 = white rate 2.00 = twice -2.00 = half

Men        960    854 89.0%  1.00
Women      173    157 90.8% -0.98
Index 1.00 = male rate 2.00 = twice -2.00 = half

Ranked by 1995 Pass / Fail Index         Ranked by 1995
        1995 Video Te1994 Written Test   Probability of Application
        Pass  P/F    Pass  P/F
Group   Rate  Index  Rate  Index                   1995    1994
White    34.5%  1.00  93.2%  1.00        Hispani   2.12   2.21
AmInd    30.4% -1.21  75.0% -4.60        AmInd     1.88   1.96
Total    27.4%  -1.39 89.2% -1.66        Black     1.33   1.27
Hispanic 22.2% -1.85  85.3% -2.37        Asian     1.01  -1.13
UnSpec   17.4%  -2.51 54.3%-11.61        White     1.00   1.13
Black     8.9% -5.42  74.8% -4.65        Total     0.90   1.02
Asian     8.3% -5.86  83.3% -2.76

Asians pass the Video test at the lowest rate, they passed the old written
test at the same rate as Hispanics.

In contrast with many other cities, by 1995, no minorities were under-represented in
the testing / applicant pool, although Asians were the least represented minority
in a field Asians historically have avoided. Hispanics are also the most under-
represented group in California, but not in Seattle.


          1995                1994
        P / f Index        P/F    Index
Group
White    0.53   1.00        13.79   1.00
Black    0.10  -5.42         2.97  -4.65
Asian    0.09  -5.86         5.00  -2.76
Hispanic 0.29  -1.85         5.82  -2.37
AmInd    0.44  -1.21         3.00  -4.60
UnSpec   0.21  -2.51         1.19 -11.61
Total    0.38  -1.39         8.29  -1.66

Seattle 1994 Writ Police  W1.00 B-4.65 H-2.37 A-2.76
Seattle 1995 Vid  Police  W1.00 B-5.42 H-1.85 A-5.86

7/14/95 An Anti Asian Police Test?
Seattle's police department changes from a written to a video
test, but minorities flunk at even higher rates, and this is the
only test in history were Asians score poorer than Hispanics or
African Americans.