Web address: http://www.arthurhu.com/index/infmort.htm

Infant-Mortality: Index of Diversity

Also see Low birthweight | Births | Health / Race | Health


World Infant Mortality Spectrum | CDC US infant mortality by race Site copy



Asians consistently have the lowest rate of infant mortality even among the poorest Southeast Asians despite lower rates of adequate prenatal care, private or any insurance and higher rates of poverty. Asian American IM rates are comparable to Japan, which has the lowest rate in the world. This may be due to cultural factors, low smoking and drug use.

Low birthweight is slightly higher than whites and prenatal care is less, but this does not seem to be an actual health problems given lower rates of premature birth and mortality. California ommited Asian data due to "belief that it might not be accurate", but more likely it is because the numbers are lower than Whites, which is not politically acceptable.

Hispanic babies are also comparably or more healthy than white infants, despite low per-capita incomes, low education and high poverty rates

Blacks are at higher risk even with equal prenatal care, education, and income, and neighborhoods with comparable poverty, or compared to the poorest Asian refugees such as the Vietnamese or Hmong who "don't smoke, drink, take drugs, get AIDS or get fat". This may be due to spacing children too close, and use of drugs and alchohol while pregnant, or perhaps even genetic factors although officials usually attribute this to poverty and racism. However, reports such as Warren King of the Seattle Times prefer to say that "no one knows" the reason for higher rates among some minorities, and one study cautioned against coming to such a conclusion, even though data seemed to indicate this. It is also common for articles about high infant mortality rates in communities with a high percentage of African Americans to completely omit references to race as a factor in explaining high rates in places such as Oakland or Washington D.C. When very high rates observed in cities like DC are no different than for blacks in other cities, it is explainable by race rather than socioeconomics.

A new study indicates premature birth is much more dangerous than low birthweight, which is consistent with Asians, who have slightly lower birthweights, but still have low infant mortality.

A key is that we will have to discard racial marxism and recognize that, for genetic or cultural factors, not just discrmination and economics, race DOES matter in infant mortality. It's just incredible for people to decry high infant mortality in places like Detroit or Washington D.C. without addressing the major reason is a largely black population, so it's a race problem, not a city problem, and for people like King of the Seattle Time to say that there is "no" explanation for racial disparities when there are plenty of (politically incorrect) explanations.

Infant Mortality Spectrum - A Matter of Poverty or Race? Why Do
Asians and Hispanics do as well or better than Whites?


Deaths per 1,000
Rate   Group
500    Stonehenge Culture
232    India 1900 (2)
172    Angola, Mozambique (1) <- Highest in world
171    Afghanistan (1)
154    Britain 1900 (2)
153    Ethiopia (1)
140    US  1900 (2)
127    Cambodia (1)
121    Rwanda (1)
109    Bolivia (1)
109    Laos (1)
108    Pakistan (1)
102    Uganda
98     India (1)
91.3   US Nonwhite 1933
83     Egypt (1)
74     Turkey (1)
71     South Africa (1)
70     Saudi Arabia (1)
70     Burma (1)
63     Vietnam (1)
62     Brazil (1)
61     Nicaragua (1)
57     US Nonwhite 1945
47     Syria (1)
46     Mexico (1)
44     Phillipines (1)
42.8   US White 1933
38     Thailand (1)
35.6   US White 1945
31     China (1)
27     South Korea (1)
25     USSR (1)
25     Yugoslavia (1)
24     North Korea (1)
19     Kuwait (1)
-------------------------- International
18.3   Wash DC City
18.0   CA Black (Children Now)
17.6   US Black
17.1   US Black CDC 89-91
16.7   CA Black
16.4   1992 MA Black
15.7   1989 Oakland Black
15     Cuba (1)
12.5   1995 MA Black
11.9   1995 Boston Black
11     Israel (1)
10.5   1995 KingCo Black
10.2   New York City (china wakes)
10     Italy (1)
10     Belgium (1)
 9.9   Shanghai (China Wakes)
 9.5   1995 KingCo NativeAmerican
 9.2   1993 Oakland Black
------- Blacks all above 9.0 in every city
 9     Australia (1)
 9     United Kingdom (1)
 9     Spain (1)
 8.5   US White
 8.1   US Hispanic
 8     Hong Kong (1)
 8     West Germany (1)
 8     Denmark (1)
 8     Austria (1)
 7.9   1992 MA Hispanic
 7.8   CA Hispanic (Children Now)
 7.7   CA White (Children Now)
 7.4   US White CDC 89-91
 7.2   US Mexican CDC 89-91
 7     Canada (1)
 7     Switzerland (1)
 6.7   CA Asian (Children Now)
 6.6   US Asian CDC 89-91
 6.3   CA White
 6.2   CA Hispanic
 6     Sweden (1)
 6     Finland (1)
 5.9   Norway
 5.7   1995 MA White
 5.5   1992 MA White
 5.5   1995 KingCo White
--------Asians nearly all below 5.5
 5.5   Vietnamese Refugees, mostly poor
 5.2   US White 
 5.0   Singapore (1)
 5     Japan (1) **Lowest nation in world
 4.9   1992 MA Asian
 4.7   1997 Boston White
 4.4   Japan
 4.2   US Chinese
 4.1   KingCo Asian 95
 4.1   US Filipino
 3.9   MA Asian 1995
 3.8   US Japanese 
 3.5   KingCo Hispanic 95  **Lowest in world

Sources: 1 Economist Book of Vital Statistics
Various news sources cited in this index
2 Time Dec 1998 www.time.com

Asians consistently have the lowest rates of infant mortality in
every location. Blacks are consistently 2-3 times worse than whites,
regardless of location, education, or income.

Relative Summary white=1.00 ratio
US               W1.00 B-2.07 H 1.05 A 2.00
Boston 1995      W1.00 B-2.19 H-1.63 A 1.46
CA               W1.00 B-2.34 H-1.01 A 1.15
King Co 93-95    W1.00 B-2.54 H 1.21 A 1.13
MA 1992          W1.00 B-2.98 H-1.44 A 1.12

Asians have lower rates of infant mortality in every city or national
statistic observed so far here.


"Japan: safe for adults, not for children" Seattle Times May 27, 1999
p. C5. Joseph Coleman. The Japanese have a low relatively low
awareness of child safety 

Fatal accidents per 100,000 
Infants (to 1 yr old)
3.4 Norway
5.9 Sweden
6.6 Netherlands
7.1 Britain
9.0 Australia
10.8 Austria
11.2 Germany
12.1 Switzerland
13.9 Italy
15.2 Canada
19.3 Greece
20.1 United States
21.8 France
25.8 Japan
40.8 New Zealand

Preschool 1 to 4
5.6 Sweden
5.6 Britain
6.3 Italy
6.6 Netherlands
7.4 Norway
9.3 Germany
10.2 France
10.3 Canada
11.7 Greece
11.7 Japan
12.2 Austria
13.2 Switzerland
14.6 Australia
15.9 United States
21.6 New Zealand
World Health Organization

@@Black / African American

Blacks are always highlighted for having the highest rate of infant mortality, obviously because of socioeconomics and racism. But problem is, Asians and especially Hispanics have healthier babies than whites even in areas poverty rates often higher than blacks. Even middle class blacks have worse birth outcomes than poor Vietnamese and Hmong refugees on welfare with little or no education.

Also, placed like DC raise an alarm with a very high rate of infant mortality which can easily be explained by the high black population when the city average is no worse than national average for blacks.

There may be genetic factors at work, Phillipe's controversial pattern of having many, less healthy children appears to be true, whatever the explanation. Culturally factors also contribute as blacks and to a lesser degree, whites have a much higher rate of substance abuse and AIDS, where Asian and Hispanic poor have very conservative health-postive cultures, and at least among Mexicans a relatively low rate of AIDS. Said of the Hmong "They don't smoke, drink, or get fat during pregnancy,"

Diverse Groups Join Forces to Tackle Puzzling Black Infant Mortality Rate
c.2002 Newhouse News Service
black women leading middle-class lives and getting
everything they seem to need aren't immune from the higher death rates.
Along with medical and social issues, it might be a matter of race.

http://cnn.com/HEALTH/9903/19/AM-BlackInfants.ap/index.html Surgeon
general, others examine black infant mortality rate March 19, 1999
"David said preliminary research seems to show factors like
environmental toxins, living in high-violence areas, feeling
discriminated against at work or at school can all go toward children
being born with low birth weights.  " [But how does that explain poor
Asian and Hispanics having lower rates of infant mortality than


Figure 3.10 Birth Risk Factors 
Ratio of African Americans to Whites in King Co.
(Approximate from graph, 1993-95)
3.0 Unmarried Mother
3.0 Mother Age 15-17
2.4 Inadequate Prenatal Care
2.4 Low Birthweight
1.6 Preterm Birth
1.6 Maternal Alcohol Use
1.2 Maternal smoking

Figure 3.6 Causes of Infant Mortality
Ratio of African Americans to Whites in King Co. 91-95
4.5 Prematurity
3.5 Perinatal Conditions
2.5 SIDS
0.9 Congenital Anomalies

Source: Birth and Death Certificates p. 14 1997 Infant Mortality
Report, King County Health Department.

Report believes differences are caused by racism and poverty, but
does not note that Asians and Hispanics have higher poverty rates but
lower infant mortality rates than whites.

\priv\95\17\clinplan.txt No Exit The New Republic Feb 7, 1994 p.  21
The nation's high infant mortality rate and lower life expectancy
reflect not health care, but the epidemic of low-birth-wieght babies
born to teen age and drug-addicted mothers, as well as the large
number of hommicides in American cities and drug related deaths (not
to mention AIDS)

\priv\95\02\infmoral.doc Wall Street Journal Feb 1, 1995 5.5 per
1,000 for Vietnamese vs. 16.3 for African American natives due to
better health practices.

Black women had twice the rate of premature babies (7 vs. 3
percent) compared to whites in a Army hospital study, despite low
rates of poverty and equal incomes and prenatal care. Blacks are
twice as likely to wait less than 9 months (50 vs 30 percent) or 3
months (10 vs 4 percent) compared to whites before pregnancies. Even
college educated black mothers have twice the rate of infant mortality
of whites, black mothers are twice as likely as other women to smoke,
drink, or use drugs.  "Study: Wait 9 Months between Pregnancies"
Seattle Times Jan 12, 1995

Harlem is higher than other poor neighborhoods, indicating perhaps
only Blacks have such a high rate associated with poverty.

\priv\95\15\wasau2.txt 4/94 THE ORDEAL OF IMMIGRATION IN WAUSAU
Atlantic Magazine. Hmong have lower infant-mortality rates than
African-American natives because they have better access to social
services and their culture encourages positive prenatal behavior.
"They don't smoke, drink, or get fat during pregnancy," he says.


BLAME ON LOW BIRTHWEIGHT IS WRONG \priv\95\03\prembirth.txt SJM
3/1/95 "Early Birth More Deadly Than Weight" National Institute of
Environmental Health Sciences says premature birth is much more
serious than low birth weight. Birthweight is simply a national
trait, not a survival advantage

Study shows advances for Mass.  children By Jordana Hart, Boston
Globe Staff, 05/05/97 ''Dr. Barry Zuckerman, chairman of pediatrics
at Boston University School of Medicine and Boston Medical Center.
``Infant mortality reflects not only health, but social and economic
conditions. It reflects women's health and access to prenatal care.'' 



\clip\97\15\bostinf.txt Infant deaths down, but city worries Infant
deaths down, but city worries Boston Globe 6/10/97 By Dolores Kong,
Globe Staff 

"In Boston, while significant progress has been made, black babies
still died in 1995 at more than twice the rate of white babies, 11.9
deaths for every 1,000 live births compared with 4.7 deaths for
whites.  "  Index W1.0 B2.53

==King County (Seattle WA)

white infant-death rate Seattle Times Aug 23, 2000 Blacks 3 times
higher but "In Asian and Hispanic populations, infant mortality in
King County remains lower than rates for white infants... officials
were not sure why those rates were so low, but they were consistent
with national averages" Eastside Journal article, same date does not
mention Asians.

Seattle Times Friday, Oct. 3, 1997 Child-mortality rate worries
experts by Warren King Seattle Times medical reporter "The report
also showed a disparity similar to that found in past years:
African-American babies were 2.4 times more likely to die than white
infants; Native-American infants were 1.9 times more likely."

Infant Mortality Rates by Race / Ethnicity of Mother
1993-1995 Average, King County (WA)
Race          Rate/1,000Number  Index
Hispanic            4.13     5.0    1.21
Asian               4.40    11.7    1.13
White               4.98    81.3    1.00
Total               5.76   127.0   -1.16
Native America      8.58     2.7   -1.72
Black              12.66    18.7   -2.54

BEST.  http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html/baby_080196.html
\clip\96\02\infdeat.txt The Seattle Times Company Aug 1, 1996 Warren
King Infant-death rates fall to new lows King County, Seattle numbers
are down compared with U.S. average, report says

"Still, the racial disparity continues: White babies in King County
have a death rate of 5.5 per 1,000 live births, compared with 10.5
for African Americans and 9.5 for Native Americans. (Asian Americans
have a 4.1 rate and Hispanics 3.5.) "

King County Infant Mortality
Rate per 1,000 live births
Race      Rate Index White=1.00
White     5.5  1.00
Black    10.5 -1.90
Hispanic  3.5  1.57
Asian     4.1  1.34
NatAm     9.5 -1.72

Disparity is cited by the article, "No one knows he reason for the
disparity", only poverty is cited as a stress factor, but Asians and
Hispanics, both with much higher poverty rates than whites have LOWER
rates of infant mortality.


\doc\94\17\massbi1.wk1 - Massachusetts infant mortality, Massachusetts
Department of Health
 1992:W1.0 B2.98 H1.44 A-1.12 


  Table 7 - Trends in Infant, Neonatal and Post Neonatal Deaths by Race
  Hispanic Ethnicity, Massachusetts: 1989-1992
  Infant - less than one year
         total         white         black         hispanic       Asian
         #      rate   #      rate   #      rate   #      rate    #       rate
   1989    697    7.6    482    6.6    125   18.8     67     8.6      15     4.6
   1992    569    6.5    371    5.5    110   16.4     67     7.9      16     4.9

Mass   W5.7  B12.5 H9.3  A3.9   per 1,000 live births
index  W1.00 B2.19 H1.63 A-1.46
Boston W5.8 B14.9 H8.9 A-NA
Boston Globe Jan 11, 1995 p. 17

==Oakland CA

\priv\95\09\infdetdr.txt The San Francisco Chronicle August 4 1995
Page A21 "Infant Death Rate Drops in Oakland Improved prenatal care
cited " From 15.7 in 1989 to 9.2. The article does not mention the
race of the babies most affected, but the neighborhoods of West
Oakland, East Oakland and the Fruitvale district are heavily black.

==Washington DC

\doc\95\04\dcprob.txt DC has worst schools, but most spending and
"America's Worst-Run City" Newsweek March 13, 1995
Michael Elliot, et al

Washington DC has the highest state infant mortality rate of 18.3 per
1,000 live births vs. US average of 8.5 source: D.C. Human Services

Note: the US average for all blacks is 16.3, Mass runs 16 to 19, so
it may easily be explained by the racial composition of DC. 80% of all
children under 18 in DC are black.

Inf Mortality rates
0 Jap-Am  3.8
0 Chin-Am 4.2
1 Japan   4.4
  VietRef 5.5
5 Norway  5.9
? US      8.5 per 1000
  Af Am  16.3

p. 331 Shanghai was 9.9/1000 infants die compared to 10.2 in New York
City. Life expectancy is 76 compared to 73.8 in New York City
Nicholas d. Kristof, Sheryl Wudunn "China Wakes" 1994 Random House

Filipino, Japanese and Chinese Americans all have less prenatal care,
but lower infant mortality than whites. "How About It Hillary?"
Thomas Sowell, Forbes Jan 3, 94 p. 80


doc912\INFMORT.txt infant mortality in california

doc938\infmort.xls infant mortality

Summary: Asians lowest by factor of 2, all other races, White,
Hispanic and Native American about the  same, only African Americans
have a very high infant mortality rate, despite the fact that H and NA
also  have high poverty rates.

  Index US W1.0 B2.07 H-1.05 OthA-1.5 Chn -2.0 Fil -2.0 Jpn -2.2 
  Rate per 1,000 W8.5 B17.6 H8.1 NA9.0 Chin 4.2 Fil 4.1 Japn 3.8
  Index CA W1.0 B2.34 H1.01 A-1.15


 Infant Mortality

 Summary - Asians have the lowest rate of infant mortality, and
 Hispanics are also better than Whites. This means it's a matter of
 healthy behavior, not racism, since Asians and Hispanics suffer
 more racism than Whites,and have lower rates of health
 insurance, and higher rates of poverty

 *** Poverty Does Not Mean Infant Mortality ***

 Infant Mortality by Race in US
 Per 1,000 live births in 1988     Median           Poverty
                 Mortality Index   House Inc Index  Rate   Index
 Black                17.6    207%  $18,676   -1.67    32%   291%
 American Indian         9    106%
 White                 8.5    100%  $31,231   -1.00    11%   100%
 Hispanic              8.1   -105%  $22,330   -1.40    28%   255%
 Hawaiian              6.9   -123%
 Other Asians          5.6   -152%
 Asians                             $38,450    1.23    12%   109%
 Chinese               4.2   -202%
 Filipino              4.1   -207%
 Japanese              3.8   -224%

 1988 National Center for Health Statistics                          
 Vital Statistics of the US                          
 SF Examiner Sept 22, 1991 A15 
 Median Income is 1990 Census Survey.

 1. Index is computed divided by white, negative is computed white
 divided by smaller number.

 2. Chinese, Filipino, Japanese are as far from white as whites are
 from blacks (about 2 to 1). Asian household incomes are slightly
 higher than white, but poverty rate is slightly higher.

 3. Hispanic household income, poverty is nearly equal to black, 
 yet infant mortality is less than white

 4. Article argued that poverty (and racism) is primary cause of
 infant mortality.  This is not the case. The main reason is how
 culture affects health of mother and baby. Asians and Hispanics
 do not smoke, drink, or take drugs during pregnacy, eat healthier
 foods, and are not as reliant on government programs. Poor
 Asians and poor Hispanics have much healthier babies than even
 poor whites. 

 5. Also note study that only 28% of blacks breast feed their babies,
 vs. 60% of whites. WIC program gives away infant formula to poor

 6. Median income for Asians is bad new for activists who want to
 argue that "most" Asians are poor, contrary to stereotype. Note
 that even at +20% median income, poverty rate is still 10% higher
 than white indicating lots of rich and poor Asians at extremes. This
 is much better than in 1980 - Asians are heading up the scale,
 though SE Asian refugees are still padding the bottom as Chinese
 are moving out of Chinatown.

 Children Now's Report on the State of California

 "In addition, significant racial disparities in infant 
 mortality remain. In 1989, the most recent year of data, 
 the African American infant death rate of 18.0 deaths per 
 1000 live births was more than twice that of Whites 
 (7.7), Hispanics (7.8), and the average of the Asian 
 nationalities (6.7)."

            1989 White     Black   Hispanic  Asian
 Rate per 1000 l       7.7      18       7.8    6.7
 Index                1.00    2.34      1.01  -1.15

 Asians are lowest by 15%, lower than Whites despite poverty
 Note there is no complaint that Asians are advantaged, or any
 note that disadvantaged Hispanics are equal to Whites

 Sources: California State Department of Health Services 
 (pets. corn. 1993) and Vital Statistics of California 
 1988-91 (Sacramento, CA: DHS, 1989-92); National Center 
 for Health Statistics (pets. com. 1993); KIDS COUNT, KIDS 
 COUNT Data Book (Washington, DC: Center for the Study of 
 Social Policy, 1993).

 Rate in Japan, 1989 is 4.59
                      1988 83A     83B
 Chinese               4.2     5.7       7.6
 Japanese              4.1     4.3       6.4
 Filipino              3.8     4.7       8.4
 Other Asians          5.6     6.9       9.5

 US - National Center for Health Statistics
 83A - Normal National Center for Health Statistics standard
 83B - Mother's race assigned to infant at birth and death

 "Infant Mortalilty Rate at All-Time Low in US" San Jose Mercury
 April 22, 1992 p. 9A

doc93a\infmort3.txt  Poverty is to blame for high infant mortality
rates, says the CDC

doc940\cainfmor.doc California W6.3 B16.7 H6.2 per 100,000 Asians
ommitted because it might not be accurate.


Figures in infant mortality always highlight how blacks and sometimes
Hispanics are worse than whites. They NEVER show when Asians and
Mexicans come out as well or BETTER than whites. 

\clip\97\12\kidcount.txt Study shows advances for Mass.  children By
Jordana Hart, Boston Globe Staff, 05/05/97 although she acknowledged
that significant disparities in the rate among black, Hispanic, and
white babies persist.  Black infants still die at 2.5 times the rate
of whites, while Hispanic infants die at twice the rate,


Non PR Hispanics almost always come out better than whites, despite
poverty rates that are usually WORSE than blacks.

From: SDRAOUL@aol.com Date sent: Fri, 20 Jun 1997 07:14:06 -0400
(EDT) Actually, Arthur, breaking out Mexican Americans from the rest
of Hispanics and we find the lowest infant mortality rate in the
country -- an honor we share with Asian Americans.  I once wrote an
article about this entitled The Jalapeno Conquers The Wolrd,
attributing our lower than anything infant mortality rate to
consumption of the world's most famous chili pepper.  Raoul Lowery


Dec 1998

Infant Mortality 1900 vs now
        1900  1998
US       140   6.3
Britain  154   6.3
India    232   69

per 1,000 live births

Infant death rates by race: United States, 1933-45
Deaths under one year per 1000 live births
Source: US Children's Bureau, Statistical series Number 4
Further progress in Reducing Maternal and Infant Mortality,
Record of 1945 and 1946 Washington: GPO, 1949 19

Year    Total   White   Nonwhite
    1933    58.1    42.8    91.3
    1934    60.1    54.5    94.4
    1935    55.7    51.9    83.2
    1936    57.1    52.9    87.6
    1937    54.4    50.3    83.2
    1938      51    47.1    79.1
    1939      48    44.3    74.2
    1940      47    43.2    73.8
    1941    45.3    41.2    74.8
    1942    40.4    37.3    64.6
    1943    40.4    37.5    62.5
    1944    39.8    36.9    60.3
    1945    38.3    35.6      57


\priv\95\15\wasau2.txt 4/94 THE ORDEAL OF IMMIGRATION IN WAUSAU
Atlantic Magazine. Hmong have lower infant-mortality rates than
African-American natives because they have better access to social
services and their culture encourages positive prenatal behavior.
"They don't smoke, drink, or get fat during pregnancy," he says.


A big blame is placed on lack of prenatal care, but Asians and 
Hispanics have healthier babies, with less active prenatal care.


Boulder News December 2, 1997 Infant mortality rate in U.S. at new
low By ALEXANDRA ZAVIS Associated Press CHICAGO life expectancy at
birth has reached a new high, at 76.1 years.  In 1996, there were 7.2
infant deaths per 1,000 live births, according to a summary of
preliminary 1996 government statistics published in the December
issue of Pediatrics, the journal of the American Academy of

http://search.tribnet.com/archive/0997/0912a12.htm News Tribune
Checkup finds nation is healthier Life expectancy is up, and infant
mortality is down September 12, 1997 Marlene Cimons; Los Angeles
Times Life expectancy is up, and infant mortality is down


Poverty is the most commonly cited reason for disparity in infant
mortality between races, but this does NOT come even close to
explaining when educated affulent blacks still have higher rates than
Asian refugees and Hispanics with the highest rate of uninsured.

claims as risk gets lower, disparity goes up
Document ID: 
Mortality; Race; Babies; Social conditions &
trends; Socioeconomic factors
Citation Information:
ISSN: 0147-2011; Vol. 37 No. 2; p. 29-35
James P Scanlan

\clip\96\02\infdeat.txt The Seattle Times Company Aug 1, 1996
Infant-death rates fall to new lows King County, Seattle numbers are
down compared with U.S. average, report says Disparity is cited by
the article, "No one knows he reason for the disparity", only poverty
is cited as a stress factor, but Asians and Hispanics, both with much
higher poverty rates than whites have LOWER rates of infant mortality.

doc941\blakrisk.txt San Jose Mercury News Feb 16, 1994 p. 7C Blacks
face special health risks BY JEAN LATZ GRIFFIN chicago Tribune "In
fact, in Illinois, a college-educated, middleclass black woman is
slightly more likely to have a low birth weight baby than a poor
white woman who has dropped out of high school."

doc942\priv\blinfmor.doc Even educated blacks have high rates CDC
study  B2.0


%%Infant Mortality filed \clip\98\18\unicef\U5MR.htm url: http://www.unicef.org/statis/U5MR.htm Unicef Under 5 Mortality 1996 %%Israel Infant Mortality in Israel -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Years Rate (per 1000 live births) 1990 9.9 1991 9.2 1992 9.4 1993 7.8 1994 7.5 1995 6.8 1996 6.3 1997 6.3 Source: Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, September 1998 The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) http://www.un.org/unrwa/pr/pdf/figures.pdf. The infant mortality rate of the registered Palestine refugees is about 32 per 1000, which is average amongst the Arab countries %%Underweight url: http://www.unicef.org/pon97/p20b.htm filed: +- Views do not reflect any other organization or group--------------+ Arthur Hu Join my diversity mailing list or arthurhu @ hufamily.com (no space) Check index and articles on web: Kirkland WA http://www.arthurhu.com/