Top of Index

Law, and Lawyers

How do lawyers, judges, juries and law school students compare by racial proportionality? It's all right here.

Blacks are Under-represented.. Except for Affirmative Action

Blacks and Hispanics are generally under-represented, but in certain politcal categories such as judge appointments, affirmative action law school students, and new professor hires, they aren't underrepresented at all but the Asians are.

Admissions by Elite Law Schools Has No Effect Profession Representation

Note that since in all law schools, black are only half of their population, any attempt by the top schools to admit by proportions equalling parity has absolutely no effect on under-representation of the entire pool.

Asians Used to Be Under-Represented.. But Not for Long

Asians are under-represented as judges and partners. They used to be under-represented as associates and law students. However, since the 1990s, Asians are now over-represented as law students and associates, even though there is much evidence that Asian students still receive preferential admissions at institutions like Stanford, and the LSAT profile shows Asians have a slight advantage in admissions rates for less than perfect LSATs.

Contents

Structure guide
@@subtopic

Law Proportionality Spectrum

Summary of Law Representation, Ranked by Asian Representation
White = 1.00, 1/2 = -2.00 white rate.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
(9) 94 U Wash Law School Admit   W (0.74)1.0#B  2.9 H  1.2  A  9.6 vs. WA
  - shows U Wash likely gave preferences to Asians
(16) UCLA ad rate at black avg   W       1.0 B 71.3 H 50.8  A  4.7 
  - shows Asians with poor scores still 5x admit rate of whites at ucla
(16)UCLA apps > 94.5 LSAT Pct    W       1.0 B-29.6 H -4.7  A  4.2 
(7) 93 Stanford Law School       W (0.67)1.0 B 1.7  H 4.7   A  3.8
  - shows Stanford likely gave preferences to Asians
(4) O.J. Prospective jury        W       1.0#B 2.1  H-2.3  *A  1.8
US law schools 1995-96           W 1.0       B-2.0  H-2.4   A  1.6  N 1.60
(10) LSAT 93-94 Law School Appl  W (1.07)1.0 B-1.4  H-2.1   A  1.6  N1.1                        
Natl Law Journ 250 1998          W       1.0 B-3.8  H-4.8   A  1.3
(8) LSAT 1988-89 top 1.5%        W       1.0 B-12.5 H-6.7   A  1.2
(13) 88 Priv Pract Salary        W       1.0#B 1.11 H1.00   A  1.2  N-1.01
(13) 88 New Lawyer Salary        W       1.0#B-1.03 H1.00   A  1.2  N-1.05
(8) LSAT 1988-89 applicant       W (1.10)1.0 B-2.3  H-5.3   A  1.0
-------------------- asian parity -----------------------------------------
US law schools 1980-81           W  1.0      B-3.1  H-3.1   A -1.1  N-1.67
(1) Clinton Judge appointments   W       1.0#B 2.0  H-1.4  *A<-1.3
(12)86-87 Law degrees            W (1.18)1.0 B-3.0  H-3.9	A -1.4 N-1.18
(8) CA Bar Passing vs. pop       W       1.0 B-1.2  H-4.4  *A -1.6
(7) US associates '93            W (1.2) 1.0 B -3.7 H -3.7  A -1.7 (BH together)
(11) US Law Associates '89       W (1.24)1.0 B -6.6 H-8.6   A -1.9
(14) Law School Teachers         W	     1.0 B -2.1 H -3.0 *A -2.7 N-3.2
(11)All lawyers '89              W (1.3) 1.0 B -8.7 H-11.4  A -2.8
(1) US Judge appointments        W       1.0 B -2.3 H-2.9  *A -5.2
(2) CA judge CA Bar survey       W (1.61)1.0 B -6.0 H-14   *A -5.2
(11)US Partners '89              W (1.29)1.0 B-16.8 H-24.2  A -7.0
(7) US partners                  W (1.3) 1.0 B-11.3 H-11.3  A ??.? (BH together)
(5) Los Angeles Grand Jury       W (1.69)1.0#B-1.1  H-8.9  *A -7.8
(7) SF associates                W (1.8) 1.0 B -3.6 H -3.6JFIFLEAD Technologies Inc. V1.01C1"%+%1+(+741:J|PJDDJlrY|ժLEAD Technologies Inc. V1.01	
(7) SF associates                W (1.8) 1.0 B -3.6 H -3.6 *A -8.6 (BH together)
(5) Los Angeles Sworn Jurors     W (1.97)1.0 B-1.7  H-17.1 *A -9.3
(7) SF Corp Law                  W (1.8) 1.0#B  1.2 H -5.5 *A -9.7 N NA
(7) large SF associate           W (1.8) 1.0 B -3.7 H -3.7 *A-11.5 N 1.6
(7) SF partners                  W (2.0) 1.0 B-10.8 H-10.8 *A-23.6 (BH together)
(7) large SF partner             W (2.0) 1.0 B-13.7 H-15.2 *A-46.3 N-2.6
(3) O.J. trial jury              W (0.45)1.0#B12.9  H-1.4  *A <2.0


(15) New lawyer teach hires      W(0.99) 1.0#B  1.1 female -1.03
(15) New lawyer teach candidate  W(1.13) 1.0 B -1.8 female -1.6
Figure compiled by Arthur Hu, 1990-98

Ranked by black
doc\95\13\lawrank.wk1 - Law ranked
Figure compiled by Arthur Hu, 1990-95

(16) UCLA admit rate at black avg  B  71.3 H  50.8 A 4.7
(3) O.J. trial jury                B  12.9 H  -1.4 A <2.0
(9) 94 U Wash Law School Admit     B   2.9 H   1.2 A   9.6
(4) O.J. Prospective jury          B   2.1 H  -2.3 A   1.8
(1) Clinton Judge appointments     B   2.0 H  -1.4 A <-1.3
(15) Law teach hire/candidate      B   1.9 H   1.9
(17) 91 Stanford Law School        B   1.7 H   4.7   A  3.8
(7) SF Corp Law                    B   1.2 H  -5.5 A  -9.7
(13) 88 Priv Pract Salary          B   1.1 H   1.0 A   1.2
(15) New lawyer teach hires        B   1.1
(13) 88 New Lawyer Salary          B  -1.0 H   1.0 A   1.2
(5) Los Angeles Grand Jury         B  -1.1 H  -8.9 A  -7.8
----------- parity ----------------------------------------
(8) CA Bar Passing vs. pop         B  -1.2 H  -4.4 A  -1.6
(10) LSAT 93-94 Law School Appl    B  -1.4 H  -2.1 A   1.6
(7) 93 Stanford Law School         B  -1.6 H   1.0 A   4.0
(5) Los Angeles Sworn Jurors       B  -1.7 H -17.1 A  -9.3
(15) New lawyer teach candidate    B  -1.8
US law schools 1995-96             B  -2.0 H-2.4   A   1.6  N 1.60
(14) Law School Teachers           B  -2.1 H  -3.0    -2.7
(8) LSAT 1988-89 applicant         B  -2.3 H  -5.3 A   1.0
(1) US Judge appointments          B  -2.3 H  -2.9 A  -5.2
(12)86-87 Law degrees              B  -3.0 H  -3.9
(7) SF associates                  B  -3.6 H  -3.6 A  -8.6
(7) US associates                  B  -3.7 H  -3.7 A  -1.7
(7) large SF associate             B  -3.7 H  -3.7 A -11.5
(2) CA judge CA Bar survey         B  -6.0 H -14.0 A  -5.2
(11) US Law Associates '89         B  -6.6 H  -8.6 A  -1.9
(11)All lawyers '89                B  -8.7 H -11.4 A  -2.8
(7) SF partners                    B -10.8 H -10.8 A -23.6
(7) US partners                    B -11.3 H -11.3 A ??.?
(8) LSAT 1988-89 top 1.5%          B -12.5 H  -6.7 A   1.2
(7) large SF partner               B -13.7 H -15.2 A -46.3
(11)US Partners '89                B -16.8 H -24.2 A  -7.0
(16)UCLA apps above 94.5 LSAT Pctl B -29.6 H  -4.7 A   4.2 

Note there are many categories where blacks exceed parity
with whites, though it may not be the rule.

(1.00) white versus population, other groups adjusted so White=1.00
*Asian worse than black
#Blacks over-represented, or nearly equal to population
2.0 means twice population (over-represented) -2.0 means 1/2 (under-represented)
< means there were 0, but 1 would result in figure shown (how small is zero)
?.?? means unavailable

sources:
1- US News and World Report 5/3/93 San Jose Mercury News 1/11/94
2- California State Bar Survey
3- Seattle Post Intelligencer
4- Medio Magazine / Associated Press
5- Los Angeles Times Oct 12, 1993 B6
7- San Francisco Bar Association \doc\95\13\sflaw.wk1
8- California State Bar
9- University of Washington Law School
10- Law School Admissions Services 
11- National Law Journal Feb 19, 1990
12- US Dept of Education 1986-87, LSAS Minority Databook
13- National Association of Law Placement
14- American Association of Law Schools
15- American Assoc of Law Schools, B=all minority
16- UCLA Law school 1993, Allan Favish. Relative chances of admission
at 70.7 black median admitted LSAT percentile test score,
representation of students at 94.5 white median LSAT percentile
17- Stanford Law School, 1991, compared to national law school applicants

In almost every field of law outside of law school students, Asians
lag blacks.


@@judge Summary: Ranked by Black represenation --------------------------------------------------------- Index 1.00 Percent% 72.3% Clinton Vs. Lawyers W1.00 B4.75 H? A-4.0 N Clinton Vs. Population W1.00 B1.60 H -1.4 A-2.2 N-1.38 W72.3% B18.8% H6.9% A1.5% N0.5% US Judges 1993 W1.00 B-2.3 H -2.9 A-5.2 W89.6% B 6.0% H 3.7% A 0.7% Calf judges W1.00 B-5.9 H-13.9 A-5.1 W91.0% B2.0% H3.0% A3.0% ============================================================== \clip\98\09\wjudge.htm http://www.ncsc.dni.us/is/MEMOS/S94-0085.htm (5/1998) The Information Service was asked to provide information regarding the number of women and racial/ethnic minority judges serving on state courts. The last comprehensive statistical data about women and racial/ethnic minority judges was collected in 1985 by the Fund for Modern Courts (see The Success of Women and Minorities in Achieving Judicial Office: The Selection Process), which revealed at that time that: 23 women served on courts of last resort, 46 women served on intermediate appellate courts, and 804 women served as judges of general and limited jurisdiction courts; 9 African-American judges served on courts of last resort, 33 African-American judges served on intermediate appellate courts, and 423 African-American judges served on general and limited jurisdiction courts; 3 Hispanic judges served on courts of last resort, 10 Hispanic judges served on intermediate appellate courts, and 137 Hispanic judges served on general and limited jurisdiction courts; 4 Pacific Islander/Asian judges served on courts of last resort, 4 Pacific Islander/Asian judges served on intermediate appellate courts, 69 Pacific Islander/Asian judges served on general and limited jurisdiction courts; 0 Native American/Native Alaskan judges served on courts of last resort, 0 Native American/Native Alaskan judges served on intermediate appellate courts, 3 Native American/Native Alaskan judges served on general and limited jurisdiction courts. CLINTON JUDGE "DIVERSITY" - BLACKS 5 TIMES GREATER THAN LAWYER POPULATION, WHITES LIMITED TO POPULATION PARITY OF 72% \images\97\14\judge.jpg (image) "Who's to judge?" US News and World Report March 17, 1997 p. 36 Reagan and Bush averaged 11.8% women and 3.2 African American Source: Alliance for Justice \doc\web\97\03\judge.wk1 Clinton Judges: Whites limited to population, Blacks over-represented \images\97\14\judge.jpg (image) "Who's to judge?" US News and World Report March 17, 1997 p. 36 Vs. Population W1.00 B1.60 H-1.41 A-2.2 N-1.38 Vs. Lawyers W1.00 B4.75 H? A-4.0 N? Cliton Judge Appointments Relative to general population Ranked by Relative Representation White=1.00 Number Percent Pop Index 38 18.8% 12.0% 1.60 Blacks 139 68.8% 50.0% 1.41 Males 52 25.7% 22.0% 1.19 B+H 146 72.3% 73.8% 1.00 Whites 1 0.5% 0.7% -1.38 American Indians 14 6.9% 10.0% -1.41 Hispanics 63 31.2% 50.0% -1.57 Females 3 1.5% 3.5% -2.31 Asian-American Blacks are the most over-represented among Clinton judges Whites are exactly at population parity = ceiling quota Blacks and Hispanics are only 6.8% of law associates in the USA according to the National Law Journal so that makes them over 3 times their lawyer representation Relative to Lawyer Population Ranked by Relative Representation White=1.00 Number Percent Lawyers Index 52 25.7% 6.8% 4.75 Black/Hispanic 146 72.3% 90.7% 1.00 Whites 1 0.5% 2.5% -4.02 Asian/AmInd 0.80 White vs. pop (2) \priv\95\09\judgwhit.txt \doc\95\13\cajudge.wk1 California State Bar Survey: Judges in California by Race w b h a judge 91.0% 2.0% 3.0% 3.0% pop 56.4% 7.4% 25.8% 9.6% rate 161.3% 27.0% 11.6% 31.3% index 1.00 -5.97 -13.88 -5.16 source: 1990 census, California State Bar Male - 74 percent White WMen 91% State Bar Survey of Lawyers 89% 77% Superior Court Judges 83% 69% Municipan Court Judges 47% office and clerical workers 57% of state population Most Judges Are White And Male, Report Finds / State panel hesitant to release findings SFC 7/20/95 \doc\web\97\03\CLINJUDG.prn (1) \doc\94\0\CLINJUDG.XLS Clinton Judge appointments DOC93B\CLINJUDG.XLS ASIAN / LAW / JUDGE Clinton's judge nominees most diverse of any presidents San Jose Mercury Jan 11, 1994 p. 12A (Los Angeles Times) Clinton nominees so far Pop Index Men 65% 50% 1.38 Women 35% 50% -1.35 White 71% 75.2% 0.94 Black 23% 12.1% 2.01 Hispanic 6% 9.0% -1.42 Asian 0% 2.9% <-1.31 2% White men 39.0% 37.6% 1.10 Minority 29.0% 24.0% 1.28 TOTAL 48 Minorities are BETTER represented than whites. Even white men are no better than parity Blacks are at twice their population Even one Asian would still be underrepresented, and there are twice as many Asian college graduates as whites. Database: US News and World Report May 3, 1993 Number of federal judges Number Percent Pop Rate White 653 89.6% 76% 1.0 Black 44 6.0% 12% -2.3 Hispanic 27 3.7% 9% -2.9 Asian 5 0.7% 3% -5.2 Total 729 100.0% 100% -1.2 White vs. Avg 1.18 Asians are least likely to be judges -5, Black -2, Hispanic -3 Asian.law.jury _jury @@jury Summary: Asians are 2nd least likely to be on jury in LA after Hisp Asians were least likely in be picked for the Simpson trial Conventional wisdom and history is that all-white juries are unfair. However Black juries appear to be just as prone to releasing assailant of Asians as Whites in the old west. "Chinaman's Chance" ================================================================= @@Bias Most Citizens would follow their own beliefs as jurors. Seattle Post Intelligencer Oct 24, 1998 p. A3 Decision Quest national trial consulting firm poll says 3/4 potentional jurors say they would follow their beliefs regardless of instructions from a judge. 17% said they could not be fair or impartial towards a gay or lesbian defendent 5% could not be fair towards a racial minority black, Hispanic or Asian @@Simpson Trial USA TODAY HAS DETAILED OJ POLL CHART "Racial chasm still wide in aftermath of Simpson Trial" f020897-1 Chart: Simpson civil trial poll results USA Today Feb 6, 1997 p. 10A (print only) ------------------------------------------------------------- SIMPSON CIVIL JURY WAS MOSTLY WHITE, CRIMINAL WAS MOSTLY BLACK http://www.usatoday.com/news/index/nns212.htm USA Today 02/05/97 Race factor tilts the scales of public opinion Criminal W2 B9 H1 A0 W16% B 75% H8.3% A0% Civil W9 B.5 H1.5 A1 W75% B8.3% H12.5% A8.3% LA County w40.8 b10.5 A10.2 H37.8 N0.3 O0.2 * Mixed black and hispanic, AP reports mixed Asian black Percent White Black Hisp Asian County 40.8% 10.5% 37.8% 10.2% Index White Black Hisp Asian Criminal 1.00 17.49 -1.85 0.00 Civil 1.00 -4.63 -8.34 -1.50 Relative to LA County, Blacks are 18 times better represented than whites in the criminal trial. In the civil trial, whites were 4 times better represented, but it was drawn from Santa Monica, where OJ lived. Rush Limbaugh reports that ABC called the civil jury "all white" It was not all white, and there were some blacks originally, and on the alternates. 10% blacks give or take one person may lead to no blacks, and still being fair. ---------------------------------------------------------------------- c:\clip\97\03\ojpoll.txt Index at http://www.usatoday.com/news/index/nns0.htm USA Today 02/05/97 Race factor tilts the scales of public opinion Poll of 400 adults after verdict Dissatisfied with case on whole White 59% Black 68% Agree with verdict White 74% Black 26% Criminal trial White 42% Black 78% Crim Race factor White 55% Black 32% Civil Race factor White 21% Black 56% Simpson did it White 75% Black 28% W+2 B+1 Simpson innocent White 14% Black 61% W-6 B-1 Brown want justice White 76% Black 45% not money Comment - this only proves that the black community is stubbornly racially biased and inclined to believe unsubstantiated conspiracy theories beyond consideration of facts ---------------------------------------------------------------------- \clip\97\03\briefoj.txt Brief Descriptions of O.J. Jury By The Associated Press Wednesday, February 5, 1997 4:36 am EST Of 12 jurors W9 B.5 H1 A1.5 W75% B8.3% H8.3% A12.5% --------------------------------------------------------------- 70% ASIANS AND BLACKS, 48% WHITES BELIEVE COURTS BIASED AGAINST MINORITIES, FAVOR 3 MINORITIES ON JURY \clip\97\03\racebias.txt The Electronic Telegraph Tuesday 28 November 1995 Home News Britons of all races say courts are biased By Hugh Muir http://www.telegraph.co.uk:80/et?ac=000208632407947&rtmo=32f1292e&atmo=32f1292e&pg=/et/95/11/28/nrace28.html BRITONS of all races believe the criminal courts are prejudiced against black and Asian defendants, according to research released today. \doc\96\02\hundmour.txt file - asian.crime.jury.unfair "Hundreds Mourn Slain Student" Asian Week Sept 8, 1995 Devon Neverdon was acquitted of murder charges against Korean American Joel Lee, a university student in Towson State University in Baltimore during a robbery two years ago. He was acquitted July 28, 1995 by a jury of 11 African Americans and 1 Pakistani. His father believes it is a repeat of unfair all-white juries in the deep south. "Federal judges here trying to change color of juries" Seattle Times Feb 13, 1996 p. A8 92% of the federal jury pool in Western Washington are white, due partly to selection from registered voters. 40% of federal sentences in Tacoma or Seattle are persons of color. \priv\95\14\juract.txt WHAT IF JURORS BECOME POLITICAL ACTIVISTS? Seattle Times (SE) - Sunday October 8, 1995 - Minority jurors convict minorities at lower rates, have let go obviously guilty people, professor advocates letting nonviolent criminals go. \priv\95\13\hundmorn.txt "Hundreds Mourn Slain Student" Asian Week Sept 8, 1995 p. 6 Devon Neverdon acquitted by 11/12 Af-Am jury despite eyewitnesses, allegedly killed Korean American Joel Lee of Towson State University. Father compares jury to biased whites in the south. ************************************************* \doc\95\13\ojpoll.txt Source: "Poll: A nation more divided" USA Today Oct 9, 1995 p. 5A Joe Urschel Most blacks believe a white jury would be biased against black, but only 18% believe a black jury would be similarly biased against a white defendent. Black jurors are more likely to convict a defendent if he is white than if he is black W36% B18% White jurors are more likely to convict a defendent if he is black than if he is white W40% B59% USA Today / Gallup Poll of 1,225 adults Sat-Thur. White +/- 4 points Black +/- 6 points ********************************************** \priv\95\14\juroract.txt - full text \priv\95\13\colrblin.doc "Color Blinded? Race Seems to Play An Increasing Role in Many Jury Verdicts - Blacks Express Skepticism Of the Justice System; Acquittals in the Bronx; The Issue of `Nullification'" Wall Street Journal Oct 4, 1995 p. 1 Benjamin A. Holden (Los Angles), Laurie P. Cohen (New York) Eleena de Lisser (Atlanta) A jury of 11 African Americans and 1 Asian aquitted Davon Neverdon who allegedly killed a Korean American despite 4 eyewitnesses, two who heard confessions, and the offer of a guilty plea in exchange for a 40 year sentence In the Bronx, 80% of jurors are Black or Hispanic. Black defendents in felony cases are acquitted 47.6% of the time, 3 times the national average of 17% for all races. Hispanics are acquitted 37.6% of the time, over double the national average. In Washington DC, 95% of defendants and 70% of jurors are Black, 28.7% of felony cases are acquitted. Wayne County which includes Black parts of Detroit aquits 30% of cases. Other noted cases included the alleged assailants of Reginald Denny, and Marion Barry who was acquitted of all but 1 of 14 counts. ******************************************************* \doc\95\12\simpjur2.txt Final OJ Simpson jury - 9 black 2 White, 1 Hispanic Blacks were 13 times better represented than Whites. "Fair" would have had 5 White 2 Black 1 Asian, 5 Hispanic Percent W16.6 B75.0 H13.3 A0.0 LA City 37.3% 13.0% 39.9% 9.2% Rate .448 5.76 .33 <1.0 Index 1.00 12.9 -1.35 <2.0 \priv\95\01\simpjur2.txt - prosepective jurors (4) \doc\95\01\prosjury.wk1 - OJ Prospective Jurors Medio Magazine / AP W1.0 B2.13 H-2.38 A1.82 "Prospective Jurors are White and Middle-Aged" Medio No. 4 1994 search for Asian and Jury 900 Jury prospects for OJ Simpson Jury White Black Hisp Asian/Other Jury 37.9% 28.1% 17.0% 17.0% LA City 37.3% 13.0% 39.9% 9.2% Rate 1.02 2.16 0.43 1.85 Index 1.00 2.13 -2.38 1.82 d:\doc\94\20\simpjur3.wk1 - Simpson Jury by Race Blacks greatly over-represented, Asians least represented main+ alternates 24T 5W 15B 3H 0A 1NA(half) W1.00(.75) B7.91 H-2.85 A0.00:-2.58 NA 18.45 : 0, but would be -2.58 even with 1 d:\doc\94\19\simpjury.wk1 - Simpson Jury Selection by Race W1.00 B8.00 H1.03 A-2.93 NA 67.67 "Questioning of blacks riles Simpson lawyers" Seattle Post Intelligencer, Oct 28, 1994 p. 3 (AP) doc931:kingjury 2nd Rodney King trial jury \doc931\kingjury.xls - Blacks nearly equal to white, but Asians and Hispanics very under-represented. "Jurors chosen for 2nd King trial" San Jose Mercury Feb 3, 1993 W1.00 B-1.13 H-8.33 A0.00 A+H-11.3 (5) doc\doc938\lajury.xls Grand jury LA Co selection Grand jury pool White Black Hispanic Asian Other 93-94 1.69 -1.05 -6.87 -7.88 -1.54 90-94 1.84 -1.52 -8.93 -7.83 1.30 Sworn Jurors 93-94 1.60 1.55 -13.90 -3.75 0.00 90-94 1.97 -1.73 -17.14 -9.25 0.00 d:\doc\94\17\ojjury.txt sjm 7/17/94 Los Angeles jury pool West side of LA W78.8 B7 H7.5 A6 Downtown W31.3 B31.3 H29.1 A9 The racial and ethnic differences stem from a local ordinance that says jurors shouldn't have to travel more than 20 miles to perform their civic duty. "An L.A. story: graffit, a gun, a death, a 'hero'" Seth Mydans (New York Times) Feb 12, 1995 p. 1 The Rodney King cops were aquitted by an "all-white" jury. "Rodney King" Jury was 10 whites 1 Asian 1 Hispanic @@law school professors (7) \doc\95\12\lawhire.txt Puerto Ricans are over-represented, otherwise, Blacks are the best represented minority among law school professors. Data from the 1994-95 AALS (American Association of Law Schools) Directory of Law School Teachers has data on 8,231 full-time faculty members of 178 schools Analysis by Arthur Hu Ranked by Representation Index Women Men Total PuertoR 1.05 1.05 1.07 White 1.00 1.00 1.00 AfAm -1.26 -2.73 -2.06 Asian -2.01 -2.96 -2.70 OthHisp -2.16 -3.80 -2.97 NatAm -2.25 -3.26 -3.18 OthMin -2.62 -4.26 -4.16 Chicano -5.05 -8.21 -7.14 @@LSAT Law School test see lsat \doc\95\13\lsat.wk1 1993-94 law school applicants White Black Hisp Asian NatAm Number 63,990 9,969 6,250 5,435 702 Percent 71.4% 11.1% 7.0% 6.1% 0.8% US Pop 66.8% 15.0% 14.0% 3.5% 0.7% Rate 1.07 0.74 0.50 1.73 1.12 Index 1.00 -1.44 -2.14 1.62 1.05 Group Unknown Other Total Hisp Chic PuertoR Number 94 2,320 89,633 2,974 1,543 1,733 Percent 0.1% 2.6% 100.0% 3.3% 1.7% 1.9% @@law school Asians were once under-represented in American law schools, but they were equal to parity by 1990, and now far exceed the national population. At this rate, Asians may be as over-dominant as they are now in engineering and medicine before long. US law schools 1980-81 W1.0 B-3.06 H-3.05 A1.07 N-1.67 US law schools 1995-96 W1.0 B-1.97 H-2.44 A1.59 N 1.60 @@Diversity Benefit MINORITIES, WOMEN BENEFIT FROM "DIVERSE" LAW SCHOOL?? \clip\98\10\lawsch.txt From: ADP http://www.chronicle.com/daily/98/07/98070603n.shtml Chronicle of Higher Education, July 6, 1998 In Law Schools, Diverse Classrooms Encourage Diverse Participation, Study Finds By KATHERINE S. MANGAN A study released last week confirms what many people in legal education have suspected for years: White male students dominate most discussions in law-school classrooms. The study, by a Northwestern University researcher and the American Bar Foundation, concludes that diverse classrooms encourage women and minority-group members to participate more. @@Statistics \doc\web\98\06\minlaw.wk1 Minority Enrollment in U.S. Law Schools Blacks are the largest growing minority. Asians are the fastest growing minority, which proves growing Asians do not harm African Americans Source: A Review of Legal Education in the United States, published by the American Bar Association Year Total Black Asian HispanicAmIndianMinorityWhite 76-77 112, 4.9% 1.2% 2.1% 0.3% 8.4% 91.6% 80-81 119, 4.6% 1.4% 2.5% 0.3% 8.8% 91.2% 85-86 118, 5.1% 1.8% 3.1% 0.4% 10.0% 90.0% 90-91 127, 5.8% 3.4% 3.9% 0.4% 13.6% 86.4% 95-96 129, 7.6% 6.0% 5.4% 0.8% 20.0% 80.0% As appeared in chart in ABA Journal, 1998 Population Estimate Year Total Black Asian HispanicAmIndianMinorityWhite 76-77 112, 15.0% 1.2% 6.4% 0.5% 23.1% 77.0% 80-81 119, 15.0% 1.5% 8.0% 0.5% 25.0% 75.0% 85-86 118, 15.0% 2.2% 9.6% 0.5% 27.3% 72.7% 90-91 127, 15.0% 2.9% 12.0% 0.8% 30.7% 69.3% 95-96 129, 15.0% 3.8% 13.2% 0.8% 32.8% 67.2% Parity Estimate Year Total Black Asian HispanicAmIndianMinorityWhite 76-77 112, -3.06 1.04 -3.05 -1.67 -2.74 1.19 80-81 119, -3.26 -1.07 -3.20 -1.67 -2.84 1.22 85-86 118, -2.94 -1.22 -3.10 -1.25 -2.73 1.24 90-91 127, -2.59 1.17 -3.08 -2.00 -2.26 1.25 95-96 129, -1.97 1.59 -2.44 1.00 -1.64 1.19 Asians are equal to parity in 1990-1, exceed parity significantly by 1995

@@lawyers

ASIAN-AM NO LONGER UNDERREPRESENTED AS LAWYERS ASIAN-AM LAWYERS UP BY 72% IN ONLY TWO YEARS
\clip\98\18\minlaw.txt Diversity: Minorities Surge At Big Law Firms Asian-Americans, especially, swell ranks; Hispanics and blacks also up. By Michael D. Goldhaber National Law Journal Monday, December 7, 1998 "In the two years since the last NLJ survey on minorities at the nation's 250 biggest firms, the Asian-American presence has grown by 72%, to more than 2,000. " [Law school admissions show that Asians were already over-represented as law students by start of 1990s, at this rate, they we be as over-represented as engineers and doctors before long given their high test scores]

the number of minority attorneys overall grew by 47.7%, and their share of the big-firm pie grew from 6.8% to 8.5%.

law associates vs. pop
------------------------------------
         Law  Pop  Rate   Index
Asian     6.1  3.9  1.56  1.3
Black     4.0 12.7 -3.17 -3.8
Hispanic  2.8 11.3 -4.03 -4.8
Min      13.0 28.6
White    87.0 71.5  1.21  1.00

National Law Journal Survey of 250 largest firms
Asian-Americans are doing extremely well, considering their numbers nationwide. The U.S. Census Bureau reports that Asians and Pacific Islanders make up 3.9% of the general population, while 12.7% are black and 11.3% are Hispanic.



\priv\95\09\judgwhit.txt
1995 California State Bar Survey: 
W91 B2 H3 A3 Male - 74 percent

d:\doc\94\17\priv\chiclaw.txt - Chicago Trib 8/7/94 By Melita Marie
Garza Of the 3,279 lawyers who are partners in large Chicago firms,
only 10 are Asian-American. Only 53 of 2,901 attorneys at the
associate level are Asian-American, according to the 1994 Chicago
Lawyer Diversity Survey, Yamate said. According to the 1990 census, 1
percent of the 34,394 attorneys in the six-county area are
Asian-American, but only 0.3 percent are partners. Asian-Americans
account for only 2.4 percent of Illinois' population and less than 6
percent of Chicago's. They are the only minority group more numerous
in the suburbs than the city.

BREAKDOWN OF LAWYERS IN USA BY RACE/ETHNICITY

\doc\web\97\03\sflaw.wk1 Table
\doc\95\13\sflaw.wk1
\doc94\0\sflaw.xls minority lawyers in San francisco
(BH together, AN together)


(7) US associates       W1.0(1.2) B -3.7 H -3.7 A -1.7 (BH together)
percent 1993            W90.7%    B+H 6.8%    A+N 2.5% 

(7) US partners         W1.0(1.3) B-11.3 H-11.3 A ??.? (BH together)
(7) SF partners	        W1.0(2.0) B-10.8 H-10.8 *A-23.6 (BH together)
(7) SF associates       W1.0(1.8) B -3.6 H -3.6 *A -8.6 (BH together)
(7) large SF partner    W1.0(2.0) B-13.7 H-15.2 *A-46.3 N-2.6
(7) large SF associate  W1.0(1.8) B -3.7 H -3.7 *A-11.5 N 1.6
(7) SF Corp Law         W1.0(1.8) B  1.2 H -5.5 *A -9.7 N NA
* Asian worse than black

doc93b:cabar.xls Bar examination results by race


(8) doc940\cabar.xls

==================================================================
CA 1991 Bar Examination by Race
-------------------------------------------------------------------
                 MALES FEMALES WHITE BLACK HISPA ASIAN OTHERS
------------------------------------------------------------------
% pass rate         42%   48%   50%   32%   36%   49%  24%
pass index         0.85  0.96  1.00 -1.56 -1.37 -1.01 -2.08

Race percent        58%   42%   78%    7%    6%    6%   2%
Pass vs. pop       1.09 -1.25  1.05 -1.15 -4.38 -1.61  2.86

Percent 1st time    40%   43%   47%   15%   25%   34%  22%
1st time index    -1.16 -1.08  1.00 -3.07 -1.83 -1.37  -2.10
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Index white=1.00 -2.00 = 1/2

Discussion - The overall bar examination for lawyers pass rate is
much lower for Blacks, 32% than Whites at 50%. For passing the first
time, the rate is much lower, only 15% compared to 47% for whites.

[[salary - 

Minority men and women are paid more.

>>\doc\95\14\minlaw.txt

"How Much Is That Lawyer In the Window?" Time July 24,
1995 p. 16
Median compensation, 10 year growth
Partner (25-29 years)  140 to 200 1983 to 1993
Associate (third year)  45 to  60 

Men          $47,500
Minority men $55,000

Women          $48,000
Minority women $58,000


@@Partner

NYC PARTNERS ARE 94% WHITE, 82% MALE
The numbers show New York's Road to Partnership Rough for Minorities
http://www.lawnewsnetwork.com/stories/mar/e030899l.html
By Anna Snider New York Law Journal Monday, March 8, 1999 OPINION
"It is difficult for any associate to attain partner status at a major law
firm, but it helps to be white and male. Only 11 of the 190 new partners
made at New York's 25 largest firms in 1998-1999 are minorities, compared
to 12 of 197 new partners last year. Thirty five are women, compared to 37
the year before. In other words, the new partner class is 94 percent
white, unchanged from last year, and 82 percent male, up 1 percent since
1998."



@@Supreme Court

%%Clerks

OCA COMPLAINS BUT ASIANS ARE AT POPULATION PARITY!  OCA Joins NAACP
at US Supreme Court Press Conference OCA Image Fall 1999
(Organization of Chinese Americans, liberal civil rights) USA Today
found of 462 law clerks 1.9% black, 1.1% Hispanic, 4.5% Asians (but
that's at parity with the population!), 0 Native American of 462 26%
women

\priv\98\05\mail0624.dlu 
No affirmative action at U.S. Supreme Court
http://www.seattletimes.com/sbin/iarecord?NS-search-set=/358bd/aaaa002xL8bdc
10&NS-doc-offset=0& June 20, 1998 OPINION Seattle Times Fewer than 2
percent of the 394 clerks hired by all nine justices during their
respective tenures were African-American, according to a study by USA
Today. There have been no Native Americans.  Hispanics totaled 1
percent, 4.5 percent were Asian. The newspaper did not analyze
employment by gender. Typically hired from a small number of elite
law schools, the Supreme Court's 36 clerks are the most powerful
unknown young lawyers in America. 

\clip\98\14\lawclerk.txt Mr. Volokh teaches at UCLA Law School.
http://interactive.wsj.com/pages/front.htm The Wall Street Journal
Interactive Edition -- October 12, 1998 Rule of Law: Racial Politics
at the Supreme Court By EUGENE VOLOKH

Jews, 2% of the full-time working population, make up 26% of the
nation's law professors. Jews also tend to make up about 30% of the
Supreme Court clerks,

Of the clerks who have worked for the currently sitting justices,
only 1.7% have been black and 1.2% have been Hispanic. "This is not
ambiguous," says Rep. Albert R. Wynn (D., Md.).  "This is clear
[discrimination]. The numbers speak for themselves."In 1997, American
Lawyer magazine reported on the racial makeup of the applicants to
Boalt Hall, Berkeley's law school. Of the applicants who had LSATs
above 164 (the 92.3rd percentile) and GPAs above 3.50--thresholds
well below the "average" of the students receiving offers from
Berkeley--only 0.6% were black and 1.6% were Hispanic. The Law School
Admissions Council's National Statistical Report provides similar
numbers.


@@women

Seattle Post intelligencer Sept 30, 2001
More women practice law, but scales favor men w.h. knight jr ronald L. Hjorth
5% of law students were women in 1970, 58% of last year's entering class
California bar exam 68.5% of women pass first time vs 65.9 men
More women 67 than