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Military Interest: AnyIndex

My computer clippings on aviation and miliary interest. I was a big fan of military and aviation when I was growing up (my dad worked for Boeing and brought home all of the Aviation Weeks being tossed there). This is where I keep my military notes. Some of the articles are mine, some are pointers to the rest of the internet.

Highlights of My Stuff

Tanks on Display at Fort Lewis Military Museum | Best Weapons of the Vietnam War | Most Produced Aircraft of All Time| All Time Ranking of Casualties due to War and Genocide


Aircraft | Armour / Tanks | Ships


General References


Nike Zeus, Nike-X, Sentinel, Safeguard


General References

USAF Flight Test Center gallery Boeing / Rockwell Aircraft Guy Jackson FS5 Models Paul's RAF Plane Page Most Produced Aircraft of All Time \doc\97\04\airprod.wk1 Naval Historical Center | Current Naval Aircraft \doc\web\97\04\airprod.wk1 Compiled by Arthur Hu 1996 Send any additional data to: arthurhu @ (no space) Production runs or projected 37,000 Cessna 172 one of most popular airplanes 37,000 Ilyusion Il2 Stormovik #1 combat aircraft? 36,000 Antonov An-2 (Air & Space Feb/Mar 96), 1949-current #1 transport in world 33,000 ME/BF 109 (Peter Wraight) 24,000 Spitfire (Peter Wraight) 18,188 B-24 Liberator #1 bomber 17,200 Beechcraft Bonanza (1947-current) 15,683 P-47 Thunderbolt #1 fighter 15,575 P-51 Mustang 12,677 Boeing B-17 10,392 Bell UH-1 Huey #1 helicoper 10,000 MIG-21 estimate (Air & Space Feb/Mar 96) #1 supersonic fighter 10,000 Douglas DC-3 #1 Western transport 8,335 Bell 206 Jetranger #1 civil helicopter 6,209 MacD Harpoon 6,200 F86 Sabre #1 Western Jet fighter 5,600 MI-2 Poland #1 one model copter Marek Lyzwinski Plattsburgh NY 5,057 McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom #1 Supersonic fighter in west 3,527 Lockheed/Martin (General Dynamics) F-16 #1 production western fighter 2,960 McDonnell Douglas A-4 Skyhawk 2,744 Boeing 737 #1 jet airliner 2,115 Bell Hueycobra 2,100 McDonnel Douglas DC-9/MD-80/90 #2 Commercial Jet 2,100 Lockheed C-130 (1995, Air & Space Feb/Mar 96) (1954-current) #1 modern western military transport 2,000 Learjet #1 business Jet 1,735 Boeing ALCM 1,647 MacD Tomahawk 1,276 McDonnell Douglas F-18Hornet 1,243 McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle 1,190 Bell 212/214 %%Age AVERAGE USAF AIRCRAFT 20, NAVY 16 YRS OLD IN 2000 Aviation Week Aerospace Daily: Aging Aircraft Aren't So Bad, CBO Says By Aerospace Daily Staff 16-Aug-2001 the Congressional Budget Office says in a new report. The Air Force and Navy aviation fleets grew significantly older over the past two decades. The average age of Air Force aircraft rose from 13 years in 1980 to more than 20 years in 2000, while the average age of Navy aircraft rose from 11 years to more than 16 years in the same period. %%A-1 Douglas Skyraider Korea- Vietnam era piston-powered carrier based attack fighter bomber, a single seat replacement for dive bombers like the SBD had more armour and carrying capacity than fighters like the F4 Corsair and P51. It lasted until the Vietnam war in front line service, and inspired the AX specification that led to the A10. It was nicknamed "Spad" and also was famous for "Sandy" rescue helicopter escort duty. It was later replace by the A7 and later A10 for this role. It was credited with at least one MiG-17 kill over Vietnam, but was later withdrawn from service over North Vietnam. The USAF needed a low and slow attack fighter, so transferred them from the Navy, adding jungle camouflage scheme, and gave many of them to the South Vietnamese air force. Both single seat, and the side-by-side versions were used. Photo and specs doc921:skyraid.txt

%%A-3 Douglas A-3 Skywarrior KA-3, EA-3 A3D

Nicknamed the whale, it was the largest carrier based operational plane. It was subsonic attack bomber with 2 turbojets slung under the wings. The Air Force version was the B-66 Destroyer. Detractors said A3D meant "All 3 Dead" with no ejection seats, and at least one article about a A3 crash said that the weakest pilots got assigned to this plane (they of course disagree, and would rather have more fuel than the weight of ejection seats). Initially equipped with twin20 mm tail gun, it was replaced by Defensive DECM "duckbut" fairing.

It was designed to be a subsonic strategic bomber, to replace the prop powered AJ Savage. In turn, it was to be replaced by the supersonic A5 Vigilante (which didn't end up bombing either) In any case, the nuclear strike role went to the USAF. It was tried briefly as a bomber over North Vietnam, but its main use in Vietnam was as a tanker, and as an electronics jamming platform until replaced by the EA6A and EA6B as a jammer, and KA-6 and S-3 as a tanker. The KA-3 could deliever 29,000 lb of fuel at 460 miles, about 2.2 full F4J tanks. The KA-6 only delivered half as much fuel, and the S-3 carries even less.

A3 crews saved lots of planes and pilots by towing them back to carrier. It was not completely retired until 1989.

It was still qused in 2000 by Raytheon which maintains its own small fleet of A3s as a radar test platform because of the speed and payload capability.

Wings of Fame Volume 9 "Bomber Skywarriors in Vietnam" is an excellent article showing dropping bombs over N. Vietnam.

First Flight 1952 Service 1956 Withdrawn 1991 Fan Site

A3 pilot defends his plane.

%%A-17 switchblade
Popular Science article, based on US patent

%%A-4 Douglas Skyhawk

Very small simple high subsonic jet attack plane, it didn't need
folding wings, and the leading edge slats simply drop down when the
plane is flying slow enough. Its maneuverability kept it popular with
the Blue Angels when they moved away from extravagant F-4s, and for
Top Gun threat simulators. It was replaced by the Harrier in the
Marine Corps, and the A-7 in the navy which had more range and
payload (but was a crummy dogfighter)

%%North American Rockwell A-5, RA-5C Vigilante

Very sophisticated Mach-2 capable all-weather low-level bomber to
replace the A3, was switched to fast reconaissance to replace the RF-8
when the Navy lost the role of strategic nuclear attack. High wing,
angled box intakes, side-by-side engine configuration was also used by
the F-15 and Foxbat.

It had an unusual bomb bay tunnel where fuel and a nuclear bomb would
be ejected from the back between the engines, but it never worked very
well. F-14s with recon pods now do the job. It was never adapted to do
conventional bombing, even though it might have been better suited to
this is some ways than the F-4 Phantom, which was a smaller fighter.

Wing Span 53'.  Length 73' 2 1/2".  Ht. 19' 4 3/4".  Max. Speed Mach
2.1.  Power Two 10,900/18,000 Lb. General Electric J79-GE turbo Jets.
Cruise 1254 mph.  Range 3,000 miles.  Service Ceiling 64,000 
Empty weight 37,498 lbs Gross 80,000

* all moving tail * heads up display * TV display * terrain avoidance
radar * titanium structures * fly by wire * variable intakes * 1960
world altitude record 91,451 ft

Bob Jellison
landed at 160 mph, supersonic over Vietnam, last to launch because of speed,
vulnerable to gunners as they knew to expect it aftr the bombers
Vectorsite Vigilante
15 min MTBF, not cost effective for bombing, hard to fix
Hasegawa 1/72 RA-5C Vigilante Picture
A-5 / RA-5 Vigilante Page

Boeing / Rockwell RA-5C page / picture
Pueblo Historical
Aircraft Society
Enthusiast Corner
Flight Sim 5 Model

%%A-6 Grumman US Navy Vietnam - Desert Storm Medium Attack bomber

The ungainly looking A6 features a heavy payload, side-by-side
seating, and very sophisticated avionics for night and bad weather
low-level navigation for F-111 like capabilities. It relies on pilot
skill rather than terrain following radar to keep the plane out the
ground, which might explain a relatively high accident rate. 

It soldiered on past Desert Storm, when its replacement stealth plane
cancelled, and the Navy opted to retire the plane and rely on
more glamourus, but in some ways less capable F-18E and bomb-equipped
F-14s which lack the turret nose mounted TRAM which was capable of
dropping precision weapons.

4 place EA-6B Prowler continues on, replacing the faster USAF EF-111.
It has a special marking on the nose to make sure catapaults are set
correctly for the heavier airplane.

\priv\96b\07\f18a6.txt F18E vs. A6 - actually should fly farther also
at 7/96
\clip\97\06\a6end.txt Wednesday, Feb. 26, 1997 The final flight: Navy
is retiring its A-6 attack jets by Stephen Clutter Seattle Times
Snohomish County bureau 86 Whidbey crewmen died flying the plane,
including 11 killed in combat.  

%%A-7 Ling-Temco Vought A-7 Corsair II

SLUF Short Little Ugly Attack fighter based loosely on putting a
turbofan into a rounded off F-8, has better range / payload than a M2
fighter. Adopted by USN and USAF, but not the USMC which kept the A-4
and AV-8. Navy kept it service until Desert Storm, but the USAF kept
it at home. Now F-16 has turbofan engine to handle the same job, but

%%A-37 Cessna Dragonfly

Cute attack version of T-37 Tweety Bird had better useful payload and
loiter than the F-100"Hun".

%%AC-130 Spectre

Conversion of C-130 in to the ultimate gunship, the AC-47 was the
first version of this concept.


%%AIM-4 Falcon
AIM-4 Falcon

The Sidewinder's rival infrared missile in Vietnam was the Hughes-made
Falcon AIM-4D. This small, complex Air Force missile was introduced to
the theater in May 1967 and quickly proved itself a lemon. The long
arming and launch sequence, lack of a proximity fuze, tiny warhead and
terrible reliability all added up to a miserly 0.09 probability of
kill, and soon AIM-4D-armed Phantoms were being switched back to the

%%AIM-9 Sidewinder

AIM-9 Sidewinder

For the US the most effective killer was the Navy-developed AIM-9
Sidewinder missile. This simple boost-coast guided rocket homed in on
the infrared (IR) radiation from the jetpipes of enemy aircraft. The
AIM-9B initial production version saw service in the USAF and USN for
much of Rolling Thunder, but the missile achieved very poor kill
rates, with 29 kills off 187 launches, with 53 misses and 105 weapon

This low 0.15 probability of kill (pK) came about for a number of
reasons. The weapon needed to see the target's jetpipes to home,
requiring attacks from with the 'launch envelope' - a cone astern of
the target. If the target turned it could mask the infrared source for
the guidance system, shrinking the launch envelope to nothing. The
infrared seeker could also be masked by clouds or decoyed by the IR
radiation from cloud or the ground. The weapon's flight performance
was affected by air density so that an AIM-9B at high altitude had a
range just under three miles which shrank to around a mile at very low

Maintenance problems, ground handling and the harsh Southeast Asian
climate also contributed to malfunctions, but one of the primary
reasons for poor missile performance was inadequate training in their
use. It was found that pilots frequently fired their missiles outside
the launch envelope. Studies concluded that improved training was
needed, better indication of when a target was within the launch
envelope, and that missiles with larger launch envelopes were

At this point the USAF and USN forked their Sidewinder development,
with the Navy ordering the AIM-9D and the Air Force ordering the
AIM-9E. The split was a result of petty service rivalry and
disagreements over the type of infrared seeker to be used. It resulted
in different cooling mechanisms for the seekers which in turn meant
different launch rails for carrying Air Force and Navy missiles.
Neither service would be able to use the other's missiles.

The USAF's AIM-9E proved to be a tremendous disappointment. Despite
changes to improve 'dogfight' performance its results in the field
were worse than the AIM-9B, achieving a probability of kill (pK) of
just 0.08 in 1972. By comparison the Navy AIM-9D was a great success.
With a better seeker and aerodynamic improvements it had a longer
range and larger launch envelope than the AIM-9B. In Rolling Thunder
it would achieve a pK of 0.18 and later it would beget the superior
AIM-9G and H variants. The Navy also instituted a new, realistic
training program focussed on its 'Top Gun' weapons school. In 1972 the
combination of training and weapons improvements resulted in the
AIM-9G achieving a stunning pK of 0.46. 

The Air Force made little attempt to improve air combat training
training. Searching for a technological solution to the problem it
would make one last attempt to improve its Sidewinders in Vietnam with
the AIM-9J. However, inadequate testing failed to detect design faults
that crippled the missile when deployed in the field. In 1972 the
AIM-9J would achieve a probability of kill (pK) of just 0.13. After
the war the faults would be rectified and the missile made comparable
with the Navy Sidewinders, but the improvement would come too late.

%%EA-6B Prowler

Conversion of the A-6 into an even more unlikely looking plane with a
set of 2 back seats for more electronics operators. Plane has a
special marker on the nose so that catapault operators don't confuse
it with smaller A-6 attack planes. The Air Force is retiring it's
EF-111 fleet in favor of letting the Navy and Marines take over 
electronic warfare escort duties.


%%Ejection Seats Ejection Site OV-1 Animated GIF ejection

%%AH-64 Hughes / McDonell Douglas Apache

High tech follow-on to Army Cobra adds 200 mph performance, armour,
helmet mounted sights slaved to turret mounted nose sensors and laser
designator, Hellfire fire and forget missles. Originally designed for
close air support, also used in Desert Storm to penetrate enemy
territory and take out a air defence radar site.

doc921:apache.txt Cobra/Apache

Desert Storm: credited with 500 tanks killed, only one lost to enemy
fire p. 114 "The Armoured Fist" Time Life Books 1991

%%ALCM see missles

portal.608 ALCM with warhead removed

%%AV-8 Harrier

Small V/STOL Skyhawk-class attack jet developed by British, in
service with British Air Force and Navy and US Marines. It was an
effective interceptor against Argentine Mach-2 class aircraft,
considered, ironically, to be of unfair "advanced" technology against
faster, but older aircraft. AV-8B is a pumped up version with a larger
wing, more range, payload, and a raised cockpit for better visibility


%%B-1 Lancer Rockwell/Boeing "Bone"

Supersonic politically maligned swing-wing bomber, essentially a plane
with the range / payload capability of the B-36/B-52 but as fast as an
F-111. The B-1A was designed for Mach 2 top speed, the B-1B
operational version has fixed air intakes for lower cost and radar
cross section but reduces dash speed to mach 1+, not a big sacrifice
considering most modern aircraft rarely fly at such speeds in actual

Like the B-52 and B-2, it is not fitted to deliver laser guided
weapons, but will be operational in 1998 with GPS based weapons and be
fitted with GPS navigation [which were used with great effectiveness
over Afghanistan as the most cost-effective platform]

As of 1998, they are no longer configured for nuclear weapons
delivery out of disarmament treaty considerations. They carry 40,000
worth of iron bombs for carpet bombing.

Boeing: B-1B Lancer Technical Specifications

B1 Used Over Iraq to deliver 500 lb

z63\clip\2003\01\b1kill.txt Newsgroups: soc.culture.cuba August 1,
2001 Much-Maligned B-1 Bomber Proves Hard to Kill By JAMES DAO ""It's
a 20-year-old system," Secretary of Defense Donald H. Rumsfeld said in
recent testimony before the House. "It's not stealthy. It's designed
for the cold war. It has been headed towards expensive obsolescence."

%%B-2 Northrop B2 Spirt "Stealth Bomber"

Modern version of Northrop's Flying Wing is smaller, but can do much
of what the B-52 can do in terms of range and speed and a slightly
lighter payload. It does not carry laser guided weapons like the F117
or even F-111 though. 

It was actually designed to drop dumb gravity bombs or SRAM missles
from a standard rotary launcher, but has been adapted to GPS aided
bombs and newer weapons that don't require laser designators. Two man
crew has two pilots trained to perform all functions instead of pilot
/ navigator, third seat is provided for future expansion.

It is based in special indoor shelters, flies across the globe to
Kosovo and back. 2 man crews are now being trained in different tasks.

Cost: $2 billion
Number: 21 operational
Height: 17 ft
Length: 69 ft
Wingspan: 172 ft
Ceiling: 50,000 ft
Thrust 17,300 lb per 4 engines GE F-118-100
range: 6,000 unrefueled (vs 6,000 B-52A, 12,000 B-52G)
Payload: 40,000 lbs (vs 60,000 B-52D)
Cost: 1.3B per plane

doc913:AFB2.txt - B2

%%B-17 Boeing Flying Fortress

Named by Aviation Week as the greatest bomber of WWII and all time,
the later B-24 was made in somewhat greater numbers and had had
better range and payload, but the B-17 had enough range to be the
main weapon against Germany, and flew somewhat better. The B-17G with
the chin turret was the ultimate version.

12,677 were sent to war
640,000 tons of bombs dropped in 291,508 sorties, about 4,400 lbs per
sortie, and 25 sorties per aircraft
4,688 combat losses or 1.6% loss per sortie
Range was 1,850 miles with 4,000 lb payload, 16,000 lb maximum payload

%%B-24 Consolidated Liberator

Slightly more advanced WWII bomber design than the the B-17, produced
in greater numbers with longer range, B-24J featured enclosed nose
and tail turret. Served in Pacific where longer range was more
useful, but never was popular as the B-17. Collings Foundation restored B-24

Consolidated B-24J Liberator
Wingspan----------110 feet
Length--------------67 feet, 7 5/8 inches
Height--------------18 Feet
Empty weight-----36,500 pounds
Max. weight-------65,000 pounds
Powerplants-------Four 1200hp Pratt & Whitney R-1830-65 engines
Armament---------10.50 caliber machine guns
Performance------Max. Speed 290 mph,
Service Ceiling 28,000, Range 3,000 miles
Designed by------Consolidated Aircraft Co., San Diego

%%B-26 Douglas A26 Invader

The piston engined Invader was introduced in WWII as a light bomber
follow on to the A20. When the B26 Marauder and B-25 Mitchell were
retired, the A26 was renamed the B26 for use in Korea. The B26 flew
55,000 sorties, 44,000 at night as the primary night attack aircraft.
They claimed 40,000 vehicles, 35,000 rail cars, 406 locomotives, 168
bridges and even 7 aircraft shot down.  It was also used in Vietnam
for slow attack and ground support roles.

%%B-29 Boeing Superfortress

Follow-on to the B-17, the B-29 was the most expensive program in
WWII, costing more than the atom bomb. A failure in daylight
precision high altitude bombing, it was decisive in leveling almost
every central Japanese city of an any size when switched by Curtis
LeMay to unarmed low-level incindenary attacks. It was the only plane
that could deliver the atom bomb to Japan. It was reserved for
service in the pacific since the B17 and B24 had enough range for
Europe. In Korea, they flew 21,000 sorties, dropped 167,100 tons of
bombs and shot down 16 migs and 17 other fighters.  16 were shot down
(.76 per 1000 sorties) , but 3 times as many crashed on landing.

The Superfortress is born Thomas Collison
$35 used 1945

z47\clip\2001\02\tu4.txt Soviet Union
copied Boeing bomber -- piece by piece Thursday, January 25, 2001 By
reverse engineering.  New details of how Soviet engineers copied the
Boeing B-29 Superfortress and renamed it the Tu-4 bomber were
released Thursday after a 12-year investigation by the Smithsonian
Institution's National Air and Space Museum

%%XB-35 Flying Wing

z40\clipim\2000\03\30\ Quicktime movie from Discovery

%%B-36 Convair B36 Peacemaker

Awesome 6 pusher piston engines plus 4 aux jet engines, and lots of
gun turrets. It set the standard for range / payload for the B-52,
B-1 and B-2.

\priv\95\11\b36.txt - Baugher article on B36.
Max speed 415 mph, 72,000lb bomb load

Don's awesome B36 page Don Pyeatt

Also see:
This is part of a site addition being developed for
the Aviation Heritage Museum in Fort Worth.

%%B-47 Stratojet

Range: 2,014 mi, 4,647 ferry Norman Palomar "Strategic Air Command"

%%B-52 Boeing B-52 Stratofortress

The classic strategic jet bomber featured in Dr. Strangelove, it has lasted from the 60's to beyond the year 2000. It was the final evolution of the B-47 idea into a jet that could do what the B36 could do, fly 6000 miles with a 20,000 payload, or haul 40,000 lbs. The same spec inspired the B-1 and B-2 designs. Originally designed for high-altitude penetration, it was adapted to low-level tactics, used for high-level carpet bombing in Vietnam against troops in the South and industrial targets (so they say) in the north with negligible losses except for Linebacker 2, even then it was only a 2% loss rate with incredibly stupid tactics of bombing with regularity of a train schedule. In Desert Storm, B-52 launched conventional 1000 lb warhead ALCMs in the first raids. Carpet bombing of troops demoralized the troops that it didn't kill, though it wasn't effective against tanks.. Compared to newer bombers, it is capable of hauling a spare crew for long missions, where the 2 guys in a B-2 or 4 in a B-1 are pretty stuck to their seats for the duration of the mission. In Linebacker II, 729 sorties were flown, 15,000 tons of bombs were dropped with 15 shot down (2% loss rate)(Aviation Week April 16, 1997 p. 121) Cost: 9.2M new $1,183/hr There are now 94 B-52H aircraft in service with three squadrons at Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana and two squadrons at Minor Air Force Base in North Dakota. WEAPONS The B-52H, with a weapons payload of more than 70,000 pounds, is capable of carrying the most diverse range of weapons of any combat aircraft. The nuclear weapons capacity includes 12 Advanced Cruise Missiles (ACMS), 20 Air Launched Cruise Missiles (ALCM) and 8 bombs. The conventional weapons carriage capability is 8 AGM-84 Harpoon missiles, 4 AGM-142 Raptor missiles, 51 x 500 lb bombs, 30 x 1000 lb bombs, 20 Conventional Air Launched Cruise Missiles (CALM), 12 Joint Stand Off Weapons (JSOW), 12 Joint Direct Attack Munitions (JDAM) and 16 Wind Corrected Munitions Dispenser (WCMD). JSOW, JDAM and WCMD are currently under development. The B-52H can also deliver 51 x 500lb, 30 x 1000lb and 20 x 2000lb navy mines. Video Heavy Metal B-52 \video\2011\04\heavyb52.mpg
%%B-58 Convair / General Dynamics B-58 Hustler Convair did delta wing fighters, and the Hustler was based on the same idea. Awesome delta wing 4 engine 3 man Mach 2 bomber with 3 man crew and weapons / fuel pod and vulcan 20mm tail stinger. Crew members got their own ejection capsules which would close up over the seat like a pillbug shell. It could also haul bombs externally in addition to the pod. It was a really expensive program to run, difficult to fly and it never found conventional application, so SAC got rid of it in favor of the FB-111. Today the B-1 is the supersonic bomber with B52 range, though Mach 2 performance was deleted for cost reasons. There is a refernce in "Wild Weasels in Action" that the B-58 was to be deployed to Vietnam, but was replaced by the F-111 for (FAC???) role. Story any burp in any engine at M2 would spin the airplane and depart it into little bits. Operational Dates: 1960-1970 Losses: 26 of 116 to accidents Cost: $12.9M to build, $2,139/hr vs. 9.2/$1.183 for the B-52 (Aviation Week 4/16/97 p. 116) z46\clipim\2000\11\02\b58\b58.htm Aviation History excellent article B/W phots \clip\97\10\b58\b58.htm Air Enthusiast Specs %%XB70 North American Valkyrie
Perhaps the most technically awesome aircraft ever built, the Mach 3 Intercontinental Bomber had 6 engines, was made of steel and had special aluminum impregnated tires, and used fuel to cool the delta wings with canard.

The plane was nearly as fast as the SR-71, but a lot bigger. A very high ladder gantry had to be used to get in the cockpit. The shape was based on the concept of "compression lift" flying on its own shock wave, and the wingtips tilted down at speed for stability. It was hard to fly, and was involved in a famous crash where an F-104 rolled over and took out both tails.

It was meant to replace the B-52, but it was done in by a change to low-level tactics, though it is said to have been the inspiration for the Russian Foxbat interceptor and at at least one small-scale copy. It was a good research aircraft for the SST program (which never made it either). It had individual escape capsules for each crewman like the B-58. Now the subject of a new AMT 1/72 kit (1997) They sure don't build them like they used to.

Maiden of Death Awesome XB70 history and photos
B70 landing at Edwards \clip\96\04\xb70.htm extended pics \images\97\20\xb-photos.htm

%%BAC Lightning

50's 60's era Mach 2 British interceptor with severely swept back
wings, two engines stacked vertically, and funny aux tanks over the
wing configuration, replaced by the F-4 Phantom in the 70s and 80s.

BAC Lightning Zone


1994 manual on USAF markings and camouflage for F15, F-4, Bronco, etc.

%%C-33 747 Freighter
Cargo 747 "Air-Mech" of M113A3, 10.5-ton tracked AFVs for U.S. Army Transformation IBCTs
Page proposes using 747 to lift C-130/C-141 compatible cargo such
as M113 or M8 light AFV/tanks. Can carry up to 6 M113, but LAV or
Stryker will not fit. Needs new drive-on ramp.

%%C-130 Lockheed Martin Hercules

The C130 ranks among the most successful Vietnam-era military systems.
It remains the world standard in tactical transports, and is the most
and longest produced transport in modern history. The YC-14 and YC-15
were designed as replacements but not adopted.

CNN article on how they converted a C130 with rockets for very
short take off.

Note on 2002 fire tanker loss - z56\priv\2002\06\c130.txt 30% or 15 of
50 C-130A airframes have crashed so far 

Rocket powered super-stol C-130 blows up and crashes
Seemed like a good idea at the time.
Museum of aviation

%%C-135 Stratolifter / Stratotanker

Boeing tanker adaption of 707, the C-135 family differs in having a
[crew ladder], smaller diameter fuselage, no cabin windows, reduced
weight, and lower passenger capacity. All tanker equipment, including
an extendable refueling boom, is located on the lower deck in the
KC-135. 820 built, compared to 1,000 707s. Was initially numbered 717.

To improve performance, the Air Force equipped 163 KC-135s with
TF33-102 engines, which created the KC-135E; and nearly 400 aircraft
received new CFM56 engines and became KC-135R/Ts. The new KC-135R/T
can offload 50 percent more fuel, is 25 percent more fuel efficient,
costs 25 percent less to operate and is 96 percent quieter than the

Expected to fly well into the 21st century, the C/KC-135 inventory
stood at 586 active aircraft as of November 2000, of which 546 were

Tinker afb

%%C-141 Lockheed Starlifter

Unspectacular but successful and long lasting turbofan jet cargo jet,
workhorse of MAC which could only afford so many C-5s. To be largely
replaced by C-17 in 2000s.

US Air Force fact sheet

Fan page

%%XC-142 LTV Tilt-Wing Transport

Science 4 Turboprop hi-wing tilt wing transport circa 1966 had
the potential to fly up to 400 MPH, much faster than the V-22, but it
was hard to fly and keep working, a few cracked up. Tilt wings are
harder to control than tilting rotors. Compare it to the X-22 (ducted
fan with 4 barrel "wings") \images\97\31\xc142\xc142.htm

%%CH-47 Chinook Boeing Vertol

Medium / Heavy lift tandem rotor helicopter. CH-47 fan site

Probably 2nd greatest helicopter of all time after the Huey, a
Vietnam classic, but still in production as frontline equipment, in
service throughout the free (or mostly free) world.  Originally a
troop carrier, the Huey got the job because it was smaller and more
flexible and could unload troops faster, so the Chinook was used
mainly to haul cargo, and it succeeded over the unusual CH-64
Skycrane, which required an external pod for internal storage.

Upsized version of the CH-46 the CH-47D 

Flew 2.6 million sorties in Vietnam, 1,182,000 flight hours, 8 1/2
million passengers, 4 1/2 million tons of cargo. Recovered 11,000
aircraft. 170 lost due to accident or combat, about 1/4 of 732
produced. Reputed to have the lowest helicopter accident rate, but
CH-64 crews are wary of having two rotors than can hit each other.

In 2000 there were stories of gears failing.,1597,190617-412,00.shtml
z42\clipim\2000\05\16\ch47\ch47.htm As the U.S. Army was preparing to
outflank Saddam Hussein's forces, a Chinook with 18 men aboard lost a
Speco-made gear and was destroyed by the resulting fire.  That
Chinook was practically brand new and an investigation found that a
Speco-made gear installed by Boeing had cracks in it.  The army is
spending an estimated $8 million to replace 143 sets of gears on the
Chinook. But for all its problems, the Chinook is still the workhorse
of every Army deployment.  In fact, the Army plans to spend another
$2.5 billion dollars to keep it flying for 20 more years

CH-47D produced since 1983. L 50' 9" H 18' 7.5" empty 23,401 lb MTO
50,000 lb rotor dia 60 ft, first flight 1968, range 300 mi. 2 x 3,750
hp Lycoming T55-L-712 turboshaft, carries 44 troops, 33 seated
(carried 72 sometimes in Vietnam), cruise speed 160 mph, max 185 mph,
hover 17,000 ft. Payload 25,000 lbs, can carry two hummers internally.

Source: Modern Combat Helicopters George Sullivan Facts on File New
York 1993

cost y2000 $30m each

%%CH-64 Sikorsky Skycrane

                          Sikorsky S-64 Skycrane
                          Aircraft Specifications

                Maximum Gross Weight       42,000 LBS
                Empty Weight               25,500 LBS
                Useful Load                16,500 LBS
                Useful Load with Full Fuel 11,000 LBS
                Maximum External Load      20,000 LBS
                Service Ceiling            13,000 FT
                Hover Ceiling,IGE          10,600 FT
                Hover Ceiling,OGE          6,900 FT
                Installed Horsepower       9,000 HP
                Takeoff Power              6,600 HP
                          CAPACITIES - CREW ONLY
                Standard Seating           3
                High Density               5
                               ROTOR BLADES
                Main                       6
                Tail                       4
                VNE (Maximum Air Speed)    109 KNTS
                Econ Cruise (Efficiency)   91 KNTS
                Maximum Fuel Range         219 NM
                Endurance (No Reserves)    2.5 HRS
                Capacity (Standard Tank)   880 gal
                Capacity with Auxiliary    1,320 gal
                Manufacturer               Pratt & Whitney
                Model                      (2) JFTD 12A-5A

                                  GO BACK
                     © copyright 1996 Jerry M Sullivan

CTH Surplus Helicoptes CH-64

%%Century Series fighters
The Century Series:
From MiG Alley to
Blind Alley
With the exception of the F-100s, which owed enough to the swing-role
F-86 in origin that they avoided either of the two following extremes,
the Air Force's century-series fighters were either interceptors
(F-101B, F-102, F-104A, F-106) or, on the other hand, nuclear-strike
aircraft (F-l0lA/C, F-104C, F-105).

The value of the century-series aircraft to American defense in the
1950s and early 1960s is open to serious question.

Vietnam the Air Force depended on the Navy-developed Sidewinder and
Sparrow, both of which--despite their own problems--significantly
outperformed the Air Force's own Falcon. Getting the Air Force to
consider Sidewinder at all, in fact, had required the personal
intervention of Assistant Secretary of the Air Force Trevor Gardner to
obtain a comparative flight-test evaluation;

%%CL-400 Lockheed Suntan

Extreme planes
M2.5 wingtip-mounted ramjet powered U2 replacement, taken over by SR-71

History of Mystery Planes


Cost of USAF fighters since WWII

\clip\97\13\bprice\bprice.htm cost of bombers

 Cost of desert storm aircraft

%%Dornier DO.31

Experimental jet transport with 2 pegasus (harrier) engines
Do 31, Dornier
Last revised: 25 May 1996 


The Do 31 was an experimental VTOL transport. Two pods with lift
engines were fitted at the wingstips; two R.R. Pegasus engines with
swivelling nozzles were fitted under the wing. This thing actually
flew, but it was never used beyond the experimental stage.

Type: Do 31E-3
Function: experimental
Year: 1967 Crew: 2 Engines: 2 * 7000kg R.R. Bristol Pegasus 5-2
8 * 2000kg R.R. RB 162-4D
Speed: 650km/h Ceiling: 10500m Range:
Load: 36 seats
Written by Emmanuel Gustin 

%%F-XX Boyd,
Spray, and the others began arguing for a highly agile, single-engine,
and less-than-Mach 2 "austere" fighter, the so-called F-XX. They were
unsuccessful ingetting the Air Staff to redirect the F-15 program
again-a wise decision on the part of the Air Force. Instead, the
climate of thought that they proposed with the F-XX germinated at the
end of the summer of 1971 in the so-called lightweight fighter

%%F3D / F10A Douglas Skyknight

Aviation Enthusiast Obscure Navy's first jet night fighter. It scored some of the first jet victories over Korea, despite pretty dorky looks (perhaps the most unlikely looking fighter ever built) and straight wing. "In subsequent night actions, F3D-2s accounted for another Yak-15 and six MiG-15s, with no losses to themselves, which gave the Skyknight an overall 8-0 superiority in Korea. In addition, no Air Force B-29 was ever lost on a F3D-2-escorted mission". It counted more air-air victories than any other naval / marine type. It served only from land bases in Korea.

That's a better record than any straight winged USAF fighter. The USAF had no jet night fighters, only prop planes like the F-82 twin mustang. Eventually was armed with the Sparrow when it became available.

Used in Vietnam at the EF-10B as a radar jamming platform with the gray /white paint scheme. Side by Side seating, featured an escape tube instead of ejection seats.

This plane surfaced again in the straight winged Missleer concept, which turned into the F-111B, the idea was to use a slow loitering aircraft to launch Phoenix missles, but this turned into the F-14, which in the end, never fired any Phoenix missles in anger. z47\clipim\2001\01\10\f3d.pdf - various articles, drawings, charts Nice resin model kit:

%%F-3H (F2) McDonnell Demon

Single engine / pilot barely transonic predecessor to the F4 Phantom,
armed with radar-guided sparrow missles and 4 20mm cannnon.

It wasn't supersonic, but lasted longer than the F11 Tiger which was
made obsolete by the F8.  Designed/redesigned around J40 engines that
never worked, and J71s that were underpowered, it was obsolete by the
time the bugs worked out compared to supersonic day fighters.
nevertheless, it made a living as the Navy's main night / all-weather
fighter until the Phantom took over, which also soon put the Crusader
out of business.

The Phantom used the Demon as the design starting point, keeping the
basic layout of wings and tail, but with two engines. The Demon probably
also contributed to the F-101 Voodoo which was supersonic with two engines
slung underneath an overhanging tail. The
airframe was a good design that provided excellent maneuverability in
air combat situations at altitude; many involved in the program
thought the airplane would have been completely successful had it been
powered by the superb J57 with afterburner, which would have provided
an additional 2,500 pounds of thrust in afterburner without the weight
penalty of the J71, and made the Demon fully supersonic rather than
barely transonic.

This shows that the Demon flew about the same time as the F-100, is
about as heavy, and has just a tad bit less thrust, but was only as fast
as the MiG-17.

Comparison   F-3H   F-86  MiG-15 MiG-17  F-100
First Flight 1953    1947         1950    1953
Top speed     716     685          711     877
Thrust      14,400   5,200       7,452  16,000
Gross Wt    31,000  13,791      13,393  30,061

Tomcatter's Association
Baugher Essay

%%F-4D (F-6A) Douglas Skyray

Unusually sleek carrier based trans-sonic delta wing interceptor. At
the time of introduction, it beat the heck out of subsonic USAF F-86D
interceptors, and really beat up straight winged planes like the F-89
Scorpion. It set a world speed record of 753.4 mph for a carrier
plane. But it was just at the time true Mach 2 planes like the F-8
and F-4 Phantom were on the drawing boards. 

Type: F4D-1 Function: fighter Year: 1956 Crew: 1 Engines: 1 * 7300kg
P&W J57-P-8B Wing Span: 10.21m Length: 13.79m Height: 3.96m Wing
Area: 51.75m2 Empty Weight: 7268kg Max.Weight: 12300kg Max. Speed:
1210km/h Ceiling: 16900m Max. Range: 1930km Armament: 4*g20mm 1814kg

Wing span 33' 6".  Area 557 Sq. Ft.  Length 45' 8".  Ht. 13'.  Gross
Wt. 22,000 Lbs.  Fuel Capacity 1,240 Gal with drop tanks Power Pratt
& Whitney J57-P-8B with afterburner.  Max. Speed 695 mph at 36,000'.
Service Ceiling 55,000'.  Armament Four 20MM cannon in the wings. Two
Sidewinder missiles. Two rocket pods with nineteen 2.75 MM FFar's. Pueblo Historical aircraft society NASA Dryden Photo gallery
Douglas F4D-1 "Skyray" (F-6A) (Pima Air and Space Museum, Tucson, AZ)
- John A. "Skytamer" Shupek, curator, Western Museum of Flight 

%%F-4 McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II

Possibly the 2nd greatest fighter of all time (after the WWII P51),
and certainly the greatest jet this Vietnam era plane is the
forerunner of all modern fighter aircraft, setting a standard of
armament of 4 sidewinder / 4 sparrow with long-range radar, Mach 2.5
speed, 16,000 lb bomb load, 2,000 mile range. MacNamara may have
screwed up the F-111 program for commonality, but telling the Air
Force to adopt the F-4 may have been his most brilliant directive.

The F-4 is in a generation by itself. When previous fighters were
designed around point missions such as nuclear strike, or bomber
interception, the F-4 exceeded both the F-105 which was the most
capable multirole fighter bomber of the series, and the F-106 as an
interceptor, and F-104 / F-100 as daylight air superiority.

It was the benchmark on which the next generation teen series fighters
was built, Mach 2 with 2,000 mile range, 16,000 maximum payload with
radar missles. In Vietnam, the F-4 was the only American fighter, like
the F-86 before, which was blessed by being built with a large wing
and 2 big engines that could perform as well as the MiGs.

The main difference between the F-4 and F-15 is better electronics,
thrust and maneuverability, one-man crew, getting rid of the
air-ground role (until the F-15E) and they put the gun back. (only the
last F-4E USAF model had an internal gun adapted to it) It was
produced in greater quantity than any other western jet. It is still
a contemporary aircraft in the 1990s in front line service when
nearly all of its contemporaries are long obsolete. 

Although it wasn't that much newer than its contemporaries, it
eventually replaced the F-106 as an interceptor, the F-105 as a
tactical fighter, the RF-101 as reconaissance, the F-100 for the
Thunderbirds demonstration flyer in the USAF, and the F-8 in the Navy,
as well as a substantial part of the attack role. Only the F/A-18E
Super Hornet may rival it for versatility as a lightweight
interpretation of the F-4 which will replace the F-14 fighter, A4, A7
and A6 attack planes, and could be used as a USAF land based fighter as it
is about the size of the original F-15 Eagle

Links: Fan Page

Joe Baugher
 F-4 Preservation Society
Phantoms Phorever Home Page

Google Boooks US Navy F-4 Phantom II MiG Killers 1965-70, Part 1 By Brad A. Elward, Peter Davies

%%f-4 victories

by Aircraft and Weapon

Aircraft Weapons/Tactics MiG-17 MiG-19 MiG-21 Total

         AIM-9 Sidewinder 12     0      10     22*
         AIM-7 Sparrow     4     0      10     14
20 mm gun                  3     0       1      4
Maneuvering tactics        2     0       0      2

AIM-7 Sparrow              4     2      20     26*
20 mm gun                  4     0       2      6
AIM-4 Falcon               4     0       1      5
AIM-9 Sidewinder           0     2       3      5
Maneuvering tactics        0     0       2      2

AIM-7 Sparrow              0 2 8 10
20 mm gun                  0 1 4 5
AIM-9 Sidewinder           0 0 4 4
AIM-9/20 mm gun (combined) 0 0 1 1
Maneuvering tactics        0 1 0 1

F-4D/F-105F 20 mm gun 1 0 0 1

F-105D - nearly all gun kills
20 mm gun                  22 0 0 22
AIM-9 Sidewinder            2 0 0 2
AIM-9/20 mm gun (combined)  1 0 0 1

F-105F 20 mm gun 2 0 0 2
B-52D .50 cal. gun 0 0 2 2
Totals 61 8 68 137

%%F-5 Freedom Fighter

Northrop lightweight fighter made possible by j85 Quail engine, a very
small cruise missle decoy. According to Aviation Week, front fuselage
and wing planform were used as basis for Cobra that turned to F-17,
Hornet and the not-so-lightweight 66,000 MTOW F/A-18E/F Super Hornet.


%%F-8 / J-8 Chinese  J-8 (Jian-8 Fighter aircraft 8) / F-8

Chinese front-line fighter which ran into Navy EP-3 in 2001.

Design work started in 1964 as enlargement of Mig-21 to take two
engines, produced since 1980. Resembles SU-15 Flagon, delta with side
intakes. "The J-8 and J-8II aircraft are trouble-prone aircraft with
a poor weapon suite and an inefficient engine. At best, the J-8-II
can be compared with an early model (1960s) US F-4 Phantom. " The
twin-engined Jian-8IIM is compared to F-16 and F-18 in speed and
maneuverability. "The Jian-8IIM fighter will probably be equipped
with Russia's or China's helmet sight and advanced PL-9 and P-73
missiles, with which it will outperform the F-16C in close-range air
combat. "
Builder Shenyang Aircraft Wing Span 30 ft in ( 9.3 m) Length 70 ft 10
in (21.6 m) Height 17 ft 9 in ( 5.4 m) Weight 21,600 lb ( 9,820 kg)
empty 31,500 lb (14,300 kg) normal takeoff 39,200 lb (17,800 kg) max
takeoff Engine 2 Wopen 13A-II turbojets @ 14,815 lbst thrust Maximum
speed 1,450 mph / 2,340 km/h / Mach 2.2 

%%F-14 Grumman F14 Tomcat


\priv\96\04\F14CRASH.TXT \priv\96\04\f14crash.txt 10 of 330 F-14s
have crashed in past 2 years, 32 since 1991 (about 6 per year). Some
blamed on under-powered, although F14 has highest power to weight of
any aircraft with the exception of the F-15, 16, and F-18. Details on
Hultgreen crash

HorridoEven the F-14 can perform the cobra.

compared with the best existing USN fighters, the Tomcat offered a 21
percent increase in acceleration and sustained g-force, 20 percent
increase in rate of climb, 27 percent increase in maneuvering
capability, and a 40 percent improvement in turning radius. At a high
throttle setting, the Tomcat can hold a steady angle of attack of
about 77 degrees.

The aircraft can execute an 180-degree 6.5-g turn of 1800 feet radius
in 10 seconds without loss of speed. The Tomcat can hold 6.5 g at Mach
2.2, and can accelerate from loiter to Mach 1.8 in 75 seconds. Armed
with four Phoenix, two Sparrows, two Sidewinders, and two external
fuel tanks, the Tomcat can loiter on combat air patrol for 90 minutes
280 km from the carrier, or for an hour at a range of 470 km from the
carrier. Tactical radius with the same load on a deck-launched
interception mission is 317 km with a Mach 1.3 flyout. 

F-14 not intended to be agile?
Hk40 Even the F-14 can perform the cobra.
... I love the Tomcat in all that it is, however it was
not intended to be that agile in the first place - nor as I believe
the 14-D has no mds in that vien as well

video: F-14 flies by and explodes
saw a pilot write that the F-14 can out-turn just about anything in
the sky. He was explaining that a critical factor in how fast you can
SUSTAIN a turn has to do with wingspan. Apparently, at certain speeds
typical for dogfights, the F-14 can pull 9Gs continuously shile
maintaining speed and altitude.
"In defending the F-14 upgrade, Navy officials said F-14s have a
combat range and/or endurance approaching that of the A-6E, which is
considerably longer than the F/A-18."

doc922:ATF14.TXT - F14 Attack versions
Tomcat's Hangar

15th June 2004, 02:34
AFAIF F-14 will be kept till 2008 before it is replaced by all Sewer Hornets
Super Borenet anyone?
Be the best damn tanker in the fleet too someday... well the only tanker anyway.
I bet the Subpar Hornet is better than the 1950's F3D-2 :)	  	
Join Date: Jan 2000 Location: Cuernavaca, Mexico Posts: 1,456 The
Tomcat is still an outstanding design. If it were to be redesigned as
a fixed wing FBW jet, it would vastly out perform the stupor hornet,
and be on par with the extreme AoA manuervability of the mig-29. Even
as a swing wing it already is equal to any 4th gen fighter despite the
extra structual weight it has as a swing wing.
.. a knife fight in an F-14 against an F-16 is not a good
idea, but the F-14 still is a great dogfighter against many other
planes. I was at the Oceana airshow this year and in my opinion the
F-14 outperformed the F-18 in many areas. Which is also what a Tomcat
driver told. He said he'd dogfight the F-14 (B & D model) against
anybody, including the Super Hornet, and probably win. He said the
only plane he was afraid of in a knife fight was the F-16.
Tomcat costs twice as much to operate, per flight hour, as a Super
Hornet. We just cannot afford the cost of maintaining that fine old
bird. Time to go out to pasture. Can the Super Hornet fill the
Tomcat's shoes? Sure as hell it can, but not in an identical manner.

Super Hornet vs Tomcat
the F-14
Tomcat is still the superior fighter because it is able to reach a
longer distance and engage multiple targets and destroy them
simultaneously (which is needed for the first line of defense in naval
warfare), in a time of war and the protection of the fleet.

LCDR Alan D.Armstrong, who is the USN Safety Officer/Flight
Demonstration Team Leader in VFA-122.  Armstrong: likes the Super
"One statement in particular caught my attention; a Hornet pilot was
quoted as saying of his side-by-side comparison flights with the Super
Hornet that "... we outran them, we outflew them, and we ran them out
of gas. I was embarrassed for them." This "quote" was originally
authored by a Marine Corps officer in an editorial in The
Virginian-Pilot newspaper in the fall of 1999. It was supposedly
attributed to another unnamed Marine Corps officer from an F/A-18D
squadron with whom the Navy had participated in a "Red Flag" exercise
in Nellis AFB during OPEVAL in 1999. These side-by-side comparisons
never took place (I was there), and no Marine Corps aviator has ever
admitted to having made that statement."

"As far as classical fighter performance goes, our aviators (many of
them ex-F-14 Tomcat aircrew) are always enthusiastic about fighting
the F-14 because of the F/A-18's superior maneuverability and high AoA
performance versus that of the Tomcat."

Kurt Schroeder, who besides having been a Navy fighter pilot was chief
test pilot for Grumman and project pilot on the F-14D.  Schroeder:
Tomcat test pilot answers:
"LCDR Armstrong hasn't met any pilots in the F-14B squadron aboard the
Teddy Roosevelt deployed in support of Operation Enduring Freedom.
Scheduled to give up their Tomcats on return to CONUS in exchange for
brand-new F/A-18Fs, they obviously did not support the above opinion
during an AP interview; that is, unless you interpret the following
quote as being supportive: "I hope the liberal, cross-dressing a-holes
who thought the Hornet could replace this aviation masterpiece rot in

In rough numbers, a Tomcat has about 4,000 more pounds of gas than an
F/A-18C during a similar mission profile (note: the Super Hornet has
that delta in its larger airframe). The thing that hurts the Hornet
most is excessive loitering, not flying distance. Unlike the Tomcat,
the Hornet likes high and fast profiles, and orbiting at low altitude
waiting to recover back aboard ship kills the gas mileage. With
variable geometry, the Tomcat can spread its wings forward and be more
efficient in this regime.

It is a bigger airplane with bigger engines, and the rumor is that the
range on internal fuel is not significantly improved. Additional range
possessed by the Super Hornet is primarily a result of the larger
external fuel tanks.

the range degradation is a fraction of that experienced by the
point-designed Super Hornet Thanks to variable geometry and the high--
bypass powerplant, the Tomcat is very tolerant of even low-altitude
loitering-a very important characteristic for a carrier-based

[[f-18]] improved tamer-landing flying qualities, an area where the F-14
is not at its best The other was a reduction in maintenance man-hours
required to keep the airplane operational. I cannot comment personally
on the first, as I've never flown the F/A-18. I only remember how good
the F-4 Phantom was coming aboard the USS Kennedy-speedy and
directionally stable, two things the Tomcat wasn't Trusted individuals
tell me that the F/A-18 does have good carrier-landing flying
qualities. This characteristic should not be overlooked, as aircraft
that require high pilot workloads in the landing approach, such as the
F-14, present a higher level of concern regarding safety. We lost
several F-14s during night carrier landings, due in part to the F-14's
high workload in the power approach/landing configuration.

30 years later, the best NAVAIR can develop and field doesn't approach
the capability of an F-14.

Jim Foster, who not only had years as a U.S. Navy fighter pilot
(including the command of a group specifically charged with developing
Navy aircraft), but he was also part of the original governmental
committee that selected the F/A-18.  Foster: Super Hornet Is a poor

the Navy, did "bad!" For purely political reasons, we decided to try
to "replace" the F-14 Tomcat with an "improved" F/A-18 Hornet and
Super Hornet. Wrong!

But as George Spangenberg-head of aircraft design in NAVAIRSYSCOM would
tell you, you will not be successful trying to "scale" aircraft
mission performance.

A key staffer for the House R&D Subcommittee wrote into the bill that
the Navy had to choose one of the USAF "Lightweight Fighter" program
aircraft as the next fighter to save R&D dollars

My sincere belief, based on lots of analysis and experience, is that
the Navy could have developed a better aircraft for the same cost, and
I said so many times to anyone who would listen As interested Navy
participants, George Spangenberg and I were "non-voting members" of
the Air Force Source Selection Board in the selection of two prototype
designs: the YF-16 and the YF-17. Total internal fuel capacity 9029
litres (2385 US gallons; 1986 Imp gallons). An external auxiliary fuel
tank can be carried beneath each intake trunk, each containing 1011
litres (267 US gallons; 222 Imp gallons).  T-O weight: fighter/escort
mission: 29,072 kg (64,093 lb)
The Grumman F-14 Tomcat
v1.0.1 / 01 jun 03 / greg goebel / public domain 
In terms of payload-range in the strike role the "Super Bug" wasn't
quite in the same league as the A-6 or the advanced Tomcat strike
variants, but the Navy determined that the F/A-18E/F could well meet
their operational requirements. It was the future and there was no
prospect of building more Tomcats. However, as discussed in the next
section the notion of an attack Tomcat didn't go away.

It wasn't until 1992 that the Tomcat was even cleared to carry "iron
bombs" operationally

Tomcats also flew in the air-defense role during the Iraq strikes, and
on 6 January 1999, one fired two Phoenix missiles at two Iraqi MiG-25s
at extreme range. Both missiles missed. This was the first time the US
Navy had ever fired the Phoenix in anger, though it appears that the
Iranians shot off a few at the Iraqis during the Iran-Iraq War. Two
more were fired at Iraqi fighters in September 1999, missing again. 

However, the blank combat record of the Phoenix is consistent with the
blank record of the Hughes Falcon series of AAMs in general. 

Tomcats also flew in the air-defense role during the Iraq strikes, and
on 6 January 1999, one fired two Phoenix missiles at two Iraqi MiG-25s
at extreme range. Both missiles missed. This was the first time the US
Navy had ever fired the Phoenix in anger, though it appears that the
Iranians shot off a few at the Iraqis during the Iran-Iraq War. Two
more were fired at Iraqi fighters in September 1999, missing again. 

%%F-15 McDonnell Douglas Eagle Eagle

Large USAF fighter to replace F-4 Phantom, role split with F-16
lightweight fighter.
Empty weight: 27,000 lb (12247 kg)
Normal take-off, clean, with four AIM-7 Sparrow missiles: 41,500 lb      (18824 kg); 
Maximum take-off weight: 56,000 lb (25402 kg). C/D models = 68,000 pounds (30,844 kilograms)
Ferry Range Range: 3,450 miles (3,000 nautical miles) ferry range with
conformal fuel tanks and three external fuel tanks
Max speed (time limited): 1,875 mph 

Mid-Heavy Fighters:

               F-15C   F-18C   F-18E   F-4C    F-14D   A-6     F-22    F-35A
Thrust         46,900  35,400  44,000  34,000  54,000  18,600  70,000  42,000
Max Speed      M2.5    M1.8    M1.8    M2.5    M1.9    648     M2.?    M1.7
Empty Wt       28,000  23,050  30,500  30,328  40,100  25,630  30,000  29,300
Gross Wt       68,000  51,900  66,000  58,000  72,900  60,400  60,000  70,000
BombLoad       15,000  15,000  18,000  15,000  15,000  16,000   8,000  15,000
BombRange              680     1040            >1040   1,080SL NA       
ComRadius                              494/786                         600
Range           2,400  1,089   1,275   1,750   1,842   2,000           1,200n
Ferry           3,450  1,546   1,660   1,925   2,050   2,475           1,120
Length          63/9   56ft    60.3ft  58ft    62/8    54/7    62/1    51/1
Cost            $29M   $29M    $40M            $38M            $71M    $68M
Missle Range    30nm   30nm    50mn    10nm    100nm           50nm      

Light Fighters
               A-7D    F-16C   F-104G
Thrust         14,250  27,000  15,000
Max Speed      663     M2.0    M2.0
Empty Wt                       14,000
Gross Wt       39,325  37,500  25,840
BombLoad       15,000  15,000   4,000
BombRange              1,480
Range           3,044  2,425   1000
Ferry           3,044          2,187
Length          46/1   49      54.77
Cost            2.8M   26.9M

%%F/A-18 McDonell Douglas(Boeing) Hornet F/A-18E/F Super Hornet
%%F-18 Hornet
%%F/A-18E/F Super Hornet

Started as relatively lightweight 80's 2-engine fighter based on
Northrop F-17 selected by Navy over the F-16 to complement the F-14
and replace the A-7 and F-4 in attack role with sub Mach 2 speed.
Carries 2 flush-mounted radar guided sparrow missles, unlike F-16
which is a day fighter.  YF-17 was based on F-5 with leading edge
extensions expaned into cobra hood. Super Hornet is about the size
of the huge F-15 Eagle, only 10,000lb lighter than Tomcat as well.

Primary Marine Corps fighter which did not adopt the expensive F-14.
Criticized for relatively short range compared to types such as the
A-7, A-6 and F-14. However has longer range than F-4 it replaced, only
somewhat less than A-7

F-18 proved to be much more survible than the Harrier with exhaust
located at C.G. in Desert Storm with hits to the extreme tail because
of forward position of twin tails.

Super Hornet is sized up to fuel capacity and weight of a F-15C. Range
/ payload designed to replace the A6.

Enlarged F-18E/F is also intended by the Navy to replace the F-14D and
A-6 in light and heavy attack and fighter roles. Payload and range,
and missle range will be significantly less than retired F-14. Growler
version to replace the EA6B is also envisioned. With retirement Navy
desiring to retire S-3, it may also be used for refueling. Thus, it
will cover all but C-2 / E-2 roles on the carrier deck.

Super Hornet is presented as a huge increase in capability compared to
the F-18, however it falls significantly short compared to the Tomcat
in terms of range, payload and drag. F-14D can supercruise like F-22,
Super Hornet even clean cannot fly supersonic at low altitudes,
carries most stores under wings, Tomcat has clean wings even with full
Widespread enthusiasm for the Super Hornet throughout the naval
aviation community belies the alleged problems with the aircraft. The
Boeing-built twin-engine jet, a development of the original McDonnell
Douglas F/A-18 Hornet, deployed in 2002. Originally intended as a
stopgap measure between the demise of the old A-6 Intruder and failed
A-12 replacement and the JSF, the Super Hornet has legions of admirers
despite some shortcomings

even if the Marines’ F/A-18Cs and A+ models wear out before they can
be replaced with F-35Bs, Navy F/A-18Cs replaced by Super Hornets could
be used by the Marines until more STOVLs are available.

the Marine Corps turned its back on the Super Hornet some time ago and
staunchly adheres to its plan for an all-STOVL force of F-35s and

Specs comparison F-18C vs. F-18E

Performance Specs on Navy Aircraft.......

All F-14, Super Hornet, F-35C are comparable to F-4 Phantom in weight,
thrust, range and payload. 

                       F-14D / Super Hornet  / Phantom / F-35C / F-18AC
Max Speed:             Mach 2.4  /1.8   / 2.2 / 1.6 / 1.8
Max Cruising Speed:      550 Kts / 425  / 538mph / NA / ??
Sevice Ceiling:          56,000 ft / 52,000  / 62,250 / 60,000
Combat Range             ? / ? / ? / 1,620 nm / 1,089 nm 
Combat Radius:     2,000 nm / rad 1,200 / rad 367 nm / 1,620+640 nm
Ferry Range              ? / 2,070 / ? / ? / 1,800 nm
CAP Station Endurance:  1hr / 30 min / ? / ? 
Deck Launched Intercept Radius (4XAIM54C 2XAIM7 2XAIM9):  134 NM@ Mach 1.5 + 646-2
  / 1,200 nm / ? / ? / 290 nm hi-lo-lo-hi -3

Empty Weight:          40,104lb / 30,564  / 28276  -10,000 / 24,000 / 23,000
Max payload lb         15,000 / 17,750 / 16,000 / 17,000 / 13,700
Carrier Trap Weight(bringback weight) 51,830lbs / 45,000 
Max Take Off Weight: 74,000 lbs / 66,000 / 50,341 / 50,000 / 51,900
Thrust                  22000lbx2 / 22,000lbx2 / 16,950x2 / 35,000 / 17,750x2
Cost                   $38M / $40M / $18M-1 / $55M / ? 2 drop

The most direct thing to do was conduct a "fly-off" between the two
proposals, but then politics intervened in the form of a scandal at
the "Tailhook" convention of naval aviators in September 1991. There
was a drunken bash that resulted in several female participants
complaining that they had been muscled around and abused, and in the
howling public scandal that followed a number of top Navy brass were
accused of covering up the matter, leading to a series of

The Tailhook scandal was a messy issue and discussion of its details
in a document on an aircraft is not relevant or useful. What is
relevant was that the scandal threw the Navy command structure into
confusion at a time when some important decisions had to be made. One
of the significant consequences was that Navy Secretary Lawrence
Garrett resigned, to be replaced by Sean O'Keefe, who was close to
Cheney and in the Hornet II camp. The result was that the Hornet II
faction won out, with the Navy committing to the development of the
machine without a competitive flyoff.

In another irony of the Super Hornet saga, an aircraft that had
started out as the YF-17 lightweight fighter was now only slightly
smaller than an F-15 Eagle heavy fighter

what was a bigger surprise was that the Super Hornet didn't meet its
performance specifications, being distinctly inferior in speed,
acceleration, and agility to late-build Hornet Is. A Hornet I pilot
who took on the Super Hornet in air combat exercises was quoted as
saying: "We outran them, we out-flew them, and we ran them out of gas.
I felt embarrassed for these pilots."

The statement that the Hornet I ran the Super Hornet out of gas is
particularly hard to swallow since the Super Hornet has a much bigger
fuel supply.
4/22/96 "While the Super Hornet will have increased range, that
increase is achieved at the expense of its combat performance.  GAO
sez the estimate cost of the new ac is under-stated.  Estimate based
on the total purchase of 1000 ac is $44M per ac.  GAO sez for 660 ac,
it puts the number at $53M.  Present ac is about $28M.  '

F-18E intended to replace A-6 and F-14D:
Young, James A., Anderson, Ronald D., Yurkovich, Rudolph N.,
AIAA-98-4701, “A Description of the F/A-18E/F Design and Design
Process,” 7th AIAA/USAF/NASA/ISSMO Symposium on Multidisciplinary
Analysis and Optimization, St. Louis, Missouri, 2-4 September 1998.

PDF] Philip CoyleFile Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - View as HTML
These included S3, A6, A7, F14, and all variants of the F/A-18. ... are poor climb rates, poor sustained turn capability, and a low maximum speed. ... 
OR required better turn rate
Subsequent, Navy directed would replace F-14
approach speeds are lower
3,400 lb bring back increase
resists departure
positive nose pointing to get first shot
unusual agility and control of pitch axis

* Low energy maneuverability Key PerformanceParameter (KPP) related to
energy maneuverability of the F/A-18E/F is a single value of
specificexcess power, Ps, specified at .9 Mach number and 10,000 ft
MSL altitude. The specified valueis Ps=600ft/sec. This value is low by
current fighter state of the art and reflects the modestenergy
performance demanded by the Navy for the Super Hornet. The OPEVAL
measuredvalue is 619 ft/sec.  The consequences of low specific excess
power in comparison to the threatare poor climb rates, poor sustained
turn capability, and a low maximum speed.

* Low maximum speed to run away: Of greatest tactical significance is the lower maximum
speed of the F/A-18E/F since this precludes the ability to avoid or
disengage from aerial combat. In this regard, the F/A-18E/F is
onlymarginally inferior to the F/A-18C/D, whose specific excess power
is also considerably inferiorto that of the primary threat, the

* At subsonic speeds the climb and turn rates and the
acceleration performance of the F/A-18E/F are comparable to those of
both the F/A-18C/D and the primary threat. At transonic and supersonic
speeds, the F/A-18E/F will experience large decelerations (airspeed
bleed-off) duringa maneuvering fight.

Maneuvering air combat in the
transonic/supersonic portion of the flightenvelope are not of high
tactical relevancy since any maneuvering engagement rapidly migratesto
the so-called "corner" of the flight envelopes (typically 0.6 Mach at
15,000 feet MSL). In thisregard, the F/A-18E/F has little or no
disadvantage. In fact, given that the unloaded subsonicacceleration
performance of the F/A-18E/F is excellent, the higher bleed rates
experienced by theF/A-18E/F may be considered an advantage since this
facilitates reaching the corner speed fasterand translates to positive
nose pointing in a dogfight. The principal consequence of
thislimitation as it bears on survivability is the inability of
F/A-18E/F to avoid or disengage(“bugout”) from a close-in fight. In
this regard, the F/A-18E/F is marginally inferior to the LotXIX C/D
and significantly inferior to the MiG-29. Many fighter aircrews and
air warfareanalysts believe that, with modern aircraft and missiles,
the probability of a close-in fightrequiring a disengagement is small.
Within this context, the reduced energy maneuverability of
the F/A-18E/F is not viewed as a major detriment to its overall
operational effectiveness. As theF/A-18E/F incorporates planned
improvements, specifically, the Joint Helmet Mounted CueingSystem and
the AIM-9X missile, these differences in energy-maneuverability will
pose even lessconcern to operational effectiveness in the air-to-air
role.Counterbalancing the poor energy-maneuverability performance of
the F/A-18E/F in theair-to-air arena is its extraordinary departure
resistance. The F/A-18E/F's flight control softwareand complex flight
control surfaces have resulted in an aircraft that is almost immune
tounintentional departures from controlled flight. The impact of this
to the tactical arena is likelyto be significant. During a close-in
air-to-air engagement, maintaining aircraft control typicallyconsumes
a large fraction of a pilot's concentration. By removing this burden
from the averagepilot, the pilot of an F/A-18E/F can concentrate fully
on winning the fight rather than "flying"the airplane. Since most
tactical pilots are by definition "average," this property alone
mayimprove the overall effectiveness of the F/A-18E/F fleet
significantly over that of its predecessor,or for that matter, over
most tactical aircraft in use today. Future tactics development for
theF/A-18E/F are likely to capitalize on this property to arrive at a
highly capable close-in fighter.

* Basic limitations: while .. brings other enhancing characteristics,
..maximum speed, transonic acceleration, and sustained turn rate...
constrained by the basic aerodynamics .. and thrust.. peformance
limitations must be lived with.
In a publication called “Inside Washington,” the Navy's director of
operational testing is quoted as saying that the Super Hornet was
superior to its earlier models “… in every category but three:
acceleration, maximum speed and sustained turning performance.” 09/02/2005 @ 12:05
Martin Prague, OTH It is clearly inferior in most (if not all) flight
parametres to Rafale, Eurofighter or Su-30 as jets of its generation,
not to mention 5th generation F/A-22.  Super Hornet does not have T/W
ratio, speed, acceleration and sustained turn rate for fighter, is too
expensive and big for a strike (close air support) jet, and has no
range and stealthiness for bomber

03-30-2005, 5:35 PM 2874 in reply to 2857  
 Re: Which is better: The F-16XL or the F/A-18E/F 
The F-18E/F reliability and low maintenance time, high bring back,
ability to fly two carrier cycles per sortie, and many other features
enables the Navy to generate more than twice as many sorties per day
per carrier.  That’s why the Navy, which has ALWAYS fought tooth and
nail against Congressional actions to reduce the size of the carrier
fleet, has now VOLUNTEERED to retire a carrier!!  The Super Hornet
enables them to do much more with fewer carriers.  You’ve gotta look
at the BIG picture.

As for the Hornet’s lack luster sustained turn performance, that is
much less a consideration in today’s air-to-air environment.  The new
AESA radar and other sensors coupled with the new versions of the
AIM-120 make getting into a furball in the first place much less
RE:F-14 Vs Mig 29 1/18/2005 6:05:41 PM The AFTTP3-1 shows that both
the F-14 and F-18 have very good (as in better than most other
fighters) instantaneous and sustained turn rates at low speeds
(~250-350 knots).
The Three Fighters Air Force Magazine online
July 2001 Vol. 84, No. 7
The plain Hornet has also been infamous for its short range, limited
maneuvering capability against contemporary fighters, and relatively
small offensive payload.
Despite these shortcomings, the F/A-18 became the centerpiece of naval
aviation in 1991 because, at that point, the Navy had been hit, in
close succession, with cancellations of an F-14 upgrade, an A-6
upgrade, and the entire A-12 program. The Navy chose to "grow" the
F/A-18 design to allow it to replace the F-14 in the interceptor role
and to become a respectable bomb truck to carry the kind of heavy load
in which the A-6 Intruder specialized.
It carries more internal and external fuel and has a larger combat
radius-about 650 to 700 miles (compared to about 500 miles for the
plain Hornet)-depending on the mission. The aircraft overall is about
20 percent larger than the F/A-18C/D model.

"We're necking down to an F/A-18-only fleet, for all practical
purposes," Chanik said

In Fiscal 2001 dollars, the flyaway cost of a single Super Hornet is
"just over $50 million ... $52, $53 million,"

The F/A-18E/F Super Hornet is quite simply a stopgap airplane, ..It is
an upgrade of a 1970s design and must carry around the extra weight
necessary to endure repeated carrier takeoffs and landings; it lacks
the stealth and agility of the F-22 and JSF...The Navy itself
acknowledges the Super Hornet will have to avoid dogfights, because of
its lumbering turning ability vs. contemporary adversaries
Posts: 205 
From: Milky Way Galaxy
Registered: 6/3/05 
The Super Hornet is slower and has the same agility as the F-14. It's
ordnance is worse for air-to-air combat, but it can carry a more
diverse set of ground attack munitions.

Posted: May 29, 2006  
The Super Tomcat also cruises SIGNIFICANTLY faster than the Super
Hornet while loaded down with bombs. A Super Tomcat carrying 2 jugs, 4
2000 pound LGBs, a Phoenix/Sparrow, a LANTIRN pod, and two Sidewinders
can cruise at 650 knots at sea level without using afterburners, and
could hit Mach 1.35 at sea level (A speed almost unheard of at sea
level) using afterburners. A Super Hornet carrying a single jug, 4
1000 pound LGBs, a NAVFLIR pod, an ATFLIR pod, 2 AMRAAMs and two
Sidewinders would be hard-pressed to hit 500 knots in basic engine at
sea level, and might not even break Mach 1 with afterburners

Their handling is pretty evenly matched, except for the fact that the
Tomcat's long straight swing wings give it substantially greater
instantaneous and sustained turn rates than the Super Hornet in all
flight regimes, as the Tomcat's long straight wing is inherently more
efficient in terms of its lift/drag ratio than the Super Hornet's
short stumpy fixed wing. A Super Tomcat at low altitude can enter an
8.5 SUSTAINED G, 360 degree level turn (no diving to add energy to the
maneuver) at 350 knots and full afterburner with 40 degrees wing sweep
and exit the maneuver at nearly 400 knots. I described this capability
to a Super Hornet WSO at an airshow and he was pretty astonished by
it. A Super Hornet attepmtin such an absolute ballbuster of a maneuver
will end up seriously low on energy when he completes the maneuver.

In Afghanistan, the Super Tomcat was in its element because it could
carry both full fuel and ordnance with minimal tanker support, while
the Super Hornets went through tankers like water, and needed to be
refueled over Pakistan (which while nominally friendly was chock full
of people who were decidedly not so friendly), while the Tomcats could
be refueled over the Indian Ocean.

Based on F-5
"In 1966, Northrop began to conduct studies on a follow-on to the F-5,
with a team under Lee Begin JR, who had worked on the F-5, considering
preliminary configurations for a fast, agile, lightweight air
superiority fighter.

On the fight deck: the F-18 Scott Slaughter Abacus
Nice history of F-18
Nice comparison
$6,000 / hr flying cost!

National Defence Industrial Association
/4202_Wallace.ppt#321,6,F/A-18E/F Key Enabling Technologies,2,Strategic Transformation…
F-18EF super hornet
11 weapons stations
low radar cross section
short field
low support equipment
vs apg-65/73 2-3 times longer detect range
air-air + simul air-grond grack
hi-res maps at long range
all-weather bombing
3-5 times longer flir detection range
jhmcs - off boresight visual cueing helmet mounted sight joint helmet mounted cueing system
network centric
6 center
5/7 sparrow/amraam
4/8 fuel/amraam/a-s
3/9 ""
2/3 amraam/a-s
1/11 sidewinder
- planned for clearance 6 AMRAAM per side, 12 total
aim-9  amraam, amraamx2, amraamx2, amraam conformal
no angle of attack limit
no speedbrake, uses virtual opposed conventional controls
30 deg /sec nose pointing capability
slower landing speed
"highly maneuverable and safe to fly"
front cockpit
 20 deg head up display
 2 multifunction color displays with edge buttons 5x5
 4x5 touch sensitve lcd
 multipurpose color display center below 6x6
aft cockpit
 dual hand controllers left /right
 combat capable two-seat trainer
 large 8x10 color advanced tactical display
 top touch sensitive LCD
 l/r 5x5 color LCD displays with edge buttons
CAP 380 NM radius 2.0 hr CAP no tank
 4xAMRAAM 3 fuel tanks
Ship attack AGM-84 x 2 up to 1,135 NM mission radius
Maritime patrol (S-3)
  300 NM radius
  2.3/3.2 hr patrol time 3 fuel tanks
Every F-18E is tanker capable.
  slow approach speed
  steep glide slope
  self-contained ladder
  no LoX
42% fewer parts than c/d
neck-down replaces EA-6B, F-14, S-3
$1B annual fleet savings
  internal fuel 14,950lb 2190 gal (vs 2385 gal f-14)
  ext 16,380 lb with 5 480(1,820l) gallon tanks (vs 2x 267) 6.825 lb / gal
  total: 31,330 lb
Payload 18,727 lb or 16,380 lb fuel
Flying the F/A-18F Super Hornet" 
(First published in May and June 2001 Australian Aviation.) 
by Dr Carlo Kopp, PEng  
© 2002, 2001, Carlo Kopp 
February 2, 2002 
The core requirements for such a replacement aircraft were a combat
radius competitive against the 600 NMI class F-14/A-6 combination, and
CAP endurance in fleet defence operations competitive against the F-14
wing, centre and aft fuselage, tail surfaces and powerplants are
entirely new.
an internal fuel (JP5) capacity of 14,700 lb, or 36% more than the
F/A-18C/E. This most closely compares to the F-15C, which has around
10% less internal fuel than the Super Hornet
 Not surprisingly, the aircraft's empty weight is 8% greater than the
F-15C, reflecting the structural realities of catapult launches and
tailhook recoveries.  

%%F-22 Raptor

Really expensive big fighter with stealth capabilities. Thrust
vectoring, internal weapons carriage. Renamed to FA-22 in 2002, to
gain political support?
Gives gross weight, speed as 1.6, 1.7 with AB
Two Pratt and Whitney F119-P-100 turbofans each rated at 155.69kN
(35,000lb) static thrust with afterburning
Weights: Empty - more than 13,608kg (30,000lb)
F-22A - 27,216kg (60,000lb) 
Maximum level speed 'clean' at optimum altitude - Mach 1.58 in
supercruise mode and, at 9,145 metres (30,000ft) Mach 1.7 in
afterburning mode
Service Ceiling - 15,240 metres (50,000ft)

E. Riccioni Col. USAF, Ret.
F-22 is a waste of money - marginal improvement over F-15. There is
no need for a new air superiority fighter, no conceivable threat.

%%F-35 Lightning II

vs other fighters
Joint Strike Fighter = Thunderchief II?
In concept and
sizing, however, the JSF is very much closer to another early nineteen
sixties tactical fighter, the Republic AP-63 series F-105

"Both the F-105 and JSF are large single seat single engine strike
fighters, using the most powerful engine of the era (J75 vs
F135/F136), with empty weights in the 27,000 lb class, and wingspans
almost identical at 35 feet. Both carry internal weapon bays, and
multiple external hardpoints for drop tanks and weapons. Both were
intended to achieve combat radii in the 400 nautical mile class.
Neither have by the standards of their respective periods high
thrust/weight ratio or energy manoeuvre capability, favoured for air
superiority fighters and interceptors."

%%F-80 Lockheed F80 Shooting Star

The F80 was the USAF's first operational jet. By the Korean war, it
was hopelessly outclassed by the swept-wing Mig-15. It served fine as
ground attack, and did manage to bag a few Mig jets.  It was the
basis for the F-94 interceptor, and the very successful T-33 T-bird
trainer which is still in service in some parts of the world.


%%F-84 Republic F84 Thunderjet

The Republic F84 Thunderjet was a jet follow-on to the Thunderbolt,
but with straight wings, it never gained the repuation of the F86,
which ended up being the only plane in the inventory in Korea capable
of coping with the Mig-15. So as always happens to fighters that
can't hack air-air, it was the main air-ground fighter bomber, which
it did better than the F80. The F-84F was a swept wing version which
soldiered on until the supersonics took over.


In Korea Sorties: 86,0000 Bombs: 50,000 tons Napalmn: 5,500 tons
Rockets: 22,514 Losses: 153, 18 to MIG.  Mig Kills: 9 (that's a sad 1
to 2 ratio!)  (Aviation Week 4/16/97 p. 102)

%%F-86 North American Sabre 

The swept F-86 was the only American jet fighter that could compete
with the Mig15, all other designs being based on the straight wings.
The F86 was based on the naval Fury, which also had a straight wing,
and later switched to the swept wing. It basically defined the high
subsonic fighter class up to the Mig-17, A-6, A-7 and AV-8.

6,200 were built, making it the most successful western fighter

How many in Korea vs. MIg
Sabres over MiG alley: the F-86 and the battle for air superiority in Korea By Kenneth P. Werrell

Used German ME 262 data
Slats copied from ME-262, automatic, locked wheels up


%%F-99 Bomarc (Boeing) CIM-10A

Impressive ramjet powered long range M3.5=2275mph missle with nuclear
or 1000 lb high explosive warhead.

Baugher story:

Nice Canadian shot

Canadian museum

Specifications Wing Span: 18 ft 2 in (5.5 m) Length: 45 ft 1 in (13.7
m) Height: 2 ft 11 in (0.89 m) Weight, Empty: Unknown Weight, Gross:
16,032 lb (7,272 kg) Cruising Speed: 2,134 mph (3,434 km/h) Max
Speed: 2,134 mph (3,434 km/h) Rate of Climb: Unknown Service Ceiling:
100,000 ft (30,480 m) Range: 440 mi (700 km) Power Plant: two
Marquardt RJ43-MA-7, 2,000 LB (5,440 KG), static thrust ramjets, plus
one Thiokol XM-51 50,000 LB (22,650 kg) static thrust rocket engine 

USAF museum

Ogden Utah

%%F-100 North American Super Sabre

Supersonic follow on to the Sabre was the USAF's first supersonic in
level flight fighter, but not by much. Designed initially for air
superiority, it was mostly used as a nuclear strike fighter. In
Vietnam, it was used for close air support and ground attack over
South Vietnam, until replaced by the F-4 and A-7, and briefly a 2
seater was used for the Wild Weasel mission, later taken over by the
F-105F. It was also the main aircraft of the Thunderbirds
demonstration team during the 1960's until the F-4 took over in the
70s, except when the F-105 was tried and dropped after one year.

Robert Coram - Boyd The Fighter Pilot "one quarter of all F-100s were lost
in accidents p. 82


Joe Baugher's F100 Page

Google Books F-100 Super Sabre at War By Thomas E. Gardner


Following the Gulf of Tonkin incident, USAF F-100Ds began to fly
missions over North Vietnam. These missions were generally of two
types--MiG-CAP patrols to protect strike aircraft from attack by
marauding North Vietnamese fighters and fighter-bomber strikes carried
out with iron bombs against ground targets. On April 1, 1965, F-100Ds
flew MiG combat air patrol for a strike force of F-105s that were
hitting the Thanh Hoa Bridge in North Vietnam. 

During these strikes, the MiGs would try to sneak up on these packages
from the rear, make just one firing pass, and then flee. It was
assumed that the F-100D would probably not be an effective fighter in
air-to-air combat, since it lacked a powerful radar set and could not
carry advanced air-to-air weapons. However, every time the MiGs tried
to interfere with these strikes they immediately fled as soon as the
F-100s turned toward them. Encounters between F-100s and MiGs were
very few and far between, and I think that the F-100 fired its guns
and missiles against enemy fighters only on one or two occasions, with
inconclusive results. 

%%F-102 Delta Dagger

Barely supersonic anti-bomber interceptor of late 1950s, saw light action
in Vietnam. Fat 2-seat side by side trainer version. Was subsonic without
area ruling. Estimates are that GW Bush's stateside service was about as
dangerous as Vietnam personell on average.

Vietnam Remembrances - using rockets and Falcons against ground targets

F-102 squadrons had been stationed in South Vietnam since March 1962.
While the F-102 had few opportunities to engage in its primary role of
fighter combat, the aircraft was used in the close air support role
starting in 1965. Armed with rocket pods, Delta Daggers would make
attacks on Viet Cong encampments in an attempt to harass enemy
soldiers. Some missions were even conducted using the aircraft's
heat-seeking air-to-air missiles to lock onto enemy campfires at

14 or 15 F-102 fighters were lost in Vietnam. Three were shot down by
anti-aircraft or small arms fire, one is believed to have been lost in
air-to-air combat with a MiG-21, four were destroyed on the ground
during Viet Cong attacks, and the remainder succumbed to training

F-102 KILLED 70 PILOTS, ABOUT 1/3 LOST (VS 1/2 OF F-105)
Air Force Safety Center , the lifetime Class A accident rate for
the F-102 was 13.69 mishaps per 100,000 flight hours, much higher than
the average for today's combat aircraft. For example, the F-16 has an
accident rate of 4.14, the S-3 is at 2.6, the F-15 at 2.47, the F-18
at 4.9, and the F-117 at 4.07. Even the AV-8B, regarded as the most
dangerous aircraft in service today, has an accident rate of only
11.05 mishaps per 100,000 flight hours. The F-102 claimed the lives of
many pilots, including a number stationed at Ellington during Bush's
tenure. Of the 875 F-102A production models that entered service, 259
(30%) were lost in accidents that killed 70 Air Force and ANG pilots. It really
bothers me that a coward like George W. Bush spent the Vietnam War
training to fly old and useless planes in Texas while John Kerry was
heroically risking his life in combat and got three purple hearts!  -
question from Jennifer Braun

searly Seaman Recruit Joined: 20 Aug 2004 Posted: Thu Sep 16, 2004
8:53 pm Post subject: F-102's Were Dangerous
If George W. Bush wanted to pick a safe place to sit out the war he
probably could have chosen a better spot than the cockpit of an F-102.
Flying supersonic jet aircraft is a dangerous business. Similar planes
in the period that Bush flew had a fatal pilot accident rate of about
one per 40,000 flight hours. Assuming that Bush flew about a thousand
hours over his career, this would mean he had a bit over a 2 percent
chance of a fatal accident sometime during his service. 

About 3.4 million men served in Vietnam, and about 60,000 were killed
-- a fatal casualty rate of just under 2 percent.  Regardless, Bush's
chances of suffering a casualty based on his flight hours was
somewhere around 1-2% and comparable to those who served in Vietnam. 

ASPB Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy Joined: 01 Jun 2004 Posts:
Kerry, at best, had 500 hours of Patrol Duty in Vietnam (40 missions
at the most 12 to 14 hours in length), probably less. We know he had
only 18 missions from 30 Jan 69 until 18 Mar 69. No records are
available presently for the period 06 Dec 68 until 29 Jan 69. 

Bush has 346 hours in the the cockpit of a F-102 Widowmaker. You

jimlarsen Seaman Location: St. Petersburg, FL Posted: Tue Oct 12, 2004
9:38 pm Post subject: From the link provided by Hammer2 

Also from that link: Bush had approx. 600 flight hours.  875 F-102A
entered service.  259 were lost in accidents that killed 70 pilots. 

So 600*13.69/100000 = 0.08214 or 8.2% (probility of Bush having an accident) 
70/259 = 0.27 (number of deaths per accident) 
8.2%*0.27 = 2.2% (Bush's chance of dying in F102 accident while in the Guard) 

I believe that's about the same as the chance a soldier/sailer had of
dying in Viet Nam if sent there 

Boundless Seaman Apprentice Posted: Thu Oct 14, 2004 I'm told that
during the years Bush was in, only 8 pilots died in F-102As, so it
ended up being safer than he might have expected at the outset. But
signing up to be a pilot in any service is a dumb place to "hide" from

%%F-104 Starfighter

NVN MiGs avoided contact with USAF strikes being covered by F-104s,
and PRC MiGs gave the EC-121s a wide berth only two fleeting encounters
between F-104s and enemy fighters occurred.

low-altitude Weasel escort mission, the F-104C has approximately 1.15
times the range of the F-4C. In the medium-altitude strike escort
mission, the F-104 has approximately 1.05 times the range of the F-4C.
1F-104A-1 and 1F-4C-1-1. 

%%F-105 Republic F-105 Thunderchief

The F-105 was the best tactical fighter of the USAF before
introduction of the F-4 Phantom, and its first Mach 2 fighter. Its
tiny wings made it very fast at low level, but not a great
dogfighter. It was optimized for low level delivery of nuclear
weapons from its internal bomb bay, but was used to dump B-17 size
payloads of iron bombs at low and medium levels while fighting off
more maneuverable Migs with cannon and sidewinders over North

It received the nickname "Thud", which is either short for
Thunderchief, or the noise it makes when it hits the ground, and was
the inspiration for "Thud Ridge", and the book by the same name.

Towards the end of the war, two seat F-105Fs replaced the F100 in
Wild Weasel anti-SAM duties. Half of the F-105s built were lost in

The F-4 was just as good at carrying bombs, but much better in
air-air combat with radar guided Sparrows. It started out escorting
F-105s but ended up with all roles by the war's end, including
dropping the first smart bombs. The F-111 also took over deep
penetration, and was inspired by the F-105s deep nuclear strike role.

Airpower Journal- Spring 1998 Did USAF Technology Fail in Vietnam?
Three Case Studies* Kenneth P. Werrell
The F-105 The Republic F-105 Thunderchief in many ways symbolizes Air
Force performance in Vietnam. It was an aircraft that looked good from
any angle. It was fast and stable, a machine that pilots called
"honest." It could carry a heavy bomb load a long distance at a high
speed. In short, it was a fine aircraft, a pilot's plane, well
designed for the single purpose of fighting a nuclear war.2

[loss rates higher - some studies comparable to f-4]

A loss of hydraulic pressure caused the stabilizer to lock in the full
“up” position, pushing the nose down.... Self-sealing tanks and
bomb-bay fire extinguisher modifications were also added.11 

 By mid-1965, the flight control system had been changed so that if
the hydraulic system was hit, the pilot could mechanically lock the
horizontal stabilizer at an optimum setting

...At the very least, even a small caliber hit could cause a leak.
This helps explain why the F-105 was so vulnerable to fire and
explosion, three times as likely as the McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom
to be lost to fire or explosion.9 

also SEE %%MIG-17

A single [[M61 Vulcan|T-171E3]] 20 millimeter Gatling cannon was
installed in the left side of the nose with a magazine for
1,028 rounds of ammunition., and the aircraft
was designed to carry the short-range Sidewinder, but the aircraft
would not be equipped with the radar guided missles fitted to
dedicated interceptors like the F-106. 

In spite of a troubled early service life, the F-105 became the
dominant deep strike aircraft during the [[Vietnam War]]. The F-105
could carry twice the bomb load further and faster than the F-100,
which was used mostly in South Vietnam for [[close air
support]].''Republic F-105''. National Air and Space 

Thud. The Phantom would ultimately earn a 3:1 kill ratio over the
MiGs, about double the 1.6 ratio for the
Global Security F-4E.

The F-111 would also have an internal weapons bay, but would
incorporate more electronics for low flying at night, longer range and
double the payload. It would be deployed as a high-end all-weather
replacement for the F-105 as the Phantom was tasked for more routine
daylight raids and dogfights.  It did not score any MiG kills in
combat, but very few were lost to either anti-aircraft or MiGs because
of its mission profile.

In the early 1960s, the Air Force adopted the Navy's Phantom. The F-4,
which would never be called "sleek", was aerodynamically and
aesthetically quite different from the F-105. However, it was similar
in size, speed and capability. The plane which had first flown only 3
years later than the F-105 had evolved from an attack bomber into a
massive interceptor carrying 4 medium range Sparrows, plus either a
full bombload or 4 additional short range Sidewinder missles. The
Phantom was not designed as a dogfighter either, with early F-4C
models lacking both an internal gun and a lead computing
gunsight.[ Baugher
F-4E] But the F-4C had a larger wing, a second crew member to
spot adversaries, and powerful J79 engines which made it more
maneuverable against MiGs than the Thud.

Over North Vietnam, after the F-100 proved disappointing, the Phantom
was first tasked to protect F-105 strikes against MiG fighters.
Phantoms duplicated F-105 flight profiles to lure MiGs into thinking
they were vulnerable F-105s. F-105 production would end in favor of
the Phantom, which also had the payload capability to take over the
strike role as well. After flying over 20,000 combat missions the
F-105 was withdrawn from the theater by November 1970.

Totavia Pictures,M1
two bomb laden f-105s were shot down
F-100s with sidewinders and 4x20mm were escort
p.31 details strike
The tale of two bridges ; and The battle for the skies over North Vietnam
Published by DIANE Publishing
ISBN 1428993541, 9781428993549
25 MiG kills
ferry range 2,207 miles
gross weight 52,838 lbs
vs 55,000 B-17
M2.08 1,372 at 36,090 ft max speed
M1.01 836 mph at sealevel
584 mph cruise
833 produced
600-800 mi radius with 6,000 lb bombs (8x750 lb) 
12,000 lb max bomb load

%%F-106 Delta Dart General Dynamics

Fast elegant Mach 2 anti-bomber interceptor in 60s which never saw
combat. Based on F-102, which saw limited combat in Vietnam.  
comments on F106

Baugher F-106
Dryden / NASA


Failed naval variant had to dogfighting capability, replaced by F-14
which was basically a F-111B that could maneuver.
The Tomcat's first Operational Decade (1974-1983)
March 27, 2006, 04:22:58 PM by Hey Joe
The Navy advocated side by side seating that was part of the F6D
concept and being incorporated into the Grumman A-6 Intruder and the
Air Force acquiesced

%%F-111 General Dynamics TFX "Aardvark"

Very heavy long range fighter bomber, part of a misguided effort to
force the Navy and Air Force to adopt the same fighter for entirely
different roles, the F-111B was to be Phoenix-armed fighter, but a
total dud as a dogfighter, deemed too heavy for carrier use, and they
went on to build the more agile F-14.

The F-111 as the Air Force designed it was a follow-on to the F-105,
also a great low-level bomber but not a very good air-air fighter.
Swing wings would give it the ability to operate from primitive
airfields (har har, yeah, right) and fly at speeds of up to Mach 2
(that's a laugh, you can't even swing the wing halfway back with
anything on the pylons). 

Fortunately, the sheer size of the airplane and accurate all-weather
avionice still made it a great all-weather long range bomber. It was
the only USAF plane in Vietnam which could fly in singly in any
weather and deliver on target, earning the nickname whispering death
since there was no warning when it arrived.

Oversold as the most versatile fighter in the world when
it came out, this title actually ended up going to the Phantom, which
Defence Secretary McNamara had made the first case of standardizing
fighters ended up being the best fighter of the 60s. But as a medium
bomber, the F-111 was unrivaled even in the 90s until the advent of
the somewhat smaller F-15E (which is basically a pumped F-4 Phantom).

The F-111 experience eventually led to both the Navy and Air Force
stripping their top line fighters of bombing roles, even though they
made excellent bombers, and they are changing this strategy in the
90s with force reductions and the realization that once air
superiority is achieved, a pure air-air fighter is a plane that
doesn't have anything to shoot at.

The FB-111 took over the B-58 supersonic bomber role, though SAC
considered replacing the B52 with it as well with pictures of a model
laden with 8 pylons (4 fixed) with 6x750 bombs each. A stretched
F-111 was also studied as a B-1 substitute.

In Desert Storm, the F-111F featured a special gimballed targeting
sensor to deliver laser guided bombs, but the real trick was finding
that smaller bombs could be used against tanks which stuck out in
infrared.  F16s using traditional dive bombing and B52 dropping
carpet pattern bombs weren't having great luck but F-111s ended up
"plinking" almost as many tanks as the A-10s that were designed to
take out tanks at low level. Measured by longevity, the F-111
remained as the 2nd oldest front line weapons system after the B-52
in the 1990s. Really huge fan page.

  Extensive fan page pics,
  movies, numbers, model kits, etc.

%%F-117 Lockheed "Stealth Fighter"

Janes Briefs July 1997: A bomb hit rate of between only 41 and 60 per
cent was achieved during Gulf War missions mounted by the F-117
Stealth Fighter, the US General Accounting Office has reported. The
findings have heightened debate over the use of precision-guided
munitions during the conflict.

\clip\99\10\f117.txt U.S. Forces Raced Enemy To Reach Pilot By Dana
Priest Washington Post Staff Writer Monday, March 29, 1999; Page A01 

9/15/97 CNN: Stealth Jet Crashes in Baltimore with videos

USAF Fact Sheet

%%HK-1 "Spruce Goose"

Captain Michael King Smith
Evergreen Aviation Educational Cent Spruce Goose Page

%%JSF  Joint Strike Fighter

Projected replacement for F-16, F-18 and AV-8 attack fighters,
including a vertical landing version. Boeing direct lift,
controversial looks lost out to Lockheed shaft driven fan which had
more thrust.

\images\97\25\jsf.jpg Lockheed V/STOL version

Boeing: Lift Fan Put LockMart Over the Top in JSF Competition


see ##Thanh Hoa bridge


2nd generation supersonic Russian fighter with swing-wings like the
F-111 thought to be a leap ahead, but was really Russia's answer to
America's late 1950s F-4 Phantom multi-role fighter.  Designed to
carry more payload, radar and missles like a Phantom unlike the MiG-21
lightweight daylight fighter. It used swing wings like the F-111 to
reduce takeoff and landing speeds, but didn't have the medium bomber
specs like the SU-24 which was a bomber like the F-111. It was light
enough to dogfight with mid-60s fighters like the Phantom or Viggen
even Tornado, but outclassed by F-15 and F-16.


Crew	1
Entered service in	1967
Dimensions and weight 
Length	16.7 m
Wing span	7.8 - 14 m
Height 	4.82 m
Weight (empty)	10.2 t
Weight (normal)	14.8 t
Maximum take off weight	17.8 t
Engine	1 x "Soyuz" R-35F-300 turbojet engine
Traction (dry)	83.84 kN
Traction (with afterburning)	127.49 kN
Maximum speed	2 500 km/h
Service ceiling	18 500 m
Flying range	1 800 km
Combat radius	1 150 km
Aviation gun	23-mm GSh-23L twin-barrel aviation gun 
Missiles	 K-13, K-60, R-23R, R-23T, R-60M, R-60T, Kh-23, Kh-25, Kh-29
Bombs	up to 3 t (dumb, guided, nuclear)

Aircraft is armed with 23-mm GSh-23L twin-barrel gun with 200 rounds
ammunition load. Missiles, unoperating rockets and bombs are attached
to 6 pylons. Furthermore aircraft can carry various sensor and
equipment pods. Pilot's protection is enhanced with a bulletproof


The Naval Institute guide to the Soviet Navy By Norman Polmar, United States Naval Institute

Ground-attack stores carried on five wing and fuselange pylons two
fuselange bomb racks for 8,820 (4,000 kg) weapons.

internal six-barrel 23-mm gatling gun is fitted in the ventral
position (probably first installation of rotary-barrel canon in Soviet
aircraft.  (similar to M61 gatling gun)


A very easy and fast look at the chart i gave you will give you the
answers to you questions

The MiG-23 fighter variants have 4 weapons hardpoint stations and 3
extra hardpoints for fuel tanks this gives a total of 7 hardpoint

2 wing - fixed fuel tank
2 wing glove - missles
2 rear-side (mig-27 bombs)
2 under intake (one or two missles)
1 center gun
1 center fuel tank

           4        6 2     7   1   5   3 

     o      O        #
   fuel   wing glove #
       rear side    O - - --
                      X     -
             under intake   O
         center tank / gun pod

the MiG-27 variants have two extra and it gives us a total
nine hardpoints,

they have the usual 2 only for fuel tanks six
hardpoints only for weapons and one for weapons or a fuel tank because

the MiG-27 can use the center axis line hardpoint that only carries
fuel in the MiG-23 fighter variants to carry weapons 

Both MiG-23 and MiG-27 could carry AAMs but the MiG-27 usually only
uses the wing gloves hardpoints to carry AAMs

however can carry AA-11s
on the under inlet hardpoints that usually carry AAMs but not under
the back fuselage hardpoints.  The MiG-23 fighter variants can carry
AA-2 or AA-8s on the wing glove pylons but sems they never used AA-11s
on that hard point pylon position.

Usually the MiG-23 and MiG-27 carry 800 liters tanks under the wings
and one in the center axis line fuselage but the charts suggest never
on the wing gloves


Attack & Trainer Floggers

The MiG-23 is a third generation fighter, designed in the early 1960s,
as such, the MiG-23 reflects the aerospace technology of that time.
Several aircraft show similarities with the MiG-23, among them we find
the F-4 Phantom II, the J-8II Finback, the Dassault Mirage G and the

A close look at the MiG-23 shows that the MiG-23 wing swept angle
follows very closely the swept angle seen on the F-111, further more,
the MiG-23 inlets show similarities with those seen on the F-4 Phantom
II both aircraft have variable geometry inlets with vertical ramps,
these facts do not mean the Russians are copycats, but simply that
after the Russians studied the american aircraft, they applied similar
solutions to their fighters as a result of the 1960`s aeronautical
technological level.

Perhaps the MiG-23`s closest equivalent is the F-4 Phantom, while the
MiG-21 was quit agile and could outturn the F-4, it never had BVR air
to air missiles or advanced avionics to be in the league of the F-4.
The Soviets realized the MiG-21 was not a complete F-4 equivalent and
by 1964 started to work in a real Phantom equivalent, this fighter
needed AIM-7 Sparrow equivalents and a look down shoot down radar.
However it turned to be more advanced in some aspects such as in
aerodynamics with variable geometry wings that allowed it STOL
characteristics, good low speed agility, high speeds at straight
flight and a more powerful and modern powerplant.
Their performances are quit comparable, their acceleration, speed,
rate of climb and turn rate are almost the same.
A close look at the MiG-23 shows a slight similarity with the F-4 in
what respects its front fuselage, in fact it is s single seat F-4 with
variable geometry, some F-4 aerodynamic models that never were built,
also that were modified to employ shoulder mounted variable geometry
An analysis of the F-4E rate of climb shows that in ideal conditions
it has a better climb rate but with air temperature changes its
performance is not very different from the MiG-23.
The AIM-7E is more or less in the class of the Soviet R-23/R-24 and
the AA-11 surpasses by a handsome margin the AIM-9L.

The MiG-23 combat record

he MiG-23 has had a relatively unsuccessful carreer, the MiG-23 losses
surpass more than one hundred MiG-23 destroyed during combat
operations, while its claimed victories are fewer than 50 enemy
aircraft destroyed by MiG-23s, nevertheless the MiG-23 faired well
versus fighters in the class of the F-5, Mirage F1 or F-4


The MiG-27 has simplified, non variable inlets with a larger lip for
better pressure recovery at low altitude, saving 300 kg but reducing
the max speed to Mach 1.7. 

The tyres were made wider, heavier and had reduced pressure.

Internal fuel capacity was increased to 5400 litres and the wing glove
extended forward into a LERX housing RWR antennae. Max weaponload was
increased from 3000 to 4000 kg.

The nose was streached primitive Fone was replaced with the Klen-PM
LRMTS. (At least, on the ML variant) Other avionics vary (PrNK-23M
nav/attack) but the nav/attack avionics on the MiG-27ML are called the
44LK Komplex.

MiG-27 ~ Single engine, single seater tactical strike fighter aircraft
of Russian origin having a max. speed of 1700 km/hr (Mach 1.6).  It
carries one 23 mm six-barrel rotary integral cannon and can carry upto
4000 kg of other armament externally.

MiG-23BN Derived from the MiG-23B, but powered wiyh the RB-29B-300
engine. This gave the adventage of allow to export the variant (The
AL-21F was a restricted engine at the time, unlike RB-29B-300.
RB-29B-300 also offered commonality with the MiG-23MS and MiG-23MF
fighter variants already sold to the rest of world. Armed with the
GSh-23L cannon with 200 rounds.

MiG-27K Nato reporting name: Flogger-J2. The MiG-27K was most advanced
variant Soviet version, which added a laser designator and
compatibility with TV-guided electro-optical weapons. Armed with the
GSh-6-30 cannon. Around 200 were built

%%Mirage 4 bomber
  \image\95\09\mirage4.* (Janes)

%%Nike Nike Anti-aircraft missle

Take a guided tour of the site being restored near San Francisco. (I
went on this live!) Dutch Nike webpage

%%O-1 Bird Dog The O-1 "Bird Dog,"
the toughest dog in the fight, "our little flivver" March 26, 2006 we
preferred our Bird Dogs (and later O-2s) to be bright and shiny for
the other pilots to see. This also was helpful in South Vietnam where
being very visible speeded up rendezvousing with attack
aircraft/helicopters in situations where a couple of minutes often
meant the difference between life and death for American troops in
contact on the ground. 

%%OH-58 Bell Kiowa

Bell lost the first round LOH competition to Hughes Helicopter OH-6,
but added a nose to its entry and successfully dominated the civil
market as the famous JetRanger.  Bell won out the second time, though
many feel the 4-blade rotor OH-6 had better performance and was more
nimble (indeed, the Army purched more specially equipped Hughes
helicopters in the 80s for special forces)

%%OV-1 Grumman Mohawk

Vietnam Era Army fixed wing observation plane - not much info now

%%P-3 Orion

z49\doc\web\2001\04\p3.txt April 2001
Reprinted from the Taiwan Daily Gazette by staff writer Wun Wing Lo
In a heroic dogfight fought over international waters off the
mainland China coast, A 60's era American built Lockheed Electra
propeller airliner with 24 US Navy passenger/observers aboard chewed
up one of China's best state-of-the-art supersonic fighter aircraft.

US Customs service advertises for P-3 pilots from $77k up to 
potential to $118,000, under age 40, can retire after 20 yrs 
at 50.

%%SH-3 Sea King

Canadian Helicopter Pilots
Sing “Sea King Song”
We've had joy, we've had fun,
We've had Sea Kings in the sun,
But the engines are on fire,
and the Sea Kings must retire,

%%Sidewinder AIM-9

Developed by the Navy in the 1950s, the sidewinder inspired Soviet
copies and remains the front-line short range missle feature a very
simple infrared guidance system which homes in on tailpipes. In
Vietnam it was much more successful since engagements were restricted
to visual range and the radar guided missles, some of which still had
tubes inside weren't very reliable when people drove them over bumpy
airfields. It was also adopted by the Air Force, which ended up
retiring its own equivalent Falcon missles. There are also radar guided
variants, and the newest models can be fired from any approach angle, 
not just the tail.

In Desert Storm, 31 victories went to the radar guided Sparrow vs.
only 9 for the shorter range IR Sidewinder (AWST 4/15/97 p. 132)

%%T-3 Firefly

Officials Announce T-3A Firefly Final Disposition
Air Force Print News | September 12, 2006,15240,113243,00.html

Critics charge that the T-41 had no fatalities, and program for
enhanced training was midguided. Caused deaths of 3 instructors and 3
students. Also still in use by Canada. I-Team: Air
Force to scrap controversial flight trainer KENS 5 Eyewitness News ^ |
09/11/2006 | Barry Davis during the little more than three years the
T-3A's were used and about 5,000 pilots were trained, then three
crashes at the Air Force Academy in Colorado, 3 cadets and three
instructor pilots died.  "Every accident in that airplane was because
of pilot error. It had nothing to do with the capability of the
airplane," he said.

According to the Air Forces’ own investigation the crashes were caused
by pilot error.  An online search for the same model of the airplane
shows they sell anywhere from $49,000 to $120,000 a piece.

 The engine would be repeatedly started and stopped (they are
trainers). During the summer, the engine would vapor lock. The T-3's
engine had failed 66 times at takeoff or landing (pressure and temp
differential and changes in manifold pressure possible exacerbated by

What would prevent it from happening in the air? It probably did
during the three fatal crashes although two were attributed to pilot
error and one to an "out of envelope" excursion.

The predecessor T-41 had no fatal accidents in 30 years of flight, it
just wasn't as aerobatic.

I bid on the destruction of the t3-A's at Hondo (106) and (4) in
California the aircraft were purchased to replace the old Cessna's
with planes that could withstand aerobatic maneuvers. each plane cost
about 230,000 dollars and the contractor that got the distruction bid
was (total metal re cycler) and their bid was 12,000. Our govt at

%%Tornado Interavia (BAe, MBB, etc.)

An attempt at a European F-111, it's like a smallish Phantom with
swing wings. They got a smallish strike fighter, a bit better than
the F-4, but nothing like the F-14 or F-15 as a dogfighter. Tasked
with delivering an anti-airfield munition that required flying
directly over an airfield, something so nutty the USAF declined to
buy into it. They took heavy looses in Desert Storm, more so than the
Jaguars they flew with. The ADV air defence version carries 4
sidewiners, and 4 sparrow equivalent sky flash like the phantom, but
with better avionics and better endurance.

\images\97\25\tornadv.jpg Saudi ADV version.


Mi-2 helicopter is missing from the list.  There were approx. 5600
units made by PZL-Swidnik in Poland. Also data on Bell 206 are not
correct.They include both Ranger and Long Ranger which are the
different helicopters and shouldn't be combined.  Also there are
different models of UH-1. Many independent sources give MI-2 number
one place in ranking production runs among helicopters because it is a
pure one model, not several combined.  Marek Lyzwinski AA Baltimex, Inc.  PO Box 1685 Plattsburgh, NY 12901

%%UH-1 Bell Huey / Iroquois

Number 1 produced helicopter of all time, most famous weapons system
of the Vietnam war, it defined the "helicopter war" as the primary
troop transport of the US Army. It spawned numerous imitators such as
the Westland Lynx, and the Sikorsky Blackhawk which has nearly
replaced it. It was the basis for the AH-1 Hueycobra.

It was one of the first successful gas turbine powered helicopters.
Of 10,000 Hueys built, 8,000 were UH-1D or H extended models. 5,000
were lost in the Vietnam war. 1st delievered in 1959, arrived in
Vietnam November 1962.  Source: Modern Combat Helicopters George
Sullivan Facts on File New York 1993


Dryden X-plane pictures
X-plane galleryUSAF Flight
Test Center


Funny looking turboprop transport by Bell circa 1966 featured
"ring-wings" ducted fans which rotated vertically or horizontally,
resembling the barrel-wing paper airplanes.It worked OK but never
lead anywhere.


@@Aerobatic Teams

Red Arrows Official Homepage


Copyright © 2001 The International Herald Tribune | 
For Carrier-Based Jets in Afghan Raids, a 'Long, Long Way' to Fly
Douglas Jehl New York Times Service Thursday, October 11, 2001,,30200-1031969,00.html
'My Air Raid On Taliban' F-14

@@Apollo Moon Landing

Build Gulf Paper Lunar Module Model
original mint sheets sold 2/$25 in 2008, my wife threw my extras out.....
@@armour [[General US Marine Corps Fact File with lots of pictures, video Micro armour catalog [[Assault Amphibian Vehicle Personnel Model 7A1 (AAVP7A1) LVTP-7 AAV USMC fact sheet [[Advanced Amphibian Assault Vehicle AAAV General Dynamics. Awesome space age hydroplaning amtrac that has upgraded armour and 30mm canon like the A-10. Critic says it costs a lot, carries less, favors upgrading the AAAV with a TOW turret and ACAV like mounts. CANCEL THE AAAV z63\clipim\2003\03\27\aaav spec sheet [[ASV Purpose built armored car - so if the US needs armored cars, why deploy up-armoured humvees? The Ugly Duckling Gets Another Order August 2, 2009: The U.S. Army has bought another 229 M1117 ASVs (Armored Security Vehicles). The ASV is a 15 ton 4x4 armored car that is built to handle the kind of combat damage encountered in Iraq. The ASVs are, unlike armored hummers, built from the ground up as an armored truck. ASVs are 20 feet long and 8.5 feet wide, making them a bit larger than hummers. The ASV is heavy enough to survive most roadside bombs and keep going. The ASV is bullet, and RPG proof. The turret is the same one used on the U.S. Marine Corps AAAV not (LAV). [[BMP The BMP-1 HomePage Excellent Fan Site. Designed for capacity of 8 soldiers, actual use has room for 6-7. Vehicle has 8 firing ports with fume and cartridge extractors, but you cannot aim since weapon is locked into place. BMP: The World's Best Infantry Combat Vehicle \clip\98\07\bmp.htm [[FCS Future Combat System After Abrams z60\doc\web\2002\10\fcs.txt TTK Ciar "If anything can be learned from the history of practical engineering, it is that ambitious projects which seek to develop radical, complex, broad-reaching, cutting-edge systems are doomed to fail. It is the projects which start simply, with achievable short-term goals, that evolve into successful and practical "next-generation" systems" [[LAV-III z47\clip\2001\01\lav3.txt 1/2001 Armor Magazine announced that the U.S. Army had selected LAV III variants to equip the new Initial Brigade Combat Teams. Variants will include 714 infantry carriers, 321 reconnaissance vehicles, 252 command and control vehicles, 241 mortar carriers plus specialized versions as antitank vehicles, fire support vehicles, armored ambulances, NBC reconnaissance vehicles and an engineer support variant." In addition there will be 204 Mobile Gun Systems (MGS) which will mount a pedestal mounted 105mm cannon. The cannon will be a low recoil version of the L68 with an autoloader. [[LAV-25 USMC light air portable wheeled APC. Few were lost in Desert Storm except to friendly fire, when A-10 destroyed one. There are reports of LAV-25 nearly or actually destroying Iraqi T-62 tanks. LAV's were also used to draw fire and confuse Iraqis, and emerged unscathed as they scotted across the desert floor. Not as tough as the M2 which suffered friendly hits with survivors, the LAV is very lightly armoured, so it swims better and can be seen slung underneath CH-53 helicopters. Separate vehicles carry 25 mm cannon or TOW missles USMC facts z46\clipim\2000\11\29\laviii\laviii Canada army page [[German WWII Tanks z47\clipim\2000\12\28\germtank\German_tank_1.htm, germtank.htm Alderley Ventures 2000 Panzer I trainer Panzer II Ausf L 20mm gun Panzer III Ausf N short 75mm gun Panzer IV short 75mm gun workhorse ------ grant / sherman -------------------- Panther 75mm gun Tiger 88mm gun King Tiger 88mm gun Alderley Ventures 2000 "the German tanks were far superior to anything the Allies had and enjoyed a kill ratio of 1:10. In 1943-44 the US produced 47,000 tanks. Germany produced 29,600 tanks and assault guns. Britain produced only 5,000 tanks in 1944. Because of this the British depended on the American Sherman as their main battle tank. " [[Leopard Medium weight postwar NATO german tank. 46 ton Leopard 1 Canadian Main Battle Tank...Airborne (leaping into the air) *** [[M-1 Abrams Main Battle Tank (General Dynamics / Lockheed) Front Line Main Battle Tank of the 1980's. Gas Turbine powered, composite armour, original version had 105mm tank from M60, later A1 versions had 120mm guns. Considered best tank in world, or one of them. ** - small picture of M-1 [[M-2 Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle (FMC / United Defence) M-3 Calvary Fighting Vehicle Bradley 2.0 October 8, 2009: The U.S. Army plans to keep its M-2 (Bradley) IFV (Infantry Fighting Vehicle) for another twenty years. To do that, it wants to upgrade thousands of them to "Block II" status. There are already 600 "Block 1.5" (BUSK) upgrades. These are the M-2s modified for urban warfare, based on Iraq experience. The M-2 BUSK (Bradley Urban Survival Kit) M2 a 30 ton vehicle (about what most World War II tanks weighed). a more powerful (at 3 million candlepower, four times brighter) spotlight. There was also a wire mesh protector to keep the optics from getting scratched, and non-conductive rods that push away fallen electrical wires that often endanger crews. Later came a remote control (CLAW) 5.56mm machine-gun on the turret, additional armor underneath to provide protection from mines and a bullet proof, and a transparent shield for the commander when his head and shoulders are out of the turret Picture of M2A2 Heavily armed Infantry assault vehicle with 25mm chain gun and TOW missle launcher. Original version had 4 firing ports for modified M16 rifles, removed for uparmoured A2 version. A1 carried 7, A2 carries 6 men. Original has curtains to enable it to swim, though some have sunk in exercises. A2 uses inflatable pontoons on nose and side. (M113 floats without curtains). M3 trades personell for more ammo, loses the firing ports. Only 3 were disabled in combat out of 2200 used in Desert Storm.

A development of the M113 towards turning it into a personell carrier that was also a full-fledged figthing vehicle with enough armour to ward off small cannon, and enough firepower to take out tanks, and sophisticated vision systems which worked even in oil fire smoke. It was criticized for expense and vulnerability to hits, and often compared with the smaller USMC LAV series, but it performed well as light tank in desert storm even when hit by friendly fire. Unlike the LAV, it incorporates both cannon and missles in one turret. Whereas LAV hits by Mavericks were all hands lost, every M2 hit had many survivors.

US Army Technology - Excellent detail with many pictures Picture of A3 Bradley Dominate the Battle \clip\98\07\bfvs\bfvs.htm Over 6700 built. USMC Data Page Crew 3 Infantry Dismounts 6 Length 21'2" Width 10'6" Height 9'9" Weight 50,000 lbs Road Speed 45 mph Range 300 miles Engine Cummins VTA-903T water-cooled 4 cycle diesel. Armament 25mm cannon (Chain-gun) ; 7.62 mm coaxially mounted machine gun; TOW missile launcher with twin tubes. Photo:

AF Colonel Cary Elwes vs. the Army in Bradley Roast; See HBO Movie comical treatment of the story of Colonel Title: THE PENTAGON Cast: OLYMPIA DUKAKIS, CARY ELWES, KELSEY GRAMMER Description: Truth is stranger than fiction in this satiric comedy about an honest Air Force officer's attempt to expose a case of government spending gone mad! How could the government spend 17 years and $14 billion developing a simple troop carrier? Colonel Cary Elwes (Liar, Liar) is determined to find out... and Pentagon general Kelsey Grammer (Frasier) is just as determined to stop him! With Olympia Dukakis (Moonstruck). [story claims the Israelis bought a modified version, but they stuck with the old M113, horror stories about aluminum, also used on successful M113]

1st American attempt at tank with lots of itty bitty machine guns was
quickly withdrawn and turned into the M3 with addition of sponson
mounted 75mm anti-tank gun. In had 4 machine guns in traversing
sponsons around the hull, plus two more on the turret sides firing
forward. Production ceased after the Battle for France made it
apparent that the German tanks were far more advanced. 94 M2A1's were
produced before shifting to production of the M3. 

[[M-3 Grant Lee Tank

Australian Grant Lee page
The US M3 Medium Series in Australia Part One - Gun Tanks by Paul D.
Handel M3 Lee medium
tank of the Second World War. It went into production in 1941 by the
Rock Island Arsenal. 27-tons 75 mm gun mounted in a side sponson, a
37 mm gun plus co-axial machine gun in a small rotating turret, It
had a crew of six, armour plate up to 57 mm thick and could achieve a
top speed of 26 mph and had a range of 193 km.

In desperate battle:
page with M2 and M3

world of tanks

Tank interiors
The American M3 Medium Tank was a direct descendent of their M2
design, and the speed at which the vehicle was designed, developed,
and produced was probably one of the fastest in the history of AFV
US/British M3 Medium Tank, "Grant", Part 1

[[M-4 Sherman Tank

Most important US medium tank of WWII, it said to be superior to most
of the panzers common at the start of the war, but outclassed by
Panthers and Tigers near the end of the war. Employed by Israeli army
in 1967 war modifed as "super" shermans.

Super Sherman was upgunned
diesel M4 with french 75 based on gun used in Panther, then 105mm gun
used by Israelis until replaced by the Merkava in the 1980s!

[[M24 Chafee Light Tank

Late WWII light tank

Photo of M24 at Ft Lewis WA

Claus Bonnesen, Danmark Excellent M24 Description and History

[[M42 Duster SPAA

Open top Twin 40mm SP anti-aircraft gun used in Vietnam against
ground targers, based on M41 Bulldog light tank. "Mowing the Grass".

Vietname Memoirs
M42 Duster Details

[[M48 Patton Main Battle Tank

Successor to the M47, it had a dome-shaped turret and 90MM gun.
Compared to the M60, it has a curved front "bow", and a muzzle thingy
at the end of the barrel. This was the main tank used in Vietnam as
the M60 was reserved for Europe. The "best" tank of the war was
actually the M113 APC.

[[M50 Ontos (Greek = Thing) Tank Destroyer SPAT

Funny little "tank", a tank destroyer with 6 nearly 106mm fixed
recoilless rifles, was used by USMC in Vietnam. 8.5 tons, not
amphibious, vulnerable to mines. 240 made, crew of 3, 18 rounds of
ammo 145HP, 30mph, first in service 1956, served in Vietnam 1966-67.


Nice summary page:

[[M55 SP Howizer

Photo of USMC M55 in Vietnam

[[M56 Scorpion

90MM SP anti-tank gun, used in Vietnam, exposed crew, rubber tires,
replaced by Sheridan.


[[M59 APC

This vehicle looks like the M113, I believe it was a steel bodied
alternative to the M113, it featured a completely closed cupola for
its 50 cal machine gun. (The M113's was open, but an open turret was
later added for the ACAV variant)

[[M-60 Patton / Cheyanne (A1) / Starship (A3)

The M60 Patton was the last diesel development of M47/48/60 series,
and the last in a line of "conventional" tanks dating from the M26
WWII Pershing..  It used the british designed 105mm gun that was
later used on the first models of the M-1, and a straight-edge front
hull shape.  Later A1 models adopted the needle-nose turret with more
volume, searchlights.  It had the highest sihlouette of any tank of
its day, but performance and reliablity, armour and firepower made it
the superior of supposedly more advanced Russian tanks on the
battlefield. It is also has more room, and the gun can be depressed.

The A2 model was fitted with a shrunken shillelagh MBT-70 / Sheridan
missle launching turret. It was dubbed "Starship". A few were deployed
to Europe, but they didn't work out.  Reportedly there was a "blind
spot" between the maximum rage of the stubby gun and the minimum range
of the missle, and had a small cramped turret. The commander had a
rotating self-contained cupola. Also firing shells would wreck the
electronics, as was reported for the Sheridan.  

The A3 models added modern night vision enhancements, and the USMC
adopted the active "Blazer" armour panels that the Israelis
developed. Some crew say the A1 was simpler and could actually fire
more with a good crew vs pushbuttons.

In Desert Storm, the USMC retained M60A3 models, they were thought to
be death traps, but proved as effective as Army M-1s with no losses
to direct fire and two to mines. In use by Israelis, they have
usually proved to be superior to opposing Soviet tanks.

Re: latest 1997 Israeli M60's look like they have entirely new
turrets.  From: Those IDF M-60s were
layered with reactive explosive (RE) boxes. Reportedly very effective
in defeating RPG-7 hits and similar rounds, based on use of M-60s in
southern Lebanon.

M60: M48 with rifled 105mm gun, straight line on hull front.

M60A1: Slab sided "needle-nose" turret and "night light"

M60A2: "Starship" with Shillegh horrible gun/missle system

"The U.S. operation to breach Iraq's much-feared mine fields..  and
other front line defences resulted in the destruction of just two
Marine Corps M-60 tanks" Wall Street Journal March 1, 1991 p. A12
"Iraq Moves Towards Accepting Bush Terms".

Opinion that A3 was better than A1, 
A2 could not fire missles after firing shells

Picture of ESCI
model kit

M60A3 A1 with
upgraded target systems USMC versions have version of Israeli
"blazer" armour.

<../97/03/m60t72.txt">M60 vs. T72 In desert storm, no M60's were
lost or even hit by enemy gunfire, but might have been destroyed when
M-1s used by the Army were hit by gunfire. The M60 was thought by
many to be dangerously outclassed, but proved nearly as effective as
the M-1 in terms of kill ratio.

M60A1 Armored Vehicle Launched Bridge (M60A1 AVLB)

[[M88A1E1 Hercules Recovery Vehicle

Tow truck for M1 based on M1 chassis

M88A2 HERCULES (Heavy Equipment Recovery Combat Utility Lift
                    and Evacuation System)

USMC facts

There is a Micro Machines model

[[M93 Fox

\doc\96\06\m93fox.txt - M93 Fox NBC Reconnaisance vehicle is a German
vehicle based on Henschel Transportpanzer

[[M108 SP Howitzer



"Zelda" Armoured Personell Carrier (FMC United Defence)

The M113A3, produced by FMC, is the latest version of the venerable
M113, the most widely used and produced armoured vehicle in the west
since the Vietnam area, with 80,000 built in 40 variants in 50
nations since 1960. It is still being produced for front line
service as a basic low-cost APC (like the Hercules M16 and Huey),
compared with the expensive M2, which serves only with the US Army.
Original vehicles had space for 11 troops plus driver and commander.

It ranks with the Huey, Phantom, Hercules, and M-16 rifle as the most
successful weapons of the Vietnam era, if not all time. Although it
is not a "tank", it was the most widely used armoured vehicle with
enough armour to defeat small arms, would even come back after RPG
hits. In Vietnam, the heavily armed ACAV variant was one of the
inspirations, along with the BMP for the M2, it had a turret-like
shield for the main 50 cal gun and 2 30 cal shield mounts for convoy
use. The Israelis call it affectionately "Zelda", and have not
replaced it with a more modern (or expensive) vehicle. During the 60s
and 70s it was commonly teamed with the M47 and M60 in the armoured
calvary. The A2 features more spaced armour, and "spall" shields inside.

M113 Family of Vehicles (20)
M113A3 - Armored Personnel Carrier
M113A2 - Armored Personnel Carrier
M1068A3 - Standard Integrated Command
                           Post Vehicle
M1068 - Standard Integrated Command Post
M113A3M/R - Maintenance Recovery
M1064A3 - 120mm Mortar Carrier
M1064 - 120mm Mortar Carrier
M577A3 - Command Post Vehicle
M577A2 - Command Post Vehicle
M58 - Smoke Vehicle 
M1059A3 - Smoke Vehicle 
M1059 - Smoke Vehicle
M125A3 - 81mm Mortar Carrier
M125 - 81mm Mortar Carrier
M106A2 - 4.2 inch Mortar Carrier
M901A3 - Improved TOW Vehicle
M981 - Fire Support Team Vehicle
M548A3 - Cargo Carrier
M548A1 - Cargo Carrier
M730A2 - Chaparral Carrier
M113 Gavin

Newer Is Not Always Better -
USAF B-52 & The Army's M113A3 'Gavin'
The Army has 17,000 M113A3s that already meet the requirements for the
Strike Force vehicle. Known today as the 'Gavin,' the M113 weighs in
at 10.5-13 tons, well below the 24-ton weight of the Stryker. The
Gavin is the Army's equivalent of the rugged, dependable 'B-52.' Now
in the A3 version, it has been re-tracked, up-engined, and modernized
so it can go in any terrain: jungle, mountain, desert and urban. Most
importantly, it can be loaded into a C-130 without any modifications,
and offloaded at the danger point ready-to-fight


M113A3 IS 2X FAST AS M113A2
It is capable of sustained speeds of 41 mph on level roads and
accelerates from 0 to 35 mph in 27 seconds (this compares to 69
seconds for the M113A2).  In 1984 a decision was made to incorporate
the RISE package, improved driver controls, spall liners, external
fuel tanks and provisions for installation of an external armor kit on
an M113 chassis. Additionally, a bolt-on armor kit providing 14.5 mm
ballistic protection was developed and tested. Except for the mounting
provisions the external armor applique was not incorporated for
The increase in horsepower also allows installation of an external
armor kit (which increases the gross vehicle weight to 31,000 pounds)
and provides mobility comparable to currently fielded vehicles such as
the M1 tank and M2/M3 Bradley Fighting Vehicles.  

\doc\web\98\06\m113kit.txt comments on M113 model kits

from M75 to M113

United Defence
Corporate Home Page

Survey of APCs in Desert Storm

M113 beats Stryker? (new wheeled LAV-like vehicle]
M113 ACAV has more heads and guns pointing out, fits in 
C130 without disassembly, can roll out and fight.
Treads more survivable.

[[M114 Command and Recon Scout

- Was totally outclassed in performance by large, less specialized
M113 even though the M114 was supposed to be small, nimble scout tank.
Perhaps the worst flop of the Vietnam war.

of test vehicle

[[M163 VADS Vulcan Air Defence System


Vietnam era M61 20mm Gatling gun (commonly used in USAF aircraft)
with simple daylight radar range finding system mounted on M113 APC
chassis, also effective against ground targets by Israelis.  Was
paired with Chapparal SAM during 70s, 80s, Sgt York was slated to be
the replacement, but cancelled. Reported to be withdrawn from service
as of 1997. 

Fires at only 3000 vs. 6000 RPM of aircraft mounted gun because
barrel would run too hot.

Replaced by Hummer mounted Avenger with stinger / 50 cal mg, but it
has weaker guns and no armour. DIVAD was a sophisticated 2x40mm M48
mounted gun that flopped, most studies show that a gun doesn't
actually have to hit a target to do its job if it makes the aircraft
have to maneuver out of the way of radar-directed fire. US Army
apparently doesn't pay much attention to AA since it has always had
air superiority after WWII.

[[M551 Sheridan Armoured Recon (It's not a tank...)

Controversial mid-60's light recon / tank, not a total failure, but
close. Aluminum armour was thin enough to be pierced by heavy mg,
air-drop capable, swims with curtains, armed with ill-fated
combination 155 mm gun / Shillelegh anti-tank missle launcher (also
used on cancelled MBT-70 and unsuccessful M60A2 "starship"). Some
were fitted with 76mm gun. 

The missle remained in production until 1971, by which time 88,000 had
been produced. (why???????)

In vietnam, it was used towards the end of the war with M113s. It was
vulnerable to mines, gun would foul with caseless ammo, gun firing
would mess up missle electronics and make entire vehicle jump.
Missles were evidently never used in anger.  Turret shield was added
to commander position.  Was the first "tank" deployed in Desert Storm
because of light weight, retained as the only airdrop-capable tank,
and also used to simulate threat tanks.  Dumped off of New Jersey
shore to create an artificial reef. Retired a few years after desert

In Panama, it performed well, using HEAT, high explosive, and
fleshette rounds to remove obstacles, take out cars and buses, and
against troops.  1 C5 flew in 4 Sheridans, ammo, 2 hummers, trailer
and 25 people (vs.  just 1 M1 tank). Airborne still love it, they
believe it is still the best light tank in the world.

1,562 M551s were built between 1966 and 1970, 88,000 missle rounds
were manufactured (doh!) not a single shot was used in combat!

From: 25 Feb 2001 I agree with most of your
findings, but you overlook the fact that the M551 Sheridan light tank
was the first tank to be parachute dropped into combat and it kicked
down the door to Noriega's Panama in 1989.
We sorely miss a light tank in U.S. Army service and the LAV-III road bound, 
SUV-tired death trap you might have seen in the Ft. Lewis area ain't it!
We already have the greatest AFV of all time, all we have to do is upgrade 
it---I think you already know this!

The upgraded tracked M113A3 is a far better vehicle than the wheeled LAV ever 
will be.
I'm also referring to the M8 Armored Gun System (AGS) replacing the M551. Its 
a FACT that the M551 was airdropped into combat in Panama and it was very 
effective. You can read troop praise at the ARMOR magazine web site in the 
1996 issue articles.


Operation Just Cause: The Armor-Infantry Team in the Close Fight
by Major Frank Sherman

A Sheridan Memoir: The Early Days
by Lieutenant Colonel Burton S. Boudinot (Retired)
500 were sent to Vietnam, 300 were destroyed or damaged, mostly by mines.

Several articles on the M551 Sheridan and why its a great light tank here, to 
include answering your question about the missile.

You can find info on the M113/M8 AGS at this web site:

ALL M113-type vehicles (must reading)

MTVL 6-roadwheel version

USMC specs
New tank picture
of Sheridan in 'Nam
Convoy Duty

\doc\96\06\sheridan.txt - Specs of M551 Armoured Recon / Light
Airborne Tank American Intelligence Study Group specs

Interior of M551 Sheridan tour
(c) 2000

[[m981 FIST 

M113 based TOW launcher

Modified M113 to look like BMP, replaces sheridan simulators.

[[Pansarbandvagn 401 / MT-LB 

East German APC adopted by Swedish Army

[[Radar Tank Straight flush


[[Stryker IAV

October 2, 2009 at 3:07 PM | Page modified October 2, 2009 at 7:16 PM
For troops, Afghanistan 'like Vietnam without napalm' Bravo Company
arrived in Afghanistan with 24 Strykers, the first of the
eight-wheeled combat vehicles outfitted with high-tech communications
and surveillance gear to arrive in Afghanistan. A third of the
vehicles are now out of service due to bomb attacks or maintenance.
...The bomb threats are so pervasive that Stryker drivers have
abandoned some stretches of road in favor of driving through the
deserts on different routes. The road to one smaller outpost has so
many homemade bombs that the soldiers usually arrive on foot,
highlighted the danger to foreign forces from a rapid increase in
bombs hidden along rural roads.  one of the vehicles hit Tuesday was a
Stryker troop transport in the Arghandab Valley of Kandahar province

[[XM7 Bradley FIST

Replacement for M981 FIST based on Bradley



Air transportable autoload 105mm light tank, cancelled in late 90s? Still
actively marketed.

Too Late the XM8, Alternatives to the Armored Gun System
by Stanley C. Crist

United Defence page:

\priv\96\03\noxm8.txt - XM8 AGS to be cancelled, M113A3 with
Javelin and 106 RR to be proposed to replace Sheridan (?)

z45\clipim\2000\11\29\ags\ags.htm xm8 ags system Pop Mech Oct 1994


The Army Homepage - lots of sublinks, not a lot of pictures
Army stuff.

Site deals with information about the US Army Reserve Officer Training
Corps Program and other general military and army related items.
I can't connect.
Force XXI Information Network
The Center for Army Lessons Learned (Under Construction)
Combat Training Center Warrior Information Network (CTCWIN) Homepage
Louisiana Manuevers Task Force Home Page
ODISC4 Homepage
US Army System Automation (FA53) Home Page
College militaire royal de St-Jean (CMR)  
Army Research Laboratory's Info Server
James Madison University ROTC Homepage


Belrus 2001 low profile recon with 30mm main gun.
z48\clipim\2001\03\20\stalker\stalker.htm Stalker surfaces from
Belarus By Christopher F Foss Taking part in the daily mobility
demonstration at IDEX 2001 is the 2T Stalker combat reconnaissance
vehicle, which is claimed to have a number of advanced features.


Unofficial Canadian Army Page


*** Greek Armed Forces small pictures, rundown on strength, weapons.

Why Arabs Lose Wars Norvelle Atkine
American Diplomacy
"Leadership may be the greatest weakness of Arab training systems. [A]
sergeant first class in the U.S. Army has as much authority as a
colonel in an Arab army. . . . A veteran of the Pentagon turf wars
will feel like a kindergartner when he encounters the rivalries that
exist in the Arab military headquarters.” 

MLRS SP rocket launcher picture
M110 SP Howitzer (open) picture


%%Battle off Samar

shell travels at 2,600 fps - Dogfights

"battle group halsey" history channel Sam Lucas USS Hoel on Halsey "He
should have been court martialed. He left his post unguarded He took
everything with him, a big fleet with battle wagons and cruisers,
didn't leave anybody guarding the san bernadino strait to alert

Clark G. Reyolds "the Fast Carriers" He never admitted making a
mistake Of course, it was a stain on his career.

%%Thanh Hoa Bridge

Americans are shocked when 2 supersonic f-105 thunderchiefs with f-100
escorts are shot down, and pilots lost when attacked elderly upgrades
of Korean war era technology MiG-17s. 1st attack with smart weapons,
bullpups is utterly ineffective with 250 lb warheads. Bridge only
succumbs to laser guided weapons later in the war. The incident leads
a shift away from the F-111 back towards fighters that can maneuver
and shoot down other fighters in a dogfight, as well as intercept
bombers with missles, the F-14, F-16, F-16 and F-18 which F-14 does
not reach service until after US involvement ends in Vietnam.
Airpower Journal - Summer 1987
Use and Misuse of Conventional
Tactical Air Power
Lt Col William P. Stroud III 
An example is the Thanh Hoa bridge in North Vietnam. When F-105
aircraft could not destroy the bridge in the mid-1960s, it could be
said that, in the limited sense, air power failed and that when the
bridge fell in 1972, air power succeeded. If the question is asked why
the bridge was struck at all, we most look not to air power but to the
broader objectives and into the political decision to employ armed
Airpower Journal- Spring 1998
Did USAF Technology Fail in Vietnam?
Three Case Studies*
Kenneth P. Werrell 
"The failure of the F-105 and the successes of the obsolete C-47s and
C-119s as weapons platforms and the great increase in effectiveness
from the use of laser-guided bombs underscore this point"
The F-105s achieved a circular error probable (CEP) of 447 feet and
5.5 percent direct hits during the end of Rolling Thunder, compared
with guided bombs’ CEP of 23 feet and 48 percent direct hits during
the period of February 1972 through February 1973.37 One study found
that LGBs were one to two hundred times as effective as conventional
bombs against very hard targets and 20 to 40 times against soft and
area targets.38 General Vogt stated that laser weapons were about a
hundred times as effective as dumb bombs.39 On
April 4, 1965, several North Vietnamese Korean War vintage MiG-17s
equipped only with guns shot down two sophisticated F-105s on a
bombing run against the Than Hoa Bridge. This incident shocked the
U.S. tactical fighter community and galvanized sentiment in the Air
Force for a new air-superiority fighter. The strike mission against
the Thanh Hoa/Ham Rong Bridge was filled with firsts in the American
air war over North Vietnam. For example, it was the first time a
series of major strike packages were combined and launched against
that specific target. While MiG's had been spotted on previous
missions and were known to be based at the Bai Thuong MiG base, this
was the first time they aggressively attacked American aircraft.  A1H
Skyraider downed " On 4 April 65, MiG's striking from cloud cover
downed two USAF F-105's"

On 4 April 1965, another multi-flight strike package was scheduled to
attack the Thanh Hoa Bridge At roughly 1130 hours, and as other
flights were directed onto the Ham Rong Bridge, Zinc flight was jumped
by a flight of Soviet manufactured North Vietnamese MiG-17's. Zinc
Lead tried a breaking maneuver in an attempt to shake off the MiG off
his tail. At the same time, Capt.  Magnusson, Zinc 2, was struck by
air-to-air fire.
On 3 April 1965 three NVN MiG-17s attacked a USN strike on the Dong
Phuong Thong bridge, damaged an F-8 Crusader, and escaped unharmed.
The following day, two NVN MiG-17s attacked a flight of four F-105s
that were waiting their turn to bomb the Than Hoa bridge. The MiGs
approached without warning, shot down two of the F-105s, completely
disrupted the strike, then evaded escorting F-100s to escape unscathed

April 1965 over North Vietnam. On that day, North Vietnam MiG-17s
attacked Thunderchief fighter-bombers making a bomb run on the Than
Hoa bridge. Two of the F-105s were immediately shot down. A third was
hit and smoking as it sought escape. The fourth, flown by a
command-level pilot, attempting to cover the crippled F-105 found
himself helplessly in the clutches of one of the MiG-17s. All efforts
to shake his tormentor were unsuccessful. One of the suggested
defensive maneuvers was to snap roll the F-105.  The maneuver caused
his airplane to decelerate at such a high rate that the MiG-17
over-shot him, exactly what the captain had said would happen. The
American pilot found himself on the MiG'Õs tail. He was so surprised
by the result that he blew his chance to shoot down the MiG with his
20mm gun. The "idiot" pilot from Nellis was, of course, John Boyd.
Carl O Schuster. 
Jun 2007. Vol. 20, Iss. 1; pg. 19-EOA 

No one saw the two low-flying North Vietnamese MiG-17 fighters 
approaching the large force of U.S. Navy and Air Force aircraft, which 
was zeroing in on taking out the North's Than Hoa Bridge on April 3, 
1965. Essentially an evolutionary improvement on the Korean War's 
MiG-15, the MiG-17 was a subsonic, swept-wing fighter aircraft that 
entered Soviet service in 1953. 

The obsolescent MiG-17 fighter produced North Vietnam's first jet air- 
to-air victories 
No one saw the two low-flying North Vietnamese MiG-17 fighters 
approaching the large force of U.S. Navy and Air Force aircraft, which 
was zeroing in on taking out the North's Than Hoa Bridge on April 3, 
1965. Visibility was good at high altitude, but hazy below 5,000 feet. 
Flying at about 1,000 feet, the MiG-I7s closed in on a pair of F-8E 
fighter-bombers that had just pulled up from bombing the bridge. When 
the range closed to about 700 feet, lieutenant Pham Ngoc Lan opened 
fire, scoring several 23mm cannon hits. One F-8 appeared to explode as 
it dropped away, and Pham's wingman, Lieutenant Phan Van Tuc, opened 
fire on the second F-8. While the North claimed two victories that 
day, neither F-8 was actually shot down. However, the engagement did 
mark North Vietnam's first MiG-17 intercept in what would become the 
longest air war in American military history. The next day would see 
two confirmed shoot downs of F105s by MiG-17s. 

So even when the AEW aircraft were deployed in support of U.S. strike
packages, they were of limited value until the MiGs rose above 2,500
feet. Moreover, the Fresco's jet engine emitted no smoke, making the
much smaller and lighter Soviet-built aircraft very difficult to spot

Below 5,000 feet, the MiG-17 enjoyed a much better roll and initial
turning rate than all of its American counterparts except the F-8E.
Below 200 knots, it also had a better initial climb and sustained
turning rate than the F-4 and F-105, regardless of altitude.
Name: Walter Frank Draeger, Jr.    
Rank/Branch: Captain/US Air Force  
Unit: Detachment 10, 1131st Special Activities Squadron  
Date of Birth: 28 September 1933 
Home of Record: Deerfield, WI 
Date of Loss: 04 April 1965  
Country of Loss: North Vietnam 
Loss Coordinates: 195102N 1055134E (WG930790) 
Click coordinates to view(4) maps  
Status in 1973: Killed in Action/Body Not Recovered  
Category: 2 
Aircraft/Vehicle/Ground: A1H "Skyraider" 
Other Personnel In Incident: (none missing) 


SYNOPSIS: With its fantastic capability to carry a wide range of
ordnance (8,000 pounds of external armament), great flight range (out
to 3,000 miles), and the ability to absorb punishment, the single-seat
Douglas A1 Skyraider became one of the premier performers in the close
air support and attack mission role (nickname: Spad) and RESCAP
mission role (nickname: Sandy). The Skyraider served the Air Force,
Navy and Marines faithfully throughout the war in Southeast Asia. 

The Thanh Hoa Railroad and Highway Bridge, spanning the Song Ma River,
is located three miles north of Thanh Hoa, the capital of Annam
Province, North Vietnam. It is a replacement for the original
French-built bridge destroyed by the Viet Minh in 1945 - they simply
loaded two locomotives with explosives and ran them together in the
middle of the bridge. 

In 1957, the North Vietnamese rebuilt the bridge. The new bridge,
completed in 1964, was 540 feet long, 56 feet wide, and about 50 feet
above the river. The Vietnamese called it Ham Rong (the Dragon's Jaw),
and Ho Chi Minh himself attended its dedication. The bridge had two
steel thru-truss spans that rested in the center on a massive
reinforced concrete pier 16 feet in diameter, and on concrete
abutments at the other ends. Hills on both sides of the river provided
solid bracing for the structure. Between 1965 and 1972, eight concrete
piers were added near the approaches to give additional resistance to
bomb damage. A one-meter gauge single railway track ran down the
12-foot wide center and 22-foot wide concrete highways were
cantilevered on each side. This giant would prove to be one of the
single most challenging targets for American air power in Vietnam. 104
American pilots were shot down over a 75 square mile area around the
Dragon during the war. 

In March 1965, the decision to interdict the North Vietnamese rail
system south of the 20th parallel led directly to the 3 April 1965
multi-flight strike package against the Thanh Hoa/Ham Rong Bridge.
Because of the bridge's structure, the initial attacks proved

On 4 April 1965, another multi-flight strike package was scheduled to
attack the Thanh Hoa Bridge. Call signs assigned to the strike
aircraft flights included "Steel," "Iron," "Copper," "Moon," "Carbon,"
"Zinc," "Argon," "Graphite," "Esso," "Mobile," "Shell," and "Petrol."
In addition to the strike aircraft, "Cadillac" flight was to conduct a
Bomb Damage Assessment (BDA) after the strike mission was completed.
The search and rescue (SAR) aircraft package included A1 Skyraiders,
call sign "Sandy," and HH3 Jolly Green Giant rescue helicopters, call
sign "Jolly Green." 

All aircraft assembled at the rendezvous point and checked in with the
airborne battlefield command and control center (AFCCC) who stacked
the flights in holding patterns before handing each flight off to the
Forward Air Controller (FAC) responsible for directing the strike
mission itself. Pilots involved in the overall mission included Capt.
Carlyle "Smitty" Harris, the pilot of the #3 aircraft in a flight of 4
F-105D aircraft (serial #62-4217), call sign "Steel 3." In another
flight of Thunderchiefs, Capt. James A. Magnusson, Jr. was the pilot
of the lead F-105D (serial #59-1764) in a flight of 4, call sign "Zinc
1." Sandy pilot Capt. Walter F. Draeger, Jr. was assigned to the
search and rescue force that was orbiting in a holding pattern over
the Gulf of Tonkin in case their services were needed. 

At approximately 1100 hours, Capt. Harris oriented himself for his
attack pass on the bridge and turned onto a 300-degree heading. After
dropping his ordnance, Smitty Harris pulled off target and transmitted
that his bombs had impacted on the eastern end of the bridge. At the
same time, other aircrews saw Steel 3 on fire with flames emitting for
a distance of 20 feet behind it. Capt. Harris' transmission became
garbled as Steel flight watched his aircraft head toward the west. All
flight members kept Steel 3 in sight until the trailing fire died out.
None of the other aircrews saw Capt. Harris eject from his crippled
aircraft or see the Thud impact the ground. His last known position
was located over a densely populated and heavily defended area covered
in rice fields approximately 5 miles southwest of the city of Thanh
Hoa, 8 miles southwest of the Ham Rong Bridge and 15 miles southeast
of Bai Thuong MiG base. 

The ABCCC and SAR force immediately initiated a visual and electronic
search for the downed pilot while the FAC continued to direct other
flights onto the target. At roughly 1130 hours, and as other flights
were directed onto the Ham Rong Bridge, Zinc flight was jumped by a
flight of Soviet manufactured North Vietnamese MiG-17's. Zinc Lead
tried a breaking maneuver in an attempt to shake off the MiG off his
tail. At the same time, Capt. Magnusson, Zinc 2, was struck by
air-to-air fire. He immediately radioed that he had been hit, was
heading for the Gulf of Tonkin if he could maintain control of his

The rest of Zinc flight was busy battling the MiGs in an aerial
dogfight. James Magnusson transmitted several more times over the
tactical frequency before Steel Lead instructed him to switch his
radio to Guard channel, the emergency frequency. In his last
transmission, Capt. Magnusson gave his position and stated that his
controls were gone and he was going to eject. At that time, Capt.
Magnusson's position was 6 miles north of the island of Hon Me, 7
miles east of the town of Ba Long situated on the coastline, 24 miles
south-southeast of the city of Thanh Hoa and 26 miles south-southeast
of the ham Rong Bridge. 

Capt. Walter F. Draeger, Jr. was the pilot of an A1H Skyraider that
helped protect downed Americans as well as the rescue helicopters.
Capt. Draeger was providing air cover for one of the downed aircrews
when his A1H was struck by ground fire from an enemy anti-aircraft
artillery (AAA) shore battery. It is not known for whom he was
providing that air cover. Other pilots observed the Sandy crash in
flames roughly 1 mile east of the coastline, 9 miles south-southeast
of the city of Thanh Hoa, 10 miles south-southeast of the Ham Rong
Bridge, 12 miles east-southeast of Capt. Harris' position and 16 miles
northwest of Capt. Magnusson's location. No parachute was seen or
emergency radio beeper heard. 

When the search effort for the three men was terminated, Smitty
Harris, James Magnusson and Walter Draeger were reported as Missing in
Action. On 5 April 1965, the US Air Force received evidence sufficient
to confirm that Capt. Draeger died at the time of his incident and his
status was immediately changed to Killed in Action/Body Not Recovered.
On 15 April 1965, additional information was discovered in the
"Vietnam Courier," a communist publication that ran an interview with
the MiG pilot responsible for shooting down Capt. Harris' aircraft. Up
until then, US intelligence believed the Thud had been struck by
ground fire from one of the AAA batteries that protected the bridge. 

It was not until much later that US intelligence learned that Capt.
Harris had successfully ejected his crippled Thud, had been captured
and was imprisoned in Hanoi. On 12 February 1973, Smitty Harris
returned to US control during Operation Homecoming. Fellow POWs
credited Capt. Harris with introducing the "tap code" into the prison
system so that the prisoners could communicate with each other. 

The strike mission against the Thanh Hoa/Ham Rong Bridge was filled
with firsts in the American air war over North Vietnam. For example,
it was the first time a series of major strike packages were combined
and launched against that specific target. While MiG's had been
spotted on previous missions and were known to be based at the Bai
Thuong MiG base, this was the first time they aggressively attacked
American aircraft. 

In 1992, a National Security Agency (NSA) correlation study of all
communist radio intercepts pertaining to missing Americans, which was
presented to the Senate Select Committee on POW/MIA Affairs in a
classified format, was finally declassified and made public. According
to this document, 1 North Vietnamese radio message was intercepted and
correlated to Smitty Harris' incident. The NSA synopsis states: "On 4
April 1965, MiG's striking from cloud cover downed two USAF F-105's.
No reflections of aircrew status." 

In regard to James Magnusson's loss, 1 intercepted message was
correlated to this loss and states: "Note; Shot down by MiG-17's. On 4
April 65, MiG's striking from cloud cover downed two USAF F-105's. No
reflections of aircrew status."
1Lt. George
C. Smith's F100D was shot down near the target point as he suppressed flak.
The anti-aircraft resistance was much stronger than anticipated.

Capt. Herschel S. Morgan's RF101 was hit and went down some 75 miles
southwest of the target area, seriously injuring the pilot. Capt. Morgan was
captured and held in and around Hanoi until his release in February 1973.
When the smoke cleared, observer aircraft found that the bridge still
spanned the river. Thirty-two Bullpups and ten dozen 750 pound bombs had
been aimed at the bridge and numerous hits had charred every part of the
structure, yet it showed no sign of going down. A restrike was ordered for
the next day.
SOURCE: WE CAME HOME  copyright 1977
Captain and Mrs. Frederic A Wyatt (USNR Ret), Barbara Powers Wyatt, Editor
P.O.W. Publications, 10250 Moorpark St., Toluca Lake, CA 91602
Text is reproduced as found in the original publication (including date and
spelling errors).
Afterburner: Naval Aviators and the Vietnam War
By John Darrell Sherwood
Published by NYU Press, 2004
ISBN 081479842X, 9780814798423
353 pages
aa gunners downed flight leader Capatain Carlyle "Smitty" Harris, two Mig-17s
came out of the clourds and ambushed another two F-105s as they approached
deaths Major Frank Bennett and Captain James Magnusson
"the resulting bridge would prove to be one of the most formidable targets in the
history of American Air power"
79 aircraft, 45 f105, 21 f100 2 rf101 10 kc-135

How It Happened,9171,841817,00.html?promoid=googlep
Friday, Apr. 16, 1965 Article ToolsPrintEmailReprints SphereRSS 
Related Articles

The U.S. Air Force chief of staff, General John P. McConnell, was
hopping mad. He had just heard that two U.S. F-105 Thunderchiefs had
been shot down by MIGs of the tiny (36 jets) North Vietnamese air
force. What McConnell wanted to know was how the Thunderchief, a big
brute of a plane with speeds up to 1,400 m.p.h., had been bested in
combat by the snail-paced (730 m.p.h.) MIG-17, a relic of the Korean

The answers seemed to be 1) faulty tactics, and 2) inadequate radar.

Out of the Mist. Forty-eight Thunderchiefs had been assigned to bomb
the Thanh hoa bridge, a key rail-highway span across the Song Ma River,
76 miles south of Hanoi. The jets flew in groups of four; while one
flight attacked, the others circled the area, their speed cut by the
weight of their armament—eight 750-lb. bombs and 2,000 lbs. of cannon
shells in each aircraft. High above and to the north, F-100 Super
Sabre jets flew combat air patrol. Their mission: to forewarn of the
approach of enemy aircraft and if possible to intercept. The Super
Sabres' radar attention was directed mostly toward the north, where
Hanoi's jet airfields are located (the Donghoi airfield, to the south,
had been knocked out by U.S. bombing).

But the MIG attack did come from the south—seven jets barreling out of
a heavy mist bank overhanging the area. Five angled off toward the
west, apparently as decoys. The other two headed straight for one of
the orbiting four-plane flights.

In that flight, two pilots saw the attackers coming, frantically
radioed the other two: "Break off, break off!" But transmission
apparently was garbled and the two remaining F-105s flew on unaware—as
close to sitting ducks as Thunderchiefs can get. The MIGs made a fast
firing pass, then swooshed off to the north and escaped in the mist.
One Thunderchief took 20-mm. cannon hits in its hydraulic system, the
other in its engine. Both limped some 20 miles until they got over the
Gulf of Tonkin, where the pilots bailed out. Major Frank E. Bennett
drowned, and, after a 48-hour search, Captain James A. Magnusson was
listed as missing.

Encounter No. 2. The MIGs obviously had been directed by
ground-control radar, probably from three stations that had the U.S.
flights perfectly triangulated. The airborne radar in the F-100 patrol
planes plainly did not offer equivalent, skywide coverage—but the U.S.
has plenty of radar planes that do, and they presumably will be
brought into use in the very near future.

Moreover, the U.S. tactical formations were made to order for just the
sort of Communist hit-and-run attack that occurred, and Air Force Boss
McConnell is determined that the Thunderchiefs' misfortune will not be

Toward week's end, U.S. jets again clashed with MIGs, and again
suffered a loss. Four Navy F-4 Phantoms from the carriers Coral Sea
and Ranger were flying patrol about 35 miles from the Communist
Chinese island of Hainan.

They were attacked by four MIGs. Although the ensuing dogfight was too
fast and furious for the U.S. pilots to make positive identification,
the MIGs almost certainly belonged to the Chinese Communists rather
than the North Vietnamese. When the battle was over, one Phantom jet
was missing, though the Pentagon refused to confirm the loss
officially. As for the MIGs, they beat a hasty retreat in the
direction of Hainan.

@@Battle off Samar

%%Destroyer Johnston vs Kongo
Suddenly, at 0820, a 30,000-ton KONGO-class battleship loomed out of
the smoke, only 7,000 yards off the JOHNSTON’s port beam. Hagen took
one look at the unmistakable pagoda mast, and muttered, “I sure as
hell can see that!” He gave the order to open fire. “In 40 seconds we
got off 30 rounds,” he said, “at least 15 of which hit the pagoda
superstructure. The BB belched a few 14-inchers at us, but, thank God,
registered only clean misses

%%Escort carriers
American small carriers returned fire with the only guns they had,
their single stern-mounted five-inch (127mm) anti-aircraft guns. The
weapons, loaded solely with anti-aircraft shells, they had little
chance of inflicting any damage on even unarmored surface ships

WW2DB: Yamato-class Battleship The range of these guns were stunning,
being able to reach a target as far as 40 kilometers ... Imperial
Japanese Navy Battleships 1941-45, Requiem for the Battleship Yamato,
Sinking ...

Range / Speed: 
Low speed: 15,000 (8.5 mi) yards at 26.5 knots 13,500 meters at 49 km/h) 
High speed: 6,000 (3.5 mi)yards at 45 knots (5,500 meters at 83 km/h)


%%Gun Fire Control
The Evolution of Battleship Gunnery in the U.S. Navy, 1920-1945
by William J. Jurens
Part 2

Naval Firepower: Battleship Guns and Gunnery in the Dreadnought Era - Google Books Result
by Norman Friedman, W. J. Jurens - 2008 - History - 319 pages
The heavy cruiser Prim Eugen, which had essentially a battleship fire-control system, had a master stable element, stabilised directors, and cross- levelled ... @@Best Weapons Arthur's listing
The Vietnam war produced some duds, but it also defined a generation of new weapons systems that nearly define warfare as we know it today, newer systems are more refined, but not fundamentally different in capabilites or combat niche.

Best Classic Americans Weapons of the Vietnam War

A classic weapons system is one that lasts a long time, they made large numbers of, or both because they were so successful at what they were meant to do.

1. F-4 Phantom - Best air-superiority fighter and fighter-bomber, replaced Air Force runner-up F-105 Thunderchief which was a crummy fighter and Navy runner-up F-8 Crusader which was a crummy bomber, and often performed same roles as the A-4, A-1, and A-6 attack planes. Today replaced by F-15, F-14, (and eventually F-22, F18E/F) which though smarter and more agile, still retain Mach 2.5 speed, 16,000 lb warload, 2,000 mile range, 4 sidewinder, 4 sparrow armanent

2. B-52 Best Heavy Bomber Now - superseded by B-2 and B-1, but to remain in service beyond 2000. Both replacements airplanes fulfill same spec of 6,000 mile range, 60,000 lb payload, and B-2 is no faster, and works the 2 man crew much harder on long missions.

3. UH-1 Huey Best light transport helicopter, trademark Vietnam war weapon characterised The Helicopter War. Replaced by larger UH-60, but still in front line service and production. It replaced piston powered helicopters

4. AH-1 Cobra Best attack helicopter Now - replaced by faster AH-64 Apache in Army, but still front-line in US Marine Corps

5. C-130 Best Tactical Transport, first turboprop tactical transport with classic box opens in back layout. Still in front line service, still in production. Runner up: C-123 Provider was a 2-engine transport also featuring high wing and tail ramp.

6. C-5A Best Strategic Transport. The original wide-body transport evolved by Boeing into the 747, still in front line service. Runner up: the C-141 was less heralded but also is in first line service, not to be replaced until the C-17 comes on line.

7. M-113. Best armoured vehicle / tank. First aluminum armoured classic floating box. Armoured and armed personell carrier evolved into a highly mobile light tank, heavily armed as ACAV with extra machine guns and gun shields. Replaced in 1980s by M-2 Bradley in armed combat / light tank role, but still front line service as battle transport in A2 version. Worst was the M-114 recon, was outrun by the more general M113. Runner-up - M48 Patton and M551 Sheridan as tanks.

8. M-16 rifle Best small arms. First light automatic rifle to trade off caliber and accuracy for high rate of fire Now - still in front line service, as is the AK-47

9. CH-47 Chinook - Best Medium/Heavy helicopter Now - still in front line service. The smaller CH-46 is also still in front line service, it won't be replaced until the V-22 Osprey comes on line. Runner up: The CH-53 is also still contemporary, but didn't play as important role in the war. The CH-64 Skycrane ended up not being as flexible, still used by National Guard, civilians.

10. A7 Corsair II - Best light attack. Retired just after Desert Storm replaced by F16 and F18. Runner up: A-4 Skyhawk, replaced in USMC by Harrier. The A-4 was more nimble as a dogfighter, which is fine for a MiG simulator, but it's a bomber. The A7 had more payload/range and more sophisticated bombing system which introduced the HUD and digital computer bombing. Unlike the Navy, the A-7 wasn't given a chance by the USAF to show its stuff in Desert Storm, only the F16 was given its role, but it probably would have done well.

11. Best all-weather strike Navy A-6. Runner up: Air Force F-111. Both served until 1997, shortly after Desert Storm. Introduced all-weather bombing and navigation systems. The A6 wins because the Navy bought and used far more aircraft, where the F-111 ended up being a "silver" limited production bullet. The A6 is being replaced by the supersonic F-18, which will replace everything faster than 500mph. The F-111 only entered late in the war, and really replaced the F-105 as a low-level attack plane. The F-111 flopped as a plane for all missions (Ironically, McNamara hit the jackpot by forcing the USAF to adopt the Navy's Phantom), but it's a great bomber, replaced by F-15E.

12. Best Observation Helicopter OH-6 Cayuse - still in service as special ops little bird. Runner-up replaced by Jetranger based OH-58 (which originally lost to the OH-6 before it got the cool looking nose). Jetranger is another Vietnam classic.

13. Best electronics warfare platorm - EA6B still in service, replaced variants of the F10 Skynight and EA-3 Skywarrior, now serving in the Air Force which lacked dedicated jammers until the EF-111, and used EB-66 bombers during Vietnam

14. Ford Mutt (Jeep) Version of Jeep contemporary until replaced y 90's Hummer. Parts live on in American Growler

15. Best Close Air Aupport - A-1 Skyraider in USAF and USN, served from Korean war, replaced by A-7 for CAS and helicopter escort. It inspired the later A-10 (not the Stuka!). It performed better than supersonic planes such as the F100 and later F-4. Runner up A37 was also used in this role.

16. Best gunship - AC-130, still in front line service, replaced the AC-47

17. Best air-air missle - infrared Sidewinder was the missle that made most air-air kills, especially important for the Phantom, which usually had no gun. Runner up: radar guided Sparrow also deserves mention. It had a much more spotty record, it still had tubes, but in Desert Storm ended up with the majority of air-air kills. The Air Force-developed Falcon missles were rarely used.

18. E-2C - Still contemporary as radar picket / control system. The AWACS was designed during the Vietnam era to replace the EC-121

19. PBR Waterjet propelled patrol boats ruled the delta, trademark of riverine warfare, Apocalypse now.

Greatest Clunkers of Vietnam

AH-56 Cheyenne - Super compound helicopter with wings and pusher tail
rotor, they never got it to work when the AH-1 Cobra was proving to
be a great machine. FF Sept 1967

F-104 - Not enough range or payload to be of much use, but did scare off
Mig-21s when they flew, faster than F-4s as thud escort.

F-102 - Nothing to shoot down, trials were made of using Falcons
against ground targets. Loss rate of 1/3 nearly as bad as F-105s that
went downtown

M-114 Scout  - Was withdrawn as soon as it was introduced, it was supposed to
be a smaller, faster air-drop capable recon vehicle, but the M113 was

M48 Medium Tank - Too heavy, slow compared to the M113 ACAV as main battlefield
firepower. M60 was never deployed

M551 Sheridan - Space age weapons missle system was useless against an
enemy that rarely had tanks. Gun was too big for its weight, and
burnable casings were flammable. But saw a lot of use towards the end
of the war because of its mobility.

Really Awsome Aircraft of the 60's
XB-70 Mach 3 bomber
SR-71 YF-12 Mach 3 recon / fighter
X-15  Mach 6 research plane
Harrier - Operational V/STOL fighter too late for Vietnam
XC-142 Tilt wing light transport that really worked

USAF Role - Era
                   WWII       Korea    Vietnam     DesertStorm   Future
Slow Air Support                       A-1/A37     A-10           JSF
Gunship                                AC-47       AC-130         AC-130
Fast Air Support   P-38       P51      F-100/F-4   F16            JSF
                   P-47       F80 F84
Interdiction                  F80 F84  F-105/F-111 F-111          F-22
                              A-1      A-6         A-5 F-18 AV-8  F-14/F-18
Air Superiority    P-51       F-86     F-4         F-15           F-22
                   F6F        F9F      F-8/F-4     F-14           F-18E
Strategic Bomber   B17 B24    B29      B-52        B-52           B-2

@@Breguet Atlantic
Adieu Atlantic Posted by Nicholas Fiorenza at 6/23/2010 1:33 PM CDT
The German navy has parted with its last Breguet Atlantic maritime
patrol aircraft. Marinefliegergeschwader (MFG) 3 "Graf Zeppelin" based
in Nordholz, northern Germany, held an "air day", an open house, on 20
June which ended with the last flight and touchdown of its last
Atlantic, BR 1150 Atlantic (61-03),...served with the German navy for
45 years and has been replaced by P-3C Orions acquired from the Royal
Netherlands Navy,

see boeing.htm


"Bombing Costs Escalate In Afghanistan Operations"
Aviation Week Dec 10, 2001 p. 38
David A.Fulghum

- Navy missions run 5.5-6.5 hrs
Cost per flight-hr
B-2     $89,300/$54,000
B-1     $32,700
B-52    $23,100
F-15E   $14,800
F-16     $9,300

500 nau mi radius mission to deliver each JDAM
 + added cost for 1000 nm with tanker support
F-117  2@ $35,550  +  $12,140   = $47k
F-16   2@ $12,760  +   $2,050   = $14k
F-15E  4@  $9,220  +   $3,120   = $12k
B-2   16@  $7,540/$4,500**
B-52  12@  $5,120
B-1   24@  $3,690

** B-2 halted after 3 days probably because of cost flying from US


%%DDG-51 Arleigh Burke class destoyer


Oddball Russian ground-effect flying boat.
z57\clipim\2002\08\22\a90\a90.htm Caz Dalton 1/144 Revell model and history

Project 903 Lun 
Missile Launcher Ekranoplane
the Caspian Sea Monster (1967), could lift 540 tons and cruise at over 300
mph at an altitude of over 10 feet. 
Take off weight 400 tons (882,000 lbs)
Translated from Russian by Boris Krotkov, special thanks to Caz Dalton
Soaring above the waves



Massive failure that plagued Navy designs in the 1950s, grounding
all F3H Demons.
Sabres over MiG alley: the F-86 and the battle for air superiority in Korea By Kenneth P. Werrell

One source attributes the naval problems to its "scandalous commitment
to the Westinghouse J40 engine that failed utterly and almost
paralyzed naval aviation in the early to mid 19650s Dorr, F-86 Sabure,
48. Gordon Swanborough and Peter Bowers, United States Navy Aircraft
since 1911 (New York: Funk & Wanall, 1960), 179, 232, 285, 383; Swanborough
and Bowers, U.S. Military Aircraft since 1908, 420

F-100 Super Sabre at War By Thomas E. Gardner p. 22

%%TF-34 High bypass turbofan

1st small high-bypass turbofan developed for S-3 and later A-10 IT was
conceved in 1966 on the basis of the T64 gas generator with a fan
similar to the larger TF-39 for the C-5A, HB now common on all
Leyes, Richard A The history of North American small gas turbine
aircraft engies 1999 Smithsonian Institution.

%%T-64 Powerful advanced helicopter engine

Originally developed for XC-142, AH-56, main application CH-53 heavy
lift helicopter after 1967. basis for TF-34 small high-bypass
turbofan.  Work started in 1953 to replace large piston engines on
aircraft and helicopters,M1
Helicopter turboshaft engine
used on CH-53, P-2J


Military FAQs
Newsgroup: sci.military.moderated

@@Flying Tigers

American Volunteer Group flew P-40s with shark mouths in China,
racked up amazing victory ratio when allies were losing big time
everywhere else.

"Thumbs-up" pilot for "OK" or "good" is probably taken from Chinese
gesture for "number one".


Rear Admiral Paul Gillcrist
Tomcat!  Buy This Book Price: $39.95 Paul T. Gillcrist The Grumman
F-14 Story
Miscellaneous Crew - filmography

   1. "JAG"
          - Fighting Words (2004) TV Episode (technical advisor)
          - What If (2004) TV Episode (technical advisor)
          - Crash (2004) TV Episode (technical advisor)

Filmography as: Miscellaneous Crew, Writer

Writer - filmography

   1. "JAG"
          - True Callings (1999) TV Episode (story)
          - Ghost Ship (1997) TV Episode (story)
The following narration is from the book
'Feet Wet, Reflections of a Carrier Pilot'
by RADM Paul T. Gillcrist, USN (Ret.).
Pocket Books ISBN 0-671-73592, used with permission of the author.
Copr. 1990 Paul T. Gillchrist, all rights reserved
Paul Gillcrist's summary was automatically generated using 196 references found on the Internet. How did ZoomInfo compile this information?
1.  An Nasher Rear Admiral Paul T. Gillcrist, United States Navy
(Retired) is a graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy class of 1952. He is
also a graduate of the Navy's test pilot school and holds a Master's
degree from the Navy's post-graduate school program. He has commanded
a fleet fighter squadron, a carrier air wing and served as functional
wing commander of all Pacific Fleet fighter sqaudrons. He was awarded
seventeen combat decorations from 167 missions over Vietnam.

 2.  Sea Legs Rear Admiral Gillcrist commanded a fighter squadron, a
carrier airwing and finally all Pacific Fleet fighter squadrons. A
Navy test pilot, he flew 74 different aircraft off of 16 carriers,
completed 167 combat missions over Vietnam, has ejected twice and has
published five other books about carrier aviation.

@@Greatest weapons of all time

* AK-47
* M-16
* B-52
* F-4 Phantom
* UH-1 Huey
* Spitfire
* Mustang
* Wildcat
* B-17
* M-113
* Patton tank
* T-34 tank
* Sherman tank
* C-47
* C-130
* Jeep
* Humvee



ROCKET POWERED ROUNDS TO REACH 96 MILES - Navy proposes destroyer with long-range guns Current
cruisers and destroyers mount only 5-inch guns with a range of about
15 miles. The guns of the Iowa and Wisconsin can hit targets 30 miles
distant with unguided shells ...

The ship would carry two 155-millimeter guns that fire
rocket-propelled rounds. Current test versions of the gun have hit
targets 68 miles away. The Navy hopes to reach 96 miles. Navy
officials also talk about an electromagnetic rail gun, possibly
available by 2020, that can hit targets 350 miles away.
SINGLE 5 inch / 38 Caliber MK 30 Gun Mount Installed in the 175
Fletcher Class Destroyers as well as the GARCIA class destroyer
escorts, Coast Guard Cutters and countless U.S. Naval auxiliary ships,
the widespread MK 30 gun mount, as seen at left on RADFORD, with its
single MK 12 Mod 1 barrel was originally designed for destroyer
installations in the mid 1930's and was the early destroyer surface
weapon of World War II.  The enclosed single mount had a base-ring
type mounting that allowed the gun to turn within its 11' 11" circle.
On top of the mounting was the gun house itself built upon the
carriage assembly that connected to the ring via the rotating
assembly. With the ammunition handling room below it, the combined gun
mount weighed 41,000 lbs.  As the basic performance per gun of the MK
30 gun mount is the same for the twin mount, as it fired the same 55
pound projectile, please see the below specifications for the MK 38
gun mount. 

TWIN 5 inch / 38 Caliber MK 38 Gun Mount
It should be noted that during the Vietnam War, a 5 inch/38
rocket-assisted projectile was developed for greater surface range.
This became the MK 57 round and was 51.5" long and had a range of
23,770 yards. The MK 57 had a rocket that burned for 40 seconds with a
shell that carried 3.5 lbs of explosives. This corresponds to the
standard 5" round, the MK 66 which were 50.14" long, had a range of
14,000 yards and carried a shell with 7.9 lbs of explosives. Among naval
historians, the 5"/38 gun is considered the best
intermediate-caliber[3], dual purpose naval gun of World War II

Ballistics Maximum horizontal range, with a 55 pound projectile, is
18,000 yards (16 km / 10 miles ). [4] In the antiaircraft role, it had
a ceiling of 37,200 feet (11,300 m) at 85 degrees elevation.[8] 


... Hovercraft lieferte sieben Fahrzeuge des Typs BHC SR.N5 an die ... auf General Electric
LM-100 Gasturbinen erhielten die Luftkissenboote die Bezeichnung Bell SK-5 ... -
z56\clipim\2002\07\24\pacv\pacveng.htm HOVERCRAFT Aboard the USS
Tortuga LSD-26 The British company Hovercraft supplied seven vehicles
of the type BHC SR.N5 to the American company Bell of aero system.
After the re-equipment on General Electric Lm-100 gas turbines
received the hovercrafts the designation Bell Sk-5 Model 7232. Three
as PACV or Pak Vees (Patrol air Cushion Vehicles) designated units
(004, 017 and 018) went to test purposes to the U. S. Navy into Viet
Nam, where they were stationed in Cat Lo. From there from operated it
1966 eight months long. In January 1967 they went to the general
overhaul and re-equipment back into the USA, before they returned 1968
for a further year to Viet Nam (DaNang and Tan My). The employment of
the Pak Vees took place during the first Viet Nam stay under the
command of the Task Force 116
with photos

@@Images Official US Navy stills and video clips

Yom Kippur war part 4 - Israel fights for her life and wins

@@Janes Defence

Jane's Home Page

@@Korean American

Capt. Fred Ohr, who is the only American ace of Korean ancestry, had
six aerial victories and 17 ground victories;

@@National Security Agency

Top Secret NSA discovery channel
152 fatalities
including attack by Israel on liberty ship
Vietnam, RC-130 off Russia
NSA/CSS Memorial Day Observance Honors Cryptologic Heroes, Past and Present
On 27 May 2004, Lt Gen Michael V. Hayden, USAF, Director, National Security Agency/Chief, Central Security Service, honored the service and sacrifice of SP4 James T. Davis, USA, during the Agency's annual Memorial Day Observance. The event was attended by friends and distinguished guests.
SP4 Davis was a cryptologist serving in the United States Army in the
3rd Radio Research Unit, a unit dedicated to tracking and locating the
adversary. He lost his life in December of 1961, when he and his South
Vietnamese PRD-1 team were ambushed just outside of Cau Xang. SP4
Davis is believed to have been the first American soldier killed in
combat during the Vietnam War.  SP4 Davis' name is engraved on the
NSA/CSS Cryptologic Memorial Wall. The wall, dedicated in 1996, lists
the names of 153 Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine, and civilian
cryptologists who have made the ultimate sacrifice, "serving in
silence," in the performance of their duties since World War II.
The National Security Agency/Central Security Service Cryptologic
Memorial honors and remembers those who gave their lives, "serving in
silence," in the line of duty. It serves as an important reminder of
the crucial role that cryptology plays in keeping the United States
secure and of the courage of these individuals to carry out their
mission at such a dear price.  The wall, dedicated in 1996, lists 161
names of Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine, and civilian cryptologists who
have made the ultimate sacrifice.

list of names




  Laoshelo.txt,.wk1 - Losses in Laos, vietnam war


Wings (I remember roughly, this could be wrong..) 38 pilots and 60
planes were lost. Of the "saints" A4 squadron from the Oriskany, all
15 original planes were lost, and 1/3 of pilots were either captured
or killed.

Seattle PI 10-30-94 A5 10 F-14 pilots lost since 1992 in training
%%Desert Storm

Michael Gallagher 10/12/1991 sci.military: No AAVs lost in combat
3 damaged due to mines

M1 Abrams main battle tank
None were destroyed by enemy fire - even though some T-72s scored direct
Of 1,847 Army M-1s in theater
3 damaged
  1 by mine
  2 by anti-tank round
6 destroyed by M1 - only penetrations were by US 120MM guns
3 destroyed to prevent capture after damage
1 by fire

10 destroyed
8 damaged (5 mine, 3 rockets) (1 friendly fire)

M2/M3 Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle
3 destroyed by enemy fire 2 damaged 
3 damaged by mine(?)

17 destroyed by friendly fire
  15 by M1 Abrams
   1 by hellfire
   1 by TOW
   3 by M2 Bradley
Total 20 destroyed
2 M113s were also lost in friendly fire incidents.

Desert Storm Tank losses

  High tornado losses
"John T. Kwon" 

  doc913:Afdstorm.txt Desert Storm aircraft loss

  doc922,doc934:LOSS.XLS,.WK1 - Desert Storm loss spreadsheet

  \doc\95\06\f111cr.txt - DS F-111 was lost to F15 mock attack

  p. 192 "The Armoured Fist" Time Life Books 1991
  Third Armoured division:
  2 americans killed (M3 hit by T-72), 35 wounded
  4 M1 2 Bradleys lost
  10,000 Iraqis dead, initial battlefield estimate
  7 M1s hit by T-72, none disabled, no M-1 crew killed
  out of 251 M1A1. Two lost to maintenance
  No M-2 hit exploded. In incident, of 5 crew, 2 died of

\priv\95\20\m1loss.txt of 20 M1s lost, only 5 due to combat


  doc922:iraqdead.txt - iraqi dead

  portal.612 - bomber harris and WWII british bomber loss rate

@@Lun Ekranoplane
inside outside photos


"Combat Aircraft" vol 7 No. 8 p. 16 Marines spent too much on STOVL in
the 1970s. It cost them the Tomcat, and now does not leave them
funding for the super hornet. Another sacrifice was the Apache
Robert F. Dorr


The missle index


The ALCM started as the SCAD subsonic cruise armed decoy to replace
the quail with something worth shooting down, then the forgot about
the whole decoy idea, they came up with something the same size as
the SRAM, later it was made longer to compete with the Navy's
tomahawk, and it won in a flyoff as the USAF standard cruise missle,
only the long version remains in service.

Boeing missle history

Boeing home page

CALCM is conventional GPS guided version of long ALCM-B
The B-52 can carry 20.

Surplus ALCM-B's are converted by Boeing by adding a Global
Positioning System (GPS) satellite receiver, interface electronics
and a high- explosive warhead. The completed missiles are about two
feet in height, 21 feet long, weigh about 3,250 pounds and carry the
U.S. Air Force designation AGM-86C. 

Full-scale production began in 1980. By 1986 Boeing had built 1,739
missiles at its Space Center in Kent, Wash., and delivered them to
the Air Force. 


Stinger missles on a turret with 50 cal machine gun on a Hummer

 The Bullpup, a rocket-powered, radio-control guided, 250-pound bomb,
was used from the outset of Rolling Thunder. Its small warhead,
however, was totally inadequate against North Vietnamese bridges.23

%%Hawk (Raytheon)

Short-Medium range radar guided anti-aircraft missle, equivalent to
SAM-3 or SAM-6. Hawk was the original missle that shot down another
tactical ballistic missle back in the 60s.

 USMC guy page

Never fired by US troops. The cost per missile is $250,000; per fire
unit, $15 million; and per battery, $30 million
Jun 67 The first combat firings of U.S. Army missiles occurred during
the Six Day War, when Israeli troops downed several Egyptian jets with
HAWK missiles.  Kuwaiti air defense units equipped with U.S. HAWK
antiaircraft missiles downed about 22 Iraqi aircraft and one combat
helicopter during the invasion of 2 August 1990.

%%Hound Dog North American

Mach 2 air breathing cruise missle deployed on USAF B-52s during 
early 1960s.

%%Patriot (Raytheon)

Raytheon page
Has animated gif of ballistic missle kill!


Slow air breathing radar decoy for B-52 1960s.


Medium range radar guided missle. Semi-active guidance needs
illumination from the launch aircaft. Originally developed by the Navy
in the 1950, semi-recessed mounts built into F-4, F-14, F-15 and F-18.
To be replaced by fire and forget AMRAAM.

Sparrows shot down most of targets in Desert Storm, where the
Sidewinder was preferred in Vietnam. In Vietnam, sparrows had tubes
electronics which were sensitive to shocks from speed bumps, and
missles were only launched with visual confirmation, whereas in DS,
AWACS provided confirmation and missles were often launched at beyond
visual range.

"China Builds on Russian Adder" Aviation Week June 3, 2002 China
initially tried to address its BVR needs by reverse-engineering the
AIM-7 Sparrow in a program designated PL-10. Proved unsuccessful.
Deal with Italians Aspide fell through after 1989 Tianamen.

Desert Storm performance

%%SRAM AGM-69 Short Range Attack Missle by Boeing

Withdrawn by 1990s. A product of Boeing in the late 1960s, these were
bomber equivalent of MIRV, replacing air-breathing Hound Dog cruise
missles. These short 100+ mile range missles carried a nuclear
warhead.  They could fly a ground-hugging or semi-ballistic profile,
were virtually impossible to shoot down before the advent of the
slower, longer range ALCM The FB-111 carried six, the B-52 could carry
20 or so under wing racks, and these were the original reason for
rotary launchers now found on the B-52, B-1 and B-2. Later, longer
racks were developed for longer ALCMs, which had been sized for SRAM.

Boeing history


Latest version of man-portable man-launched ir anti-aircraft missle

USMC guy

%%Sukoi T-4 (Mach 3 B-70 Clone)


Bendix SAM-N-6/RIM-8 Talos by Andreas Parsch 
Ramjet powered anti-aircraft missle credited with 3 Mig kills in
Vietnam. First flight 1951, service 1959 - 1979

@@missle silo

\priv\95\14\misssilo.txt - living in a missle silo


Roco makes plastic models

Really good 1/105th scale cast 

Quality Castings 15mm miniatures, 
plus 6-20 painted


P-108B bomber

z63\clipim\2003\03\11\p108\p108.htm  p108.jpg
4 engine heavy bomber looks like B-17
Unusual mounting of remote control turrets on wing engines


Jane's Pictures of the Week

@@PT Boat


Eroni Kumana's and Biuki Gasa's Account of saving Kennedy and crew
In 1961 Premiere Theater presented "Seven Against The Sea", a superb
World War Two drama about a resourceful group of stranded American PT
boat crewmen hiding out on a South Pacific island controlled by the
Japanese Navy.

When an American lieutenant parachutes onto the island, the group's
commander, Skipper McHale (Ernest Borgnine) is forced to make a choice
- risk certain death to attack the Japanese and save American lives or
continue life on the island where they've carved out a slice of

The island natives provide some comedy relief, but for the most part
the story is played straight - you wouldn't expect the McHale of the
sixties' sitcom to choke a guy like he does here! '

In many ways "Seven Against The Sea" is familiar to the sitcom it
inspired. The lieutenant discovers McHale and his men living in
relative luxury, with subservient native girls, pearl diving - they
even run a moonshine still with a thriving business selling homemade
liquor to the natives.

Instead of playing all of this strictly for laughs, these
circumstances provide the moral conflict at the center of the drama.
McHale is forced to reconcile his love of country and sense of duty
with the overwhelming grief of seeing so many of his men killed in the
conflict that left them stranded.

Despite the budgetary restraints inherent in early TV, this production
did an excellent job of building to a rousing action climax on the sea
- helped immeasurably by the exceptional talents of Ernest Borgnine
and a strong musical score by John Williams ('Star Wars').

It’s PT 90210—check it out.  PT 109 is a 1963 dramatization of
President John F. Kennedy’s experiences serving in the military during
World War II. Beverly Hills 90210 was a prime time teen drama about a
group of high schoolers in Beverly Hills; it ran from 1990-2000.

PT Barnum
 The Minnow Found Again

    * Print
    * Single-Page
    * Save

Article Tools Sponsored By
Published: January 26, 2003

By Tom Carson.
342 pp. New York:
Picador. $25.


The somewhat portentous ''Skipper's Tale'' brings together the PT-109 and the PT-73 of ''McHale's Navy.''

Leslie Martinson
Boston born and bred, onetime newspaper journalist Leslie H. Martinson settled down in Hollywood in 1936, accepting a long-term job as an MGM script clerk. He eased into directing with a handful of inexpensive TV western series in the early 1950s, then made his big-screen directorial bow in Republic's The Atomic Kid, a lumpy Mickey Rooney vehicle. Most of Martinson's subsequent features were equally second-rate, though not all were treated as such by distributors. The director's PT 109 (1963), Batman (1966) and Fathom (1967), low-budgeters all, were promoted as "A" features on the basis of their topicality (John F. Kennedy was still in the White House when PT 109 was released), trendiness (Batman was the hottest TV series of 1966) and star power (Fathom had Raquel Welch; enough said). Martinson's final theatrical film was Mrs. Pollifax: Spy (1971), which also served as the cinematic swan song of Rosalind Russell. Thereafter, Leslie H. Martinson became one of the busiest TV-movie purveyors, directing such small-screen esoterica as Rescue From Gilligan's Island (1978) and the Gary Coleman vehicles The Kid With the Broken Halo (1982) and The Kid With the 200 IQ (1983). Hal Erickson


Jennifer Lagier []
What's a White Mouse?  White Mice was "common slang" when I was in Viet Nam.
I defined the term in the poem, leaving the reader to fill in the blanks.
The South Vietnamese Police looked like "white mice" in their white
uniforms.  I never saw just one mouse. I saw them only in pairs.  They
looked like caricatures, cartoon characters. As a military historian, you
are probably familiar with the derogatory term "gook."  Senator McCain is.
It was handed down from the Korean War.  But I don't know the derivation of
White Mice. I know it was used in 1967 and 1968 when I was in Viet Nam. 


US Army Recruiting - Recruiting piece with
teeny pictures, ad copy "Adventure!"


SciAm June 2000
M16 67 coun 8m made 6.4 lb
FAL 94 coun 5-7m made 9.5 lb
G3 64 coun 7m made 9.7 lb
ak47  coun 78 35-50m made 9.5 lb

%%AK-47: Most successful rifle of all time

Standard soviet automatic rifle, patterned after German weapon built
around shortened version of 7.62 round. Compared to M-16, lower tech,
less accurate, but cheap, powerful, and indestructible. Perhaps the
biggest killer of people of all time, ranks just above the RPG as best
communist weapon of all time.

100 MILLION MOST PRODUCED RIFLE IN HISTORY Happy 60th birthday to the deadliest
gun in history By Mike Hanlon June 7, 2007 PDT Happy 60th birthday to
the deadliest gun in history No-one knows how many AK-47s have been
made - a patent was never applied for, so it has been copied by
numerous small arms manufacturers across the world since it came into
being this weekend, sixty years ago. One estimate puts the number of
Kalashnikov AK-47s manufactured at 100 million, making it by far the
most populous rifle in history. 
astoundingly, of the 100 million made, 30 million are still in service
in the harshest environment of all. That equally qualifies the gun as
delivering the highest levels of misery and wasted humanity of any
invention in history. Like the spear, bow and arrow, sword and earlier
incarnations of the rifle, the AK-47 has been the dominant military
weapon responsible for nearly all changes of sovereignty.

Most successful (and harmful) automatic rifle of all time?
"In terms of effectiveness, the weapon we're looking at is quite
probably responsible for more deaths than any other individual model
of weapon in human history. Sixty years after it was first launched,
this weapon still kills around a quarter of a million people every
year.  Beyond that, it has truly changed the course of human history
in so many different conflicts that we hardly have time to discuss

"It needed to match the Sturmgewehr's light weight and fast, automatic
fire. It needed to be cheap and simple to manufacture. And perhaps
above all, it needed to be capable of functioning reliably in the
incredibly difficult and diverse conditions of Russian warfare; you
had to be able to shoot, strip and clean it with gloves on. It needed
to work wet, dry, full of mud or sand. It needed to operate with wide
enough tolerances such that its metal could expand and contract
between the icy Russian winter and the warm summer, and the gun would
still operate. Kalashnikov made his first sketches right there in his
hospital bed."

"if you put the AK-47 up against the vast majority of American
firearms, it looks like it comes up short on paper. It's well known to
be wildly inaccurate due to its wide manufacturing tolerances and poor
sighting equipment. If you watch one being fired in slow-motion, you
can see the whole thing bending and flexing around with each shot, it
looks like it's just about to fall apart - and that adds to the recoil
effect, making it even less accurate if you're holding the trigger
down in full-automatic machine gun mode"

The AK-47's lack of accuracy could almost be seen as an advantage in
this kind of war theater; every group of shots gives a wider spray
than with a more accurate gun; you've got a better chance of hitting

It's like the Volkswagen Beetle of firearms.

designed to be completely operable and field-strippable in thick
winter gloves, Mikhail Kalashnikov designed it to be exceptionally
easy to use, clean and assemble. You can take a person off the street
anywhere in the world, sit them down, and teach them how to own and
operate an AK-47

you'd almost certainly find that the AK-47 has killed more people that
any other weapon in history - and its horrifying tally is showing no
signs of slowing down.



Destroyers Online
Greyhound Navy - Spruance Class
Destroyer Index
Haze Gray and Underway - Best naval site?
Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships Online
The Riverine Navy in Vietnam
PBR for sale! $6500 hull only needs motor


Riverine Patrol Boat

Craft featured in Apocalypse now, fast waterjet powered fiberglass
gun boat.

History Channel Video about PBR's
Great Ships: Vietnam Gunboats AAE-40066 $19.95 Among the many
problems America faced in Vietnam was how to control the over 3,000
miles of rivers, canals and waterways the enemy used as vital supply
and transportation links. The most important weapon in this battle
was the gunboat—fiberglass-hulled, fast and maneuverable, they were
perfect for patrolling the dangerous waters. 

@@SU-27 Flanker
@@SU-33 Flanker
Air power australia 7/25/2009
Sukhoi Flanker vs the Super Hornet 
In assessing the Flanker against the Super Hornet it is clear from the
outset that the advantage in firepower, speed, raw agility, range and
manoeuvre performance goes to the Flanker.

High speed turning performance, where thrust limited, also goes to the
Flanker, as does supersonic manoeuvre performance. The Super Hornet is
severely handicapped by its lower combat thrust/weight ratio, and
hybrid wing planform

In terms of combat radius performance the Flanker outperforms the
Super Hornet, even with the latter carrying external tanks. There is
no substitute for clean internal fuel. The Flanker's radar aperture is
twice the size of the Hornet family apertures, due to the larger nose
cross section

In summary, the Flanker outperforms the Super Hornet decisively in
aerodynamic performance. What advantage the Super Hornet now has in
the APG-79 radar will vanish in coming years as Russian AESAs emerge.
The one area in which the Flanker currently trails the Super Hornet is
in radar signature (stealth) performance. The Super Hornet has inlet
geometry shaping, inlet tunnel S-bends, and an AESA shroud all of
which reduce its forward sector signature well below that of the

the Flanker in all current variants kinematically outclasses the Super
Hornet in all high performance flight regimes. The only near term
advantage the latest Super Hornets have over legacy Flanker variants
is in the APG-79 AESA and radar signature reduction features, an
advantage which will not last long given highly active ongoing Russian
development effort in these areas. The supercruising Al-41F engine
will further widen the performance gap in favour of the Flanker. What
this means is that post 2010 the Super Hornet is uncompetitive against
advanced Flankers in BVR combat, as it is now uncompetitive in close



\doc\web\98\06\scorp.txt From: David Blomstrom 
GeoNews Thursday, May 21, 1998 Nuclear Submarines In "The USS
Scorpion: Mystery of the Deep"(Seattle Post-Intelligencer, May 21,
1998), Ed Offley reports on the submarine that was lost on May 22,
1968. In fact, three-and-a-half pages are devoted to the thirty-year
old mystery. 

@@tanks see @@armour



1990s IDF conversion of T-55 tank to APC, widely used in 2002


%%BM-21 Grail (Hail)

122-mm Multiple Rocket Launcher

The 122mm 40-tube multiple launch rocket system Grad (Hail), with a
firing range of up to 20 km, was introduced into operational service
with the Russian Army in 1963 [and initially designated in the West
as the M1964]. The BM-21 is unquestionably the world’s most widely
used MRL.


GMC Amphibious truck common in WWII, now used as tour buses.
Succeeded by LARC which are also going out of service.
Z46\CLIPIM\2000\11\16\DUKW\DUKW.HTM a 2.5-ton, six-wheel amphibious
truck used during amphibious operations in World War II by the U.S.
Army and Marine Corps. Its primary use was to ferry ammunition,
supplies, and equipment from supply ships in transport areas offshore
to supply dumps and fighting units at the beach. 

%%Jeep / Military Trucks

   Model            Dates       Civilian   Distinguishing Feature
   --------------   ---------   --------   --------------------------
   VW Kuebelwagen   1939-1945   VW Thing   Two wheel drive.
   MB/GPW           1941-1945   CJ2A       Sunken headlights.
   M38              1950-1953   CJ3A       Bulging headlights.
   M606*            1950-1964   CJ3B       Headlights above fenders.
   M38A1            1952-1971   CJ5        Rounded fenders.
   M422*            1960-1969   none       Mighty Mite: small.
   M151  (Mutt)     1960-1983   none       Horizontal slats in grill.
   Iltis            1977-       none       "Amphibious" looking.
   M998* (HMMWV)    1980-       Hummer     Huge.


Successor to DUKW

z46\clipim\2000\11\16\larc\larc.htm Its tires
are nine-feet high; each has a 220-horsepower engine connected to it.
It’s 61-feet long and can hold 60 tons of cargo or up to 125 troops
fully loaded for combat. After loading up off shore, holding up to
four 20-foot containers stacked two high, they can use those big,
nine-foot high tires to drive right up onto the beach to be unloaded.

%%M270 MLRS Tracked Rocket Launcher (based on M-2 chassis)

Evans Sutherland computer model

%%M728 Armoured Engineering Vehicle (Modified M60A1 with


%%M978 Oshkosh

The Oshkosh HEMMT "Hemmit" or "Dragon Wagon" is the hummer of heavy
trucks. The Marines use an articulated version, and there are airport
fire truck versions as well. There is a basic cargo version, tanker,
bridge layer, patriot and air defence launcher versions. It has also
been adapted to sanitation, airport firefighting, and the Phoenix
off-road firetruck, carries 2500 gallons of water with 2 70 gal tanks
of foam concentrate.

"Oshkosh Phoenix: Waterworld meets Backdraft. In the Dirt" John
Phillips Car and Driver April 1997 p. 148 F043097

M978 HEMMT 8x8 tanker truck computer model by Evans Sutherland


Microarmour listing

M977 HEMMT cargo hi-mobility by Oshkosh
Oshkosh Mk 48 Dragon Wagon--$5.50 

TALERI 1/35th Armor
                 M977 Hemit 

Bridge Transporter
Cab and Remote Control of LHS 
2 Speed LHS 
20,000 lb. Payload 
8x8 Configuration 
48 in. Fording Capability 
60% Grade 
445 hp DDC Engine

handling system


Vehicle Manufacturer: Oshkosh Truck Corporation


     Length: 410" w/Flatrack
     Height: Operational 112", Transport 102" - All 
     Width: 96" - All 
     Wheelbase: 210" 
     Turning Circle: 100' 
     Ground Clearance: 24"


     Maximum Speed: 57 mph Governed - All 
     Crusing Range: 300 mi. @ Gross Vehicle Weight Rating - All 
     Maximum Grade: 60% 
     Approach Angle: 41 deg. 
     Departure Angle: 45 deg. 
     Side Slope: 30% 
     Maximum Fording Depth: 48" 

Equipment Specifications: 

     Cab: Crew Seating: 2 Man 
     Seat Design: Fore/Aft Adjustable 
     Steering Type: Dual Gear With Integrated Hydraulic Power Assist 

     Engine: Manufacturer: Detroit Diesel Allison 
     Model: 8V92TA 
     Type: 8 cylinder, 2-stroke, V-type Diesel 
     Rating: 450 hp, @ 2100 rpm 
     Fuel: Diesel, DF-2, JP-4, JP-8, VV-F-800 
     Oil: 30 qt. With Filter (MIL-L-2104D, MIL-L-46167) 
     Cooling System: 80 qt., Water, Radiator 
     Fan: Engine-driven, Clutch Type 

     Transmission: Manufacturer: Allison, Automatic 
     Model: HT740D 
     Speeds: 4 Speeds Forward/ 1 Reverse 
     Oil: 38 qt. With Filter 

     Transfer: Manufacturer: Oshkosh Truck Corporation, 55000 
     Type: Air Operated, Front Tandem Disconnect 
     Oil: 6.5 qt. 

     Axles: Manufacturer: Front Tandem - Oshkosh Truck Corporation/Eaton; Rear Tandem - Eaton 
     No. 1: RS480 
     No. 2: DS480-P 
     No. 3: DS480-P 
     No. 4: RS480 
     Front Axle Steering Angle: 32 deg. 
     Oil: Front Tandem - 17.5 qt.; Rear Tandem - 21.5 qt. 

     Wheels: Type: Disk 
     Quantity: 8 ea. 
     Spare Tire: 1 ea. 
     Rim Size: 20x10 
     Stud Quantity: 10 per Wheel 

     Tires: Type: Radial With Tube 
     Quanity: 8 ea. 
     Spare: 1 ea. 
     Tread Type: Radial Traction, Non-directional 
     Size: 16:00x20

     Brakes: Air-activated, Internal Expansion - All

     Electrical System: Alternator: Engine Driven: EMI/RFI Suppressed, Waterproof 
     Rating Standard: 65 Amp 
     Batteries: 4 ea., 12v Connected in Series Parallel 
     Voltage: 24v 

     Self-Recovery Winch: Manufacturer: DP Manufacturing 
     Model: 20K-HEMTT 
     Wire Rope Diameter: 9/16" 
     Wire Rope Length: 200' 
     Line Pull - 1st Layer: (With 5 Wraps Minimum): 20,000 lb. 
     Line Pull - 2nd Layer: 18,173 lb. 
     Line Pull - 3rd Layer: 16,663 lb. 
     Line Pull - 4th Layer: 15,361 lb. 
     Line Pull - 5th Layer: 14,254 lb. 

Picture with shadow

HEMMT Programs -
fueler, wrecker, etc with lots of pictures and specs


@@Vietnam War

Comentary Sunday, November 22, 2009
Misplaced Viet lessons
A tactical defeat; arguably a strategic victory

By 1972, the (well overdue) Vietnamization process had withdrawn all
U.S. ground forces in Vietnam except advisers. However, we still
provided air, naval and logistics support. In 1972, about 200
Americans were killed in action as opposed to an average of about
7,000 in previous years. With its Viet Cong forces defeated, Hanoi
decided in 1972 to test Vietnamization by launching its largest
conventional offensive of the war. This Easter Offensive employed the
equivalent of 23 divisions equipped with hundreds of Soviet-supplied
tanks, long-range artillery and rockets, surface-to-air missiles and
other modern weapons. South Vietnamese ground forces, ARVN (army) and
marines, with U.S. air, naval and logistics support, stopped the
offensive and launched counteroffensives, inter alia recapturing the
enemy's strongest position, Quang Tri near North Vietnam. 

If they couldn't hold Quang Tri, what could they have held? This
offensive cost North Vietnam nearly 100,000 killed in action, twice
the number U.S. troops suffered in the entire war. After Hanoi's 1975
victory, a former top commander in the South, Gen. Tran Van Tra,
revealed in the party organ Nhan Dan that, in effect, his troops were
on the ropes and close to defeat by 1972's end. As former CIA Director
William Colby wrote in his 1983 book "Lost Victory," "On the ground in
South Vietnam the war had been won" by the fall of 1972

We then proceeded to snatch defeat from the jaws of victory by
prematurely concluding the Paris "Peace Accords," which left North
Vietnamese troops in South Vietnam. As North Vietnamese Chief of Staff
Gen. Van Tien Dung later wrote, "The [Paris] agreement represented a
big victory for our people and a big defeat for the U.S. imperialists
and their lackeys."  After this, Congress reduced U.S. military aid to
South Vietnam by nearly 70 percent and then banned all U.S. military
operations in Indochina. This decisively contributed to South
Vietnam's defeat in 1975. A Gen. Dung put it, "The decrease in
American aid made it impossible for Saigon troops to carry out their
combat and force development plans." 


Before there was stealth, there was V/STOL and swing wings... V/STOL: The First Half-Century
by Michael J. Hirschberg, ANSER
The V/STOL Encyclopedia Series

%%MV-22 Osprey

First mass produced VTOL Tilt Rotor transport, encountering some
problems before putting it into operational use.

Cost $85 million each

z40\clipim\2000\04\12\v22.efx Clip Osprey's wings and stop production
Lawrence J.Korb Seattle Post Intell.  Ap 12, 2000

Fox news First production line tiltrotor aircraft lands at Pentagon 
September 9, 1999
The Marines plan to have 360 of the MV-22s by 2013. The Air Force is
expected to order 50 of another version, the CV-22, and the Navy is
acquiring 48 HV-22Bs. 
The House has approved $856 million to buy 11 next year
can achieve speeds over 400 mph and an altitude of 25,000 feet. It is
designed to carry up to 24 troops or external loads of 15,000 pounds.
It can fly 2,000 miles and land on a dime

Aviation International News Online
These aircraft will be assembled over the next 14 years for an
estimated flyaway cost of some $50 million each vs $30 million per
aircraft estimated when the program was first canceled by the Bush
Administration back in 1989

Gulf War info and photo gallery.

\doc\95\06\milweb.txt - may 95 list of military web sites
\doc\95\11\milweb.txt - aug 95

			The Military WWW/FTP Sites List

Last revised: May. 12, '95.

Descriptions of sites in this list were made from brief glances, so
they are by no means complete; they are also possibly wrong. Problems 
and inconsistencies probably stem from my relative inexperience with
ftp and WWW sites and operations. Contributions are welcome, and can be
made to

The list itself has been put at

with links to the listed sites. Thanks, Tom Kimpton!!!

BTW, there are a number or sites here that I could not connect to for 
various reasons. If anyone manages to connect to anything I haven't 
been able to, please e-mail me and say so. Alternatively, I would also 
appreciate people informing me if they could not connect as well. This 
will allow me to keep track of sites that have shut down or whatnot, and 
to trim the list.

In <> brackets, name of caretaker of site. (I hope)


Aviation related sites

FTP sites

Aviation pictures.

WWW sites
Seems to be WWW counterpart of the above ftp site. Take your pick. - points to
Lots of links to sites, among other things. 
: Pics.
All sorts of neat NASA stuff etc.
Didn't work on mine, maybe others can access it.
USAF server.
List of all military aircraft ever, various links to picture sites,
naval/aircraft stuff.
Connection to various aviation sites.



Groom Lake:
Recently address above.
GPS explained in detail, with various links.  
: aircraft and other various images
Links to Scott AFB, Illinois, and others.
Various USAF stuff.  
JAST info: joint US-UK agreement for building aircraft">
HQ AFC4A World Wide Web Server
Covers Belgian and US air force info.
Time limits are supposed to be gone; if not, it is only accessible 
between 1300-0800 Central European time, which is, I think, about 
5 hours ahead of AST, and 6 ahead of EST.
C-2 Greyhound pics.
: Some aircraft pics.
Dept of the Air Force home page.
Has photos (small) of aircraft  
 RAF stuff

Space Stuff
Naval centre space research.
Johnson Space Center - with over 9000 pix of any and all spaceflights!

Navy Stuff
Various naval stuff, connects to NavyOnline. 
>>or seems to be a related ftp site<<
Lots of ship lists and descriptions.
NPS Joint C4I Systems Home Page
NCCOSC Home Page
US Navy Supply Systems Command
It timed out on me.
Fleet Material Supply Office
Ships Parts Control Center
This site is still under construction, not working yet.
Warfighting Support Directorate
I couldn't get the above html, but I connected to the site.
Naval Wargaming Review
Again, I couldn't connect.
Has info about a Swedish landing boat. Site caretaker would 
like additional info, including anything Jane's might have.          
NAWC-WD China Lake
Naval Architecture and Maritime Engineering firm.
Many links.
University of Pennsylvania ROTC homepage

Military: General stuff
Electronic version of the Journal of Electronic Defense, which focuses on
Electronic Warfare, Command & Control Warfare, Intelligence, Simulation,
direction finding, surveillance, reconnaissance, etc...
: AC Carrier list, Tom Clancy faq and others from 
various newsgroups, various Naval stuff.  
: Connection to various things, some military, some not.
Info on Sweden's military. 
DoD Acqusition Workforce Home Page
DefenseLink -- OSD Public Affairs
ITSI World Wide Web Service
JWID '95 Home Page  
The Electronic Headquarters for the Acquisition of War Knowledge
>>or try (mirror site)<<
Several hundred megs of military history files and pictures from
many different eras.  
>>or maybe<<
Various  histories  and lists from all services, some Vietnam info,
and an assortment of pictures. My system tells me it is an unknown
This is the Swedish Defence Materiel Administration (FMV) home page.
Home Page for US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine 
(USACHPPM), located at the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground.  
Links to information on preventive medicine, industrial hygiene, 
occupational health, entomology, etc.
Hazardous and Medical Waste Program of USACHPPM.  Information on 
hazardous materials, hazardous waste, information papers, Air Force 
PRO-ACT information, links to the DENIX (Defense ENvironmental 
Information eXchange) system and other environmental Internet sites.
Entomological Sciences Division of USACHPPM.  Pest Management Bulletins, 
Federal Register releases, EPA press releases and many other great links 
to entolomogy resources on the net.

Various Stuff
SAR site, currently under construction and looking for material. 
I couldn't connect.
Connection to various WWW/gopher sites. (US users asked to use US mirror)
>>or anonymous ftp at<<
Image finder for Washington University, St. Louis archive site (last time
someone checked, had around 3000+ images of anything and everything)
Recently declassified satelite photos.
Model info (various), good 'til mid-May '95.
IWR IntelWeb - The site contains numerous documents on intelligence
agencies from around the world and will eventually include audio and visual
files. Access to the site is free. Back issues of the Federation of American
Scientist's Secrecy & Government Bulletin will be archived at the site.
IWR's Daily Updates will be placed on the site at a two week delay.
Access to UK Defence Research Agency WWW server at Malvern, plus
other defence related links.      
Almost all other gov. pages in america.
International Relations and Politics
or  in /pub/trader
Deals with excessive military secrecy.

@@Yamato Battleship

%%Battle off samar
At any rate at 0658 Battleship Division 1 opened fire with its forward
guns at a range of 31 kilometers..." (Report by VADM Matome Ugaki,
IJN, Commander Battleship Division One, HIJMS Yamato.) 

"At about 0700 it was said that there were six carriers. From 0706 we
advanced generally on an easterly course and employed our secondary
guns at the enemy who appeared from behind the smoke. It was generally
about this time that one carrier ( White Plains) was sunk, one carrier
( St Lo) was heavily damaged, one cruiser ( Heol ) was sunk, etc.


Yamato the Ultimate Battleship Battleship Yamato's main guns Yamato's
nine main guns, mounted in three turrets, were the largest to ... They
also could strike at an unprecedented range of 25 miles (40 km ...

@@wierd aircraft
Strange Aircraft Thoughout History

Jeez, but we've come up with some weird airplanes. I've collected the
ones that look or act strange to me on these pages. Some of these gave
their pilot's pause and others should have, but others have gone on to
long, if unattractive, careers of great success.