Low birthweight is slightly higher than whites and prenatal care is less, but this does not seem to be an actual health problems given lower rates of premature birth and mortality. California ommited Asian data due to "belief that it might not be accurate", but more likely it is because the numbers are lower than Whites, which is not politically acceptable.
Hispanic babies are also comparably or more healthy than white infants, despite low per-capita incomes, low education and high poverty rates
Blacks are at higher risk even with equal prenatal care, education, and income, and neighborhoods with comparable poverty, or compared to the poorest Asian refugees such as the Vietnamese or Hmong who "don't smoke, drink, take drugs, get AIDS or get fat". This may be due to spacing children too close, and use of drugs and alchohol while pregnant, or perhaps even genetic factors although officials usually attribute this to poverty and racism. However, reports such as Warren King of the Seattle Times prefer to say that "no one knows" the reason for higher rates among some minorities, and one study cautioned against coming to such a conclusion, even though data seemed to indicate this. It is also common for articles about high infant mortality rates in communities with a high percentage of African Americans to completely omit references to race as a factor in explaining high rates in places such as Oakland or Washington D.C. When very high rates observed in cities like DC are no different than for blacks in other cities, it is explainable by race rather than socioeconomics.
A new study indicates premature birth is much more dangerous than low birthweight, which is consistent with Asians, who have slightly lower birthweights, but still have low infant mortality.
A key is that we will have to discard racial marxism and recognize that, for genetic or cultural factors, not just discrmination and economics, race DOES matter in infant mortality. It's just incredible for people to decry high infant mortality in places like Detroit or Washington D.C. without addressing the major reason is a largely black population, so it's a race problem, not a city problem, and for people like King of the Seattle Time to say that there is "no" explanation for racial disparities when there are plenty of (politically incorrect) explanations.
Infant Mortality Spectrum - A Matter of Poverty or Race? Why Do Asians and Hispanics do as well or better than Whites? http://www.arthurhu.com/infmort.htm#spectrum Deaths per 1,000 -------------------------------- Rate Group 500 Stonehenge Culture 232 India 1900 (2) 172 Angola, Mozambique (1) <- Highest in world 171 Afghanistan (1) 154 Britain 1900 (2) 153 Ethiopia (1) 140 US 1900 (2) 127 Cambodia (1) 121 Rwanda (1) 109 Bolivia (1) 109 Laos (1) 108 Pakistan (1) 102 Uganda 98 India (1) 91.3 US Nonwhite 1933 83 Egypt (1) 74 Turkey (1) 71 South Africa (1) 70 Saudi Arabia (1) 70 Burma (1) 63 Vietnam (1) 62 Brazil (1) 61 Nicaragua (1) 57 US Nonwhite 1945 47 Syria (1) 46 Mexico (1) 44 Phillipines (1) 42.8 US White 1933 38 Thailand (1) 35.6 US White 1945 31 China (1) 27 South Korea (1) 25 USSR (1) 25 Yugoslavia (1) 24 North Korea (1) 19 Kuwait (1) -------------------------- International 18.3 Wash DC City 18.0 CA Black (Children Now) 17.6 US Black 17.1 US Black CDC 89-91 16.7 CA Black 16.4 1992 MA Black 15.7 1989 Oakland Black 15 Cuba (1) 12.5 1995 MA Black 11.9 1995 Boston Black 11 Israel (1) 10.5 1995 KingCo Black 10.2 New York City (china wakes) 10 Italy (1) 10 Belgium (1) 9.9 Shanghai (China Wakes) 9.5 1995 KingCo NativeAmerican 9.2 1993 Oakland Black ------- Blacks all above 9.0 in every city 9 Australia (1) 9 United Kingdom (1) 9 Spain (1) 8.5 US White 8.1 US Hispanic 8 Hong Kong (1) 8 West Germany (1) 8 Denmark (1) 8 Austria (1) 7.9 1992 MA Hispanic 7.8 CA Hispanic (Children Now) 7.7 CA White (Children Now) 7.4 US White CDC 89-91 7.2 US Mexican CDC 89-91 7 Canada (1) 7 Switzerland (1) 6.7 CA Asian (Children Now) 6.6 US Asian CDC 89-91 6.3 CA White 6.2 CA Hispanic 6 Sweden (1) 6 Finland (1) 5.9 Norway 5.7 1995 MA White 5.5 1992 MA White 5.5 1995 KingCo White --------Asians nearly all below 5.5 5.5 Vietnamese Refugees, mostly poor 5.2 US White 5.0 Singapore (1) 5 Japan (1) **Lowest nation in world 4.9 1992 MA Asian 4.7 1997 Boston White 4.4 Japan 4.2 US Chinese 4.1 KingCo Asian 95 4.1 US Filipino 3.9 MA Asian 1995 3.8 US Japanese 3.5 KingCo Hispanic 95 **Lowest in world ------------------------------- Sources: 1 Economist Book of Vital Statistics Various news sources cited in this index 2 Time Dec 1998 www.time.com Asians consistently have the lowest rates of infant mortality in every location. Blacks are consistently 2-3 times worse than whites, regardless of location, education, or income. Relative Summary white=1.00 ratio ------------------------------------------- US W1.00 B-2.07 H 1.05 A 2.00 Boston 1995 W1.00 B-2.19 H-1.63 A 1.46 CA W1.00 B-2.34 H-1.01 A 1.15 King Co 93-95 W1.00 B-2.54 H 1.21 A 1.13 MA 1992 W1.00 B-2.98 H-1.44 A 1.12 Asians have lower rates of infant mortality in every city or national statistic observed so far here. @@Accident "Japan: safe for adults, not for children" Seattle Times May 27, 1999 p. C5. Joseph Coleman. The Japanese have a low relatively low awareness of child safety Fatal accidents per 100,000 Infants (to 1 yr old) 3.4 Norway 5.9 Sweden 6.6 Netherlands 7.1 Britain 9.0 Australia 10.8 Austria 11.2 Germany 12.1 Switzerland 13.9 Italy 15.2 Canada 19.3 Greece 20.1 United States 21.8 France 25.8 Japan 40.8 New Zealand Preschool 1 to 4 5.6 Sweden 5.6 Britain 6.3 Italy 6.6 Netherlands 7.4 Norway 9.3 Germany 10.2 France 10.3 Canada 11.7 Greece 11.7 Japan 12.2 Austria 13.2 Switzerland 14.6 Australia 15.9 United States 21.6 New Zealand World Health Organization @@Black / African AmericanBlacks are always highlighted for having the highest rate of infant mortality, obviously because of socioeconomics and racism. But problem is, Asians and especially Hispanics have healthier babies than whites even in areas poverty rates often higher than blacks. Even middle class blacks have worse birth outcomes than poor Vietnamese and Hmong refugees on welfare with little or no education.
Also, placed like DC raise an alarm with a very high rate of infant mortality which can easily be explained by the high black population when the city average is no worse than national average for blacks.
There may be genetic factors at work, Phillipe's controversial pattern of having many, less healthy children appears to be true, whatever the explanation. Culturally factors also contribute as blacks and to a lesser degree, whites have a much higher rate of substance abuse and AIDS, where Asian and Hispanic poor have very conservative health-postive cultures, and at least among Mexicans a relatively low rate of AIDS. Said of the Hmong "They don't smoke, drink, or get fat during pregnancy,"
RACISM CAUSES HIGH INFANT MORTALITY? z55\clip\2002\02\blakinf.txt http://www.newhouse.com/archive/story1a022502.html Diverse Groups Join Forces to Tackle Puzzling Black Infant Mortality Rate c.2002 Newhouse News Service black women leading middle-class lives and getting everything they seem to need aren't immune from the higher death rates. Along with medical and social issues, it might be a matter of race. RESEARCH "PROVES" HIGH BLACK INFANT MORTALITY RATE CAUSED BY RACISM \clip\99\09\surg.txt http://cnn.com/HEALTH/9903/19/AM-BlackInfants.ap/index.html Surgeon general, others examine black infant mortality rate March 19, 1999 "David said preliminary research seems to show factors like environmental toxins, living in high-violence areas, feeling discriminated against at work or at school can all go toward children being born with low birth weights. " [But how does that explain poor Asian and Hispanics having lower rates of infant mortality than whites?] \doc\web\97\08\seainf2.txt Figure 3.10 Birth Risk Factors Ratio of African Americans to Whites in King Co. -------------------------------------------------- (Approximate from graph, 1993-95) 3.0 Unmarried Mother 3.0 Mother Age 15-17 2.4 Inadequate Prenatal Care 2.4 Low Birthweight 1.6 Preterm Birth 1.6 Maternal Alcohol Use 1.2 Maternal smoking Figure 3.6 Causes of Infant Mortality Ratio of African Americans to Whites in King Co. 91-95 -------------------------------------------------- 4.5 Prematurity 3.5 Perinatal Conditions 2.5 SIDS 0.9 Congenital Anomalies Source: Birth and Death Certificates p. 14 1997 Infant Mortality Report, King County Health Department. Report believes differences are caused by racism and poverty, but does not note that Asians and Hispanics have higher poverty rates but lower infant mortality rates than whites. \priv\95\17\clinplan.txt No Exit The New Republic Feb 7, 1994 p. 21 The nation's high infant mortality rate and lower life expectancy reflect not health care, but the epidemic of low-birth-wieght babies born to teen age and drug-addicted mothers, as well as the large number of hommicides in American cities and drug related deaths (not to mention AIDS) MIDDLE CLASS BLACKS WORSE THAN POOR VIETNAMESE REFUGEES \priv\95\02\infmoral.doc Wall Street Journal Feb 1, 1995 5.5 per 1,000 for Vietnamese vs. 16.3 for African American natives due to better health practices. Black women had twice the rate of premature babies (7 vs. 3 percent) compared to whites in a Army hospital study, despite low rates of poverty and equal incomes and prenatal care. Blacks are twice as likely to wait less than 9 months (50 vs 30 percent) or 3 months (10 vs 4 percent) compared to whites before pregnancies. Even college educated black mothers have twice the rate of infant mortality of whites, black mothers are twice as likely as other women to smoke, drink, or use drugs. "Study: Wait 9 Months between Pregnancies" Seattle Times Jan 12, 1995 HARLEM WORSE THAN OTHER POOR NEIGHBORHOODS \priv\95\01\harmmort.txt - Harlem is higher than other poor neighborhoods, indicating perhaps only Blacks have such a high rate associated with poverty. \priv\95\15\wasau2.txt 4/94 THE ORDEAL OF IMMIGRATION IN WAUSAU Atlantic Magazine. Hmong have lower infant-mortality rates than African-American natives because they have better access to social services and their culture encourages positive prenatal behavior. "They don't smoke, drink, or get fat during pregnancy," he says. @@cause BLAME ON LOW BIRTHWEIGHT IS WRONG \priv\95\03\prembirth.txt SJM 3/1/95 "Early Birth More Deadly Than Weight" National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences says premature birth is much more serious than low birth weight. Birthweight is simply a national trait, not a survival advantage BLAME ON SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, PRENATAL ACCESS \clip\97\12\kidcount.txt http://search.boston.com/globe/cgi-bin/waisgate.cgi?WAISdocID=8264019241+3+0+0&WAISaction=retrieve Study shows advances for Mass. children By Jordana Hart, Boston Globe Staff, 05/05/97 ''Dr. Barry Zuckerman, chairman of pediatrics at Boston University School of Medicine and Boston Medical Center. ``Infant mortality reflects not only health, but social and economic conditions. It reflects women's health and access to prenatal care.'' @@city ==Boston \clip\97\15\bostinf.txt Infant deaths down, but city worries Infant deaths down, but city worries Boston Globe 6/10/97 By Dolores Kong, Globe Staff "In Boston, while significant progress has been made, black babies still died in 1995 at more than twice the rate of white babies, 11.9 deaths for every 1,000 live births compared with 4.7 deaths for whites. " Index W1.0 B2.53 ==King County (Seattle WA) SEATIMES MENTIONS LOW ASIAN, EASTSIDE JOURNAL DOES NOT Gap in black, white infant-death rate Seattle Times Aug 23, 2000 Blacks 3 times higher but "In Asian and Hispanic populations, infant mortality in King County remains lower than rates for white infants... officials were not sure why those rates were so low, but they were consistent with national averages" Eastside Journal article, same date does not mention Asians. SEATTLE TIMES IGNORES LOW ASIAN/HISPANICS INFANT MORTALITY AGAIN \clip\97\22\seainf.txt http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/mort_100397.html Seattle Times Friday, Oct. 3, 1997 Child-mortality rate worries experts by Warren King Seattle Times medical reporter "The report also showed a disparity similar to that found in past years: African-American babies were 2.4 times more likely to die than white infants; Native-American infants were 1.9 times more likely." \doc\web\97\08\seainf.wk1 Infant Mortality Rates by Race / Ethnicity of Mother 1993-1995 Average, King County (WA) Race Rate/1,000Number Index Hispanic 4.13 5.0 1.21 Asian 4.40 11.7 1.13 White 4.98 81.3 1.00 Total 5.76 127.0 -1.16 Native America 8.58 2.7 -1.72 Black 12.66 18.7 -2.54 BLACK DISPARITY HIGHLIGHTED, BUT ASIANS AND HISPANICS, NOT WHITES ARE BEST. http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html/baby_080196.html \clip\96\02\infdeat.txt The Seattle Times Company Aug 1, 1996 Warren King Infant-death rates fall to new lows King County, Seattle numbers are down compared with U.S. average, report says "Still, the racial disparity continues: White babies in King County have a death rate of 5.5 per 1,000 live births, compared with 10.5 for African Americans and 9.5 for Native Americans. (Asian Americans have a 4.1 rate and Hispanics 3.5.) " King County Infant Mortality Rate per 1,000 live births Race Rate Index White=1.00 White 5.5 1.00 Black 10.5 -1.90 Hispanic 3.5 1.57 Asian 4.1 1.34 NatAm 9.5 -1.72 Disparity is cited by the article, "No one knows he reason for the disparity", only poverty is cited as a stress factor, but Asians and Hispanics, both with much higher poverty rates than whites have LOWER rates of infant mortality. ---------------------------------- ==Massachusetts ASIANS LOWEST INFANT MORTALITY IN MASS, DESPITE LOW PRENATAL CARE \doc\95\04\massbi1.wk1,.txt \doc\94\17\massbi1.wk1 - Massachusetts infant mortality, Massachusetts Department of Health 1992:W1.0 B2.98 H1.44 A-1.12 d:\doc\94\17\massbi1.wk1 Table 7 - Trends in Infant, Neonatal and Post Neonatal Deaths by Race Hispanic Ethnicity, Massachusetts: 1989-1992 Infant - less than one year total white black hispanic Asian # rate # rate # rate # rate # rate 1989 697 7.6 482 6.6 125 18.8 67 8.6 15 4.6 1992 569 6.5 371 5.5 110 16.4 67 7.9 16 4.9 asian.health.infant-mortality Mass W5.7 B12.5 H9.3 A3.9 per 1,000 live births index W1.00 B2.19 H1.63 A-1.46 Boston W5.8 B14.9 H8.9 A-NA Boston Globe Jan 11, 1995 p. 17 ==Oakland CA \priv\95\09\infdetdr.txt The San Francisco Chronicle August 4 1995 Page A21 "Infant Death Rate Drops in Oakland Improved prenatal care cited " From 15.7 in 1989 to 9.2. The article does not mention the race of the babies most affected, but the neighborhoods of West Oakland, East Oakland and the Fruitvale district are heavily black. ==Washington DC \doc\95\04\dcprob.txt DC has worst schools, but most spending and "America's Worst-Run City" Newsweek March 13, 1995 Michael Elliot, et al Washington DC has the highest state infant mortality rate of 18.3 per 1,000 live births vs. US average of 8.5 source: D.C. Human Services Department Note: the US average for all blacks is 16.3, Mass runs 16 to 19, so it may easily be explained by the racial composition of DC. 80% of all children under 18 in DC are black. Inf Mortality rates 0 Jap-Am 3.8 0 Chin-Am 4.2 1 Japan 4.4 VietRef 5.5 5 Norway 5.9 ? US 8.5 per 1000 Af Am 16.3 p. 331 Shanghai was 9.9/1000 infants die compared to 10.2 in New York City. Life expectancy is 76 compared to 73.8 in New York City Nicholas d. Kristof, Sheryl Wudunn "China Wakes" 1994 Random House \doc\97\02\chined.txt ASIANS HAVE LESS CARE, BUT LOWER INF MORTALITY THAN WHITES, WHY? Filipino, Japanese and Chinese Americans all have less prenatal care, but lower infant mortality than whites. "How About It Hillary?" Thomas Sowell, Forbes Jan 3, 94 p. 80 doc911\hins.doc doc912\INFMORT.txt infant mortality in california doc938\infmort.xls infant mortality doc\95\03\infmort.wk1 Summary: Asians lowest by factor of 2, all other races, White, Hispanic and Native American about the same, only African Americans have a very high infant mortality rate, despite the fact that H and NA also have high poverty rates. Index US W1.0 B2.07 H-1.05 OthA-1.5 Chn -2.0 Fil -2.0 Jpn -2.2 Rate per 1,000 W8.5 B17.6 H8.1 NA9.0 Chin 4.2 Fil 4.1 Japn 3.8 Index CA W1.0 B2.34 H1.01 A-1.15 doc938\infmort.xls Infant Mortality Summary - Asians have the lowest rate of infant mortality, and Hispanics are also better than Whites. This means it's a matter of healthy behavior, not racism, since Asians and Hispanics suffer more racism than Whites,and have lower rates of health insurance, and higher rates of poverty *** Poverty Does Not Mean Infant Mortality *** Infant Mortality by Race in US Per 1,000 live births in 1988 Median Poverty Mortality Index House Inc Index Rate Index Black 17.6 207% $18,676 -1.67 32% 291% American Indian 9 106% White 8.5 100% $31,231 -1.00 11% 100% Hispanic 8.1 -105% $22,330 -1.40 28% 255% Hawaiian 6.9 -123% Other Asians 5.6 -152% Asians $38,450 1.23 12% 109% Chinese 4.2 -202% Filipino 4.1 -207% Japanese 3.8 -224% 1988 National Center for Health Statistics Vital Statistics of the US SF Examiner Sept 22, 1991 A15 Median Income is 1990 Census Survey. Notes 1. Index is computed divided by white, negative is computed white divided by smaller number. 2. Chinese, Filipino, Japanese are as far from white as whites are from blacks (about 2 to 1). Asian household incomes are slightly higher than white, but poverty rate is slightly higher. 3. Hispanic household income, poverty is nearly equal to black, yet infant mortality is less than white 4. Article argued that poverty (and racism) is primary cause of infant mortality. This is not the case. The main reason is how culture affects health of mother and baby. Asians and Hispanics do not smoke, drink, or take drugs during pregnacy, eat healthier foods, and are not as reliant on government programs. Poor Asians and poor Hispanics have much healthier babies than even poor whites. 5. Also note study that only 28% of blacks breast feed their babies, vs. 60% of whites. WIC program gives away infant formula to poor families. 6. Median income for Asians is bad new for activists who want to argue that "most" Asians are poor, contrary to stereotype. Note that even at +20% median income, poverty rate is still 10% higher than white indicating lots of rich and poor Asians at extremes. This is much better than in 1980 - Asians are heading up the scale, though SE Asian refugees are still padding the bottom as Chinese are moving out of Chinatown. Children Now's Report on the State of California "In addition, significant racial disparities in infant mortality remain. In 1989, the most recent year of data, the African American infant death rate of 18.0 deaths per 1000 live births was more than twice that of Whites (7.7), Hispanics (7.8), and the average of the Asian nationalities (6.7)." 1989 White Black Hispanic Asian Rate per 1000 l 7.7 18 7.8 6.7 Index 1.00 2.34 1.01 -1.15 Asians are lowest by 15%, lower than Whites despite poverty Note there is no complaint that Asians are advantaged, or any note that disadvantaged Hispanics are equal to Whites Sources: California State Department of Health Services (pets. corn. 1993) and Vital Statistics of California 1988-91 (Sacramento, CA: DHS, 1989-92); National Center for Health Statistics (pets. com. 1993); KIDS COUNT, KIDS COUNT Data Book (Washington, DC: Center for the Study of Social Policy, 1993). Rate in Japan, 1989 is 4.59 1988 83A 83B US Chinese 4.2 5.7 7.6 Japanese 4.1 4.3 6.4 Filipino 3.8 4.7 8.4 Other Asians 5.6 6.9 9.5 US - National Center for Health Statistics 83A - Normal National Center for Health Statistics standard 83B - Mother's race assigned to infant at birth and death "Infant Mortalilty Rate at All-Time Low in US" San Jose Mercury April 22, 1992 p. 9A doc93a\infmort3.txt Poverty is to blame for high infant mortality rates, says the CDC doc940\cainfmor.doc California W6.3 B16.7 H6.2 per 100,000 Asians ommitted because it might not be accurate. @@Disparity Figures in infant mortality always highlight how blacks and sometimes Hispanics are worse than whites. They NEVER show when Asians and Mexicans come out as well or BETTER than whites. \clip\97\12\kidcount.txt Study shows advances for Mass. children By Jordana Hart, Boston Globe Staff, 05/05/97 although she acknowledged that significant disparities in the rate among black, Hispanic, and white babies persist. Black infants still die at 2.5 times the rate of whites, while Hispanic infants die at twice the rate, @@Hispanic Non PR Hispanics almost always come out better than whites, despite poverty rates that are usually WORSE than blacks. MEXICANS HAVE THE LOWEST INFANT MORTALITY RATE IN THE US From: SDRAOUL@aol.com Date sent: Fri, 20 Jun 1997 07:14:06 -0400 (EDT) Actually, Arthur, breaking out Mexican Americans from the rest of Hispanics and we find the lowest infant mortality rate in the country -- an honor we share with Asian Americans. I once wrote an article about this entitled The Jalapeno Conquers The Wolrd, attributing our lower than anything infant mortality rate to consumption of the world's most famous chili pepper. Raoul Lowery Contreras @@History http://cgi.pathfinder.com/time/time100/timewarp/timewarp.html Dec 1998 Infant Mortality 1900 vs now 1900 1998 US 140 6.3 Britain 154 6.3 India 232 69 per 1,000 live births Infant death rates by race: United States, 1933-45 Deaths under one year per 1000 live births Source: US Children's Bureau, Statistical series Number 4 Further progress in Reducing Maternal and Infant Mortality, Record of 1945 and 1946 Washington: GPO, 1949 19 Year Total White Nonwhite 1933 58.1 42.8 91.3 1934 60.1 54.5 94.4 1935 55.7 51.9 83.2 1936 57.1 52.9 87.6 1937 54.4 50.3 83.2 1938 51 47.1 79.1 1939 48 44.3 74.2 1940 47 43.2 73.8 1941 45.3 41.2 74.8 1942 40.4 37.3 64.6 1943 40.4 37.5 62.5 1944 39.8 36.9 60.3 1945 38.3 35.6 57 @@Hmong \priv\95\15\wasau2.txt 4/94 THE ORDEAL OF IMMIGRATION IN WAUSAU Atlantic Magazine. Hmong have lower infant-mortality rates than African-American natives because they have better access to social services and their culture encourages positive prenatal behavior. "They don't smoke, drink, or get fat during pregnancy," he says. @@Prenatal A big blame is placed on lack of prenatal care, but Asians and Hispanics have healthier babies, with less active prenatal care. @@National \clip\97\29\inftmort.txt http://www.bouldernews.com/BoulderNews/HealthScience/Discovery/html/X_9712020011.htm Boulder News December 2, 1997 Infant mortality rate in U.S. at new low By ALEXANDRA ZAVIS Associated Press CHICAGO life expectancy at birth has reached a new high, at 76.1 years. In 1996, there were 7.2 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, according to a summary of preliminary 1996 government statistics published in the December issue of Pediatrics, the journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics. \clip\97\23\checkup.txt http://search.tribnet.com/archive/0997/0912a12.htm News Tribune Checkup finds nation is healthier Life expectancy is up, and infant mortality is down September 12, 1997 Marlene Cimons; Los Angeles Times Life expectancy is up, and infant mortality is down @@Poverty Poverty is the most commonly cited reason for disparity in infant mortality between races, but this does NOT come even close to explaining when educated affulent blacks still have higher rates than Asian refugees and Hispanics with the highest rate of uninsured. claims as risk gets lower, disparity goes up z43\clip\2000\07\infmort.htm Society Date: 01/01/2000 Document ID: PN20000120030001994 Subject(s): Mortality; Race; Babies; Social conditions & trends; Socioeconomic factors Citation Information: ISSN: 0147-2011; Vol. 37 No. 2; p. 29-35 Author(s): James P Scanlan \clip\96\02\infdeat.txt The Seattle Times Company Aug 1, 1996 Infant-death rates fall to new lows King County, Seattle numbers are down compared with U.S. average, report says Disparity is cited by the article, "No one knows he reason for the disparity", only poverty is cited as a stress factor, but Asians and Hispanics, both with much higher poverty rates than whites have LOWER rates of infant mortality. doc941\blakrisk.txt San Jose Mercury News Feb 16, 1994 p. 7C Blacks face special health risks BY JEAN LATZ GRIFFIN chicago Tribune "In fact, in Illinois, a college-educated, middleclass black woman is slightly more likely to have a low birth weight baby than a poor white woman who has dropped out of high school." doc942\priv\blinfmor.doc Even educated blacks have high rates CDC study B2.0
@@World%%Infant Mortality filed \clip\98\18\unicef\U5MR.htm url: http://www.unicef.org/statis/U5MR.htm Unicef Under 5 Mortality 1996 %%Israel Infant Mortality in Israel -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Years Rate (per 1000 live births) 1990 9.9 1991 9.2 1992 9.4 1993 7.8 1994 7.5 1995 6.8 1996 6.3 1997 6.3 Source: Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, September 1998 The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) http://www.un.org/unrwa/pr/pdf/figures.pdf. The infant mortality rate of the registered Palestine refugees is about 32 per 1000, which is average amongst the Arab countries %%Underweight url: http://www.unicef.org/pon97/p20b.htm filed: +- Views do not reflect any other organization or group--------------+ Arthur Hu Join my diversity mailing list or arthurhu @ hufamily.com (no space) Check index and articles on web: Kirkland WA http://www.arthurhu.com/