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Housing: Arthur Hu's Index of Diversity

(c) Arthur Hu's Index of Diversity, please cite when using data from here arthurhu @ hufamily.com (no space) on how to get more complete data or complete text of these references


Asians in the suburbs live in very nice homes in expensive areas, but
Asians in the inner city live in the most crowded conditions, and are
less likely than equally poor African Americans to take advantage of
subsidized housing projects which typically assign two-bedroom
apartments to single-mother headed households.

@@affordable \doc\95\09\affocity.wk1 - Affordable cities: The most expensive cities have some of the highest concentrations of Asian Americans and other minorities Least Affordable Income % for Rank Metro Area Housing 1 San Francisco, CA 49.2 2 Honolulu, HI 48.8 3 New York, NY 41.3 4 Los Angeles, CA 40.7 5 Oakland/East Bay, CA 34.7 6 San Diego, CA 33.4 7 Boston, MA 33.2 8 Tucson, AZ 31.0 9 Sarasota-Bradenton, FL 31.0 10 San Jose, CA 30.7 Source: 1995 study of housing costs by E&Y Kenneth Leventhal Real Estate Group @@Discrimination Seattle Times Dec 26, 1999 A Century in Shelter Elizabrth Rhodes 1917 Supreme Court outlaws racial segregation ordinances 1942 Japanese ordered into internment camps 1947 Levittown covenant restricted to whites 1948 Supreme Court says covenants are not enforceable 1968 Housing disc oulawed under Fair Housing Act @@feng shui \doc\95\09\lakemont.txt - 17% of Lakemont $500,000 houses owned by Chinese 20% observe feng shui. "Feng Shui: practice creates harmony between space and its user" Seattle Times June 28, 1995 Susan Byrnes @@freeway \clip\97\28\freeway.txt http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/free_112997.html Seattle times Saturday, Nov. 29, 1997 Living in the shade of the freeway by Kerry Webster Special to The Seattle Times [There is always a buyer, at the right price] @@general d:\doc\94\19\cend1026.txt Jeanne Woodward, author of the report "America's Racial and Ethnic Groups: Their Housing in the Early Nineties" (H121/94-3), says "Housing is 'location, location, location'; and location causes considerable variation." For example: - Half (49 percent) of White householders lived in the suburbs. About two-thirds (68 percent) of Whites were homeowners and the median value of their homes was $82,000 in 1991. - The majority (55 percent) of Asian and Pacific Islander householders lived in the West. About half these householders were homeowners. The median value of homes owned by Asian and Pacific Islanders was $195,900, more than twice the national median ($80,300). This reflects their concentration in the West, a region of high-priced homes relative to the nation as a whole. - Ninety percent of Hispanic householders lived in metropolitan areas-- 52 percent in cities and 38 percent in suburbs. The largest proportion (43 percent) lived in the West. Only two in five (39 percent) were homeowners. Their median home value was $80,900. The report shows considerable diversity among the groups that comprise the Asian or Pacific Islander and Hispanic-origin populations. For example, in 1990: - Over half the Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, and Asian Indian householders in the United States were homeowners compared with about two in five Korean, Vietnamese, and Pacific Islander householders. - The median home values of all Asian groups and Pacific Islanders were well above the national median in 1990. Among Asian and Pacific Islanders, the Chinese and Japanese owned the most expensive homes, with half valued above $200,000 in 1990. The median value of homes owned by Vietnamese householders was the lowest, approximately $126,000. @@History see size @@homeless @@Latino HUGE LATINO PROGRESS FROM 1994 TO 2006 http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/01/opinion/01besharov.html Basically, between 1994 and 2006, the percentage of skilled, blue-collar jobs held by Latinos more than doubled, the median income of Latino individuals rose by 32% in constant dollars, and the poverty rate of Latinos dropped by 1/3. @@laws Some housing laws which aim to limit the number of people or type of dwelling may discriminate against Asians and Hispanics who want to add an apartment, or overcrowd apartments to save money or keep the family together. \doc\96\06\hispzone.txt From: matloff@cs.ucdavis.edu Subject: zoning and Hispanics Norm Matloff says that Davis passed a rule against students overcrowding apartments, most were white, compared to charges that such rules discriminate against Hispanics or Chinese. \clip\96\04\hisptarg.txt Date: Wed, 18 Sep 1996 21:28:20 -0400 From: NewsHound@sjmercury.com (NewsHound) Illinois City Accused of Targeting Hispanics With Zoning Rule By PAUL A. DRISCOLL Associated Press Writer WAUKEGAN, Ill. (AP) -- Like the Slavic, Lithuanian and Armenian immigrants before them, many Hispanic families arriving in Waukegan double up on living arrangements until they get on their feet. \priv\95\09\homesize.txt S.F. candidates oppose home-size limit (SFE 7/24/95) Chinese build in-law units or tear down old homes

@@low income

YES YOU CAN GET RENT FOR $54 A MONTH. WHY THERE ARE NO HOMELESS CHINESE... \doc\96\07\lifetrap.txt "For Poor, Life 'Trapped In A Cage'" New York Times Oct 6, 1996 p. 1 Mr. Zheng, 35 is working off a $30,000 debt to smugglers who put him on a ship to America. 12 men share a studio with triple bunk beds with a narrow corridor. They split a rent of $650 a month, paying only $54 each. Comment - that's an outrage when the government should guarantee all Americans the American dream of two new cars and a new 4 bedroom 2000 sq ft. house with good schools. Anyone else is part of the housing crisis :) @@Mortgage 52% OF MORTGAGE TAX BENEFIT GOES TO TOP 8.5% Economist James. B Poterba of M.I.T. study on home mortgages based on IRS and congressional data: 1988: 52% of federal tax benefits from mortgage interest went to the top 8.5% of American income earners. $50,000 and below got one-third. Harpers Index Aug '92 over $75,000: 1/2 less than $40,000 1/10


http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/cb98-200.html Nov 1997 US Census Bureau 16.7% moved in the year, 15.3% stayed in same place over 20 yrs 2.1 yrs median stay for renter 8.2 yrs owner-occupied housing \clip\98\17\move.txt http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/cb98-200.html \priv\95\12\ethmove.txt - Americans moving less \doc\95\02\cens301.txt - Whites (16 percent) have lower overall rates of moving than either African Americans (19 percent) or persons of Hispanic origin (24 percent).


%%History Common wisdom is that homes are not affordable, but more own homes than any time in history Seattle Times Dec 26, 1999 A Century in Shelter Elizabrth Rhodes 1930 47.8 1940 43.6 1999 67.0 %%Race Summary: Whites are most likely to own homes, followed by Native Americans (rural?) and Asians. Hispanics are the least, but Blacks are not far behind. Asians tend to be immigrants who have arrived relatively recently, and tend to be young adults or children compared to whites, despite their higher household incomes. By Year US 1980 W1.0 B-1.46 H-1.50 A-1.31 US 1998 W1.0 B-1.57 H-1.62 A ??? US 1991 W1.0(67.9%) B-1.6 H-1.8 A-1.4 NA -1.3 US 1990 W1.0 B-1.57 H-1.61 A-1.31 Rank by Race 1991 White 1.0 NativeAm -1.3 Asian -1.4 Black -1.6 Hispanic -1.8 ================================================== Homeownership reaches all-time high of 67.7% Seattle Times Nov 4, 2000 3rd quarter 2000 67.7 overall 67.0 1999 61. married couples under 35 53.3 headed by females 52.2 earn less than median family income 48.2 minorities 46.7 Hispanics Giving black wealth a boost Bus week Aug 14, 2000 p. 28 Black wealth est 80% less than white fams 22 to 60 rose more for blacks 66.5 to 69.2 white 37.7 to 42.4 black Kerwin Kofi Charles U Mich Erik Hurst U Chicago found 1991-1996 30% of white renters vs 12% blacks became owners blacks less likely to apply for loans, both reject rates low 8% of blacks helped from parents family vs 27% white financing \doc\web\98\06\house.wk1 "Home ownership stays near record highs" Seattle Times May 2, 1998 p. E1 US Department of Housing and Urban Development Percent Index 1Q98 4Q97 1Q98 4Q97 Overall 65.9% 65.7% -1.09 -1.09 White 72.1% 71.9% 1.00 1.00 Black 46.0% 45.7% -1.57 -1.57 Hispanic 44.4% 44.0% -1.62 -1.63 Asian not tracked. Analysis by Arthur Hu 5/98
Housing used to be a lot worse in the past Home ownership rates doc933/ashome.xls - Home Ownership by Race 1991: W1.0(67.9%) B-1.6 H-1.8 A-1.4 NA -1.3 1980 W1.0 B-1.46 H-1.50 A-1.31 1990 W1.0 B-1.57 H-1.61 A-1.31 Asians about half-way between whites and other minorities in home ownership \doc\94\19\priv\homeown.txt SJM HOME OWNERSHIP DECLINING 9/13/94



Summary: Asians are very likely to "overcrowd" units, as are Hispanics. Blacks are no longer very over-crowded, perhaps because of public housing which gives a single mother and 1.X children a two bedroom apartment. In New York city, only Whites and Japanese live in less crowded conditions. New York City Schoolchildren Rank by race 1.00 5.3% White 1.85 9.8% Japanese 3.32 17.6% Black 5.17 27.4% Filipino 6.53 34.6% Other Hispanic 6.83 36.2% Indian 7.43 39.4% Chinese 9.00 47.7% Mexican 9.02 47.8% Korean asian.housing.crowding \doc\95\02\cens301.txt 18% of AmInd households on reservations crowded vs. 2% for the nation as a whole. \priv\95\01\bosctwn.txt Boston Chinatown very crowded Statistics suggest why: The citywide average for people per acre of space is about 18. The figure for Chinatown is 41. The 5,092 inhabitants (by US Census count, which may be low by as much as 50 percent, according to some community activists) thus live in by far the closest quarters in Massachusetts \priv\94\20\quallife.txt "Asians and Hispanics will overcrowd units to get as many people as possible contributing," Pendall added. "African Americans will overpay, and whites will commute long distances." doc939\nyheal.txt K1 NYC schoolchildren Percent Living in Overcrowded Conditions (Department of City Planning definition = more than 1 person per room) White Black Mexican Chinese Korean OthHisp Percent 5.3% 17.6% 47.7% 39.4% 47.8% 34.6% Index 1.00 3.32 9.00 7.43 9.02 6.53 Indian Filipino Japanese Percent 36.2% 27.4% 9.8% Index 6.83 5.17 1.85 Asians and Mexicans are far more crowded than even Blacks Comment: This may be due to high rate of public housing among Blacks
@@public housing / housing project @@Project Public housing was originally meant to be a high quality alternative to substandard ghetto housing, but has often evolved into an urban equivlent of an indian reservation which walls off the poor often black underclass from the rest of society. Still, even residents of places like Chicago's Cabrini Green, with among the worst reputations, claim they like living there. Summary San Francisco '97 W1.00 B12.79 H1.38 A2.61 \doc\web\97\11\sfpubhou.wk1 San Francisco Public Housing by Race San Francisco Housing Agency: of 25,500 residents in public housing: Ranked by Comparitive Index W1.00 B12.79 H1.38 A2.61 1990 Public General Rate Index Housing Population Black 49% 10.50% 4.67 12.79 Asian 27% 28.40% 0.95 2.61 Hispanic 7% 13.90% 0.50 1.38 White 17% 46.60% 0.36 1.00 Blacks most, Whites least likely to live in SF Housing projects %%Asian Source: "Supes Study Racial Tensions in the Projects" Asian Week Dec 25, 1997 p. 23 Analysis by Arthur Hu "The Vietnamese American coalition was formed earlier this year follwing reports of violence against Vietnamese American residents of a predominantly African-American housing project in the Bayview / Hunters Point district \doc\96\03\lathous.txt ft \priv\96\03\lathous.txt Wednesday, April 24, 1996 Section: EDITORIAL Chicago Tribune "HISPANICS AND HOUSING SUBSIDIES" Latino groups were fed up that they are only 2 percent of Chicago public housing clients, but 25 percent of the income- eligible population, and won a lawsuit for equal treatment, and accomodation of bilingual needs. %%Demolition z47\clip\2000\12\project.txt December 19, 2000 As Housing Projects Are Destroyed, The Poor Resist Orders to Move Out By JONATHAN EIG Staff Reporter of THE WALL STREET JOURNAL WSJ.com -- From the Archives CHICAGO -- What if they tore down one of the nation's worst public-housing projects and people didn't want to leave? "Less than 2% of Chicago's population lives in the police district containing Taylor, but 6.5% of homicides and almost 8% of aggravated assaults take place there. The neighborhood is among the poorest in the nation, with 96% unemployment and a median income of about $8,500 a year." @@Rent Control Rent Control lets people of modest means stay in their apartments and keeps rents low, but distorts the market and discourages new construction, renovation, and people who want to move in. Boston just dropped rent control and New York in 1997 will let their expire as well. New York's system starte in WWII to address wartime housing shortages. The Immoral Effect of Rent Controls on Social Policy Michael Bauman (michael.bauman@ac.hillsdale.edu) The Covenant Syndicate June 12, 1997 \clip\97\15\nyrent2.txt NYC Residents Firmly Back Rent Regulations, Poll Finds NYC Residents Firmly Back Rent Regulations, Poll Finds NY Times June 11, 1997 By DAVID FIRESTONE In margins of at least 70 percent, those polled by the Times -- including homeowners and tenants -- said rent regulations were necessary to provide affordable housing and to prevent rents from soaring. \clip\97\15\nyrent.txt Vacancy Issue Becomes Focus of New York Rent Debate Vacancy Issue Becomes Focus of New York Rent Debate New York Times June 10, 1997 By JAMES DAO \clip\97\15\bostrent.txt Rent Deregulation in Boston: Disruption, but Also Construction Rent Deregulation in Boston: Disruption, but Also Construction New York Times June 10, 1997 By RANDY KENNEDY BOSTON -- In the two years since Massachusetts voters ended most rent controls for the cities of Boston, Cambridge and Brookline, two distinct interpretations of the results are beginning to emerge: While tenant advocates and landlords agree that noticeable disruptions and turnover have occurred in some neighborhoods, landlords say there are also signs that eliminating the rules has encouraged new housing construction and repairs. @@size Apartments and houses are larger even though affordability is about the same, and the percentage of the population owning homes is at its highest level. 1970s 1990s Apartment 750 900 House 1500 2100 How homes evolved in 50 years Seattle Times Feb 29, 2004 p. Sq Ft 2.5+ba 4+ bedrooms 1950 983 1% 1% 1960 stats not available 1970 1,501 16% 24% 1980 1,740 25% 20% 1990 2,180 45% 29% 2000 2,266 54% 36% Source: Elizabeth Rhodes, Seattle Times reporter National Association of Home Builders HOUSE SIZE DOUBLED IN 20TH CENT Seattle Times Dec 26, 1999 A Century in Shelter Elizabrth Rhodes 1900 1000 sf 1940 1100 1950 1000 1970 1500 1999 2225 MODERN HOMES LARGER, MORE LUXURIOUS THAN OLDER HOMES Jan 24, 1998 Seattle Times National Association of Home Builders 1971 1997 2.5+ Baths 15% 50% Air Conditioning 36% 82% 1 Story 75% 44% 2,500+ SF 9% 30% HOUSES 50% LARGER BUT FAMILIES 20% SMALLER Seattle Times May 22, 1999 Little Big House National Association of Home Builder says homes have increased from 1,500 sf in 1970 to 2,195 in 1998. In 30 years, families have decreased by 20%, but homes have increased in size by 50% HOUSES AND APARTMENTS BIGGER THAN BEFORE According to the National Association of Home Builders, the average single family house in the US is 28 years old (1970), when they were 1400-1500 square feet in size, now the average is 2000 square feet with big kitchens, closets, cathedral ceilings. Friendly Exchange Spring 1996 p. 16 "Room for Improvement" AVERAGE APARTMENT UP FROM 750 IN 1978 TO 900 SF IN 1998 Seattle Times Aug 17, 1998 p. A8 "Market exists for tiny apartments" Average apartment size was 750 square feet in 1978, 900 SF in 1998. "What's Driving Demand For Roomier Home?" Seattle Times June 30, 1996 20 years ago, new homes were 1,400 to 1,500 square feet, now they are 2,100 square feet @@Subprime mortgage %%analysis UT Dallas economist Stan J. Liebowitz's witty report on how "relaxed lending standards" to increase home ownership among minorities and low income whites led to the collapes is now online (1 meg PDF). Anatomy of a Train Wreck: Causes of the Mortgage Meltdown by Stan J. Liebowitz http://www.independent.org/pdf/policy_reports/2008-10-03-trainwreck.pdf download PDF File (29 pages) Why did the mortgage market melt down so badly? Why were there so many defaults when the economy was not particularly weak? Why were the securities based upon these mortgages not considered anywhere as risky as they actually turned out to be? This report concludes that, in an attempt to increase home ownership, particularly by minorities and the less affluent, virtually every branch of the government undertook an attack on underwriting standards starting in the early 1990s. Regulators, academic specialists, GSEs, and housing activists universally praised the decline in mortgage-underwriting standards as an “innovation” in mortgage lending. This weakening of underwriting standards succeeded in increasing home ownership and also the price of housing, helping to lead to a housing price bubble. The price bubble, along with relaxed lending standards, allowed speculators to purchase homes without putting their own money at risk. EQUAL DEFAULT RATES SHOW THERE WAS NO DISCRIMINATION BEFORE 15 years ago Peter Brimelow debunked the original report/hoax on discrimination against minorities in mortgage lending that set off this chain reaction catastrophe. See his 1993 Forbes article The Hidden Clue. http://www.vdare.com/pb/050105_hiddenclue.htm "And what we found was, there was no relationship between the racial composition of the tract and the default rate. So it wasn't true that tracts with large minority populations had higher default rates." Think about this carefully. The Boston Fed authors apparently assumed that equal default rates meant all minority applications are an equal credit risk compared with whites. But they're wrong. These census tract mortgages had already passed through the loan approval process-which had presumably rejected a higher proportion of minority applicants on the way. So the fact that white and minority default rates finished up equal meant mortgage lenders knew what they were doing. %%Asian From: saileregroups 10/08 - Borrowing by Asians for home purchases only increased by 218%, while Hispanics were up 693% from 1999-2006. Asians largely avoided the subprime follies, taking out an even lower percentage of mortgages as subprime than whites (something in the teens). Hispanics are usually said to have taken out about 40% or more their loans as subprime. %%black BLACK TWICE AS LIKELY TO BE SUBPRIME http://cityflight.com/?p=220 Sep 11, 2008 Mortgage Madness By Alessandra Harris Findings by the advocacy group ACORN are that African Americans received twice the amount of subprime refinance loans compared to their white counterparts, regardless of credit standing or income level. Once the housing bubble began to bust and interest rates began to climb, foreclosure notices began showing up everywhere. @@Suburb z57\clip\2002\08\patio.txt Patio Man and the Sprawl People, Part 2 of 2 http://www.weeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/001/532gxuur.asp http://www.weeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/001/531wlvng.asp Patio Man and the Sprawl People America's newest suburbs. by David Brooks 08/12/2002, Volume 007, Issue 46 The biggest of these boom suburbs are huge. With almost 400,000 people, Mesa, Arizona, has a larger population than Minneapolis, Cincinnati, or St. Louis. The majority of Asian Americans, half of Hispanics, and 40 percent of American blacks live in suburbia. Already, suburbanites make up about half of the country's population (while city people make up 28 percent and rural folk make up the rest) @@survey \doc\94\19\housrace.wk1 - Housing by Race Median Home Values W1.00 B-1.49 H-1.01 A2.39 N-1.3 T-1.03 Median household size W1.00 B1.09 H1.41 A1.41 N1.32 T1.05 Renter in Poverty Areas W1.40 B7.25 H4.62 A2.49 N2.50 T2.62 Live in Poor Opinion Neighborhood W1.00 B3.24 H2.50 A1.54 N3.34 T1.38 Source: America's Racial and Ethnic Groups: Their Housing in the Early Nineties by Jeanne M. Woodward Current Housing Reports H121/94-3 Sept 1994 US Government Printing Office Wash DC