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HOMEWORK FROM HELL: HIGHER STANDARDS GONE AMOK

Contents

Homework Spectrum

Hours Per week ----------------------- 42 Some US high schools 18 UK high school recommendation 15 Newsweek 4th grader 15+ Taiwan 14 yr old 14 Miami high school guidelines 14 Japan 14 yr old 5-10 German general high school 6 Britain 14 yr old 4-5 A.G. Bell Grade 1 2-3 A.G. Bell kindergarten 1 UK elementary school

Discussion

Ed deformers are piling on huge quantities of homework that is too difficult for first graders to handle independently. Lifelong learning and being competitive in a world market is the reason given the same as other "higher standards" reforms Traditionally, no homework was assigned until 4th or 5th grade.

Homework should not be assigned at all in the lower grades. If it is assigned at all, it should be simple enough to be done independently by the student, and should not require parents to teach new topics or skills not covered in class

Parents should be able to complain in public about the homework without being served with a threatening letter from the teachers union for "questioning professional judgement" of the teacher.

Topics A-Z

@@Backlash z75\clip\2004\02\homewaste.txt http://education.guardian.co.uk/schools/story/0,5500,1143574,00.html Homework fails to make the grade Mark Townsend Sunday February 8, 2004 The Observer "Current [uk] government guidance ranges from at least one hour a week of homework for five-to seven-year-olds to two-and-a-half hours a day for students aged 14 to 16." Children have long suspected it, and now research confirms it: homework is a waste of time. Anxiety, boredom, fatigue and emotional exhaustion are all side-effects of bringing schoolwork home, according to a review of 75 years of study into the issue. ...report by the Institute of Education z52\clip\2001\10\cogni.txt Politics and Reading at the NICHD Steven L. Strauss, M.D., Ph.D. "I am seeing more families where schoolwork that is developmentally inappropriate for the cognitive levels of children is causing emotional havoc at home," z51\clip\2001\09\muchhome.txt Washington Post SEP 03, 2001 Too Much Homework, Too Little Play By KATHY SEAL Though homework has a clear benefit in high school, there is no research showing that any amount of it advances the education of elementary school kids. KIDS SHOULD NOT BE COMING HOME WITH 3 HOURS OF HOMEWORK http://www.asbj.com/current/coverstory.html z48\clipim\2001\03\21\homework\homework.htm .txt American School Board Journal Homework Problems: How much is too much? Parents and educators don't always agree. A small [amount] is OK, so students understand their responsibility to learn," she says. "But they shouldn't be coming home with three hours of homework." WHAT A NOVEL CONCEPT. HOMEWORK KIDS CAN DO WITHOUT PARENTS DOING IT. z48\clip\2001\03\homeq.txt 3/2001 http://www.asbj.com/current/coverstory.html Not all homework is created equal American School Board Journal "The school is also considering the concept of "parent neutral" homework -- work students can complete without their parents' help. To accomplish this, says Rogers, teachers will have to make sure that what goes home is an outgrowth of what goes on in the classroom. " z48\clip\2001\02\warhome.txt Book Review: The War Against Homework Source: Accuracy In Media Published: 8/2/01 Author: Marianne M. Jennings "The End of Homework: How Homework Disrupts Families, Overburdens Children and Limits Learning." What a tale. It is indeed a tale, for Kralovec and Buell faced studies overwhelmingly supportive of homework and so were forced to diss the scientific method. z47\clipim\2001\01\22\partrap\partrap.htm Newsweek: The Parent Trap 1/22/2001 Raising children today is like competing in a triathlon with no finish line in sight. We only want what’s best for them, but our kids may not be better off http://www.msnbc.com/news/519329.asp?cp1=1 "Students today have lots of homework at earlier and earlier ages, even though many educational researchers say homework in elementary school has almost no effect on student achievement" DOES HOMEWORK WIDEN THE SCHOOL GAP WHEN PARENTS HELP OUT? HOMEWORK CITED AS FACTOR THAT PUSHES POOR KIDS OUT z47\CLIP\2001\01\homewar.txt Copyright © 2000 Harvard Education Letter Forum Feature (November/December 2000) The Homework Wars "My research associate and I could not believe that these students all cited homework as a factor that led to their leaving school. " "My sister, who is in second grade, is at one of those hot girls' schools and has two hours of homework a night. She cries about it, and I have to help her, because my parents are out a lot. And what is it all for? To go to Harvard or Yale, or maybe Bowdoin, if you aren't so lucky? To work your butt off at some law firm just to become another super-parent, raising super-kids?" z47\clipim\2000\12\11\homework\homeworkhtm http://www.forbes.com/forbes/2000/1225/6616108a.html Too Much Homework? Peter Brimelow, Forbes Magazine, 12.25.00 Bureaucrats throw money at a problem. Teachers throw homework assignments at their students. If nothing else, heavy homework punishes those pesky parents who are upset with the disappointing performance of schools. U.S. students are already working almost as hard as Asians: 24% of eighth graders do more than three hours of homework a night versus 28% in Japan--and only 17% in Germany. Chart - except for Japan, test scores actually DECREASE with homework hours beyond 1 to 2 hours per night. http://seattlep-i.nwsource.com/local/home051.shtml z45\clip\2000\10\homewrk1.txt Kids' homework load rising, but they get support in coping Tuesday, September 5, 2000 By DEBERA CARLTON HARRELL SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER REPORTER "An elementary school rule of thumb is 10 minutes of homework per grade level. Thus, 10 minutes in first grade, 20 minutes in second, 30 in third grade, and so on. The only homework for kindergartners, Kirk said, is to be read to by parents." @@Britain HOMEWORK FROM HELL IS PART OF LIFELONG LEARNING CONSPIRACY! "HOMEWORK REFLECTS CHANGES IN EDUCATIONAL THINKING, RELATING TO LEARNING AS A LIFELONG PROCESS." \doc\web\99\09\ukhome.txt \clip\99\13\summary.pdf Summary of findings from the OFSTED research study: see http://www.dfee.gov.uk/homework/index.htm Homework: Guidelines for Primary and Secondary Schools (Britain) Key Findings Homework and learning 2 Homework is widely accepted as an essential and valuable element of learning. However, earlier research and our own study show that homework can have many meanings and be used to serve a variety of purposes. Schools therefore need to take an active role in evaluating and developing their own homework strategy to meet the needs of the future. 3 Increasingly, good practice in homework builds upon and reflects broader changes in educational thinking, relating to learning as a lifelong process. As well as its traditional function of practice and reinforcement of classroom learning, homework was seen by schools in the study to of fer opportunities to develop key skills for independent learning, such as information retrieval, planning, analysis and time management. Homework strategy In most schools, homework policy was led by the head or deputy. In a number of case study schools, there had been a policy decision to develop a more structured homework programme as part of the overall strategy to raise attainment. There were some common features of these structured programmes: l all pupils, in all year groups, were expected to do homework, the amount increasing with age; l partnership with parents was seen as fundamental; l the strategy was designed to fit the school context; l the core of the homework programme in both key stages was the development of literacy and numeracy skills; l progression for all pupils was usually catered for by designing or adopting comprehensive skill development schemes or frameworks to cover all age groups; l homework was planned to complement the classroom programme. Because programmes were tailored to school priorities and needs, there was considerable diversity , even among effective schools, in the range of tasks, in the approach to parental involvement and to assessment, and in monitoring systems. A verage amount of homework set 7 One of the questions asked of head teachers in the telephone survey was how much homework was set for dif ferent year groups, in terms of the amount of time required broadly each week. The distribution, and the average amount, of homework set by the survey schools is set out below. reception 57m 1 1:07 2 1:19 3 1:36 4 1:43 5 2:07 6 2:26

@@Catholic

in the Catholic schools  were I
sent my children (for elementary grades).  It is 10-15 minutes of
homework per grade.  So 1st grade gets about 10-15 minutes of
homework per night

@@China

http://straitstimes.asia1.com.sg/asia/ea5_0306.html Strait times
interactive Mar 6, 2000 z40\clip\2000\03\chinhome.txt Good news for
students -- less homework now HUNDREDS of millions of schoolchildren
in China were smiling yesterday after their Premier ordered their
teachers to stop piling them with homework.  A lively debate has been
triggered in the Chinese press in recent weeks over the unacceptable
hot-house pressure in the country's schools, after a model pupil
murdered his mother in response to constant pressure to achieve top
marks in school. 


@@Constructivism

Most of the homework assignments
that were being complained about were prime examples of
constructivist methods emphasizing "higher order thinking skills" and
"real-world, hands-on projects" over basic understanding. Elementary
math problems so obtuse that they leave even parents stumped. 


@@General

New York Times Nov 9, 1986 As Homework Increases, So Does the
Anxiety. Some schools see homework as a no-cost way to increase
learning time and test scores, but some parents don't have the time,
so like being tutors, some kids turn it into a battle. Some studies
show higher test scores for high school seniors. [This is the
forerunner of the infinite homework for first graders of the 1990s]

\doc\web\99\01\studwant.txt
>From Parade Magazine
January 10, 1999
How Can We Make Our Schools Better?  A Special 'Fresh Voices' Report 
by Lynn Minton
***No More Boring Homework***

About 6 hours per night, 7 days a week
for a 9-10th grader is just too much


3 HOURS OF HOMEWORK / NIGHT FOR 4TH GRADE IS TOO DAMN MUCH!
\clip\99\01\badhomew.txt
http://cgi.newsweek.com/cgi-bin/nwframe?url=http://newsweek.washingtonpost.com/nw-srv/issue/13_98a/nw_980330_050_1.htm
Newsweek; U.S. Edition - March 30, 1998 HOMEWORK DOESN'T HELP [at
least until grade 6] BY SHARON BEGLEY "In lower grades, ``there was a
significant negative relationship between the amount of homework
assigned and student attitudes,'' Cooper says, reflecting the
not-surprising fact that kids resent the stuff. But in grades six and
up, the more homework students completed, the higher their
achievement."

discussion
4 hrs is too much, but don't ban it
\doc\web\99\01\homewrk2.txt

\clip\99\01\edclip03.txt NY Times: Homework bound: more work, less
play January 3, 1999 Homework bound. Parents object to very young
children being assigned tons of difficult homework.

TOO MUCH K-G1 HOMEWORK? MOST STUDIES SAY IT MAKES NO DIFFERENCE,
TWO SAY IT DOES HELP
New York Times January 3, 1999 Homework Bound
"Newsweek did a cover story last spring headlined "Why Homework
Doesn't Help." The article was based in part on the research of
Harris Cooper of the University of Missouri, considered a leading
homework scholar. In 1989, Dr.  Cooper did a landmark survey of more
than 100 homework studies and concluded that, while children who do
substantial amounts of homework perform better on standardized tests
at the junior-high and high-school level, it does not seem to make a
difference for elementary-age students. "

the principal of Deerfield, said the school really has no choice --
it must assign homework. "This is what's demanded to stay competitive
in a global market," he said.

"Joyce Epstein, a professor of education at Johns Hopkins University
has done studies showing that elementary-school homework improves
school performance.  Carol Huntsinger, an education professor at the
College of Lake County in suburban Chicago found Asians started
homework earlier, whites with similar habits scored as high"

GOAL IS TURNING CHILDREN INTO *LIFELONG LEARNERS*
\clip\98\13\homework.txt Published Friday, October 2, 1998, in the
Miami Herald Students tackle growing piles of homework " ``The goal
for homework is different at this age,'' Cooper said.  ``It's not to
achieve dramatic changes in their test scores overnight. It's not
going to happen. Instead, it's taking the long-term developmental
approach of turning our children into independent lifelong
learners.''  "

" In elementary school there is little proof that homework has any
positive effect on students' grades and test scores, according to
more than 100 studies done on the subject.  It isn't until students
reach high school that homework substantially raises students'
achievement. For high school students, the more homework they do, the
more their achievement goes up.  "

" Citing research, the National Education Association and the
National PTA suggest students should spend about 10 minutes per grade
level on homework a night. That means a first-grader spends 10
minutes, a second-grader spends 20 minutes and so on. If assignments
are largely reading, the amount of time can be adjusted up by about 5
minutes, the groups advise.  " [Research? WHAT RESEARCH???]

The Miami-Dade School Board sets these daily averages as guidelines
for the amount of time students should spend on homework each night:

             Kindergarten, first grade 
                                 30 minutes
             Second, third grades 
                                 45 minutes
             Fourth, fifth grades 
                                 60 minutes
             Sixth to eighth grades 
                                 75 minutes
             Ninth to 12th grades 
                                120 minutes

All students must read for 30 minutes (anything)

feedback thread


@@Fee Based

http://www.abovegroundtutors.com/
"We do your homework for $25 a problem, we sell book reports"
This saves the Student enormous time in preparing them. The price is just $5.00 per page!


@@Harmful

Studies have shown that excessive or even significant amounts of
homework can be harmful, and at some times people have pushed to ban
it. Homework is up 3X since the early 1980s, even in elementary
school.  Traditionally, elementary school kids didn't get any
homework. Some of it is so hard the parents can't even figure it out,
or the parents end up doing it, so kids who don't have parents doing
it are at a disadvantage.

z70\clip\2003\09\homehass.txt
The News Tribune - Tacoma, WA Monday, September 8, 2003   
Homework hassles 
DEBBIE CAFAZZO; The News Tribune 
For Janet Stuart, third grade was a shock. When her daughter Rachel
started bringing home several hours of homework a night last year, the
Tacoma mother sensed something wasn't right. 

z68\clip\2003\07\homewk2.txt
http://www.time.com/time/2003/kids/homework.html The Homework Ate My
Family Kids are dazed, parents are stressed — why piling it on is
hurting students By Romesh Ratnesar Monday, June 23, 2003 From the
Jan. 25, 1999 issue of TIME Magazine "researchers at the University of
Michigan, 6-to-9-year-olds in 1981 spent 44 min. a week on homework;
in 1997 they did more than two hours' worth. The amount of time that
9-to-11-year-olds devoted to homework each week increased from 2 hr.
49 min. to more than 3 1/2 hr."
"As early as third grade, Rachel Heckelman, now 11, came home every
day from her elementary school in Houston with three hours' worth of
homework. The assignments were often so dizzyingly complex—one asked
her to design an entire magazine"

ELEMENTARY HOMEWORK UP 3X FROM 45 MIN TO 2 HRS 1981-97
http://www.usnews.com/usnews/issue/001023/homework.htm
\clip\2000\10\ushome.txt Do kids have too much homework?  US News
World Report Oct 23, 2000 By Mary Lord Here's what four hours of
after-school assignments have meant to this freshman at McClintock
High School in Tempe, Ariz.: crying jags, dropping church youth-group
activities, and skipping basketball tryouts. "I've given up life,
pretty much," says Taylor. In 1981, for example, 6-to-8-year-olds
averaged 44 minutes of homework per week; by 1997, a University of
Michigan study found that total had climbed to 120 minutes–nearly
three times as much. 

SAY NO TO 4TH GRADE HOMEWORK FROM HELL z45\clip\2000\10\nohomew.txt
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/10/10/nyregion/10HOME.html October 10,
2000 As Homework Load Grows, One District Says 'Enough' By KATE
ZERNIKE Dith Pran/ The New York Times It was homework again: math
problems, a science report, worksheets.  By the time Mrs. Markowitz
had read enough of her daughter's science textbook to figure out how
to help, it was 10:15 and they still had to go on the Internet to do
research. Then, more tears as they argued over whether her daughter
had time to practice her saxophone and get a good night's sleep
before getting up at 6:45 to catch the school bus.
And that was just fourth grade.


Doyon It has always been my
belief that childhood should be a time when one is allowed to bound
in the door from school to watch lots of Gilligan's Island and Leave
It To Beaver reruns, or useless and warped cartoons, Also...  of 24
students. 15 were on academic contracts (the systems first paperwork
trail for your child isn't performing up to standards) and approx 1/3
were on, or recommended to be on medication because the can't stay on
task. This is also a white middle class burb where 1/2 the women stay
home all day with the kids.

BBC News 
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/education/newsid_711000/711675.stm#HURRICANE
Primary School children should not be given homework. Parents are
spending at least 1-2 hours each evening try to help their children
keep up with their work.  Mrs Heather Jones, Wales 

Washington Post 2/8/2000
Who Needs Homework? Parents and Professionals Alike Disagree on the
Purpose of After-Hours Lessons
By Valerie Strauss
     If kids today knew who Gen. Francis A. Walker was, they just might
build an altar to exalt his name. A Civil War hero turned Boston school
board president, Walker thought math homework harmed children's health.
So he pushed the panel to ban it in 1900.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/education/newsid_422000/422081.stm
\clip\99\16\homewarn.txt
Tuesday, August 17, 1999 Published at 16:04 GMT 17:04 UK                        							   
Heads' homework warning                                                         							   
Quality is more important than quantity, says union                             							     

" [The Department for Education] official stance is that all pupils
in England should do homework - increasing from an hour a week in
primary school, to two and a half hours a day when they are 15.  "
"A headteachers' union says children should not be given so much homework									     
that it prevents them doing other things after school such as sport or          							     
music."              							     
                                                                  
British schoolchildren do far less homework than those in many economic										   
competitors:																								     
																											     
   * Japanese 14-year-olds average eight and a half hours a week, while										   
     children in Taiwan do even more.																			 
   * Teenagers in Hungary, Poland, the Netherlands, Israel and Italy											 
     also do between eight and nine hours a week.																 
   * At present, 14-year-olds in Britain average only six hours a week,										   
     with some believed to spend as little as 15 minutes a week at home										   
     on some subjects.																						   


http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/education/newsid_383000/383843.stm
\clip\99\13\badhome.txt

BBC More evidence against primary school homework Primary
schoolchildren do worse rather than better if they are given more
than one piece of homework a month, say researchers.

Saturday, July 3, 1999 More evidence against primary school homework
: Homework does not improve primary school test results, say
researchers 

Homework can do primary schoolchildren more harm than good, say
researchers.  

\clip\99\13\summary.pdf Summary of findings from the OFSTED research
study:
see http://www.dfee.gov.uk/homework/index.htm Homework: Guidelines
for Primary and Secondary Schools
																		  			 																		  
A study of 11-year-olds at the University of Durham has found that
children who are given more homework do not perform better in tests
than those who do very little - and often they perform worse.  

Last month, researchers from King's College, London claimed that a
two-year survey showed that homework makes little impact on raising
standards in maths in primary school.  

The University of Durham survey of 20,000 pupils has found that those
who received only one piece of homework a month were more successful
than those who did much more or none at all.  


@@Law

\clip\2000\03\suckers.txt
http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/1998/04/24
/ED19367.DTL  
DEBRA J. SAUNDERS -- Today's Assignment, Suckers 
Friday, April 24, 1998 
TRY THIS for a sound-bite reform. Lieutenant Governor Gray Davis --
campaigning to downsize his title to guv -- proposes the following scheme to
improve California public schools. He wants to require all parents to sign a
contract with their kids' schools each year in which they would promise to
help their kids with homework and spend five hours per month on campus. He
also proposed state homework guidelines -- 15 minutes per day for
kindergartners, 30 minutes for students in grades one through three, 45
minutes for grades four through six, 90 minutes for seventh and eigth
graders, and 2 hours for ninth graders, 130 minutes per day for sophomores,
140 minutes for juniors and 150 minutes for seniors. 


@@Lifelong Learning 

GOAL IS TURNING CHILDREN INTO *LIFELONG LEARNERS*
\clip\98\13\homework.txt Published Friday, October 2, 1998, in the
Miami Herald Students tackle growing piles of homework " ``The goal
for homework is different at this age,'' Cooper said.  ``It's not to
achieve dramatic changes in their test scores overnight. It's not
going to happen. Instead, it's taking the long-term developmental
approach of turning our children into independent lifelong
learners.''  "


HOMEWORK FROM HELL IS PART OF LIFELONG LEARNING CONSPIRACY!
"HOMEWORK REFLECTS CHANGES IN EDUCATIONAL THINKING, RELATING TO
LEARNING AS A LIFELONG PROCESS."
\doc\web\99\09\ukhome.txt
\clip\99\13\summary.pdf Summary of findings from the OFSTED research
study:
see http://www.dfee.gov.uk/homework/index.htm Homework: Guidelines
for Primary and Secondary Schools (Britain)

"Increasingly, good practice in homework builds upon and reflects
broader changes in educational thinking, relating to learning as a
lifelong process."


@@Minority

Time article mentions poor kids have too many responsibilities to
family and job to put any priority on homework.

Don Crawford "Because many children
lack the necessary infrastructure at home to accomplish much in the
way of homework, reliance on homework can be seen as a regressive
policy.  Those who don't have the cultural supports won't progress as
much, so the poor in family-support remain poor in educational
attainment."


@@Parent Role

Some schools ask parents to 
teach kids lessons before school or drill them on times tables.

PARENTS ARE DOING MORE OF THE HOMEWORK
z60\clip\2002\10\momhome.txt October 29, 2002 PERSONAL JOURNAL Schools
Face Up to Reality: Mom Is Doing the Homework By ANNE MARIE CHAKER
Staff Reporter of THE WALL STREET JOURNAL A growing number of schools
are openly acknowledging that parents are doing more and more of the
work. Some teachers are formally changing policies to take into
account the fact that the penetrating report on the Peloponnesian War
was largely written by someone with a Ph.D., not a fifth-grader.  One
Connecticut teacher says a few children have turned in homework in
their parents' handwriting.



@@Sample

Useless social studies homework


@@Simple

Mediator can bridge gap between
teachers who assign bad homework, the union and parents. Homework
should not have to be taught by the parents.

@@Staffing

Teacher needs assistant to 
process all this homework


@@Statistics

\doc\web\99\01\fedhome.txt
From: cassidy 
I was poking around the National Center for Education Statistics website
and discovered statistics for homework issues if anyone cares to look...

website:
http://nces.ed.gov/

Reference page:
http://nces.ed.gov/pubs98/condition98/index.html  (homework in listed in
section D)

(one)homework page:
http://nces.ed.gov/pubs98/condition98/c9836a01.html


@@Too Much


CONSERVATIVES OK WITH LOTS OF HOMEWORK The Education Intelligence
Agency http://members.aol.com/educintel/eia The December 19 1999 San
Francisco Examiner has a lengthy panic attack on the amount of
homework our kids get. Replete with stories of students working by
candlelight into the wee hours, the article cites research from the
University of Michigan that 6- to 9-year-olds are doing an average of
2 ours of homework per week, while kids 9-12 are doing 3 hours per
week. That's 24 minutes per school night, and 42 minutes per school
night, respectively. [watch less than 4 hr tv per night abd it is ok]

SF Chron
Parents complain about too much homework - Oprah early 1999
http://www.oprah.com/show/archives/past_shows.html
http://www.oprah.com/show/archives/months/1999/199904.html
4/1/99 Does Your Child Have Too Much Homework?
http://www.oprah.com/show/archives/days/1999/19990401.html
\clipim\99\05\25\oprah\oprah.htm oprah.txt



@@World

The Japanese often don't assign any homework at all. German homework
varies from a half-hour to over 3. Americans generally do homework at
school. US kids study as hard and do more homework, yet scored
relatively poorly at grade 8 and 12 compared to other nations.

8th graders over 3 hrs homework / night
28% Japan
24% US
17% Germany
http://www.forbes.com/forbes/2000/1225/6616108a.html Too Much
Homework?  Peter Brimelow, Forbes Magazine, 12.25.00


http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/education/newsid_422000/422081.stm
\clip\99\16\homewarn.txt
Tuesday, August 17, 1999 Published at 16:04 GMT 17:04 UK                        							   
Heads' homework warning                                                         							   
Quality is more important than quantity, says union                             							     
   * Japanese 14-year-olds average eight and a half hours a week, while										   
     children in Taiwan do even more.																			 
   * Teenagers in Hungary, Poland, the Netherlands, Israel and Italy											 
     also do between eight and nine hours a week.																 
   * At present, 14-year-olds in Britain average only six hours a week,										   
     with some believed to spend as little as 15 minutes a week at home										   
     on some subjects.																						   

US DOES MORE HOMEWORK, PERFORMS WORSE THAN OTHER NATIONS
\clip\99\07\edclip04.txt Teaching methods examined Saturday, February
27, 1999 By JOHN C. KUEHNER PLAIN DEALER REPORT [on the TIMS]
Eighth-graders did not fare as well. They ranked about in the middle
of the pack.  And high school seniors did poorly. They came in near
last.  Yet American students spend as much time or more studying as
students in other countries and do more homework.

A Study of Three Cultures: Germany, Japan, and the United States An
Overview of the TIMSS Case Study Project
http://www.pdkintl.org/kappan/kste9803.htm
\clip\98\08\timss\timss.htm
Phi Delta Kappan Magazine March 1998

one might ask high school students how many hours they spend doing
homework each day. The answer often given by Japanese students is
unexpected: none. Only by pursuing the topic further does the actual
state of affairs become clear. Additional discussion and questioning
reveals that homework is often not assigned, but high school students
are expected to spend several hours a night reviewing the day's
lessons and anticipating the lessons for the following day

most - college-bound Gymnasium students. Realschule total of one or
two hours each night The Hauptschule students we spoke with spent
between half an hour and an hour each day on homework,

It is increasingly common in both middle schools and high schools in
the U.S. that homework is done in school and simply represents work
that teachers expect to be done before the next class meeting.