\doc\web\index\family.htm Family / Diversity Home | Top of Index | Contents

Family: Arthur Hu's Index of Diversity

(c) Arthur Hu's Index of Diversity, please cite when using data from here arthurhu @ hufamily.com (no space) on how to get more complete data or complete text of these references ASIAN SUPERIORITY THROUGH SUPERIOR FAMILIES

Family structure is a major factor in ethnic success. Asians have the lowest crime, best health, and best academics, lowest rate of placement in foster care, and much of it stems from a high rate of two parent families, the opposite is true of African Americans who have the lowest rate of two parent families, and worst social outcomes. Asians have problems, but fewer of them. Significantly, although black problems are widely publicized, the strength of Asian families and outcomes seems to be deliberately hidden from discussion as part of the general supression of the "model minority".

In debate over the crisis of family structure, Asians are ignored even though they have the lowest rate of teen and unwed pregnancy, lowest rate of divorce, and highest rate of children with 2 parents. Whites are born to unwed mothers now at the same rate blacks were 30 years ago, blacks are at 2/3 as of 1990. Hispanics in California are no worse than state average in percentage of families with children headed by single mothers, despite poverty. See teen and unwed birth rates, foster care. In the UK, some have observed that divorce and unwed pregancy is "strongly discouraged", so culture DOES make a difference as opposed to the attitude that anything that the kids do can't be changed merely by "willing" it to be so.

Summary of some family statistics
Ranked by Asian Index
Index White=1.0 2.0=2x better -2.0=2x worse
W-White B-Black/AfricanAm H-Hispanic/Latino A-Asian
N-NativeAm/Alaskan Native
Foster Care CA 94   W1.0 B-9.8 H-1.6 A 4.9
Foster Care SC 93   W1.0 B-6.8 H-2.2 A 2.7
Child Sing Moth 93  W1.0 B-3.3 H-1.4 A 2.2       source
US Unmar Part       W1.0 B-1.2 H-1.1 A 2.0 N-1.8
Cohabit Parent US   W1.0 B-1.9 H-1.9 A 2.0
Urb Child Not 2Par  W1.0 B-2.9 H-1.7 A 1.3
Single Mother UK    W1.0 B-2.7 H     A 1.1
Foster Care US 94   W1.0 B-3.0 H-1.7 A 0.0
SC = Santa Clara County CA

Model Minority myth? 
Asians are better than whites, 
Blacks are worse
for every statistic.

Ranked by Black
Foster Care CA 94     W1.0 B-9.8 H-1.6 A 4.9
Foster Care SC 93     W1.0 B-6.8 H-2.2 A 2.7
Child Sing Moth 93 US W1.0 B-3.3 H-1.4 A 2.2       source
Child notliv fath93   W1.0 B-3.2
Foster Care US 94     W1.0 B-3.0 H-1.7 A 0.0
Urb Child Not 2Par US W1.0 B-2.9 H-1.7 A 1.3
Single Mother UK      W1.0 B-2.7 H     A 1.1
Cohabit Parent US     W1.0 B-1.9 H-1.9 A 2.0
US Unmar Part         W1.0 B-1.2 H-1.1 A 2.0 N-1.8




doc939:abanbaby.doc - US News most abandoned babies are black


\clip\96\05\fambetr.txt Date: Sun, 22 Sep 1996 07:14:02 -0400 From:
NewsHound@sjmercury.com (NewsHound) U.S. families are changing -- for
better or worse Politicians disagree on effect of assistance By Steve
Johnson Mercury News Staff Writer Never mind that the American family
earns more, is better educated and in many ways healthier, and its
teens are less likely to abuse drugs or have babies than years ago.

@@Children Rearing

Who's easier: boys or girls? Parents Jan 1998 p. 70 Boys and girls
are "wired" differently. Research show that boys basically are more
active, says Phyllis Katz, PhD director of the Institute for Research
on Social Problems, Boulder Co. Girls are quieter and are more likely
to respond to soft words or a smile. American journal of Medicine
finds boys 3 and under 23% more likely to be injured seriously enough
to need medical attention. Boys account for over 3 times as many
cases of hyperactivity and learning problems, girls are more like
model citizens and know how to please a female teacher

Parents mag poll found 38 girls easier, 30 boys, 22 equal

Parent mention boys aggressive 
messy noisy stubborn
girls cooperative kind manipulative whiny
both easyfgoing insependent outgoing


August 15 2000  BRITAIN 
Bohemian elite 'hides truth about marriage' 
Ms Morgan's book, Marriage-Lite... cohabitants suffer from more
stress and are more likely to be depressed than married couples.
Cohabitants are also more likely to be unfaithful to their partners. 
Research from Australia compared academic attainment and social
skills among a group of 174 children of married couples with a
similar-size group of children of cohabiting couples and found that
the latter did less well at school. 


priv\95\04\cust90.txt Medio Vol2 No. 3 March 95
- 90% of cases are not litigated and custody goes to women
- men who sue win 70% of the time
JOBS: Courts Ruling Against Working Mothers On Custody

\doc\95\04\mencust.txt - 15% of men have sole, 8% have joint custody, not 50%.


"Putting Working Moms in Custody" Newsweek March 13, 1995 p. 54

One recent study of California custody suits found that when both
parents wanted sole custody, mothers won in 45 percent of the cases,
fathers in 11 percent, and joint custody for the rest (44%). But
that's only when both want sole custody, it's usually the women who
want sole custody.

An Ellen Goodman piece in the Seattle Times claimed that men won
custody half of the time.



Z55\clip\2002\02\famcare.txt Who's watching the kids? Family, friends
in this state Almost half of Washington children from infants to age
12 — nearly a half-million total — are regularly in the
care of extended family, friends or neighbors, says a University of
Washington study released today.  A majority of those informal care
providers — nearly 300,000 people who are unregulated by the
state — have no specific training in child-care,
child-development or parenting skills and tend to be less affluent
and educated than the state's general population, the study found.
study...rated 88 percent of the unregulated home-care settings as
inadequate or minimal. The homes lacked books and appropriate toys,
and caregivers sometimes used inappropriate discipline, nearly 80
percent of the licensed centers were rated as good. 
[This is shocking, obviously, we need a law against inadequate 
child care, and enough funding to ensure affordable quality daycare
for all parents who need it! Next we need a study to show how many
children are in the primary care of parents who don't have adequate
training for facilities for their own children]

Here is a link to the full report.  
The Human Services Policy Center (HSPC)'s mission is
to improve the well-being of children and families by
promoting collaborative and preventive service
policies that cross the bounds of professions,
disciplines, and service organizations. 


Some 55 percent of Japanese aged sixty-five and older were living
with their children in 1994.  At a time when comparable figures have
dropped to less than 20 percent in Western nations, the slow decline
of the Japanese family as the primary welfare institution owes much
to managerial efforts by the state. \clip\98\04\japan.txt Foreign
Policy Research Inst  The Newsletter of FPRI's Marvin
Wachman Fund for International Education MOLDING JAPANESE MINDS By
Sheldon Garon February 1998 Vol. 5, No. 2



HOME Oregon police kill man after wild car chase. Father is driven by
girlfriend in Camaro, goes to foster home, shoots owner, grabs his
kids, shoot at cops out of back window in chase, is forced to stop at
gas station where he is gunned down by police after he tries to shoot
again. (breaks my heart)
http://www.virtuallynorthwest.com/stories/1998/Jan/30/S340158. asp -
size 4.9K \clip\98\04\orefath.txt

 Beyond Politics: An Empirical Ode to
Father's Day David W. Hall (dhall@capo.org) The effect of fathers
in reducing social problems The Covenant Syndicate June 12, 1997,
vol. 1, no. 21 According to the Web site of the National Fatherhood
Initiative (http://www.register.com/father/index.html; try also the
National Center for Fathering at: http://www.fathers.com/), here's
some consequences of absentee dadism: Almost 75 percent of American
children will experience poverty before they turn 11 years old,
compared to only 20 percent for families where there are two parents;
Violent criminals are overwhelmingly males who grew up without
fathers: 60 percent of America's rapists, 72 percent of adolescent
murderers and 70 percent of long-term prison inmates [come from
fatherless homes]; Children living in father absent homes are also
more likely to be suspended from school, or to drop out; be treated
for an emotional or behavioral problem; commit suicide as
adolescents; and be victims of child abuse or neglect.

\priv\96\20\blakfath.txt NewsHound@sjmercury.com> Date: Wed, 12 Jun
1996 Healthy Start Men's Services Program in Baltimore teaches inner
city black men how to be good fathers when a typical case is a man
who "the 44-year-old Baltimore man has eight children by five
different women, and admits he never took the job seriously. Stints
of unemployment and prison time didn't help, either."  Comment - how
many Asian men fit this description? Maybe that has something to do
with low arrest rates and high academic achievement of Asians, and
the huge problems of inner city African American children? Why is it
that immigrants don't seem to have these kinds of problems?


More "research" on families:
\clip\99\14\father.txt Report Calls Fathers "Not Essential" By Justin
Torres CNS Senior Staff Writer 13 July, 1999 (CNS) - An article in a
leading psychology journal reports that the presence of fathers in
families raising children is "not essential," and that fathers "may
be detrimental to the child and the mother."  The report in the
current issue of The American Psychologist, a journal of the American
Psychological Association (APA) - recently in hot water over an
earlier report that concluded that child sexual abuse did not cause
pervasive harm - takes aim at the notion that fathers and two-parent
heterosexual marriages are necessary for the psychological health of

APA Does Turnaround on Pedophilia Article But Trouble Lies Ahead by
Charles A. Donovan and Robert H. Knight
The June 1999 American Psychologist includes "Deconstructing the
Essential Father" by Louise B. Silverstein and Carl F. Auerbach of
Yeshiva University. This article asserts that the idea of the
two-parent, heterosexual, nuclear family as the best unit for raising
children is a myth.

@@foster asian family

Asians have the _LOWEST_ rate of foster care placement, despite higher
rate of welfare. Asian illegal immigrants are also placed into foster homes.

Foster Family Placement by Race
Ranked by Asian, White=1.00
Santa Clara Cnty W1.00 B-6.8  H-2.2  A2.7  NA -2.2
California       W1.0  B-9.76 H-1.58 A4.85  O -3.04
United States    W1.0  B-3.03 H-1.66 A      O -1.52

Study: Race Gap In Foster Care
June 18, 1998 By David L. Lewis New York Daily News
"Black children are twice as likely as whites to be removed from homes
where they are being abused or neglected, according to a study released
yesterday. The report found that black children stay longer in foster care
than whites or Latinos and have less access to services that would keep the
family intact. The report confirms long-standing charges of bias in a
system that serves mostly minorities and is controlled mostly by whites,
according to numerous academics and professionals who participated in the
study. The study, by Child Welfare Watch, a liberal think tank, analyzed
data on foster care in New York City over several years. Among the
findings: In 1996, when investigators confirmed a case of abuse or neglect,
they removed black children about 38% of the time, Latino children 30% of
the time and white children 21% of the time. The disparities were even
greated in earlier years. One in 22 African-American children in New York
City is in foster care - compared with one in 59 Latino children and one in
385 white children."
From:             ADP 

\clip\98\07\fostpar.txt April 6, 1998 [Asian] Foster parents are in
demand by Tan Vinh Seattle Times Eastside bureau [60% of foster
children are minorities, 30% Hispanic or Asian, but no Asian foster
parents in some Eastside organizations]

http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/chronicle/chron.article.cgi?file= MN68700.DTL&directory=/chronicle/archive/1997/03/26
Wednesday, March 26, 1997  Page A17 1997 San Francisco Chronicle
State Slow to Find Homes for Foster Kids, Study Says Teresa Moore,
Chronicle Staff Writer 40 percent of all children are in the system
at least three years.  Less than 10 percent of foster children are
adopted.  Between 1986 and 1996, the rate of reunification never rose
above 49 percent.

\doc\95\11\immiabdu.txt Illegal immigrant chinese teens
are placed by the INS into foster homes, but sometimes run away, or
kidnapped for ransom by gangs.

\doc\95\11\liveedge.txt  Lives On The Edge - Children placed into
Protective Services are much more likely to be on AFDC, about half
have parents who abuse substances, quarter have mental problems.

doc933\FOSTSC.XLS foster care by race in santa clara county W1.0
(.47) B6.8 H2.2 A-2.7 NA 2.2

doc942\calffost.wks Foster care population in California
  W1.0 (.59) B9.76 H1.58 A-4.85 O3.04

doc942\fostrace.wks Foster care in the US
  W1.0 (.69) B3.03 H1.66 A&O 1.52

doc934:asprof.txt education income family age marry


Kids Count Report: 

In 1994 the Percent of Families With Children Headed by a Single
Parent ranged from a low of 14 percent in Utah to a high of 58
percent in the District of Columbia.

@@parenting time

U.S. News 7/1/96: Bad data fueled myth about absent parents; many
hopped on The myth of AWOL parents A tale of why many came to believe
parents no longer spend much time caring for their kids ". He said
parents today spend "40 percent less time with their children than
did parents in 1965,"...  Their figures show the number of hours of
primary care by white married mothers almost doubled, from .56 hours
per day per child in 1924-31 to one hour per day per child in 1981."


According to a demographic research group  called Lifestyle Market Analyst, 35% of Seattle households have cats, 32% have dogs. Only 20% of households have kids
Seattle Times March 11, 1999 B1 Trying to collar the pet dollar.


Common wisdom is that 2 married heterosexual parents are best,
politically correct is that no structure is better or to be favored
over any other. Outcomes tend to come out best with 2 traditional
parents however.


"Love American Style" New Republic April 14, 1997 p. 30 F042097 White
children with disrputed parents have higher dropout rates than black
two parent families, and sociologists Mclanahan and gary Sautefur
found that family disruption completely erases the racial advantage
of lower high school drop out rates. [This may also help explain the
why Asians generally have even lower dropout rates than whites, with
generally the highest rate of two-parent families in most cities]


z49\clip\2001\04\3gen.txt New York Times, 1.4.22 On the Rise in
Japan: Assertive Daughters-in-Law By STEPHANIE STROM 1972-199 the
number of three-generation families like the Sasakis and the
Sugawaras who live together under one roof has declined to 29.7
percent of all households, from 55.8 percent.


\doc\web\97\02\drugfam.txt "Study Links Drug Addiction To Early
Family Disruption" Investor's Business Daily Feb 11, 1997. 

[[rates 2 parents

Single parenthood increasing in Washington state
Seattle Times Aug 12, 2001
children washinton state single parents
        1990  2000
AfrAm   42.3  45.4
Natam   36.4  36.9
Hisp    25.3  24.7
NHWhite 17.8  20.2
AsianPI 16.4  15.5
Seattle Times analysis of census data

African American children living arrangements
40.8 married
 7.4 grandparent
 3.3 other relative
 3.0 non-relative
45.4 single parent
  39.3 single mother
   6.1 single father
Seattle Times analysis of census data

74&CFID=978303&CFTOKEN=18397616 DIVERSITY NEWS 7/2001 Census News:
Single Mothers Rare Among Asians But Marketers Beware By CANDICE CHOI
new data from the U.S. Census shows that Asian Americans are less
likely than whites or African Americans to have single mother
households.  In Maryland, for instance, only 4.2 percent of
Asian-American households were headed by a single mother, compared to
6.6 percent of white families and 25.1 percent of African-American
families. In New York, 4.4 percent of Asian-American family
households were headed by a single mother, compared with 6.8 percent
of white families and 29.6 percent of African-American families.
Although national breakdowns by race and Latino origin are not
available yet for 2000, the share of Asian-American single-mother
family households was lower than for whites and African Americans in
15 of the 20 states released so far. 
[problem will be solved by assimilation into divorce culture!]
"the next census should indicate a higher acculturation level among
Asians in the United States. "I'm sure they will quickly adopt to the
mainstream idea of what a relationship is all about," she said.  "

http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/examiner/ hotnews/stories/0
2/ asians.dtl Asian-American families prove most resilient, census
says By Eric Rosenberg EXAMINER WASHINGTON BUREAU San Francisco
Examiner Friday, October 2, 1998

Children in households with 2 parents:
84   Asian
77   NonHispanic White
67.4 Hispanic
32.8 Black

$49,100 highest median family income, 42% over 25 have 4 yr college
degree vs. 26 percent of non-Hispanic whites, 14 black 10 Latino.

Kids in that ethnic group more likely to be raised by both parents than

\doc\web\98\07\2par.txt 10/1/98
>      More Than 8 in 10 Asian and Pacific Islander Children 
>          Live with Both Parents, Census Bureau Reports

 Asian and Pacific Islander children under 18 years of age are more
likely to live with both parents (84 percent) than non-Hispanic White
children (77 percent), according to tabulations released today by the
Commerce Department's Census Bureau. 
see http://www.census.gov/population/socdemo/race/api.html

\clip\97\19\britfam.txt British wire story (from American Dissident
Voices Online Radio http://www.natall.com/radio/radio.html,
admittedly biased source, nevertheless instructive in differences
between black, white and Asian family structure)

According to the first full national census study of ethnic
minorities in Britain, percentage of children with single
parent families:

40% Black
15% White
10% Asian

Over 25% of britain's black families live with a single parent.
Story claims it is a "carribean tradition"


"The Changing Labor Force Patterns of Families" Business Week
Dec 9, 1996 (diversity advertising section)

Numbers estimated from Chart:
Percentage of all families

                      1940   2000
Traditional 1 worker  68%    20%
2 worker               8%    40%
Other (Retired etc)   18%    22%
Male single parent     3%    10%
Female single parent   3%     3%

Comment - the most common family structure is NOT single mothers, but
working couples, contrary to the impression that single parents have
become the norm.

Source: "Family Members in the Work Force:" Monthly Labor Review vol
113, no. 3 p. 16

F020497-3 Wall Street Journal Feb 4, 1997
Single Parent Households
1960  9.8%  *
1995 27.0%  ***
US Census

--------------------------------------------------------------- -------

\clip\97\03\ukfam.txt UK News Electronic Telegraph Thursday August 8

"Divorce was rare among south Asians. Their Hindu, Sikh and Muslim
cultures discouraged it.  "The proportion of children living with a
cohabiting couple is negligible in these groups, whereas more than
half of black Caribbean children live in a family headed by a lone
mother," he said.  "

http://www.telegraph.co.uk:80/et?ac=000208632407947&rtmo= 32f13059&atmo=32f13059&pg=/et/96/8/8/nbla08.html

Britian Office of National Statistics
Black children lose the family By David Fletcher, Health

UK single mothers:   
UK children 2 parents: 
90%  1.12 Asian
80%  1.00 White
60% -1.33 Black African
30% -2.66 Black Carribean


\doc\web\97\01\visbman.txt THE
VISIBLE MAN, new edition published by ICS and Discovery Institute;
first published in 1978. Reprinted from Issues & Views, Fall/Winter
1996] Black men are made unimportant by the welfare state.

--------------------------------------------------------------- ----------

Affirmative Action Fails, 2 Parent Families Work Peter Kirsanow,
Michigan Citizen, 15 Jul 1995,

"AND THEN tell them about a program for Black advancement with an
astonishing success rate. One proven to increase Black employment
prospects by more than 40 percent. One proven to reduce Black poverty
rates by 50 percent. One proven to cut the Black high school drop out
rate by half. One proven to reduce crime by 60 percent. In short, a
program that works -- spectacularly.  It's called the two-parent
family.  In fact, controlling for all other variables, the two-parent
family virtually eliminates all socioeconomic differences between
Blacks and whites. Affirmative action for families, anyone?  "

--------------------------------------------------------------- ---

\clip\96\09\parn2fam.txt Wednesday, November 27, 1996  Page A1 
1996 San Francisco Chronicle PAGE ONE -- 2-Parent Families at Record
Low -- 25% of Homes Singles, childless on rise, U.S. says. Analysis
is that this trend is harmful to children.


Composition of American households, by percentage, 1970-95:

                                   1970    1980    1990     1995
Married couples with children        40.3%   30.9%   26.3%    25.5
Married couples without children     30.3    29.9    29.8     28.9
ratio with children                  1.33    1.03   -1.33    -1.13
Other families with children          5.0     7.5     8.3      9.1
% of fwc married                     11.8%   19.5%   23.9%    26.3%
Other families without children       5.6     5.4     6.5      6.5
People living alone                   5.6    22.7    24.6     25.0
Other(X)                              1.7     3.6     4.6      5.0
(X) - Nonrelated persons.
Source: U.S. census

--------------------------------------------------------------- ------

\clip\96\09\famstab.txt San Jose Mercury News 11/26/96 U.S.
households, family makeup stabilize BY RANDOLPH E. SCHMID Associated
Press WASHINGTON -- The baby boomers are finally settling down, it
seems, after two decades of social revolution that saw American
families undergo dramatic changes.


Percentage of children under 18 who do not live with their father
Source: Census Bureau
        1960   1970   1980   1990   1993
White   8%     9.6%   15.7%  18.0%  19.3%
Black   31%   39.2%   55.9%  58.7%  61.4%
Index   3.9    4.1     3.6    3.3    3.2

as cited in American Demographics March 1996 p. 17


\doc\96\03\fauldivo.txt "Finding Fault with No Fault" Wall
Street Journal April 16, 1996 p.  A12 Review of Maggie Gallagher's
The Abolition of Marriage 14% of women in the 40s eventually
divorced. Of those married in the late 60s to 70s, 50% have already
been divorced.  By 1994, 40% of never married women in their 30s had
a birth.  Overall 1/3, and 2/3 black children are born to single


c:\doc\96\03\marypare.txt NPR editorial S. Hadley Mass professor
notes the claim by Pat Schroeder that the traditional family is dead.
Only 8-10% of families meet the traditional defintion. But that's two
married parents, with exactly one working spouse, and exactly two
children, no more, no less. Another more relavant figure is that 73%
of children now live with two married parents. According to 
"More Missing Fathers" Economist Sept 9, 1995 p. 26, only 25% of
families with children in 1991 were headed by a single parent.


>>\doc\96\01\gayparnt.txt "More research on family
matters" USA Today June 23, 1995. Gay couples make ideal parent
models because they are equal partners.(?!) Women who earn over half
are prone to divorce.  \priv\96\10\morereas.txt filed:


\doc\96\01\latino.wk1  Latinos in California
Source: 1990 census, Field Institute as compiled by San Francisco
Chronicle July 20, 1992 p. A9 Index analysis by Arthur Hu

         Households                Hisp      Gen    Ratio
         Married with Children      41%      26%    1.58
         Single woman with chil     10%       6%    1.67
                 SW or Married with Childr  51%       32%    1.59 
         Married of all with Ch     80%      81%   -1.01
         Single of all with Chi     20%      19%    1.05

Hispanics households with children are not significantly more likely
to be headed by single women despite higher poverty levels.


\doc\96\01\fathfind.txt "Fathers Find That Child Support Means Owing
More Than Money" New York Times July 20, 1992 p. 1 Michael Marriott 1
in 5 whites born to unmarried now, same as blacks 30 years ago. Half
of single mother households are in poverty.


"More Missing Fathers" Economist Sept 9, 1995 p. 26

One-parent households with dependent children
as % of total households with children, 1981/ 1991

United States     19 / 25
Britain           14 / 21
Canada            17 / 20
Norway            17 / 19
Australia         13 / 19
Sweden            11 / 19
Denmark           18 / 16
Holland            8 / 12
Germany           10 /  9
Italy              7 /  5

(figures are approximate, estimated from chart)


"The Disappearing Family" Economist Sept 9, 1995 p. 19

The great majority (70% US, 80% UK) of children live with
2 parents.

In some inner cities, over 80% of children live with
single mothers

 Selected Characteristics of Families, by Type and Race of
 Householder (estimates in thousands)

                                      Percent                    Index
     Percent                                   Asian an White    Asian   Asian
 UNITED STATES                        Total    Pac Isl  not Hisp vs Whit vs US
     All families                       68,490    1,737   52,464
     Married-couple families              77.6     82.1     83.4   -1.02    1.06
     Female householder, no spouse pr     18.1     13.4     13.0    1.03   -1.35
     Male householder, no spouse pres      4.3      4.6      3.7    1.24    1.07
     Size of Family
     Percent                             100.0    100.0    100.0    1.00    1.00
     Two persons                          41.5     27.2     44.9   -1.65   -1.53
     Three persons                        23.3     23.1     22.7    1.02   -1.01
     Four persons                         21.1     27.6     20.7    1.33    1.31
     Five persons                          9.3     13.0      8.4    1.55    1.40
     Six persons                           3.0      5.2      2.3    2.26    1.73
     Seven or more persons                 1.7      2.9      0.9    3.22    1.71
 Number of Earners in Family
     Percent                             100.0    100.0    100.0    1.00    1.00
     No earners                           15.4     12.9     15.0   -1.16   -1.19
     One earner                           28.2     25.6     26.1   -1.02   -1.10
     Two earners                          44.0     47.4     46.3    1.02    1.08
     Three earners                         9.3      8.7      9.5   -1.09   -1.07
 Four or more earners                      3.2      5.5      3.2    1.72    1.72
 Living Arrangements of Related Children
     Related children under 18 years 
     Percent                             100.0    100.0    100.0    1.00    1.00
     Living with_
     Two parents                          69.9     82.4     79.1    1.04    1.18
     One parent                           27.0     13.9     19.1   -1.37   -1.94
     Mother only                          23.7     10.9     16.1   -1.48   -2.17
     Father only                           3.3      3.0      3.3   -1.10   -1.10
     Neither parent                        3.1      3.6      1.8    2.00    1.16

 Asians only 1/2 national average to be one-parent or mother only parent
 but twice to live with neither parent. Nearly 2X to have over 4 earners
 2 to 3X to have over 6 persons in family, 60% only two persons

 Source: US Census 1994 Current Population Survey
 and "Household and Family Characteristics"

Households by type

    Total         Husband  Single  All
    (millions)  & Wife            Other
1950 43.6       79.1%      9.1%   11.8%
1960 52.8       74.4%     13.1%   12.5%
1970 63.4       70.5%     17.2%   12.1%
1980 80.8       60.8%     22.6%   16.5%
1990 93.3       56.1%     24.7%   19.4% 
Source: Wefa group, Conference Board Based on chart in Wall Street
Journal March 24, 1995

\doc\95\05\famarran.txt - Only 22% single mothers, 69% 2 parents in

US Family Structure: Myth that single mother has replace the 2 parent
family. 69% of families are 2 parents, compared with 83% in 1970
                      1970    1990
Mother and Father     75%      58%
Stepmother and Father  1%       1%
Father                 3%       3%
Neither                4%       4%
Mother and Stepfather  7%      10%
Mother                12%      22%

Only mother has substantially increased, but single motherhood is
still only 22% of families, with 69% some form of 2 parent family 

Source: "Fatherless America" by David Blankenhorn,  as appeared in
Investor's Business Daily April 12, 1995 p. 1

Half of all white children, three-fourths of all African-American
and lainto children spend part of their childhood in a single-parent
family "Business Must Do More For Working Parents" Elliot

Parade Magazine feb 26, 1995 p. 12

\doc\95\02\cens301.txt - By 1993 there were 10.7 million African
American children.  Thirty-six percent of them lived with both
parents and 54 percent with their mothers only.  Even fewer African
American children under age 6 (32 percent) lived with both parents.
In comparison, 16 percent of non- Hispanic White children lived with
their mother only, while 79 percent lived in two-parent families.

\doc\95\02\goodman.txt - marriage would be good for families. married
black families have low unemployment, low poverty, get out of poverty
faster, fastest way out of welfare is marriage.

\priv\95\01\singpar1.txt 28% of all, 63% of black families

\doc\94\20\babyboom.wk1 - Baby Boomers by Race
         Index               White     Black     Hisp      Asian
         2 or more earners       1.00     -1.40     -1.09     -1.13
         Single Parent           1.00      3.50      1.88      1.25

\doc\94\20\cohabit.wk1 - 
           White     Black     Hisp      Asian     PuertoRic
 Percent         2.8       5.2       5.2       1.4       7.9
 Index                    1.85      1.85     -2.00      2.82
 Children residing with a single parent and unmarried partner

\doc\94\19\chilmoth.wk1 - Children raised by
         mothers alone in US, 1993
                      White     Black    Hisp      Asian
         Percent         15        49      21.5       6.9
         Index         1.00      3.27      1.43     -2.17
         A Magazine, Women 94 issue p. 7 (based on US Census)

doc\94\19\famstruc.wk1  - Family structure
Urban Child Not in Two Parent Family W1.0(22.5%) B2.86 H1.65 A-1.26 NA 2.07
US Unmarried Partner Households (Urban) W1.00 B1.19 H1.11 A-2.02 NA 1.80

\doc\94\18\tradfam.wk1 - Traditional Families
W1.0 B-2.18 H-1.49 A NA 

"Honor Thy Children" US News and World REport Feb 27, 1995
p. 42
Youngsters in stepfamilies fare no better, sometimes worse
than single parent homes because rivalries offset the
added income.

[[single parent

z50\clip\2001\07\teensex.txt Row on teen sex link to divorce Kamal
Ahmed, Political editor Sunday July 22, 2001 The Observer [UK]
Teenagers who come from stable homes with married parents are much
less likely to have underage sex and unwanted pregnancies, according
to one of the largest surveys of teenage behaviour.  In an exclusive
preview of the study to be published on Tuesday, the findings for the
first time make a direct link between the teenager's family
environment and his or her attitude to sex.  Britain has one of the
highest teenage pregnancy rates in the Western world


z45\clip\2000\10\work2.txt New York Times October 24, 2000 Now a
Majority: Families With 2 Parents Who Work By TAMAR LEWIN both
spouses were employed at least part time in 51 percent of the married
couples with children, compared with 33 percent in 1976.