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Evolution: Arthur's Index

Evolution in the small sense is Darwin's unpopular idea that man descended from more primitive apes, or to extend it back from dead molecules that arranged themselves. In the much larger sense, it encompasses virtually all science that has anything to say about how the planet and universe started from the big bang to the present, it really got its start with the founding of modern geology and the notion that the earth is the result of millions of years of natural processes rather than created as-is all at once give or take a flood or two.


The most popular alternative in 20th century America is the Biblical account given in its entirety on the first page of the Bible, usually in conjunction with the story of Noah and the great flood Though the Bible doesn't have much to say on the topic, Chrisians, mostly fundamentalists, have created volumes of arguments that the literal interpretation, that the earth was created in 7 days 6,000 years ago, and that all men, women, and creatures are descendents of those on the ark, is true. It is widely believed that there is no evidence to support any belief in evolution, a planet or universe more than 6,000 years old.

My view is that the Bible was written by people who wrote what they knew. The Genesis version of the creation and the flood appear to be variations on the Sumerian and Babylonian legends of the city where Abraham's family lived. It's not likely that if God told Abraham about the Big Bang, radioactive decay, or the process of mutation and natural selection it would have been written down. There is no reason to believe that the accuracy of the rest of the bible which is based on actual witnesses is made invalid because the first page was based on what was widely believed at the times.

Philosophically, I have less problem with people who simply taking it on faith the world was created in 6 days 6000 years gao than people who attempt to misuse science discredit science. It seems to come down to whether you have the "faith" to accept that light travels and materials decay at a constant rate, and that materials take millions of years to deposit layers of strata, or discard whatever evidence it takes to uphold an interpretation of scripture.

You can't reject just Darwinism, you have to reject the entire science of geology, the notion of radioactive dating, dating by strata, dating meteor strikes, the rise and fall of dinosaurs, the appearance of life chemicals 3 billion years ago and progression / evolution of life forms whether by mutation or continuous creation, most of astronomy, and anything else science has to say about anything that happened more than 6,000 years ago, which is a lot. You even have to reject fairly simple concepts such as counting tree rings, ice cores, or layers of algae at a bottom of a lake which all result in dates from 20-40,000 years without resort to "unreliable" dating methods. As far as education policy goes, it is immoral to require compulsory attendence to learn what is contrary to one's religious beliefs, whether or not somebody like me think they can prove evolution is science or creation science is not. Even debating the topic can be disrepectful of another's religion. I don't smoke, I don't own guns, and I don't believe in scientific creationism, but I defend the right of Americans to exercise their rights and conscience even if it is different than mine.

How Genesis is like Scientific Evolution

Tony Smith's Timeline


also see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_life http://www.arthurhu.com/index/evol.htm Evolution time line time before present ---------------------------------------------------- NO OBSERVABLE EVIDENCE OF ANYTHING BEFORE THIS TIME! ----------------------------------------------------- IN THE BEGINNING THE BIG BANG 10^-34 sec universe 10^-33 cm in size, 10 ^32 deg 10^-5 formation of protons and neutrons from quarks 1 sec electrons 3 min helium nuclei 300,000 yr helium hydrogen atoms, visible light 10M first galaxies 400M Red infant galaxy in Hubble ultra deep field aweek 3/15/2004 p. 20 1 million sec exposure 750M Abell 2218 lensed object 25x bright by red shift awk 2/23/2004 1B first stars, quasars galaxies 1B Hubble Deep Field time from beginning of time ----------------------------------------------------- time before present 12-16B big bang creation - hubble constant, red shift 16B age of milky way galaxy britannica.com 15B farthest Quasars observable from ground 15B farthest observed galaxy - Hubble red shift 14B 2001 estimate of age of universe 13.5B Gravitational lensing at forming galaxy 12B Farthest cluster of galaxies 13B Oldest stars in Milky Way 7B Oldest observable galaxies from ground 5B? Supernova blows, forming solar system 4.5B Nuclear fires of sun ignited 4.5B+10K Earth begins forming 4.5B Rock from mars - radio date 4.5B+10M Earth reached 64% of present size [5] 4.5B+30M Earth struck by mars-sized object [5] 4.5B+50M Original age of earth from crust rock [5] 4.6B Meteorite with amino acids 4.6B Earth, meteors, solar system and sun - radio, star model 4.4B Moon crust - radio date 4.3B Earth forms layers atmosphere 4.0B Bombardment by planetesimals stops 4-2.5 Archaen Eon Prokaryotes (no nucleus) 1 cell organisms 3.9B Mars rock with bacteria-like magnetite 3.9B 15 hour day, moon 4x apparent size, sun 75% bright 3.8B Earth crust solidifies, oceans form 3.8B Fe3O4 Magnetite ferrous Banded Iron formations begin to be formed by bacteria. 3.8B Oldest US rocks - radiodate Rhodesian-Kaapvaal craton 3.5B Fossilized prokaryotes 3.5B First bacteria fossils - radiodate/strata 3.5B Stromatolites, limestone with algae 3.5B Photosynthesis 2.5B 5 continents NAm, Europe, Siberia, China, Gondwanaland 2.5-.57 Proterozoic Eon Eukaryotes with cell nucleus and membrane 2.4B Rise in oxygen stop uraninites, starts iron 2.2B Earth is iceball down to 11 deg of equator 1.7B Bottom of Grand Canyon laid down 1.5B Multicellular organisms 1.4B Shungite coal from algae laid down 1B Youngest stars in Milky Way 1B Pikes peak rock (radiodate) 640M Large soft organisms - radio, strata 600M Glacial age 570-500M Cambrian Period 570M Trilobite fossils 544M Phanerozoic / Paleozoic Era - visible life 540M Cambrian - explosion of hard body animals, 520M Pikaia worm with stiff back cord 500-435 Ordovican Period primitive land life 500 Vertebrates - fish 470 Oaklahoma bromide trilobites 470 Jawless fish, no front fin Pteraspis 440 1st great extinction 435 Silurian Period 1st plants and insects on land 435 Ice age 430 Coated algae live on land 420 Water scorpion 420 Millipedes 1st land animals 410M Silurian - jawed fish 408 Spore bearing plants 400M Flying insects burke museum 400M All major fish groups burke scary fishes 380 Cherirolepis oldest ray fin in lake burke 375 Lungfish with lungs, lobe fins burke fin structure similar to modern human 375 Eastmanosteus jawed fish burke 375 Bothriolepis first common freshwater fish burke 375 Appalacian mountains 375 Sharks 375 Fern trees proto vonifers burke 370 2nd great extinction 410-360 end devonian, low oxygen inoceans killing most fish burke 360 Land animals with limbs appear 360 Early armoured fish no jaw extinct burke 350 Amphibians 350 Ferns - rooted plants 310 Reptiles live out of water 300M Longest ice age 300M Winged insects 2-300M Pangea, dinosaurs emerged 286M Conifers appear 255M Permian greatest extinction of all time Trilobites died 85% of plants animals die Ray fin fishes survive 250M Top layer of Grand canyon 245M Mesozoic Era 230M Roaches Termites 228M Euroaptor 1st dinosaur 225M Modern ferns Bees 210M Early mammals 200M Pangea breaks apart 200M Rock dating limit, dating gap 200M Crocodiles, Mammals 163M Dinos, Ammonoids peak 150M Ice age cycle time 145M Archaepteryx first bird 140M Apto(bronto)sauus 140M Stegosaurus 136M Kangaroos 130M Flowering plants 120M Snakes 100M Cranes 100M Fossil sturgeon 100M N cascades meets n america burke 95M Ammonite pre nautilus 70M Tyranasaurus 6-70M Rocky Mountains form 65M Yucatan meteor strike 65M Cenozoic era - modern life, continents 65M Great dinosaur extinction End of marine reptiles, ammonites 60M Rats Mice Squirrels 56M Carnivora - leads to cats, dogs 45-50 freshwater herring Knightia most common fish fossil 40M Cascades erupt in NW N.America 40M Earliest link to primates 37M Cats appear 35M Grand Canyon river is on plain 28M Koalas 20M Chimpanzee Hominids 20M Start to cut Grand Canyon 18M-6m E washington basalt lava 6M-7M Human and apes shared ancestor (Ardi) 6M Columbia River Plateau 6M "Millenium Man" first hominid Kenya 2000 5.5M Australopithecus in Africa 5M-50K Neandertal found in Africa? 4.5-6M men diverge from apes (DNA) 4.4M Ardi 4.4M Earliest manlike creatures 4.4M 1994 ethiopia human-like teeth 4.4M Ardipithecus ramidus apelike hominid 3.9-3M Australopithecus afarensis "Lucy", upright chimpanzee 3.8M Tanzania homonid footprints walking 3.2M 1970's Lucy skull 2.8M Leaky 1973 skull 2.7M Lucy splits into africanus, aethipicus, homo? 2.5M enters current ice age 2.5M stone tools Homo Habilis pre-human 2.5M Genus homo found 2.3M Andromeda Galaxy image 1.8M Olduvai gorge ash, early man, radio 1.8M Ice at poles, ice age starts 1.8M-50K Homo Erectus, hunts, builds fire 1.7M First Homo ergaster found out of Africa 1.6M Earliest evidence of homo erectus fire 1.5M Swartkrans S.A. cave oldest human controlled fire 1.5M Hand axe 1.5M Leakey finds Erectus, Habilis, Australopithecus @same time 1.5M Human exodus from Africa to Europe Asia (Last Neaderthal) 1M Homo erectus fire 750K Definitely controlled fire 700K Last reversal of magnetic poles 700k Ice ages begin 600k Zinjanthropus 1961 600k Nanjing Man 580-620 Homo Erectus 500K Java Man (epic of man) 500K Neanderthal and modern man diverge 400K Torralba animal kill site, live in huts, no language 400K Chellean man 400K Peking Man 4/5 modern brain size 350K Simple symbolic thought / art 300K Oldest ice core data 250K Fire widespread 240K Small Magellanic Cloud image 200K Polar Bears evolved ABC news 200K Transition Homo Erectus - HSapiens 200K Arrow heads, harpoons, bows arrows, skin scrapers for clothing 200K Africans split from other humans 200K East Africa settled [6] 200K Mitochondrial Eve (Last Neanderthal) 180K Neanderthal emerges 160K Vladivostock ice core 150K Eve, common mother to all modern humans [eve1] 130K "Pathfinder" found on way out of Africa 120K-0 Homo sapiens leave Africa 110K Euro/Mongoloid split from Africans 100K Kohsian in Southern Africa diverged [6] 100K Potassium Argon dating to billions yr. Dating gap to 50k yrs. 100K Symbolic art blossoms 100K Light Diameter of Milky Way 100K Homo Sapiens reaches middle east 100K Last Homo Erectus "Java" man 50-100K Homo sapiens (Modern races of man) 80K Homo Sapiens leave Africa [mead] 80K Blombos middle stone age cave 75K Toba Eruption - ice age 75K Humans fall from 100,000 to 1,000 (BBC, diputed) 70K West Africa settled [6] 60K Mungo Man oldest DNA, looks, but not related to moderns 60K Australian aborigines - oldest living culture traveled by boat. Sea Level 250 feet below present 55K Oldest rock painting Australia 10-50K Europeans from 4 mtDNA lines from South Asia 50K Middle East, Southeast Asia, Australia settled [6] 50K Limit of Carbon dating, dating gap to 100,000 years. Any living thing with less C14 is older than 50K yrs. 50K Meteor Crater Arizona 50K Oldest rocks on Mt St. Helens 47K Neanderthal mammoth tooth carving 45K People bury their dead 45K Japan Lake algae C14 dating 41K NE Asians split from Caucasians 40K Hamster / Mouse dating method Middle East 40K Cro-Magnon Culture, less nomadic 40K Humans found siberia N China 40K NativeAm Asian gene clock diverge 40K Brazil charcoal 40K Limit of Greenland ice core layers 40K Human art, paintings 35K Rock paintings Tanzania THRace 14 35K First Mt St. Helens Eruptions 32K Ivory horse, oldest animal carving 30K East Asia, Siberia settled [6] 30K Symbols in paintings (pre-writing) 29K Oldest C14 + Tree ring dating 28K Blades in China similar to Meadocroft 27K Last known Neandertal remains 27K Oldest woven cloth 25K Human pop 100,000 25K Brazil cave paintings 25k seas start to lower for Bering bridge 25k bone needles 20-25k Genetic evidence of Bering Bridge crossing [mead] 20K Southern Europe settled [6] 20K Oldest dated tree Huon Pine Tasmania 20K Ice age warms towards present - 3 20k saber tooth cat la brea burke 16k Meadowcroft site in Pennsylvania similar to China [mead] 15k North America settled [6] 15k wolf domesticated in Asia 14k meadowcroft pa site dates 14k southmost glacier in Wa state 14k Montana ice dams flood E Wash 13K bering land bridge crossing (traditional) 12K South America settled [6] 12K SeaTac airport ground sloth Burke museum 12K Mesolithic nomadic hunter gather (Stone Age) 12K Mongolians cross into N America 12K goats domesticated for milk 12K coral C14 calibration 11K Mastodons large mammals extinct 10K Oldest copper Turkey 10-12K Near east agriculture 10K Oldest sandals found in Oregon 10K Neolithic middle east revolution 10K End of last ice age - 3 10K Mesopotamia tokens for accounting 10K Complete tree ring history 10K oldest man site in US C14 10K cows domesticated 10K Neolithic - farming, domestication 10K TBT Human population 5 million 9,500 Jericho established ThumanRace p17 9,400 tree ring c14 calibration 9,400 Nevada mummy, oldest N.Am 9,300 Kennewick Man WA, non-Mongolian 9,000 evidence of dance 9,000 Mongolians wipe out SAm Australians 8,200 Copper tools 8,000 End cro-magnon 8,000 1st ag settlements Korea http://infoplease.lycos.com/ipa/A0107686.html 8,000 Cats, humans, mice on Cyprus domesticated from mild to wild 8,000 Pottery in Jerico THumanRace p17 7,500 Mount Mazama Crater Lake eruption ash layer 7,000 Irrigation 7,000 Copper mining Balkans 7,000 Rice in China, earliest settlements 7,000 Catal Huyuk S. Turkey Stone Age 7,000 Sumerian farming villages 7,000 Corn C. America 6,800 Earliest Egyptian/Badarian culture 6,500 Copper used 6,640 Crater Lake / Mazama explosion C14 6,200 Xia earliest Chinese civilization 6,000 Copper age Europe - 4,400 6,000 Oldest european plow ----------------------------------------------------- -- time before 6,000 impossible- 6-day young earth creationists ----------------------------------------------------- 6,000 Sumerians document constellations 6,004 Creation Archbishop Usher Day 1: light Day 2: water and sky Day 3: dry land and plants and trees Day 4: Sun, Moon, stars visible Day 5: Water and sky creatures Day 6: land animals, man Day 7: rest 5,761 Creation according to Hebrew Calendar 5,743 Adam and Eve-2 5,700 Wheel invented probably Sumeria TBTimeline 5,500 Sumer accounts on clay tablets, 1st civilization 5,500 Cities rise on nile 5,500 Cities in Indus Valley 5,500 Farmers use cattle to pull carts in Europe 5,500 Babylon people first settle 5,400 TBT Major flood inundates city of Ur. 8ft layer of silt found 5,200-4,900 Sumerian flood myth 5,200 Sumerians build Towers (of Babel?) 5,200 Zurich oldest maple wheel 5,050 First Egyptian dynasties 5,000 100M world population 5,000 Sahara expands soil overgrazed 5,000 Assryians use block wheel from Mesopotamia 5,000 Athens first settled in Greece 5,000-6k Wheel invented 5,000 Alps Iceman died with copper axe 5,000 Indus 5,000 Copper, Bronze age 5,000-5,500 Horse bones with evidence of bit 5,000 Sumeria collapses 5,000 Neolithic farming in Europe 5,000 Early Indian civilization 5,000 rise of Hebrew, Semitic languages-1 4,900 Stonehenge I built - ditch posts 4,879 Mythological founding of Vietnam 4,700 silk dicovered in china 4,700 Gilgamesh, King of Uruk in Babylonia. 4,700 Pyramids of Giza 4,600 Indus Valley civilization 4,600 Chinese Calendar started 4,500 North China farming 4,500 Actual Crab Nebula explosion 4,500 Bronze age britain - carts, bridges, forts 4,400 oldest writing on papyrus 4,300 Choson culture in Korea http://infoplease.lycos.com/ipa/A0107686.html ----------------------------------------------- 4,285 TBT Flood comes 4,217 Noah's flood, one language, one race-2 hydrosphere contained water in sky atmosphere had much more oxygen oil created entire planet covered by water to highest mtn all strata laid down all races, species micro-evolve salt water oceans salt water fish adapt in 1 year grand canyon, niagra, mississippi delta forms complete ice cap forms ------------------------------------------------ 4,000 Books of old testament are written 4,000 Tower of babel, all languages created 4,000 Gilgamesh written onto tablets 4,000 Malays drive out aborigines from SE Asia 3,850 Abraham journeys to Canaan, the first Jew/Arab 3,700 Jews arrive in Egypt 3,700 Last Mastadons Wrengel Island Siberia 3,600 End of Stonehenge work 3,500 Shang dynasty earliest evidence of dyn chinese writing developed 3,500 Phoenician alphabet 3,500 Book of Genesis written by Moses 3,400 Writing in China on bones 3,400-500 Moses 3,250 Moses leads Israel out of Egypt-1 Ten commandments 3,220-3,200 Joshua invades Canaan-1 3,200 Fall of Jericho-1 3,000 Iron age (THumanRace) Egypt 3,000 Evidence camels domesticated-1 3,000 Written Hebrew-1 3,000 Maya numbers heiroglyphs 2,800 Mesopotamians determined ecliptic 2,800 Greeks adopt phonenician alphabet, add vowels 2,600 Chaldeans exile jews, bible written? 2,500 Ezra assembles books of hebrew bible 2,500 King Nebuchadnezzar II Tower of Babel 2,200 Chinese script resembles 4K old Afghanistan script 2,200 Septuagint Greek translation of hebrew bible 2,000 0 AD Christianity 2,000 Water wheels to mill grain 1,750 250 Ptolemy uses epicycles to explain planet motion 1,430 570 Muhammed born 1,400 Punctuation / Reading invented 1,200 800 Vikings start raids 1,100 Iron produced 1,000 1054 Crab Nebula explodes 1325 Zenith of Ethiopian civilization 1492 Columbus sails to New World 1543 Copenicus dies, put sun at center 1610 Galileo telescope: Jupiter moons, phase of venus 1611 King James Bible 210 1788 Hutton sedimentary theory 1700s Herschel proposes disk like Milky Way 200 1800 Industrial Age 1800 Parallax used to measure star distance 1800 Earth dated at millions of years from fossil layers 150 Sumer creation tale translated 1856 Neanderthal man unearthed 141 1859 Darwin proposes evolution 1905 Rutherford theory radioactive dating 1912 Wegener: Continents as puzzle pieces 1912 V.M. Slipher: Andromeda radial velocity measured as extra galactic [4] 87 1913 Wright Bros Powered Aircraft 1915 Einstein General Relativity set up Big Bang 1918 Sun at edge, not center of Milky Way 1920 Milky Way is one of many galaxies 1923 Hubble uses cephid variable dist to andromeda [4] 1929 Hubble discovers red shift, expanding universe 70 1930 Computed date of Crab Nebula Explosion 1946 Gamow says big bang would result in excess microwave radiation 1947 Carbon Dating 1947 X-1 Supersonic flight 1950 Hoyle coins "Big Bang" term 50 1950 Mainframe computers 1952 Milky Way is determined to be spiral 1959 Soviets orbit Sputnik 1965 Penzias, Wilson discover big bang microwave radiation 1968 Global Plate Tectonics 31 1969 Apollo lands on moon, moon rocks dated 1969 First internet 1972 Discovery of 3.5mya hominid footprints 1974 Lucy found 3.5mya skeleton 1980 IBM PC 1987 UCBerkeley researchers announce 200K Eve 1987 Big bang radiation likely but not proven yet 5 1995 www web browsing 1998 Neanderthal DNA found different from moderns 0 2000 40% of US rejects evolution, big bang, geology, biology --------------------------------------------------------------------- 2005 Global Warming is destroying the planet 2008 Call it climate change since the planet has not warmed since 1998 NOW 2009 YOU ARE HERE [1] The Gifts of the Jews [2] See Sons of Adam dating below, from Abram's leaving for Canaan in Gift of Jews [3] Ice cores [4] http://www.seds.org/messier/m/m031.html "M31" Students for development and exploration of space [5] Stein Jacobsen report in Science June 6, 2003 [6] The big idea genography National Geographic Sept 2009 Billions of Years bang 14 earth 5 v V *************# ^life 2 ^ multicell life 1 Hundreds of Millions of years * 900 * 800 * 700 - large multicell animals * 600 - Cambrian explosion * 500 - Vertebrates * 400 - Jawed Fish, Permian extinction * 300 - Reptiles Amphibians * 200 - Crocodiles, mammals * 100 - Age of Dinosaurs, Mammals Tens of Millions of Years 90 - Ammonites 80 70 60 - Dinosaurs die out 50 40 30 - Koalas 20 - Chimpanzee 10 - Age of Man Millions of Years 9 8 7 6 Australopithecus in Africa 5 4 3 Lucy Afarensis 2 Ice age starts, Homo Erectus 1 Fire, Homo Sapiens Hundreds of Thousands of Years 400 Peking, Java Man 200 Arrow Heads, bows arrows, tools 100 Homo Sapiens leaves Africa Tens Thousands 80K Toba Eruption, near extinction of man 50K Boat painting australia 40K Cro Magnon 30K Ivory horse, last Neandertal 20K Bone needles 10K North American peoples, civilization

Most Striking Creationist Claims

Leading Creationist sites: http://www.answersingenesis.org/ Answers in Genesis http://icr.org/ Institute for Creation Research Kent Hovind's Creation Science Evangelism Evidence creation was more than 6,000 years ago, no global catastrophic flood (counter arugment) ---------------------------------------------------- -Genesis account appears to be monotheistic version of Sumerian creation, Abraham's host culture (if the Sumerians believed it, it proves Genesis was right) -Tree ring histories have been counted up to 10,000 years (tree rings are not accurate) -End of ice age 10,000 years ago (ice age dating is not accurate) -No evidence of recent global flood in ice cores, tree rings, Mt St Helens, etc. There is evidence much or all of planet was under the ocean millions of years ago (fossils on mountaintops prove there was a global flood) -Ice cores in greenland go beyond 40,000 years (ice cores are deceptive) -No mongolians in US before 10,000 yrs ago (C14 dating not valid) -All fossils dated more than 6,000 years ago (all radioactive dating is invalid) -No humans or human like animals more than 4 million years ago (all dating methods invalid) -Humans, dinosaurs and Trilobites clearly lived millions of years apart in different strata (Human and dinsaur footprints have been found together, all species existed together since Adam named every one of them his first day on the job) -Strata is clearly formed from periods in history millions of years apart (a-strata was either laid down in the flood or b-strata was created in place with fossils already in it) -Most or all fossils consistent with strata dating (all radioactive dating is invalid) -Crater Lake erupted 6,640 years ago from previous state (all dating methods are invalid) -Most stars / galaxies are computed to be more than 6,000 light years away by brightness, red shift (a-light may not travel at constant speed, b-space may not be constant, c-light was created in place to distant objects) -Pangea was one continent 200M ya (a-pangea never existed b-continents moved less than 6,000 years ago) -Very distant galaxies are farther computed by red shift (red shift does not indicate accurate distance, is not evidence of big bang) -Oldest rocks on earth, moon, meterorites consistent with formation of solar system (all dating systems are invalid) -Farthest observeable objects (12B lyrs) consistent with big bang time (mere coincidence) -No evidence current races of man "evolved" starting 4000 years ago after flood (all races of man possible from sons of Noah) -Genetic clock puts Native Americans 40,000 years apart from East Asians, common "Eve" at longer than taht -Common human ancestor is African, not middle eastern (see sons of noah) -C14 dates objects up to 50,000 yrs, or older than 50K, verified against known layers in lake (dating is invalid) -Potassium argon dates rocks up to 3.5 billion years old (dating is invalid, assumes constant time, decay, etc) -Dates form consistent puzzle (evolutionists use circular reasoning to get from one date to another)

Evolution Links

Creation Links

@@Aborigine From: parami.internetnorth.com.au Date sent: Tue, 24 Aug 1999 08:29:55 +1000 I asked an aboriginal elder what he thinks about the creation of the world and his answer was just as clear and logical as the one from your unnamed Rabbi: A big frog was sitting on a hill. He had too much to eat and too to drink. When he opened his mouth it all cam out and covered all of earth. The water became rivers and oceans and the food became forests, animals and humans. Kurt Willrich Of course the aboriginal elder must be wrong since he's not a jewish Rabbi. @@Accident Most believers in evolution say that the universe and life cannot be intelligently designed, rather we are the unlikely outcome of an infinite number of coincidences. But could chance be the work of a supernatural creator who plays by the laws of a physical natural universe? MAN IS EVOLUTION OF ZILLIONS OF UNLIKELY OUTCOMES From: Michael Shermer Subject: Glorious Contingency 2 Chapter 10 from "How We Believe: The Search for God in an Age of Science": Glorious Contingency: Gould's Dangerous Idea and the Search for Meaning in an Age of Science "Through no fault of our own, and by dint of no cosmic plan or conscious purpose, we have become, by the grace of a glorious evolutionary accident called intelligence @@Africa z39\clip\2000\01\afrglory.txt The Wall Street Journal January 28, 2000 URL for this Article: http://interactive.wsj.com/archive/retrieve.cgi?id=SB949013476842498092.djm Commentary How to Regain Africa's Glory By 1325 the empire of Ethiopia had been Christian for a thousand years, and it was an extension of the great kingdom of Axum born during the pre-Christian era. For another century, most of Europe's gold would be mined in today's Mali, where soon a great library and center of learning would arise at fabled Timbuktu. In 1325, then, all signs pointed to this millennium as Africa's. @@Agriculture Half of all Europeans 'may have Arab genes' By David Derbyshire, Science Correspondent http://portal.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml;$sessionid$RDMN33YAAH44FQFIQMGSF FOAVCBQWIV0?xml=/news/2002/08/06/ngene06.xml&sSheet=/news/2002/08/06/ixhome.ht ml "Agriculture is thought to have begun in the Near East at the end of the last ice age about 13,000 years ago. Farming gradually spread westwards across Europe over the next millennia, reaching the British Isles about 6,000 years ago." @@Americas - First Peoples %%China http://www.discovery.com/news/archive/news990903/brief2.html zip38\clipim\99\11\chinam\chinam.htm \doc\web\99\16\chinam.txt Discovery Online Nov 3, 1999 Study: China Influenced Ancient Americans Surprising new evidence suggests that the Chinese arrived in the New World more than 3,000 years ago and had a profound influence on Mesoamerican culture and civilization. some disagree... inscription | | | +--+--+ | +--+--+ %%Clovis CLOVIS FIRST DOMINANT NAM CULTURE BUT NOT ONLY OR FIRST \doc\web\99\14\firstam.txt History Channel In Search of the First Americans Australian Aborigines first setted on continent by boat 60,000 ya 1927 Folsom bison arrowhead artififacts 10,500-11,500 ya %%Europe z49\clip\2001\06\uspre.txt The perils of looking into American prehistory. By John J. Miller, NR's national political reporter http://www.nationalreview.com/weekend/anthropology/anthropology-miller060901 .shtml ..human habitation stretching back about 18,000 years - making Cactus Hill one of the two or three oldest sites in North America. They also found evidence to support one of the most provocative developments of our time: the growing suspicion among physical anthropologists, archaeologists, and even geneticists that some of the first people who settled in the New World were Europeans. z39\clip\2000\02\euro1st.txt Europeans colonised America in 28,000 BC? www.telegraph.co.uk/et?ac=000216397642768&rtmo=aNsJbepL&atmo=ttttttyd&pg=/et/0 0/2/19/wus19.html UK Daily Telegraph ISSUE 1730Saturday 19 February 2000 Europeans colonised America in 28,000 BC By Roger Highfield, Science Editor, in Washington DC EUROPEANS colonised America up to 30,000 years ago, perhaps by crossing the Atlantic, according to a genetic analysis of native Americans that sheds light on their origins. FIRST AMERICANS ARE NON-ASIAN, AINU, CHINESE z39\clip\2000\02\firstam.txt Organization: http://www.human-nature.com/ FOR RELEASE: 18 FEBRUARY 2000 AT 09:00 ET US Origins of first Americans descendants of the first humans to enter the New World, have no obvious ties to any Asian groups. A second group-was descended from the Jomon, the prehistoric people of Japan. Another group, originating in China and including the Athabascan-speaking people from the Yukon drainage of Alaska and northwest Canada, spread as far south as Arizona and northern Mexico. %%First 30K Monte Verde 15K Jomon and 5K Asian migration to North America z50\clip\2001\07\ampre.txt http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A7235-2001Jul30?language=printer Earliest Americans Seen as More Diverse By Guy Gugliotta Washington Post Staff Writer Tuesday, July 31, 2001; Page A01 15,000: Jomon and Ainu have skull and facial characteristics more genetically similar to those of Europeans than to mainland Asians. 5,000: from mainland Asia came across the Bering Strait swept southward as far as modern-day Arizona and New Mexico, the study said. The second migration is the genetic origin of today's Eskimos, Aleuts and the Navajo of the U.S. southwest. 5,000 years ago, agriculture developed on mainland Asia, enabling people to grow, store and carry food in more inhospitable areas. Movement resumed, but the newcomers were genetically Asians -- z39\clip\2000\02\namice.txt http://www.sciencenews.org/20000205/fob2.asp SCIENCE NEWS Week of Feb. 5, 2000; Vol. 157, No. 6 Drowned land holds clue to first Americans By R. Monastersky Canadians use underwater research to prove Asians went by seashore rather than overland to conquer N America. z39\clip\99\21\iceage.txt http://www.cnn.com/TECH/computing/9907/02/t_t/old.south.dig/index.html Bonanza of ice-age artifacts redefine America's pre-history July 2, 1999 South Carolina artifacts from 15-20K years ago, before Clovis. http://www.telegraph.co.uk:80/et?ac=000405944438668&rtmo=kLbxCL3p&atm o=99999999&pg=/et/99/11/10/wbri10.html First Americans were Britons who went west By Ben Fenton Wednesday 10 November 1999 www.telegraph.co.uk ISSUE 1629 ANCIENT Britons may have been the first settlers of America 16,000 years before Columbus was born, according to a new theory about the origin of native American peoples. PI ASKS ABOUT EARLY AMERICAS ARCHEOLOGY Whose history is it? Seattle Post Intelligencer Dec 5, 1999 Solveig Torik New z39\clip\99\21\clovis.htm http://www.seattle-pi.com/opinion/focus05.shtml evidence is breaking down the 60 year dominance of "Clovis First", with Chile @12,000, S. Amerians @34,000, African/Australian Luzia @11,500, Iberia spearpoints point to Solutereans who tooks boats 18,000 years ago. This is an amazingly up to date account of archaeology for a basic liberal newspaper! CLOVIS NO LONGER THE FIRST AMERICAN CULTURE http://www.nytimes.com/library/national/science/110999sci-first-americans.html New York Times November 9, 1999 New Answers to an Old Question: Who Got Here First? "Clovis was not the only culture in America 11,000 years ago," Dr. Bonnichsen said. Two discoveries -- the remains of a pre-Clovis camp at Monte Verde in Chile and the skull and bones of the Kennewick Man, possibly as old as 9,300 years and bearing little physical resemblance to later American Indians -- are primarily responsible for the profound shift in thinking. Dr. Joseph Powell of the University of New Mexico reported last month that [Kennewick's] physical affinities appeared to be closer to those of South Asians or Polynesians than either Europeans or American Indians. first people in South America might have originated in Australia, or at least South Asia. Last month, he said Luzia might have belonged to a nomadic people who began arriving in the New World as early as 15,000 years ago... [might have taken boats, or walked across strait] CLOVIS, IBERIAN FIRST AMERICANS zip38\clip\99\20\euram.txt some nomads found an ice-free highway down into the continent some 13,500 years ago. Their culture has been named Clovis. the new theory, the continent’s first inhabitants may have crossed the Atlantic more than 18,000 years ago from Europe’s Iberian Peninsula Belonging to a group known as the Solutreans http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_430000/430944. stm zip36\clip\99\16\firsaus.htm Thursday, August 26, 1999 Published at 'First Americans were Australian' This is the face of the first known American, Lucia The first Americans were descended from Australian aborigines, according to evidence in a new BBC documentary. \clip\99\16\aboram.txt THE SUNDAY TIMES August 22 1999 UNITED STATES Aborigines were the first Americans By Sarah Toyne THE first people to inhabit America were Australian Aborigines - not American Indians. New archeological findings have uncovered evidence that they crossed the Pacific Ocean by boat and settled on the continent long before Siberians trekked across the Bering Straits after the Ice Age. Scientists have reconstructed the skull of a young girl found in Brazil. At 12,000 years old, "Luzia" is the oldest human skeleton yet found on the American landmass. FIRST AMERICANS SAILED FROM AUSTRALIA, WIPED OUT BY MONGLOID PEOPLES. zip36\doc\web\99\12\track1st.txt Tracking the First Americans 8/19/1999 The Learning Channel Science Frontiers Brazil wilderness Serra De Capivara Rock shelter decorated with paintings. Paintings after 9,000 ya show violence, human attacks. Skulls resemble Australian aborigines, as do features of modern descendants who are mostly mongloid at tip of S. America. 60,000 ya - Australian aborigines 50,000 ya - oldest boat painting in Australia 40,000 ya - bones and charcoal 25,000 ya - oldest skulls 9,000 ya - Australian S. Americans replaced by mongloid races from ice bridge %%Jomon-Ainu BRACE SAY JOMON-AINU WERE FIRST AMERICANS z50\clip\2001\07\jomon.txt http://msnbc.com/news/606886.asp New theory on Americas settlement Ancient group of Japanese may have been first to arrive ASSOCIATED PRESS the first Americans were most closely related to the Jomon, a prehistoric people who lived in Japan thousands of years ago, and to a later group, the Ainu. C. Loring Brace of the Museum of Anthropology at the University of Michigan said the skull measurements and other evidence suggest the members of the Jomon-Ainu group crossed what is now the Bering Straits and migrated throughout the Americas, from Alaska to the tip of South America. %%Time pfrost@globetrotter.qc.ca MESOAMERICA: Beginning of agriculture - 7,000 B.C. First appearance of pottery - 2,300 B.C. First permanent farming villages - 1,500 B.C. First major civilization (Olmecs) - 1,150 B.C. Invention of calendar and writing (Zapotecs) - 900-300 B.C. Development of astronomy and mathematics (Maya) - 700-900 A.D. Unification of region under a single empire (Aztecs) - 1428 A.D. By comparison, the Middle East achieved all of the above within approximately the same length of time, from the beginnings of agriculture ca. 10,000 B.C. to political unification under the Assyrian empire ca. 668-627 B.C. \clip\99\10\amman.txt newsweek apr 99 on first americans %%Soltrean z46\clipim\2000\11\30\solut\solut.htm http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/0799toc/7special12-solutrean.shtml Clovis may be from European culture that was in Europe 14,000 years ago, walking along edge of ice sheet or in boats. The ultimate test of this hypothesis may be found in genetic research on ancient human remains. Michael Brown and colleagues reported in 1998 that mitochrondrial-DNA haplogroup X (a genetic marker of population groups) is found in low frequencies in both European and Native American populations, but not among Asians. @@Animals Domesticated Source: Hysteria episode (WB) 12,000 BC wolf domesticated to dog 10,000 BC goats domesticated for milk 8,000 BC cows for milk and food. %%General http://www.hcs.ohio-state.edu/hcs/TMI/HCS210/HortOrigins/ BrDomestic.html zip38\clip\99\20\domes.htm The first attempts at domestication of animals and plants apparently were made in the Old World by peoples of the Mesolithic Period. The tribes that engaged in hunting and in gathering wild edible plants made attempts to domesticate dogs, goats, and possibly sheep as early as 9000 BC. %%Cat DOMESTICATION. FROM WILD TO MILD. Cats and humans have a long history together. Archaeological evidence of this relationship dates to 8,000 years... http://www.lam.mus.ca.us/cats/P24/more.htm %%cattle Remains of domesticated cattle dating to 6,500 B.C. have been found in Turkey and other sites in the Near East approach this age also. Some authorities date the domestication of cattle as early as 10,000 years ago, and others almost half that amount of time. http://www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds/cattle/index.htm %%Dog zip38\clip\99\20\wolf.htm http://www.kc.net/~wolf2dog/genetic1.htm REFERENCES TO WOLF/DOG GENETIC HISTORY "Canis familiaris was probably domesticated from the wolf 10-12,000 years ago. It found it's way into North America as far south as Idaho. Given thousands of years to selectively breed mutants that cropped up in their dog colonies, humans have manipulated an almost incredible diversity in this species. And there exist today more than 800 true breeding types worldwide". Looking at the Wolf, no author listed, Teton Science School, ISBN 0-911797-24-6 ISM Midwest 16,000 years ago -- Evolution of North American Canids Infoseek: The evolution of the genus Canis is a complex topic involving at least five continents. The one model for the evolution of the genus Canis would be as follows: The 687, http://www.museum.state.il.us/...ts/larson/canid_evolution.html http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/altdogs_061397. html Friday, June 13, 1997 Man found dog 100,000 years ago by Robert Lee Hotz Los Angeles Times. Fossil evidence 14,000 years, genetic evidence points between 60-100,000 years at origin. zip38\clip\99\20\dogsago.htm @@Arab http://www.encyclopedia.com/articles/00042.html Abraham progenitor of the Hebrews Through son, ISHMAEL, he is considered by Muslims an ancestor of the Arabs. son of ABRAHAM and Hagar, half brother to ISAAC, and ancestor of 12 tribes in N Arabia According to tradition, the Arabs are the descendants of Ishmael. http://www.babadas.org/Abraham.html Amazingly, the Jewish, Christian and Islamic faiths all trace their roots back to Abraham: The Muslims, because Abraham's first son, Ishmael, is said to be the father of the Arab people, and the Prophet Mohammed is said to be a direct descendent of Ishmael, and therefore of Abraham. Furthermore, it was Abraham and Ishmael who together built the Ka'bah, a stone temple which is the holiest house of Islam, where once even the Jews used to worship. @@Ardi http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/33110809/ns/technology_and_science-science/?GT1=43001 “Ardi,” a hominid who lived 4.4 million years ago in what is now Ethiopia. The 110-pound, 4-foot female roamed forests a million years before the famous Lucy Ardipithecus ramidus — which means root of the ground ape — the find is detailed in 11 research papers published Thursday by the journal Science. The lines that evolved into modern humans and living apes probably shared an ancestor 6 million to 7 million years ago first bones were discovered in 1994, a mosaic creature that is neither chimpanzee, nor is it human. It is Ardipithecus @@Ark %%Against http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/faq-noahs-ark.html Problems with a Global Flood 1998 by Mark Isaak Were dinosaurs and other extinct animals on the ark? According to the Bible, Noah took samples of all animals alive at the time of the Flood. If, as creationists claim, all fossil-bearing strata were deposited by the Flood, then all the animals which became fossils were alive then. Therefore all extinct land animals had representatives aboard the ark. an ark of the size specified in the Bible would not be large enough to carry a cargo of animals and food sufficient to repopulate the earth, especially if animals that are now extinct were required to be aboard. %%For zip36\clipim\99\08\18\ark\ark.htm http://www.indirect.com/www/wbrown/onlinebook/scc/earth1.html Archaeological Evidence Indicates That Noah's Ark Probably Exists.a Since the flood, many of the offspring of those on the Ark would have become reproductively isolated in some degree due to mutations, natural genetic variations, and geographic dispersion. Thus, variations within a kind have proliferated. Each variation did not have to be represented on the Ark. For example, a pair of wolflike animals were probably the ancestors of the coyotes, the dingoes, the jackals, the foxes, and hundreds of varieties of domestic dogs. (This is microevolution, not macroevolution, since each member of the dog kind can interbreed and has the same organs and genetic structure.) @@Art 77,000 YR OLD ART NEAR START OF HOMO SAPIENS z54\clip\2002\01\oldart.txt Oldest Art Science -- Balter 295 (5553): 247b http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/295/5553/247b OLDEST ART: From a Modern Human's Brow--or Doodling? Michael Balter Archaeologists in South Africa have found what may be the oldest known art, dated at least 40,000 years before the earliest cave paintings in Europe. The artifacts, two chunks of red ochre engraved with geometric crosshatches, were recovered from 77,000-year-old cave deposits. @@Asian East Asians as they appear today have only appeared since humans appeared in Asia 25,000 years ago. The earliest Asians look like early Europeans. ASIANS HAVE DEVELOPED SINCE 25,000 YEARS AGO z50\doc\web\2001\07\ancasia.txt Dr. Peter Frost: "Kennewick Man" probably came from an even earlier wave that has since disappeared through assimilation and/or extinction. Modern humans entered Northeast Asia around 25,000 years ago and their physical appearance has since changed as a result of selection pressures specific to that region, notably the cold, harsh climate. What did these people look like 25,000 years ago? A lot like Upper Paleolithic Europeans 25,000 years ago and probably like the Ainu of today. When did Asian/Euro split happen? se asia Mongoloids are characterized by cold adaptations (e.g., the epicanthic eyefold), so it is likely that they originated in northern Asia and only later pushed south and east -- probably at the expense of already established populations. Japanese are distinct from Chinese but close to Koreans, Mongols based on DNA language Rushton on evolution of Asians VIRUS SHOWS NAVAHO AND JAPANESE ASIANS ARE CLOSELY RELATED http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/WPlate/1999-08/09/063l- 080999-idx.html \clip\99\15\microbe.txt Microbe's Map Of Migration By David Brown Washington Post Staff Writer Monday, August 9, 1999; Page A07 "The strain of JC carried by modern-day Navajos, as it happens, is nearly identical to that carried by modern residents of Tokyo. It's somewhat different from the virus carried by the Chamorro, the aboriginal inhabitants of the South Pacific island of Guam. It's very different, however, from the virus carried by West Africans, East Africans and Europeans. " @@Australia National Geographic Feb 1999 Isolated for 40 million years, 90% of reptile species can only be found on this island, most marsupials. %%Race se asia Before the Malay expansion some four thousand years ago, all of southeast Asia was inhabited by populations similar to the native inhabitants of Australia and Papua/New Guinea. We shouldn't fall into the assumption that the distribution of human populations was static and unchanging prior to Columbus. Mongoloids are characterized by cold adaptations (e.g., the epicanthic eyefold), so it is likely that they originated in northern Asia and only later pushed south and east -- probably at the expense of already established populations. @@Behavior LAUGHTER ALSO COMMON TO PRIMATES, RATS z56\clip\2002\05\laugh.txt http://www.newscientist.com/opinion/opinterview.jsp?id=ns23436 Humans don't have a monopoly on laughter, says Silvia Cardoso. A behavioural biologist at the State University of Campinas, Brazil, she says it's a primitive reflex common to most animals: even rats laugh. @@Bering Land Bridge http://www.nps.gov/bela/ Bering Land Bridge National Preserve is a remnant of the land bridge that connected Asia with North America more than 13,000 years ago. During the glacial epoch this was part of a migration route for people, animals, and plants whenever ocean levels fell enough to expose the land bridge. @@Bible The Bible Timeline Thomas Robinson 1992 Hebrew text dates creation at 1,946 before birth of Abraham Samaritan genesis 2,247 Greek translation 3,312 years early christian church 5500 bc Judaism counts 3761 BC 4004 bc Archbishop James Ussher, often printed ib bibles 1 - dates correct 2 - incomplete 3 - earth is only 1000s of years old %%Archeology http://www.salon.com/books/feature/2001/02/07/solomon/print.html King David was a nebbish And Exodus never happened and the walls of Jericho did not come a-tumbling down. How archaeologists are shaking Israel to its biblical foundations. By Laura Miller Feb. 7, 2001 Israel Finkelstein, chairman of the Archaeology Department at Tel Aviv University, who, with archaeology historian and journalist Neil Asher Silberman, has just published a book called "The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Text." @@Big No Bias Towards Bigness in Evolution \clip\97\02\evolbig.txt New York Times January 21, 1997 Horses, Mollusks and the Evolution of Bigness 9 @@Big Bang Evidence - The farthest you can see is 13-15B light years away - Abundance of light elements H, He, Li - Hubble observed red-shift expansion, which leads to conclusion that the universe began at a point 13-15B years ago - Uniform distribution of matter and background radiation is consistent with cosmological principle - No stars are older than 13-15B years old - Predicted by General theory of relativity Exploring Our Universe Scientific American dec 1999 http://www.pd.astro.it/E-MOSTRA/G2500CSM.HTM zip36\clipim\99\08\23\bigbang\bigbang.htm Astronomy for all 10-43 seconds (0.0000000000000000000000000000000000000000001 seconds) after the Big Bang. The Universe is very hot, 1032 degrees (100000000000000000000000000000000 degrees) and very small 10-33 cm (0.000000000000000000000000000000001 cm). 10-36 seconds after the Big Bang. The first particles are formed: quarks. The Universe is still very hot, 1030 degrees and measures 10-26 cm. The "violent" expansion of the Universe begins, an age known as "the age of inflation'. 10-4 seconds after the Big Bang. The quarks form protons and neutrons, the antiquarks form the antiprotons and antineutrons. The temperature of the Universe is 1,000 billion degrees. 1 second after the Big Bang: the first electrons appear. 3 minutes after the Big Bang: the Helium nuclei start to form. 300,000 years after the Big Bang the electrons bind the protons and the Helium nuclei forming Hydrogen and Helium atoms. 10 million years after the Big Bang the first galaxies are formed. 15 billion years after the Big Bang: the Universe in which we are living. Timeline %%Evidence Creationists believe there isn't any evidence of a big bang. Red shift doesn't measure distance, it does not point to a 15B start, it isn't observable or repeatable or testable. The speed of light is not constant, Einstein is wrong, not God. BIG REASONS TO BELIEVE IN THE BIG BANG UWTV National Academy of Sciences Lecture 2001 Cosmology: From Quantum Fluctuations to the Accelerating Universe National Academy of Sciences "Distinguished Leaders in Science" program. Today the Universe consists of galaxies moving away from one another in a pattern of motion that indicates a big-bang beginning. We can trace the history of the Universe back to the hot quark soup that existed a fraction of a second after the beginning. 1. Hubble expansion / red shift. Verified by Hubble telescope measurements 2. Hubble Deep Field shows galaxies formed when universe a few billion years old 3. Background radiation 3 deg K comes from cooling of hot big bang 4. Age of stars, galaxies and atoms (radiodating based on elements observed) doe not exceed 10-15B years old. 5. Computer model shows that current structure can evolve from natural laws. (Creationists believe current structure cannot come from an explosion) 6. Particle physics observes behavior of particles predicted by astronomers and vice versa. Early conditions can be duplicated in Fermi lab. 7. 1998 - The universe is speeding up. 70% of matter / energy of original big bang is "funny energy" which pulls things apart like Einstein's constant. @@Books %%Creation [[Icons of Evolution wells Response? review/refutation: http://www.don-lindsay-archive.org/creation/icons_of_evolution.html WELLS IS MOONIE DEDICATED TO DESTROYING DARWINISM http://www.tparents.org/Library/Unification/Talks/Wells/DARWIN.htm Unification Sermons and Talks by Reverends Wells Darwinism: Why I Went for a Second Ph.D. by Jonathan Wells, Ph.D.-Berkeley, CA Father [moon] spoke out against the evils in the world; among them, he frequently criticized Darwin's theory Father's words, my studies, and my prayers convinced me that I should devote my life to destroying Darwinism Astronomy and the Bible Questions and Answers. Donald D. DeYoung Baker Book House 1989. Scripture is clear that the moon was created suddenly from nothing. The moon has less dust than expected, attempts at dating give less than 10,000 years. p. 34 I believe day means 24 hours. Comet? There is a lack of supporting evidence for any of these events! (K-T layer??) Instead, creationists suggest that most dinosaurs died in the great flood, those who survived on the ark did ot adapt.We are not certain what makes the sun shine, If it is gravitational collaspse, it might be much younger. Have You Been Brainwashed? Duane T. Gish PhD animal fossils show up abrubtly, not continual transition from single cell to Cambrian explosion. No one has created a new species. Horse series not accurate. Bats have not change in 50 million years. Cro-magnon and Neandertal are just men. Glen Rose Texas show controversial human and dinosaur tracks. 2.8 million year old skull in 1973 was older than less sophisticated earlier finds. Prof Henry M. Morris shows violation of laws of thermodynamics - 2nd law says left to themselves, things go from complex to simple (but life doesn't). Biochemistry U Cal Berkeley VP Institution for Creation Research El Cajon California. No claim of great flood or young univese. excerpt Dry Bones and Other Fossils Gary E. and Mary M. Parker Gary M.S., Ed.D. Professor Natural Science Clearwater Christian College Mary M. Parker Curator Florida Creation Science Center Master Books (c) 1979,1995 [picture book aimed at 4-6th grade] http://www.netstoreusa.com/jubooks/089/0890512302.shtml Skeletons In Your Closet; A Sequel To Dry Bones By: Parker, Gary // Illustrator: Chong, Jonathan Trade Cloth Cover//Illustrated 64 pages Language: English Publication Date: March 1998 ; Publisher: Master %%Evolution Alpha & Omega The Search for the Beginning and End of the Universe Charles Seife 2003 Penguin Origins: The evolution of continents, oceans and life Ron Redfern 2000 49.95 Huge color coffee table book, excellent 19th century geologists believed in land bridges to form group Gondwanda, Alfred wegner proposed continents were connected, picture shows range of fossils fit jigsaw when put together @@Bronze Age The Time of Bronze Discovering Archaeology Sept 1999 p9 2500 BC:villages of thatched roundhouses, roads, bridges carts boats, oxen pulling plows @@Calendar http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/khagen/CalHist.html History of the Western Calendar Jewish Western %%China z43\clip\2000\07\chincal.txt http://www.innerx.net/personal/tsmith/ChinCal.html 5 February 2000 = Chinese New Year 4697 Year of Metal Dragon - or is it 3953 Pang (JPL) and Bangert (USNO) calculated (based on astronomy) that the Chinese calendar began on 5 March 1953 BC (Sky &Telescope Dec 1993 pp. 13-14), and 1953+2000 = 3953 - or is it 4698? As David B. Kelley has pointed out in a personal communication, it is reasonable to assume that a starting year for the Chinese calendar would be year 1 (Wood 1 - Rat) of the 60-year stem-and-branch cycle, and further, that it would most likely coincide with the start of the reign of an emperor. According to Chinese historians, the reign of Huang Di ('Yellow Emperor') began in the year 2697 BC %%Jewish http://www.innerx.net/personal/tsmith/TShome.html#year Tom Smith says 10 September 1999 = Rosh Hashana 5760 @@Canaanite @@Phonecian http://pubpages.unh.edu/~cbsiren/canaanite-faq.htlm Canaanite/Ugaritic Mythology FAQ, ver. 1.2 by Christopher B. Siren while both Phoenician and Canaanite refer to approximately the same culture, archaeologists and historians commonly refer to the pre-1200 or 1000 B.C.E. Levantines as Canaanites and their descendants, who left the bronze age for the iron, as Phoenicians. @@Carbon Dating Method of dating dead/once living things to 50,000 years ago, calibrated with actual layers of algae to 43,000. Most claims of absurd data are not valid, but there have been some cases where computed dates are off from the actual written history dates. %%Accuracy 50\clip\2001\07\radcarb.txt The Electronic Telegraph ISSUE 2227 Saturday 30 June 2001 Carbon dating 'might be wrong by 10,000 years' By Roger Highfield, Science Editor SCIENTISTS say their key tool for dating ancient artefacts might be wrong by 10,000 years, which could push back the timing of key events in history and improve understanding of climate change. modern humans might have lived in Europe for longer than thought and that prehistoric paintings recently found in the Chauvet cave, in southern France, might be 38,000-years-old rather than the estimated 33,000 years. http://www.seattletimes.com/news/nation-world/html98/icem_ 19990826.html zip36\CLIP\99\16\iceman.txt Seattle Times August 26, 1999 Iceman could shed light on first Americans by Joseph B. Verrengia The Associated Press "Radiocarbon testing is accurate to within 50 years on an artifact that is 10,000 years old. Separate tests on ice samples from the glacier also would help to establish the man's age. Five years ago, radiocarbon dating of a Nevada mummy revealed it was 9,400 years old - the oldest mummy in North America. %%Algae \clip\99\16\cdate.txt zip36\clipim\99\08\18\carbon\carbon.htm http://abcnews.go.com/sections/science/DailyNews/carbon0220. html Bottom of Lake Refines Carbon Dating Technique This Died How Long Ago? Counting thin white layers of dead algae, each less than a millimeter thick, the researchers calibrated carbon-14 dating back to 43,000 B.C. Ancient tree rings have allowed scientists to calibrate the carbon-14 clock back to 9400 B.C. The layered growth of coral reefs pushes the calibration back another 12,000 years, Cores taken from Suigetsu's lake bottom avoid that problem. Counting the thin white layers of dead algae, each less than a millimeter thick, gave the researchers the year, which could then be compared to the date obtained by carbon dating, back to 43,000 B.C. Tree rings C14 used to date volcanos http://www.fireplug.net/~rshand/streams/thera/dating.html zip36\clipim\99\08\24\dating.html (1) Bristlecone Pine Dating "The third Thera Conference [Athens 1990] turned into a battleground between archaeology and the newer disciplines of dendrochronology and radiocarbon (C14) dating. Findings from these fields were thrown into the ring, and their supporters argued strongly that the eruption was to be dated more than a hundred years earlier to 1628/7 B.C. http://ww2.customcpu.com/mgroseth/origins/C14Myths.html Myths about Radiocarbon Dating zip36\clipim\99\08\24\cmyth\cmyth.htm Myth#1 The shells of living freshwater clams have been radiocarbon dated in excess of 1600 years old, clearly showing that the radiocarbon (C14) dating technique is not valid. Myth#2 Samples of coal have been found with radiocarbon ages of only 20,000 radiocarbon years or less, thus proving the recent origin of fossil fuels. Myth#3 A live pig was carbon dated and found to be several thousand years old. @@Canopy Hovis: There was a layer of water above the atmosphere which fell during the flood, and a layer under the earth. This doubled the air pressure and twice the oxygen, which explains why dinosaurs had small nostrils, and why adam and eve lived so long @@Catholic Catholics believe that Evolution is the way the earth evolved and the bible need not be literally interepreted. Then again, many "Christians" don't think that Catholics are Christian. J. E. Stone" professor@tricon.net Within recent months, I understand that the Roman Catholic church has taken a position on evolution similar to that of Darwin. Much of the controversy hinges on whether one takes a literal interpretation of the Bible. CATHOLICS BELIEVE IN GOD _AND_ SCIENCE \clip\99\17\scireli.txt http://www.foxnews.com/ Science vs. Religion: What War? David Bushman September 6, 1999 I am a biologist with a Christian faith I take seriously teaching at a college rooted firmly in the Catholic intellectual tradition. I am convinced that Darwin didn’t kill God. A literal reading of the creation story and Darwinian evolution are simply incompatible. Once you get past the clever arguments and the semantic games, you’re left with nothing more than desperate attempts to sweep aside perfectly good science (evolution) because it challenges dearly held beliefs. For many Christians, the same thing has happened with Darwin and evolution: Maybe God can exist in a world that wasn’t created in six days. @@CAve Creationist Origin of limestone caves http://www.icr.org/pubs/imp/imp-079.htm z46\clip\2000\11\cave.htm Underlying limestone was laid down in great flood? @@Cenozoic Introduction to the Cenozoic The Cenozoic is the most recent of the three major subdivisions of animal history. The other two are the Paleozoic and Mesozoic. The Cenozoic spans only about 65 million years, from the end of the Cretaceous and the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs to the present. from the University of California Museum of Paleontology. http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/cenozoic/cenozoic.html @@Chinese China is one of the oldest civilizations, and the oldest still in continuous existence. For a period it was advanced far beyond the West at time of Marco Polo. z55\clip\2002\03\chin.txt Chinese Outdid Columbus, Briton Says March 17, 2002 By JOHN NOBLE WILFORD a British amateur historian says he has gathered evidence showing that, in a double challenge to accepted history, the Chinese beat Columbus to America by 72 years and also circumnavigated the globe a century before the Magellan voyage. WHY CHINESE CIVILIZATION LASTS 5,000 YS WHEN OTHERS FALL? z49\clip\2001\04\chinciv.txt http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/20010329/391404.htm Researchers to Seek Origin of Ancient Chinese Civilization 2001.03.29 22:15:00 BEIJING, March 29 (Xinhuanet) -- A grand archaeological project will be launched in China in the coming five years, aiming to seek the origin of ancient Chinese civilization, the world's only ancient civilization that has been developing for 5,000 years without interruption. North vs South Chinese stereotypes, development. Derbyshire, John [john.derbyshire@csfb.com] says (2) The Chinese. Forget about "5,000 years"--that's just propaganda. The first recorded event in Chinese hisotry was the sack of the capital by barbarians in 841 B.C. R.A.D. Forrest suggests, in THE CHINESE LANGUAGE, that in fact the "barbarians" of this period were the indigenous inhabitants (animist & shamanist) of the Chinese heartland, rebelling against an alien, ancestor-worshipping, aristocracy just then imposing itself. http://www.asterius.com/china/ Chinese History for Beginners The Origins of Chinese Civilization: c. 2200 - 221 BC Xia: c. 2200 - c. 1750 BC Shang: c. 1750 - c. 1040 BC Western Zhou: c. 1100 - 771 BC Eastern Zhou, The Spring & Autumn Period, and the Warring States: 771 - 221 BC The Early Empire: 221 BC - AD 589 Qin: 221 - 206 BC Earlier Han, the Wang Man Interregnum, and the Later Han The Three Kingdoms and the Dynasties of the North and South http://www.members.home.net/drww/drww/david/tobftych.html According to "The Timetables of History" the Tower of Babel took place in approximately -601 to -700 which means 600 to 700 B.C. which means before that event, everybody on earth were basically of one ethnic race and spoke the same language. However. the Chinese have a recorded history of 4,000 plus years. There were people in China 50,000 years ago 2000 BC pottery bronze and writing China by Karen Jacobsen 1990 Children's Press %%Calendar http://www.new-year.co.uk/chinese/calendar.htm The Chinese Lunar New Year is the longest chronological record in history, dating from 2600BC, when the Emperor Huang Ti introduced the first cycle of the zodiac. %%Origin \z39\clip\2000\02\chincrad.txt China claims to be the cradle of (hu)mankind Starting again a vast debate on the African origins of humanity that China, with its several times thousand-year-old , continues to have much trouble to admit, the daily newspaper mentioned the discovery in 1998 of signs " of human activity ", including potteries going up more than 2 million years in the provinces of Anhui (is) and Sichuan (south-western). According to Liu Dongsheng, a paleontologist of the Chinese Academy of sciences, the Asian plate, because of the similarities existing with Eastern Africa, could have been " either the cradle, or one of the cradles of humanity ". @@Cichlid Fishes @@Rapid evolution TWO DISTINCT FISH VARIETIES FROM ONE IN 20 YEARS, ON WAY TO SPECIES http://bric.postech.ac.kr/biotrend/science/science_view.php?nNum=89667&nPageNum=1&nType_id=3&szSearchKey=&nCategory_id=-1&nDateOrder=&nHitOrder=&nRecoOrder= z82\clip\2004\08\fishev.txt Science Now Catching Fish Evolving 2004-08-03 Lake Malawi, shared by Malawi, Mozambique, and Tanzania, is home to at least 500 species of cichlids, all of which probably took less than a million years to evolve from a common ancestor. C. afra had evolved into two distinct varieties in less than 20 years. The ones along the northern coast of the island had developed about four vertical blue bars on the black dorsal fin, whereas the ones along the southern coast had only two or three. ... DNA fingerprints of fish from the north coast sites were significantly different from those of fish in the south,.. Fish evolution this hasty has been recorded so far only in salmon and sticklebacks. Fishes in Africa have started from one to many species in just one lake. The haplochromines, starting from a single founding species, have radiated into ~500 species in those 12k years. EVOLUTION CAN BE PRETTY FAST, OR NONEXISTENT z47\clip\2001\01\dawkin.txt Richard Dawkins http://www.edge.org/documents/questions/q2001.html "As William Blake might have written to a coelacanth: Did he who made the haplochromids make thee?" @@Civilization Why did Europe, and to a lesser extent, Asia lead in world development? EURASIA TRADE BROUGHT TOGETHER MANY CIVILIZATIONS Rushton reviews Jared Diamond Guns, Germs, and Steel Europeans were "environmentally" advantaged in Europe with contact with lots of other animals and cultures and domesticatable animals. @@Cloth BBC NEWS Wednesday, 14 June, 2000, 12:12 GMT 13:12 UK Woven cloth dates back 27,000 years By BBC News Online science editor Dr David Whitehouse Woven clothing was being produced on looms 27,000 years ago, far earlier than had been thought, scientists say. [vs 5-10k] But Professor Olga Soffer of the University of Illinois, is about to publish details in the journal Current Anthropology of 90 fragments of clay that have impressions from woven fibres. Full text: http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_790000/790569.stm @@Columbia River Plateau http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/ColumbiaPlateau/ description_columbia_plateau.html basalt was erupted between 17.5 and 6 million years ago, as measured by K-Ar and 40Ar-39Ar ages (Long and Duncan, 1983; McKee et.al., 1977, 1981; Swanson et.al., 1979a) @@Comets hovind: short period comets come every 10,000 yrs, they should be gone. I think comets were formed at the flood see tape 6 for flood meteor @@Computer z39\clipim\2000\03\truth.efx Truths of the computer business Arthur Hu 1985 20 zillion flies can't be wrong. @@Computer Simulation godlesscapitalist: "The reason is that randomized search *with selection* is actually a *provably good* optimization strategy. Evolutionary algorithms are actually *used in nonbiological contexts* in computer science. Amazingly, that implausible ol' natural selection thing actually works even when genomes are circuit plans and phenotypes are transfer functions! Brief summary here:" http://www.cs.sandia.gov/opt/survey/ea.html \clip\2004\12\Evolutionary Algorithms.htm COMPUTERS USE RANDOM MUTATION AND SELECTION TO CREATING SWIMMING AND WALKING Scientific American Frontiers Dec 2000 http://www.pbs.org/saf/1103/segments/1103-3.htm In “Robot Independence,” Karl Sims, a pioneer in artificial life, simulates natural selection in the virtual world of his computer. Meanwhile, researchers at Brandeis University are taking robot evolution from the desktop to the sidewalk. Jordan Pollack he asks computers to “evolve” the best design for a Lego structure meant for a specified task Karl Sims: Evolved Virtual Creatures 1994 This video shows results from a research project involving simulated Darwinian evolutions of virtual block creatures http://genarts.com/karl/evolved-virtual-creatures.html Video: http://www.biota.org/ksims/blockies/index.html (9M) http://alife.ccp14.ac.uk/ftp-mirror/alife/zooland/pub/research/ci/Alife/karl-sims/creatures-demo.mpg http://genarts.com/karl/papers/siggraph94.pdf 1994 Siggraph paper @@Conservative %%for evolution Ron Unz is appalled by conservative attacks on Evolution. %%against evolution z48\clip\2001\02\schevo.txt Kansas dumbs down science to promote evolution Phyllis Schlafly "Liberals have long realized that, if they can win the battle over what is taught in schools, they will win elections." 2/2001 copley news service. @@Continents %%creation hovind: continents erode in 14 m years http://www.earthsky.com/1998/es981230.html Life in the Time of Pangea Between two to three hundred million years ago, Earth's land was stuck together in one supercontinent -- Pangea. Life in the time of Pangea. @@Coral Reefs %%Creation Hovind: Great Barrier Reef is 4200 yrs old. Theory, flood destroyed reef chunks of coral in mountains %%Natural \clip\99\16\cdate.txt zip36\clipim\99\08\18\carbon\carbon.htm http://abcnews.go.com/sections/science/DailyNews/carbon0220. html Bottom of Lake Refines Carbon Dating Technique This Died How Long Ago? Counting thin white layers of dead algae, each less than a millimeter thick, the researchers calibrated carbon-14 dating back to 43,000 B.C. Ancient tree rings have allowed scientists to calibrate the carbon-14 clock back to 9400 B.C. The layered growth of coral reefs pushes the calibration back another 12,000 years, @@Cosmology Study of the structure of the universe %%Hebrews En. Americana/Grolier: Earth according to Genesis is flat with solid and liquid part, sky is where heavenly bodies move, earth rests on cornerstones that were only moved in quakes by Jehovah. Sun and moon are close @@Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/m_mm.html The MAP Goal: A Detailed Picture of the Early Universe The cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation is the radiant heat left over from the Big Bang. It was first observed in 1965 by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson at the Bell Telephone Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey. The properties of the radiation contain a wealth of information about physical conditions in the early universe and a great deal of effort has gone into measuring those properties since its discovery. This radiation (and by extension, the early universe) is remarkably featureless; it has virtually the same temperature in all directions in the sky. @@Crab Nebula http://astrosun.tn.cornell.edu/teach/astro201/crab_neb.htm The filaments in the nebula are seen to be expanding at 1000 km/sec. The distance to the Crab Nebula is about 3500 light years. @@Crater, Impact "Impact Craters on Earth." Just visit http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Thebes/7755/essays.html Try out the SN1987A article, for example. As a direct observation of a 168,000 year old event, it directly disproves the YEC idea that the universe has not been around for any longer than about 6,000 year


Science has determined that humasns, all life, and the universe appears to have evolved from completely natural processes. It puts the point of creation beyond which no evidence exists at a big bang about 15-20 billion years ago. Fundamentalists believe in a literal interpretation of the bible based on the first two pages of Genesis, combined with the Flood to explain geology and the races of man. "facts" * strata prove the existence of a great flood * no scientific dating methods that give age > 6,000 years old are reliable. * The universe was created about 5-6,000 years ago * The grand canyon could have been carved over dozens or hundreds, not millions of years or was created that way. * The moon, continents, mountains and everything else created before man were created at the same time. * Can't explain why most stars appear to be more than 6,000 light years away, they were probably created "in place", or some other mechanism not understood by man. * A great flood created most of the strata, fossils and geological features * Dinosaurs and trilobites probably lived among men at the same time (Dry Bones) * Red shift is real, but is not evidence of a big bang * All men and creatures are descended from survivors of Noah's ark about 5,000 years ago. * All languages were created after the Tower of Babel * Explosions do not create order * Evolution violates the laws of thermodynamics * Order cannnot come out of chaos sciweak.txt 9/13/05 (13 pages) Scientific Weaknesses to the Theory of Evolution To the Biology Students of Tomball High School, http://www.kjvbible.org/ Christian Geology Ministry Yes, God made this present world's heavens and earth in six, literal 24 hour days, and about 6000 years ago, just as the Bible says (see Heb.1:2). But that ...The question of course remains, even if the scientists are right, how do public schools teach evolution when their parents teach them that evolution is wrong, and still respect their beliefs and religion? http://www.indirect.com/www/wbrown/onlinebook/toc.html In the Beginning: Compelling Evidence for Creation and the Flood (6th ed.) >> The Webster's dictionary I use has definitions of "dogma" --specifically three separate definitions... equally useful.... equally powerful, yet distinct. http://washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/education/specials/policy/creationism/ Washington Post Links Hu: Yet if you take all scientific evidence and put together the puzzle, you get this neat nearly complete explanation of where the universe and planet and life and humanity have been for the past few billion years. If you simply concentrate on attacking and discarding all of this evididence, THEN you can conclude that mankind, the earth, the stars, and everything that you see that looks like it's older than 6000 years old is in fact 6000 years old, all people are direct descendants of Noah, all langauges have no common origins but were created after the tower of babel, all notion of tracking DNA similarity and similarity between life forms is a coincidence, etc. The distance to the stars, galaxies, and size and age of the universe are not fact, the geologic history of the earth is not a fact, All of the strata are less than 6000 years old Coal and gas were created less than 6000 years ago The Hawaiian islands are less than 6000 years old The Grand Canyon is less than 6000 years old All fossils are newer than 6000 years old All mountains are 6000 years old The moon is 6000 years old The sun is 6000 years old The crab nebula is 6000 years old Meteors from Mars are 6000 years old Moon rocks are 6000 years old Chinese and Japanese languages are 5000 years old The continents and oceans are 6000 years old (therefore no continental drift) There was no ice age (or it was more recent than 6000 years ago) The stars are either a) closer than 6000 light years away or b) we haven't figured out how god could make a universe so big yet be only 6000 years old There _is_ red shift, but it's not because of the big bang, in fact theres zero evidence to support that theory. There is no evolution, but all of the races of mankind are direct descendents of noah and adam less than 6000 years ago. The first human was created, not born All animal and plant species are descendents of creatures from the original ark. There is NO scientific evidence that contradicts the bible. If science teaches that moon rocks are million of years old, that's wrong. If they taught that everything is 6000 years old, that would be right. (interestingly, the bible does NOT give a direct age of the universe, or date of creation) How do we know everything is 6000 years old? The first page of the bible (out of thousands of pages) says so. All creation science is based on tearing down not just evolution, but all other science that has anything to say about the universe more than 6000 years ago. All dating is based on the age of the universe based on a geneology in the written bible, they have no other way of dating the planet, the universe, or anything in it at 6000 years. It's like arguing with the gays that there isn't any evidence that Asians are less likely to have AIDS or that gays are more promiscuous. Problem is, there's tons of data, and 99.99% of it indicates that's exactly the case. This survey is biased. That one isn't accurate. This one is not appropriate. So you discredit all the data, but you don't have to provide any data to prove your case in the positive. There aren't any data that shows that Asians have AIDS rates equal or higher than whites .There aren't any data that show that gays are equally or less promiscous than other groups. There is no way to measure the age of the planet or universe that yields 6000 years (other than by computing based on geneaology) %%Conversion Dr. Joshua Zorn renouces young earth creationism as a Christian The Testimony of a Formerly Young Earth Missionary Dr. Joshua Zorn 1997 by the American Scientific Affiliation http://members.aol.com/paluxy2/joshzorn.htm %%Links http://www.newscientist.com/creationism/features_22352.html z43\clipim\2000\07\06\creation\main.htm Unnatural selection Creation science is far from extinct. On the contrary, says Debora MacKenzie, it's mutating and spreading IN THE BEGINNING, there wasn't that much fuss. Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species in 1859. By 1900, mainstream Protestants had adapted their theology to it. More conservative Christians had misgivings. But nearly all agreed that the Earth is millions of years old, and there was no organised opposition to the teaching of evolution. http://library.advanced.org/19012/intro.htm Thin content but lots of links Yahoo links http://dir.yahoo.com/Society_and_Culture/Religion_and_ Spirituality/Science_and_Religion/Creation_vs__Evolution/ %%Books [[Anti Fenris suggests: Robt. Pennock's "Tower of Babel: The Evidnece against the New Creationism," MIT, 1999? (Best price I found was at borders.com--about $27, including shipping) I'm finding it difficult to force myself to keep track of the differences between the absurd beliefs of the various species of Creationists. jrmonrad suggests If you really want some details on the various flavors, try Ronald L. Numbers (1992) _The Creationists_. Provides a nice history of pre-ID creationism and its evolutionary pathways. ;) %%Leading Dr. Hugh Ross "Reasons to Believe" http://reasons.org/ Testable evolution hypothesis Realaudio: http://reasons.org/resources/multimedia/interview/199903.ram 03-99 The New, Testable, Creation Model Dr. Ross at Trinity Law School (2 hours, 46 minutes) - Speed of light is constant, always has been. - Vertical but not horizontal branches - 100 phyla created during cambrian explosion in 5M years from Canada/China - Accepts Big Bang, billion year old universe, fossil record - Adam geneology was not complete, 4000BC is a myth - Male Y chromosomes merge at Noah, but female go back to Eve - Neaderthal was separately created just as man - Universe and its laws are designed - Humans created last Dr. Kent Hovind has lots of videos, speaks across the USA RBOCCHINO says Check out books by Eric Skousen, especially the one titled Earth: In The Beginning. He goes into detail re the fossil/geological record, from a creationist point of view. Jon Fleming : Skousen is a member of the Church of Latter Day Saints (commonly known as Mormons), and it appears that he draws heavily on LDS dogma in his writings. and . "He has no problem with the billions of years for creation, quoting from BY and other early leaders, which is in contradiction to JFS. However, Skousen places all creation on other worlds, and I have a difficult time correlating that with recent DNA evidence" ... the book presents a very peculiar LDS version of "creation science." Jack Couch (jgcouc@@planetx.bloomu.edu) Skousen places the earth's creation elsewhere as well. He explains: "that somewhere within the earth's mother planet, the physical globe developed in her embryonic waters. This was accomplished through priesthood command." Has a famous dad http://www.skousen2000.com/cdrom.htm http://WWW.libertymall.com/Products/Constitutional_Colleagues/MOA.htm %%Opinion doc934:creation.xls Creation poll http://library.advanced.org/19012/gallup.htm ThinkQuest Team Dec 1998 Gallup Poll 47% Man created as bible stated 40% Man developed over millions of years, but guided by God 9% Man developed by evolution without God %%Presbyterian http://reasons.org/resources/multimedia/interview/199903.ram nice lecture which goes over problems with ark, starlight http://reasons.org/resources/apologetics/pca_creation_study_committee_report.html z48\clipim\2001\02\20\study.htm Report of the Creation Study Committee A The Calendar Day Interpretation 2320 B. The Day-Age Interpretation 2331 C. The Framework Interpretation 2342 We believe that history, not myth, is the proper category for describing these chapters; and furthermore that their history is true %%Skeptics Washington / Seattle http://www.eskimo.com/~pierres/realindex.html The Creationism Atlas of Washington State - One of our most popular features, the creationism atlas details numerous attempts by members of the Religious Right to take over Washington State's public school system. Creationism: The Lucy Controversy - The story that launched PNWS. For ten years, creationists have hurled horrific accusations against the discoverer of the Lucy skeleton. Find out what happened when Pacific Northwest Skeptics tried to stop them. http://www.seattleskeptics.org/ The Society for Sensible Explanations. We are all atheists about most of the gods that humanity has ever believed in. Some of us just go one god further. Richard Dawkins %%Study \clip\99\15\ditdar.txt BreakPoint Commentary #90805 - 8/5/1999 Ditching Darwin : Why Missing Links Are Still Miss by Charles Colson the fossil record shows no such thing. Instead, new species appear suddenly--virtually overnight. As Schwartz puts it, fins turn into legs suddenly, without a trail of intermediate forms. Similarly, he says, "You don't see gradual evolution of feathers. You either have feathers or you don't." @@Cro-Magnon Thought to be first form of modern man to dominate Europe. They came out of Africa, replacing Neanderthal (or perhaps incorporating through interbreeding) about 35,00 years ago. They also traveled to the middle east. They could
  • looked nearly identical to modern humans
  • store food in pits
  • form trade networks
  • sew clothing with fine needles
  • create sculpture of realistic humans
  • cave paintings
  • produced far more artifacts than any previous humans.
Cro Magnon are evidently the same as modern caucasians, but can't tell from the bones from modern africans. They may have appeared at the same time in Asia and europe. The Last Neanderthal Discovery cable program @@dance z48\clip\2001\02\dance.txt In Dawn of Society, Dance Was Center Stage By JOHN NOBLE WILFORD New York Times, 1.2.27 an illustrated record of dancing from 9,000 to 5,000 years ago. This record, apparently the earliest of its kind, coincides with the place and time hunters of wild game and gatherers of wild plant food first settled into villages @@Darwin, Charles Robert 1809-1882 The complete Origin of the Species online: http://www.literature.org/authors/darwin-charles/the-origin-of-species/ Darwin's theory of evolution was the first general princople established in biology (encyclopedia americana 1987). He wondered why similar species were nearby if they were all created independently. On Galopogos, each island had distinct life even though similar, why so much creation. Most believed in immutability of species. 1836 - Beagle returns to england 1837 - started Notebooks on the transmutation of the species 1859 - On the Origin of the Species Says creation is a natural process, not divine design Evidence found 50 yrs later %%Race DARWIN NOTICED DIFFERENCES IN "CONSTITUTION" AMONG RACES Darwin on race (found by Steve Sailer) In "The Descent of Man," he wrote, "... the various races, when carefully compared and measured, differ much from each other -- as in the texture of hair, the relative proportions of all parts of the body, the capacity of the lungs, the form and capacity of the skull, and even the convolutions of the brain. The races differ also in constitution, in acclimatization and in liability to certain diseases. Their mental characteristics are likewise very distinct; chiefly as it would appear in their emotions, but partly in their intellectual faculties. Everyone who has had the opportunity of comparison must have been struck by the contrast between the taciturn, even morose aborigines of South America and the light-hearted, talkative negroes." Steve remarks Darwin would not be surprised who invented rap music. %%Racist z49\clip\2001\05\darwrace.txt Louisiana House Committee: Darwin's Ideology Is Racist http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,19540,00.html Tuesday, May 01, 2001 BATON ROUGE, La. Charles Darwin, the father of evolution, supported racist ideologies that Louisiana's Legislature should reject, a state House committee decided Tuesday in a resolution educators said would open the state to ridicule. @@Dating methods %%Methods Dating Methods http://ww2.customcpu.com/mgroseth/origins/DatingMethods.html There are several ways to date the earth, life, and early man beyond 6,000 years ago. %%Fossil The Last Neanderthal Hamsters and Rats used to date layers of human sites. %%Gap The Dating Gap The radiocarbon method of dating is believed to be accurate going back about 40,000 years*. Another method, referred to as K-Ar, for potassium-argon, can be used to date fossils which are at least 200,000 years old by dating igneous rocks in the area**. So there we are with a gap, from 40,000 - 200,000 years old. This roughly covers the Middle Stone Age. Many of the fossils that have been used to demonstrate the smooth transition to modern homosapien fall into this time period. All of us can remember seeing the charts showing the various stages of man with date inscriptions plainly showing how we evolved. Oddly, these short comings, and others, are almost never mentioned in evolution literature.[but we're still way beyond the biblical 6,000 year limit] %%Potassium Argon The Science of Fire Discovering Archaeology Sept Oct 1999 p. 88 Potassium 40 half life is 1.3 billion years, accuracy starts at 100,000 years. Normally used for volcanic sediments %%Problems http://www.rae.org/ch04tud.html TIME UPSIDE DOWN Dr. Erich von Fange Ph.D. E-Mail: fangmer@lni.net One of the first suggestions that the decay of radioactive material as a constant might be in trouble appeared in a news magazine as early as1964, when a group of physicists reported that they had proved that they could influence the rate of radioactive decay. Yet radioactive dating methods stand or fall on the assumption that the rate is a constant. A geophysical research journal reported that lava which formed in the year 1800-1801 was tested by the potassium-argon dating method and showed an age of 160 million up to 3 billion years in age. Other reports have been published of similar dates for young rocks in Norway, Germany, France, and the Soviet Union (Journal of Geophysical Research , July, 1968; CRSQ, 1970, 7:3, p.145; Time , 10/3/1969, p.72-74). In the Canadian Arctic on a rock ledge on Victoria Island, researchers found a number of brachiopods and tracks in a Precambrian deposit. No such life was known to appear until the Cambrian period, however. Laboratory dating produced the impossibly young date of 445 million years (Ordovician Period). Presumably laboratory tests will continue until a reassuring date of more than 600 million years is secured (Time , 11/12/1965, p.160 plus 11/19/1965 letter to the editor). http://www.angelfire.com/ms/jesusdinosandmore/carbondating.html The Problem with Carbon 14 and other dating methods. \clipim\99\08\24\carbond\carbond.htm Living mollusk shells have been dated using the carbon 14 method, only to find that the method gave it a date as having been dead for 23,000 years! (Science vol 141 1963 pg 634-637) The body of a seal that had been dead for 30 years was carbon dated, and the results stated that the seal had died 4,600 years ago! (from the "Illustrated Origins book")
@@Dinosaur The most famous prehistoric creatures were related to, but different from reptiles. The latest theory is that their extinction happened about the same time as a large metor strike which created a layer of iridium across the planet.

Hovind says that they are just big reptiles, when the earth was young, reptiles don't stop growing, so they get really big.


Pterosaurs, flying reptiles first appeared at the start of the
Jurassic not too long after the dinosaurs 215 million years ago and
lasted 150 million years, dying out with the dinosaurs. "Lords of the
ancient skies: Pterosaurs" p. 87 National Geographic May 2001.


Many creationists point to man tracks next to dinosaur tracks, but
this has been discredited.

mommy1995 one of the big things
evolutionist believe is that dinosaurs went extinct before man was
ever on earth.  If this is true than why do they find man and
dinosaur bones together.  I also have a picture that was taken in
Texas that shows a Mans footprint inside of a dinosaurs
footprint...This was found in a river bed that dried up and the
imprints were fossilized.

http://members.aol.com/paluxy2/paluxy.htm Glen J. Kuban's Last
Updated: 11 Nov. 1998 For many years claims were made by strict
creationists that human footprints or "giant man tracks" occur
alongside dinosaur tracks in the limestone beds of the Paluxy River,
near Glen Rose Texas. If true, such a finding would dramatically
contradict the conventional geologic timetable, which holds that
humans did not appear on earth until over 60 million years after the
dinosaurs became extinct.  However, the "man track" claims have not
stood up to close scientific scrutiny, and have been abandoned even
by most creationists.  My Paluxy work helped prompt many creationists
to largely abandon the "man track" claims. 


http://unisci.com/stories/20012/0626011.htm The Archaeology And
Genetics Of Malaria Resistance Between 7,000 and 12,000 years ago, a
dramatic climate change increased temperature and humidity in Africa,
creating new lakes and pools of water.


Dogs have been artificially selected from wolves into yhe incredibly
variety we see today, starting as long as 100,000 years ago. Only
people have as much variety in one species, some say that variety in
culture, iq and appearance is similar to that found in dogs.

Man's best friend likely got start from wolf 100,000 years ago
Full story: http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/localnews/2001857959_snoopy14m.html
By Paul Recer Seattle Times 2/15/2003
The Associated Press
From Yorkshire terriers the size of a teacup to Irish wolfhounds near
the size of a small pony, all dogs originated from a single species,
probably an East Asian wolf seeking the warmth of the human hearth and
an easy meal.

Cochran on dog evolution

Genetic distance of dogs is closer
than humans, but physical characteristics is much more different.



McCarthy reviews 1911 Britannica:
Geologists saw evolution of life before they could explain it.
Evidence of strata came up with ages in millions of years, at least
for animals with hard parts. Kelvin had arguments about how long it
would take the earth to cool, but radioactivity fixed that problem by
1095. Metorites and the moon place 4.6B for the solar system and 4.2B
for the earth.

Paleomap project

The Age of the earth, and evidence
http://www.talkorigins.org/origins/faqs-youngearth.html The Age of
the Earth The Earth is accepted by scientists to be around 4.5
billion years old. But how do they know the Earth is this old? Some
of the lines of evidence for an ancient Earth are presented. 

The Extinction Files video: The earth at 3.9 billion years ago - 15
hour day, sun 3/4 as bright as now, moon 4 times larger than now.

4.5 billion old rock from mars

How Old is the Earth
The Age of the Earth
A. How old is the Earth?
4.6 billion years (4,600,000,000 years)
Radiometric dating (Uranium, Thorium). Mass spectrometer.
Early ideas of the age of the Earth:

1.1654 Archbishop Usher (Ireland), genealogy in Bible
     Earth was created October 26, 4004 BC, 9:00 am
     Earth was 6000 years old.

Document created by: Pamela J. W. Gore
Georgia Perimeter College, Clarkston, GA

Radioactive Element Dating
Assuming we know how much of the lead isotope was originally
contained in a given sample, we can determine its age by comparing
present abundances of U-238 and Pb-206. This dating method has been
used to assess the ages of the oldest rocks on Earth, which have been
found to be about 4 billion years old. Lunar rocks and the oldest
meteorites yield ages of about 4.6 billion years. Similar dating
techniques exist for isotopes of strontium, krypton, and rubidium.
Taken together, we conclude that from the age measurements of
meteorites, lunar and Earth rocks, that the Solar System was formed
around 5 billion years ago. 


Common Young-Earth "Dating Methods" 
Young-Earthers have several methods which they claim to give "upper
limits" to the age of the Earth, much lower than the age calculated
above (usually in the thousands of years). Those which appear the
most frequently in talk.origins are reproduced below: 
Accumulation of helium in the atmosphere 
Decay of the Earth's magnetic field 
Accumulation of meteoritic dust on the Moon 
Accumulation of metals into the oceans 
Note that these aren't necessarily the "best" or most 

Teaching about Evolution (p. 52) makes the following dogmatic
statement: "The sun, the Earth and the rest of the solar system
formed from a nebular cloud of dust and gas 4.5 billion years ago."
Why is that statement dogmatic? (p. 95) Because they weren't there to
see it happen. Nor was anyone else!

Dr. Russell Humphreys, a nuclear physicist, has developed a
cosmology that allows for the formation of the universe in a Biblical
time frame, using Einstein's theory of general relativity (the same
theoretical foundation as the "big bang"). Why does this new
cosmology work? (p. 95) It works because general relativity shows
that time is different in different reference frame with different
gravitational fields. The universe could have been made in six
ordinary days in Earth's reference frame, but the light had ample
time to travel in an extraterrestrial reference frame. 


Evidence earth is much newer than millions of 


Christian Creationsts complain that evolution theory is taught as
"fact", but 1987 Supreme Court precedent so far clearly bans any
treatment of creationism, new tactics are to remove requirement to
teach evolution as in Kansas.


Seattle Times June 14, 1999 Creationist book to be used in Burlington
Last year, high-school biology teacher Roger DeHart was told to stop
teaching "intelligent design," the theory that the complexity of life
reflects the work of an intelligent being. Last month, the
Burlington-Edison School District curriculum committee rejected his
proposal to use some material from a creationist textbook, "Of Pandas
and People," in his high-school biology class .

%%Supreme Court

- The White House: favors the right of school boardsto set
curriculum, accepts the 1987 Supreme Court ruling that schools may
not creationism.  Vice PresidentAl Gore refused to take a clear stand
on whether public schools shouldbe required to teach evolution



Prehistoric Era:
     Lower Paleolithic Age              250,000 - 90,000 BP*
     Middle Paleolithic Age             90,000 - 30,000 BP
     Late Paleolithic Age               30,000 BP - 7000 BC
     Neolithic Age                      7000 - 4800 BC

Predynastic Period                      4800 - 3050 BC 
 Upper Egypt:  
     Badarian Culture                   4800 - 4200 BC
     Amratian Culture (=Nagada I)       4200 - 3700 BC
     Gerzean A Culture (=Nagada II)     3700 - 3250 BC
     Gerzean B Culture (=Nagada III)    3250 - 3050 BC

 Lower Egypt:
     Fayum A Culture                    4800 - 4250 BC
     Merimde Culture                    4500 - 3500 BC
Second Intermediate Period              1668 - 1570 BC
     Dynasties 14-17

New Kingdom                             1570 - 1070 BC
     Dynasties 18-20

Late Period                             1070 - 656 BC
     Dynasties 21-24
     Dynasty 25 (Kushite Domination)
     Assyrian Domination

Saite Period                            685 - 525 BC
     Dynasty 26

Persian Period                          525 - 332 BC
     Dynasties 27-31

Greek and Roman Period                  332 BC - AD 395
*BP = Before Present (i.e., years ago)


Einsteins equations based on the constant speed of light predict the
big bang creation, not just e=mc2

http://www.bartleby.com/173/ Great Books Online: Relativity The
Special and General Theory by Albert Einstein

1920 showed Einsteins calculations were correct in Sun bending light
of stars in an eclipse

Simple guide to Einstein's theory of relativity

Special relativity
In September 1905 Einstein published a short but important paper in
which he proved the famous formula E = mc2. 

 Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity Guide picks  
Links to the best articles about Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity.  

Foundations of the Big Bang Model
The Big Bang Model rests on two theoretical pillars:
General Relativity
Cosmological principle: matter in the universe is homogeneous and
isotropic when averaged over very large scales. 

Foundations of Big Bang Cosmology



There are only 3 processes to create the elements, the big bag
for the lighest elements, cooking in stars for the elements of life,
and supernovas for everything else.

XSScience Forum: Cosmic Recycling: We Are Made of Stars UWTV Science
and Discovery Special Series The big bang created the lightest
hydrogen and most of its helium and lithium elements.  Stars cook
atoms in multi-million-degree furnaces to create another dozen
chemical elements, including carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. The
heaviest elements from from supernova explosions, stars form from
those elements and are re-cycled. There are very few supernovas, but
they are the only way to make the atoms to form materials that humans
regard as commonplace - nickel, tin, copper, lead and zinc, to name a

Scientists today understand the universe in a very different way than
they did 50 years ago.  Bruce Margon, a University of Washington
astronomy professor, regards as "a fundamental intellectual triumph."
see www.astro.washington.edu/margon/fls.html

10-43 is start of known time
matter is 99% hydrogen, 9% helium, 1/10B lithium, 1% anything else as
predicted from nuclear physics


6 trillion flies can't be wrong
How evolution affects man-designed creations, and why some products
just never die.

TTK Ciar 
"If anything can be learned from the history of practical engineering,
it is that ambitious projects which seek to develop radical, complex,
broad-reaching, cutting-edge systems are doomed to fail.  It is the
projects which start simply, with achievable short-term goals, that
evolve into successful and practical "next-generation" systems"


http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/help/timeform.html table version

Original Geologic Time Machine conceived and created by Allen Collins -- 11/26/94. 
Welcome to the UCMP Web Lift for Geologic Time!
(mya = million years ago)
Precambrian (4,500 to 544 mya)
     Hadean (4500 to 3800 mya) 
     Archaean (3800 to 2500 mya) Bacteria
     Proterozoic (2500 to 544 mya)  Continents, Oxygen
     Vendian (650 to 544 mya) 
Phanerozoic (544 mya to today)
     Paleozoic Era (544 to 245 mya)
     Mesozoic Era (245 to 65 mya)
          Triassic (245 to 208 mya)
          Jurassic (208 to 146 mya)
          Cretaceous (146 to 65 mya)

     Cenozoic Era (65 mya to today)
          Tertiary (65 to 1.8 mya)
               Paleocene (65 to 54 mya)
               Eocene (54 to 38 mya)
               Oligocene (38 to 23 mya)
               Miocene (23 to 5 mya)
               Pliocene (5 to 1.8 mya)
          Quaternary (1.8 mya to today)
               Pleistocene (1.8 mya to 11,000 years ago)
               Holocene (11,000 years ago to today)

                       THE GEOLOGICAL TIME SCALE
_______________________________________________________________ _________
Eon  | Era   |   Period   |   Epoch     | M.Years | Major Events
=============================================================== =========
P    | C     | Quaternary |  Holocene   |  0.01   |
H    | E     |            |-------------|---------|
A    | N     |            | Pleistocene |  1.6    |
N    | O     |------------|-------------|---------|
E    | Z     | T   | Neo- |  Pliocene   |  5.3    |
R    | O     | E   | gene |-------------|---------|
O    | I     | R   |      |   Miocene   |  23.7   |
Z    | C     | T   |------|-------------|---------|
I    |       | I   |Paleo-|  Oligocene  |  36.6   |
C    |       | A   | gene |-------------|---------|
     |       | R   |      |   Eocene    |  57.8   |
     |       | Y   |      |-------------|---------|
     |       |     |      |  Paleocene  |   66    |
     | M     | Cretaceous |                 144   |
     | E     |------------|-----------------------|
     | S     |  Jurassic  |                 208   |
     | O     |------------|-----------------------|
     | ZOIC  |  Triassic  |                 245   |
     | P     |  Permian   |                 286   |
     | A     |------------|-----------------------|
     | L     |Carbo-|Penn.|                 320   |
     | E     |nifer-|-----|-----------------------|
     | O     |ous   |Miss.|                 360   |
     | Z     |------|-----|-----------------------|
     | O     |  Devonian  |                 408   |
     | I     |------------|-----------------------|
     | C     |  Silurian  |                 438   |
     |       |------------|-----------------------|
     |       | Ordovician |                 505   |
     |       |------------|-----------------------|
     |       |  Cambrian  |                 540   |
PRE-   | Proterozoic Eon  |                2500   |
CAM-   |------------------|-----------------------|
BRIAN  | Archean Eon      |                3800   |


Creation isn't repeatable or testable by experiement?

godlesscapitalist: experimental evolution experiments like those of
Lenski et al., where they have actually taken populations of E. coli,
evolved them for 10000 generations, and sequenced them to find out
that - yes - mutations DID occur and the mutations DID boost fitness
in the lines of E. coli that survived. Because E. coli cells can be
frozen down you can do something that you can't normally do, namely a
direct comparison of the genomes of the 10000 and 0th generations.


According to the bible, all animals were herded onto the ark two by
two, and no animals created by god have ever gone extinct before
modern times.

%%Average lifetime

Extinction Files: Average species last from 1 to 10 million years,
humans may have a long time ahead since we've been around less than
500,000 years.


http://tyrrell.magtech.ab.ca/tour/extinctn.html Extinction is a
natural result of evolution . More than 90 percent of all species
that ever evolved have disappeared. 
Wayne Hortensius, Calgary, Alberta, Canada for the Royal Tyrrell
Museum Cooperating Society.

%%Mass Extinctions

History show only a few widely spaced mass extinction where a huge
percentage of life and species died out, The dinos were only the most
recent, we'd be next.

http://hannover.park.org/Canada/Museum/extinction/extincmenu. html
Mass Extinctions Of The Phanerozoic Menu
        Precambrian and Vendian Mass Extinctions 
        Cambrian Mass Extinction
        Ordovician Mass Extinction
        Devonian Mass Extinction
        Permian Mass Extinction
        End-Cretaceous Mass Extinction
        The Holocene Mass Extinction

z41\clip\2000\05\crater.txt THE NEW YORK TIMES SCIENCE TUESDAY, APRIL
25, 200 Newfound Crater Could Explain Worst Mass Extinction By
WILLIAM BROAD A quarter billion years ago, some 90 percent of all
animal species, including the trilobites, the three-lobed predators
of the sea, suddenly disappeared in the worst of all mass
extirictions. (crater found) The exact dating of the cosmic scar is
uncertain, the discoverers said. But clues suggest its age is roughly
between the early Jurassic and early Permian periods, or 200 and 280
million years ago. That distant era, they noted, contained two mass
extinctions, one at the end of the Triassic some 214 million years
ago, and one at the end of the Perruian 247 million years ago.


Extinction Files - massive volcano eruption covering Siberia, years
of global darkness, suffocating in sulfur dioxide. Volcanos produce 
carbon dioxide, warms planet.

Science, 1.2.23
The Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) event, which occurred about
251.4 million years ago, is marked by the most severe mass
extinction in the geologic record. Recent studies of some PTB
sites indicate that the extinctions occurred very abruptly,
consistent with a catastrophic, possibly extraterrestrial, cause.
Fullerenes (C60 to C200) from sediments at the PTB contain trapped
helium and argon with isotope ratios similar to the planetary
component of carbonaceous chondrites. 

z48\clip\2001\02\scifind.txt New York Times, 1.2.23 Scientists Find
Signs of Meteor Crash That Led to Extinctions in Era Before Dinosaurs
By KENNETH CHANG Extraterrestrial gases trapped within cagelike
carbon molecules are providing the first compelling evidence that a
meteor impact set off the most catastrophic of mass extinctions more
than 250 million years ago, similar to the cataclysm that later
killed off the dinosaurs.

http://www.vny.com/cf/News/upidetail.cfm?QID=162325 Thursday, 22
February 2001 19:11 (ET) Cosmic impact led to largest extinction By
CHARLES CHOI, UPI Science Writer triggered 250 million years ago by a
catastrophic collision with a comet or asteroid.the rapid, massive
die-off at the end of the Permian period. Within 8,000 to 100,000
years, virtually a microsecond in the estimated 3.8-billion-year
history of life on Earth, 90 percent of all marine species and 70
percent of all land vertebrates on the planet were wiped out.

@@Extraterrestrial Life

How many intelligent civilizations?
- Sagan, 1 million in our own galaxy
- "Rare Earth" We might be the only one


Probability Amir D. Aczel 1998
Has nice chart p. 194
5.0 planet form
3.5 early life
2.0 oxygen
1.5 atmosphere
1.2 animal locomotion
0.7 early animal
0.5 early dev plants
0.4 land animal
0.3 dinosaurs
0.2 mammal
0.1 primate
.01 gorilla
.002 australopithecus

life around any star 5x10-14
300 billion stars in galaxy x 100 billion galaxies
total 1-
.99999999999995(13 5s) ^3e26
or very close to 100%
p. 213

ABCNEWS.com : Chat Transcript: A Debate Between Peter Ward and Seth
Shostak - Is there life outside of planet Earth? According to a
theory by the late astronomer Carl Sagan, up to a million
civilizations exist within our own galaxy.

Maybe we really are alone.
ROBERT KRULWICH VO) Alone? Sagan says there’s a million civilizations
and you say one? Come on. One?
PETER WARD It’s more probable than a million
the original Carl Sagan estimate was, that out of those 400 billion,
there should be plenty of Earthlike planets. I don’t think that’s
going to be a possibility.
. If you take, for example, our own planet Earth, it’s got a
perfectly great location in its galaxy, even so, for intelligent
creatures like ourselves to evolve here, so many things have to work
out just right. Ward, in effect, lists them in his book.  TEXT: A
Stable Sun That Burns Steadily For Billions of Years That is Bigger
Than Average Producing Heavy Metals Not Too Ultraviolet Right
Distance From Earth A Good Solar System Stable Planets In Stable
Orbits A Good Moon Larger Than Average To Keep Earth From Wobbling
Too Much So Temperatures Stay Mild A Great Protector Nearby Like The
Planet Jupiter (VO) It’s a grand procession of factors, factors he

Rare Earth Peter D Ward Donald Brownlee
2000 estimates from 1 to 10 trillion intel civilizations
not dead galaxy
star mass
stable orbit
plate tectonics
planet mass
oxygen evolution
right galaxy
right position in galaxy
sun is rare- high in metals
5-6% of stars have detectable planets
sagan - 1M in galaxy
If any term approaches zero, so does any other term

Review of Rare Earth


Cochran points out that
vertebrate eyes have connections in front of the receptors, but the
Octopus which evolved differently does not. Lower back pain

http://www.catalase.com/frames/retina.htm Why is the retina
Back-to-Front?  The octopus eye, it seems, evolved independently to
ours and whilst it is similar in many ways the octopus got the retina
in ‘the right way’.  Is it a 'Design Flaw'?  My belief is that it is
not a blunder at all. The design of our eyes is just that bit more

z47\clipim\2000\12\21\octeye\retina.htm Hypothesis Origins & Design
19:2 Issue 37 Selected Excerpts: The Inverted Retina: Maladaptation
or Pre-adaptation?  Michael J. Denton Biochemistry Department
University of Otago Dunedin, New Zealand One of the classic cases
cited by Darwinists of supposed maladaptation in nature is the
inverted design of the vertebrate retina. The remarkable capacity of
the unique choriocapillaris system to deliver copious quantities of
oxygen to the photoreceptors .. allows the photoreceptor cells
to be packed tightly together, thus maximizing the resolving power of
the eye. 


Evolution is both fact and theory


Edward Willett 5/1/2004
The world's oldest barbecue
evidence presented at
the International Paleoanthropology Society's annual meeting in Montreal
suggests our hominid ancestors were using fire in a South African cave
called Swartkrans1.5 million years ago.

The first use of fire: 15,000 earliest evidence of creating fire
there are several possible accidental or fortuitous explanations, and
no closely associated hominid fossils. This evidence of fire is dated
at 1,5-1 million years ago.


Scary Fishes Burke Museum of Natural History exhibit 1999 Most modern
fishes, as limbed land animals from amphibians to reptiles and
mammals are from the ray-finned fishes which survived the Permian
extinction. The development of limbs and jaws are from the fishes.

Feb 1, 2001 Missing link [between fish and limbed animals]

@@Flat Earth

z46\clip\2000\11\flatear.txt The Myth of the Flat Earth Summary by
Jeffrey Burton Russell for the American Scientific Affiliation
Conference August 4, 1997 at Westmont College [Claims that christians
never did believe in a flat earth, but was invented later]

There _still are_ Christians who believe the earth is flat.

@@Flood  (Noah's)

Creationists spend as much time on the Great Flood of Noah as on the
creation of the earth itself. It explains the creation of features
like the Grand Canyon, and stratigraphic layers. In fact, they spend
as much or more time or space on the flood than on the first week of

Scientists (who originally thought there was a global flood) have
believed for the past 200 years that the weight of evidence proved no
such flood ever happened. Tree rings don't show it, ice cores don't
show it, the strata don't show it, the fossil record doesn't show it


NYT October 1, 2001
Scholars Find Further Signs of Big Flood Evoking Noah

   Archaeologists have found evidence that appears to support the theory
   that a catastrophic flood struck the Black Sea region more than 7,000
   years ago, turning the sea saline, submerging surrounding plains and
   possibly inspiring the flood legends of Mesopotamia and the Bible.
   The expedition was led by Dr. Robert D. Ballard


The Hovind Theory: a snowball meteor came in, created ice rings around
the planets and canyons of Mars. Then it cratered the earth according
to the inverse square law, releasing the waters beneath the earth. The
ice collected north and south because of the magnetism. 


That individual may be referring to the claims of the late Ron Wyatt;
see .  For some discussion and other
views, see ,
, and
Most creationist sites don't even believe him.

Big Noahs Ark Search Site


Genesis is read by many to say that before the flood there was no rain.
The earth was watered by mists and such.


Genesis says the the Rainbow first appeared as a promise from God,
which means that there were no rainbows before Noah.


There isn't enough water to cover the earth unless it was completely 

aklein: ...such flooding would require the equivalent of dumping all
elevations into the sea.  There isn't enough water on the present
planet to completely flood the present planet.  And there hasn't been
since the "first man" took his first step.

ST 2001 Obviously, from context, in view of Gen 4:14, and the
expulsion of Cain and his followers from "the face of the earth" by
natives, called "cherubim", the Bible does not describe a world wide
flood.  The so-called "face of the earth" was east of the city of
Enoch that Cain built [cf. Gen 4:14-17], which itself was east of
Eden [an early name for what we call Mesopotamia] and that is the
"earth" [land] where all life was to be destroyed [Gen 6:7].  Which
it was.  The so-called "face of the earth" was almost certainly the
mountain- enc losed Tarim Basin.  Many so-called "myths" and history
point to that conclusion.  Sutherland (Suds) Macklem

From: Packman  Newsgroups: talk.origins Jan 12 2001
The ages reported in that part of the bible were either
mistranslations based on different numbering systems, or ages were
based on lunar months, starting from puberty, which would've made
Noah around 35 at the time of the flood. (but this isn't consistent
with Hebrew calendar which agrees with Usher on the age of the 

http://www.nps.gov/bela/ zip36\clipim\99\08\18\flood\flood.htm A
tight reading of the genealogy given here adds up to 1,656 years from
Adam to Noah. (That is, there do no appear to be any gaps in the
genealogy from Adam to Noah). 1656 years is more than sufficient time
to completely fill up the earth with people. A conservative
population growth calculation would place the population at the time
of the flood as 7 billion people at least, 

http://ww2.customcpu.com/mgroseth/origins/Flood.html Of the written
records, one of the most famous is the Gilgamesh tablets which were
found in a library in Ninivah in 1850. The library dates back to 669
BC and it's contents to at least 627 BC. The Gilgamesh account is
believed by some to predate the account written by Moses in 1475 BC.
This account happens to agree with the biblical account about the
final resting place of the 'ark'. Chinese accounts talk of a global
flood in 2300 BC. Some Chinese traditions also hold that all Chinese
are descendants of 'Nu-wah'. Coincidentally, the Chinese symbol for
'ship' consists of a boat and eight mouths.

Floods of the World God Strikes with Fury
http://www.cyberconnect.com/gilgamesh/flood/gilflood/gilflood. htm
The oldest existing known Flood Myth comes from Mesopotamia. It is
found on the 11th tablet of the Epic of Gilgamesh and would clearly
seem to be the source found in the Old Testament. The Gilgamesh Epic
is a 3rd millennium BCE myth of the Sumerians
note - guy suggests the god(s) came from outer space.

http://home.hkstar.com/~johnfok1/Apologetics/11.htm Noah was 600
years old when the floodwaters came on the earth. The flood has been
dated to 4,950 years ago (Whitelaw, Time, Life, and History in the
Light of 15,000 Radiocarbon Dates, 1970 or the paper The biblical
record of Creation, Flood and history in light of 30,000 radiocarbon
dates, Proceedings, 15th Anniversary Convention of Bible Science
Association, pp. 197-202, 1979). 

World population since creation - with timeline
by Lambert Dolphin

-7500 Adam
-5500 flood
-4000 Abraham


http://my.webmd.com/ Information about Influenza By Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention Influenza viruses continually change
over time, usually by mutation Influenza type A viruses undergo two
kinds of changes. One is a series of mutations that occur over time
and cause a gradual evolution of the virus. This is called antigenic
"drift." The other kind of change is an abrupt change in the
hemagglutinin and/or the neuraminidase proteins. This is called
antigenic "shift." In this case, a new subtype of the virus suddenly

What Is Flu?
WebMD.com Medical Reference 11/2003
Type A influenza mutates often, yielding new strains of the virus
every few years... you can never develop a permanent immunity to
influenza... virus one year, those antibodies are unlikely to protect
you against a new strain of the virus the next year.  Type A mutations
are responsible for major epidemics every several years.  Most
influenza viruses that infect humans seem to originate in parts of
Asia, where close contact between livestock and people creates a
hospitable environment for mutation and transmission of viruses



2M miles away as measured by cephid variables, red shift,
triginometry, radial velocity.

z47\clipim\2001\01\26\m31\m31.htm How to spot M31 - You will not see
Andromeda as you see in posters Use bottom pointer of W halfway
between the angle, or halfway between cassiopea and pegasus.


www.britannica.com The age of the Milky Way Galaxy, which is measured
by determining the ages of the oldest stars found within it, is
approximately 16,000,000,000 years. All galaxies formed at about the
same time when matter condensed enough to form stars.


Collision Course  
Super Computer Shows Result of Galactic Collision  
April 26 —  Using one of the most powerful computers
on the planet, scientists have found more evidence that our Milky Way
galaxy, with about 400 billion stars including the sun, is on a
collision course with a somewhat larger galaxy, Andromeda.  Galaxy
Will Grow in the Sky The two galaxies are more than 13
million-trillion miles apart right now, but they are zipping toward
each other at about 310,000 miles per hour. That should put Andromeda
on our celestial doorstep in about 3 billion years, according to John
Dubinski, professor of astronomy at the University of Toronto. 
The two galaxies were at one time speeding out from the center of the
universe, but they were close enough together that they became
“gravitionally bonded,”


The Creation of the Universe PBS 1999 - the most distant galaxies can
only be seen back to about half the life of the universe with land
based telescopes. Quasars can be seen back to 15 billion years ago.

Galaxy Most Distant The Galaxy Most Distant Keck Gives a View into
Space 15 Billion Light Years Away by Robert Sanders Berkeley
astronomers have obtained images of the most distant known galaxy, an
object 15 billion light years away formed when the universe was only
one tenth its current age.

The Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) is the second nearest galaxy to the
Milky Way, (the LMC being the nearest) and is at the distance of
about 240,000 light years, quite close enough for it to be resolved
into individual

The Large Magellenic Cloud in Dorado. Satellite of Milky Way
170,000 light years away, 30,000 light years across

http://observe.ivv.nasa.gov/nasa/gallery/image_gallery/ universe/universe_gal5.html
Andromeda M31 is the nearest major galaxy, it is so distant it takes about
2 million years for light from it to reach us. Image: NASA

http://spaceboy.nasda.go.jp/note/ginga/e/gin104_andromeda_e. html
The Andromeda Galaxy lies 2.3 million light years away

From: Jonathan Slocum 
Using red-shift to compute distance does not work within the Local
Group (= Milky Way, Andromeda, Magellanic Clouds, etc.) -- in other
words, not anywhere close to here -- because these galaxies are
gravitationally bound, pursuing orbits around a common center, and
hence are not expanding in the sense defined by Hubble.

12 million light years away. 4 people have seen it naked eye
size          21x10  6.9 (arc min)
vs andromeda 178x63 3.4
ring nebula    1.4x1 8.8


Center for Scientific Creation
zip36\clipim\99\08\24\galaxies\galaxies.html If the speed of light
was a million times faster in the past, twist would be same, which is
observed in these galaxies.


Jerry Pournelle notes 1/2001: Hussein of Jordan could recite his
ancestry back to Adam. The period between The Prophet and himself
might even have been accurate, his family being Protectors of Mecca
until the Brits gave that to the Saudi and then had to create the
Hashemite kingdoms to compensate.  



Most of what creationists complain about - dinosaurs millions of
years old, life billions of years old, strata, radiodating are
actualy geology. It has nothing to do with descent-and modification
darwinism. "Flood geology" was the accepted norm until the 18th

1667 - Nicolaus Steno propose law of superposition
1700 - Most accept 6,000 year old earth from Genesis
1748 - Benoit de Maillet says rock layers deposited over time
1760 - Italian Giovanni Ardunio says layers start with volcanic layers
1788 - Hutton read paper The Theory of the Earth different from Flood
1800s - Earth tens of millions of years
1815 - William Smith father of Stratigraphy finds index fossils
1840 - Swiss Louis Agassiz glacial theory explains diluvium from flood
1858 - Antonio Snider suggests Africa and S Am were together
1879 - US Geological Survey
1860s - Hutton theory accepted

1987 encyclopedia americana

%%Continental Drift
Theory first suggested in 1912, but not worked out until 1960-62
which is the most importamt change since Hutton

87 Ency Am - sea floor is youngest in mid atlantic trench and gets
younger farther away


Study of life as documented by fossils in rocks. This has nothing to
with the process of evolution, but produces evidence to support that
life has changed from earlier to later periods. Evolution is only an
explanation how animals change, but does not affect the fact of the
fossil record.


Principle that rocks are laid on top of other layers, with older
layers on the bottom.



See Sumerians for evidence creation and flood accounts were 
actually authored by them, not Moses.

Electric Library
http://www.encyclopedia.com/articles/04980.html Genesis first book of
the OLD TESTAMENT and of the PENTATEUCH, ascribed by tradition to
MOSES.Sources of Genesis include Babylonian and Egyptian folklore.
Controversy over its interpretation and literary history has been

http://www.theology.edu/gen.htm zip36\clip\99\15\gen.htm Moses is
traditionally assumed to be the author of the book of Genesis, though
he is nowhere in scripture specifically identified as its author.

(widely held by those who do not believe that the Bible is the word
of God) Documentary Hypothesis, was developed by a German scholar
named Wellhausen and assumes the five books of Moses were composed
over a period of several hundred years, not reaching their final form
until the time of Ezra (c.  500 B.C.). It supposes four major
documents used in the composition, labeled J, E, P, and D. 


Tower of Babel
      Author             Source         Date Written       Publication
   Moses; Hebrew      Holy Bible,       1450-1410 BC     Genesis 11:1-9

Ron.Patterson@msfc.nasa.gov The book of Genesis was clearly
written after the Babylonian exile because about half the book is
purely Chaldiean. "The intention" was to blend two creation myths, the
Caldiean and the Hebrew, into one account to make it acceptable to
all the Jewish people.  The stories of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob were
Hebrew legends, retold over and over, and greatly embellished no
doubt, until they were written down after the exile.


The Line of Adam
version 2 Feb 1999, by Luke Stevens  
filed: zip36\clip\99\16\adam.htm

Table of Nations (after Noah)

bibgen.prn and .wk1

Dating Genesis by sons of Adam

Sons of Adam
           Birth    Age      Date FC  From Abraham
Creation                            0
Adam            130      930      130    -1893
Seth            105      912      235    -1788
Enosh            90      905      325    -1698
Kenan            70      910      395    -1628
Mahalalel        65      895      460    -1563
Jared           162      962      622    -1401
Enoch            65      365      687    -1336
Methuselah      187      969      874    -1149
Lamech          182      777     1056     -967
Noah            500              1556     -467
Creation to    1656
Flood                            1656     -367
Shem              2              1658     -365
Arphaxad         35              1693     -330
Shelah           30              1723     -300
Eber             34              1757     -266
Peleg            30              1787     -236
Reu              32              1819     -204
Serug            30              1849     -174
Nahor            29              1878     -145
Terah            70              1948      -75
Abram leave      75              2023        0

SOURCES:  www.genesis.net.au/reference/bible/ and bible.gospelcom.net 
http://novaonline.nv.cc.va.us/eli/evans/his101/Documents/ Genesis.html
Beginning: heavens and dark empty formless earth
Day 1: light
Day 2: water and sky
Day 3: dry land and plants and trees
Day 4: Sun, Moon, stars
Day 5: Water and sky creatures
Day 6: land animals, man
Day 7: rest
Most believers of a literal interpretation of the bible believe 1 day
is 24 hours.


Quartz Hill School of Theology
A. Creationism Takes the approach that the six days of Genesis 1 are
to be understood as actual twenty-four hour days. Holds to a
basically chronological approach to the creation narrative, and
believes that the universe as a whole came into being about six
thousand years ago. Believes that all the fossils were formed at the
time of the Great Flood of Noah. 

B. Gap Theory Places a gap in the narrative either before Genesis 1:1
or between Genesis 1:1 and 1:2; believes the universe was created
approximately twenty billion years ago, then suffered a cataclysmic
destruction at the time of Satan's rebellion, necessitating the
reconstruction of the Earth about six thousand years ago. The fossil
records illustrate the life forms prior to the reconstruction
recorded from Genesis 1:2 and following. In common with the
Creationist perspective, it holds that the six days are to be
understood as ordinary twenty-four hour days. 

C. Theistic Evolution Believes that the six days of Genesis should be
understood as long periods of time, rather than twenty-four hour
days. Believes that God brought the universe into existence about
twenty billion years ago, and then made use of the evolutionary
process to bring forth life over an extended period. Does not view
the creation narrative as a chronological description of events. 



@@Genetic clock

http://www.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_2940000/294808. htm
Genetic clock runs slowly african eve could be twice as old as
200,000 yrs first thought because of way mitochondrial dna changes
over time. paternal combination would slow the clock

http://sciencedaily.com/releases/1999/990301073312.htm Scientists
devise method to address conflict between molrcular clock, fossil
record of mammallan evolution Fossil evidence says mammals
origninated 65 m yrs ago, but molecular clock model predicts 130m. U
Chicago paleontologist Foote has new model to resolve this, calls
into qeustion accuracy of clock method (hey, still within 2)

\doc\web\99\14\firstam.txt History Channel In Search of the First
Americans Asians are about 40,000 years apart from the Native
Americans based on the genetic clock (based on change in genes in
living populations)

@@genetic design

   Natural Selection Creates Super-Engines 
   By Diane Kightlinger
   Discovery.com News

@@Genetic Similarity

Jon Entine in coming 2001 article "Strawman of Race" Although it is
believed they took a different evolutionary path from humans five
million years ago, chimps share fully 98.4 percent of our DNA. From a
genetic perspective, human groups and chimpanzees are almost
identical because their genes code for similar phenotypes, such as
bone structure, which are remarkably similar in many animals. For
that matter, dogs share about 95 percent of our genome and mice 90
percent, which is why these species make good laboratory animals.
Even the tiny roundworm, barely visible to the naked eye, share about
74 percent of its genes with humans. There are billions of base pairs
that make up the genes on the human genome. Each change in a base
pair can alter a gene. 


Three thumbs way up -- this is an excellent introduction to 
evolution of the planet and life on it. Widely used by college
geology courses, and on college cable channels.

Earth Revealed - college geology video series explains how the
planet surface has eveolved.
Annenberg CPB projects

In 1999 Seattle College Channel ch28 SaSuWe @7-8AM Geology 101

Earth Revealed shows the physical and scientific processes that shape
our Earth.  From earthquakes and volcanoes to the creation of
sea-floor crusts and shifting river courses, this series offers
stunning visuals that explain plate tectonics and other geologic
concepts and principles.  Join in on problem solving as geologists
give critically important advice on engineering and construction

http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/RogueComCollege/G100/ StudyGuides/VSGindex.html
"Fundamentals of Geology"
Mike Strickler: Rogue Community College
                      Earth Revealed Series
                  Index to Video Study Guides
     Episode 1: Down to Earth
     Episode 2: The Restless Planet
     Episode 3: Earth's Interior
     Episode 4: The Sea Floor
     Episode 5: The Birth of a Theory
     Episode 6: Plate Dynamics
     Episode 7: Mountain Building and the Growth of Continents
     Episode 8: Earth's Structures
     Episode 9: Earthquakes
     Episode 10: Geologic Time
     Episode 11: Evolution Through Time
     Episode 12: Minerals - The Materials of Earth
     Episode 13: Volcanism
     Episode 14: Intrusive Igneous Rocks
      - granite formed from lava deep in earth under pressure vs.
        volcanic rocks which cool quickly
      - Most of continents are intrusive igneous rocks
      - Hutton observed granite injected between layers, compare to 
        theory of rocks starting with granite precipitated from 
        primordial sea.
      - very old rare rocks on earth are common on surface of moon
     Episode 15: Weathering and Soils
     Episode 16: Mass Wasting
     Episode 17: Sedimentary Rocks - The Key to Past
     Episode 18: Metamorphic Rocks
     Episode 19: Running Water - Erosion and Deposition
     Episode 20: Running Water - Landscape Evolution
     Episode 21: Groundwater
     Episode 22: Wind, Dust, and Deserts
     Episode 23: Glaciers
     Episode 24: Waves, Beaches, and Coasts
     Episode 25: Living with the Earth - The Loma Prieta
     Episode 26: Living with the Earth - Preserving the Legacy


Superior shield is oldest part of N America, rocks are 2.6-4B
years old

%%Rock cycle

Rocks are created from within to crust, uplifted, eroded, go
back to bottom.


Igneous - rocks formed by crustal formation

Sedimentary - material cerated by erosion that forms rock at
bottom, of ocean like sandstone or shale

Metamorphic - sedimentary rock that has chemically changed
so it resembles igneous rock

@@Geological Periods

William Pratt In general, one does
not date the individual fossil, but the formation thay occur in.  For
the very general ages needed by textbooks and such, though, there are
tables of known absolute ages correlated with geological periods.  So
that if you know that a fossil is, e.g., from the upper Permian, many
dates have been correlated to show that upper Permian formations
range from 240 to 230 mya, so a "ballpark figure adequate for most
uses would be "ca 235 mya".

Earth Revealed


Babylonian legend upon which some believe Genesis was based with both
a creation and a flood.

Gilgamesh Epic it told a story of a
great flood, with both striking similarities to and differences from
the story of Noah." The Babylonian Creation story has come to be
called the Enuma Elish.  Recognizing the Babylonian origin of the
pre-patriarch stories in Genesis is a commonplace in Jewish biblical
studies (however not in Christian studies of their "Old Testament").

Genesis chapter1 and Enuma Elish creation myth comparisons
One of the two Bible creation myths was probably derived from the
much older Mesopotamian creation myth "Enuma Elish".  The six days of
creation in the Genesis myth parallel the six generations of gods in
the Enuma Elish myth in type of god in Enuma Elish that is created
(i.e. god of the earth) to what is created or happens on the
corresponding day in Genesis (i.e. the waters are gathered together
to expose dry land).
Marduk the sixth generation god makes man as a slave so the other gods can rest.
God (Elohim) makes man on the sixth day and he himself rests.
complete myth:

Creation myths

"Aron-Ra"  2/28/2001: there is a possible dual
meaning to the original Hebrew for "day" that could also mean
"generation".  In the oldest known creation myth, Enuma Elish, the
Earth was to have been constructed by six generations of Sumerian
gods.  The last of these grew weary of the creation process and
created primordial man to complete the creation so that the seventh
generation of gods could rest.

Enuma Elish The earliest known text of a creation myth.

The picture above represents according to Zecharia Sitchin, the
making of the first human, Adapu, Adam,

The Genesis of the bible obviously borrowed this                                                                                              
           ancient of all story.                                                                                                              

       The Norse view of creation.                                                                                                            \
Yggdrasil, the mighty Ash - the center of the universe
Woman comes from the left armpit of man

The tale of Gilgamesh also has an account of the great flood, similar
to the one told in Genesis with slight variations. The council of the
gods decide to destroy the world in a great flood. Ea, one of the
gods who created humanity, advises Utnapishtim, a character in the
story, to build a boat and bring all living things into it. The flood
lasts for 7 days and 7 nights. Like Noah in Genesis, Utnapishtim
releases a dove to see if the water has resided. The dove finds no
rests and returns. Finally a raven is released that does not return. 

Mesopotamia Gilgamesh. Superhero, flood story
Gilgamesh was an historical king of Uruk in Babylonia, on the River
Euphrates in modern Iraq; he lived about 2700 B.C.

The Flood. The story of the Flood is a familiar one, as we shall see
in Genesis and Popol Vuh (Plato also gives an account of the Flood
and the city of Atlantis in the dialogue, Critias ; the Nez Perce of
the Palouse also have a flood story in which the only humans that
survived did so by climbing the mountain, Yamustus, that is, Steptoe
Butte). The earliest surviving reference to the Flood goes back to
1900 B.C.

http://mockingbird.creighton.edu/worldlit/lit/gilga.html The Epic of
Gilgamesh (Akkadian, ca. 2500-1500 B.C.)  Creighton University

zip36\clipim\99\08\20\gilgepic\gilgepic.htm The
Gilgamesh Epic was discovered, in its most complete form, written
upon twelve clay tablets in the northern-Sumerian dialect of
Akkadian.  Written in cuneiform script, the exstant tablet fragments
indicate that each held approximately 300 lines of text written
during the Early Bronze period (3000-2000 BCE).  The discovery of the
Gilgamesh poem sparked a veritable revolution in Old Testament
biblical studies. Similarities of certain legends to those found in
the OT were immediately evident

Gilgamesh Epic - Encarta Online Concise
Gilgamesh Epic , an important Middle Eastern literary work, written in
cuneiform on 12 clay tablets about 2000 BC. 

@@Gish, Duand

Author of "are you brainwashed", see @@books Also with ICR
Pretty much admits scientific creationism isn't scientific.

These quotes from Gish, Morris, et al.
are self-explanatory in their non-scientific approach to science:
"God used processes which are not now operating anywhere in the natural
universe. This is why we refer to divine creation as special creation. We
cannot discover by scientific investigation anything about the creative
processes used by God."
--Duane Gish, Evolution: The Fossils Say No, p. 42
"As a missionary organization, ICR is funded by God's people. We believe God
has raised up ICR to spearhead Biblical Christianity's defense against the
godless dogma of evolutionary humanism. --ICR Webpage
The Shermer-Gish debate was held Friday night, June 1, in Phoenix, Arizona.

@@Gould, Stephen J "Punctuated Equilibrium" "Mismeasure of Man"

Famous popular evolution scientist first popularized the idea of
punctuated equilibrium. The reason we don't see a lot of transitional
fossils that that most of the time species are quite stable separated
by times of relatively rapid change due to changes in environment or
the appearance of a new variation.

Actually, that's a lot of things like cars, computers and stereos
evolve. Once configurations are invented, like the Chrysler minivan,
the front-loading cassette deck, or IBM PC, everybody copies them, and
they don't change very much for a very long time.

He was also famous for his attack in IQ tests "Mismeasure of Man". The
main problem with that book, while attacking all tests that show races
of man differ in IQ scores, he never comes up with proof of his
implied contention that therefore all men must be innately equal by
all measures of intellectual ability.

Readers interested in S. J. Gould might like to see this site which
has lots of stuff.  It's part of a large (non-sponsored) site on
rival Richards Dawkins.  http://www.spacelab.net/~catalj/the_g_files.htm

see http://www.mugu.com/cgi-bin/Upstream/jensen-gould-fossils
The Mismeasure of Man
New York: W. W. Norton, 1981
by Stephen Jay Gould
Reviewed by Arthur R. Jensen
[ARTHUR R. JENSEN is Professor of Educational Psychology,
University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720.]
"Both the outmoded craniometry of the 19th century and the mental
tests of the present day have stemmed from the false belief that
intelligence is a "thing" in the head, according to the measurement of
which all persons, social classes, and races can be ranked in "mental
"..charge of a social, value- laden science...however, we recognize
this charge as the keystone of the Marxist interpretation of the
history of science. In this view, science is motivated to promote that
form of socioeconomic class structure that most favors the privileged

The Scientist Who Wrote Rings Around The Earth
The Scientist Who Wrote Rings Around The Earth By Joel Achenbach
Washington Post Staff Writer Tuesday, May 21, 2002; Page C01
He forcefully argued against the teaching of creationism in schools, a
position that drew a great deal of fire. His book "The Mismeasure of
Man" is perhaps the most influential critique of racist theories in
the study of human intelligence. Critics sometimes called him a

Stephen Jay Gould, Biologist and Theorist on Evolution, Dies at 60
May 20, 2002
"in 1972, the two proposed the theory of punctuated equilibrium...
According to the theory, there are long periods of time, sometimes
millions of years, during which species change little, if at all.
Intermittently, new species arise and there is rapid evolutionary
change on a geological time scale (still interminably slow on human
time scales) resulting in the sudden appearance of new forms in the
fossil record. "


See Punctuated Equilibrium

@@Grand Canyon

The Geology of the Grand Canyon
http://www.kaibab.org/geology/gc_geol.htm A much older range of
mountains, which geologists suspect were much higher than todays
Rocky Mountains and may even have rivaled the Himalayas, now forms
the base of the Grand Canyon. The rocks that made up these mountains
are about 1.7 billion years old, or about one-third the age of our

By dating the fossils found in the rock of the Kaibab Limestone,
geologists have determined that it is approximately 250 million years
old, and this is the youngest layer. 

@@Hebrew Calendar

Year 2000=5760 by the Hebrew Calendar. According to History channel
program on New Years, the date is (as you might suspect from Usher's
calculation = 6000) based on the date of the biblical creation and
Adam and Eve.


The Himalayas were created when India met Asia about 70M years ago.
GPS shows it is still moving upwards 2cm north and 6 mm up every
year. Sedimentary rocks and fossils show that it was once seabed.
Tectonic forces lifted rocks more than 26,000 ft from the sea floor.

Creationists believe this proves that the great flood covered all of
the mountains.

Links to himalaya


650 million years ago
514 million years ago
458 million years ago
425 million years ago
390 million years ago
356 million years ago
306 million years ago
255 million years ago
237 million years ago
200 million years ago
195 million years ago
152 million years ago
94 million years ago
69.4 million years ago
'Lost continent' discovered
Voices for evolution

Fossil ammonites and sedimentary rocks in himalayas.
z47\clipim\2001\01\18\himaev\himaev.htm  geology.html
Himalayas: Where earth meets sky


z47\clip\2001\01\horse.txt Genetics tell story of taming the horse
Thursday, 1 February 2001 11:43 (ET)
http://www.vny.com/cf/news/upidetail.cfm?QID=156724 By LIDIA
WASOWICZ, UPI Science Writer "The ancestors of modern horses were
captured from a wide area...all other domesticated animals studied
thus far -- cattle, sheep, water buffalo, goats and pigs -- appear to
have derived from a small group tamed in just a handful of places
some 8,000 to 10,000 years ago, the researchers said. horses went
extinct in North America about 9,000 years ago,""

@@Hovind Dr. Kent

One of the most widely known 6-day creationists, videos, live

* There isn't any scientific evidence that dinosaurs and trilobites
ever went extinct
* There is evidence of dragons and the Loch Ness Monster.
* They took 2 dinosaurs on the ark, one blue and one pink. The
geologic column is a hoax.
* There is no such thing as prehistory since Adam was an eyewitness to
the creation.
* There is no such thing as Pangea or continental drift, the coasts,
the length of Africa is wrong.
* We are headed for a Satan-controlled One World Government
* The pyramid on the back of the dollar bill is the eye of lucifer the
enlightened one, with steps representing 13 degrees of blue lodges of
the Masonic lodge
* Roman numerals for 1776 is the year the Illuminati started, which
stands for the Enlightened ones, another word for Lucifer.
* The great pyramid was built before the flood as the bible in stone
* TWA flight 800 was shot down by missles because to kill witness against
* Oaklahoma city bombing was not a truck bombing, but planted as a
  government conspiracy.
* Valujet swamp crash was on purpose, but they missed the target guy.

Internet radio - Creationism Evangelism Seminar
http://www.soundwaves2000.com/freeindeed/ 05-10-02  

email dino@drdino.com  

Critic's sites

you can watch 'Dr.' Kent Hovind , via RealPlayer, at
They have four RealPlayer files dating from an August, 2000 appearance
he made.

@@Hubble Constant

A lab where you can compute the value of the hubble constant
and compute the age of the universe yourself.


Also see intelligence, If the right fears evolution because it conflicts with Creation, the left may fear it because evolution may explain persistent differences in race even with equal economic decelopment. Phillipe Rushton of Canada has this wierd theory that the reason that Asians are smarter than Whites than Blacks is because they are higher up on the evolutionary scale. Also has wierd theories that size of sexual organs is inversely proportional to health, skull size and intelligence, widely regarded as racist, but an interesting correlation if nothing else. His explanations are odd, but if correlation isn't neccesarily causation, the patterns are worth noting because his data appears to be correct. Humans are more alike than different, but may be different enough to account for health and behavioral differences. Hominid Precursors Aegyptopithecus Proconsul Australopithecus (Gen.) not found outside of africa. Purely vegetarian. A. afarensis A. africanus A. robustus A. boisei Homo habilis Homo ergaster - first working man, gathered carcasses to common location and open bones for marrow. Created specialized tools from stone. First regular meat eater from body shape and teeth. Tall and narrow, less apelike. Only meat eaters can have a shorter gut, tradeoff powers larger brain. Free to follow game, move out of Africa 2M years ago moved out of the rift valley. Evolved into homo erectus [the human journey] z50\clip\2001\08\ergas.txt August 14 2001 Fourth Pre-Human Skull Found in Georgia TBILISI, Georgia (Reuters) - Georgian archaeologists said on Tuesday they had unearthed a skull dating back 1.7 million years, similar to three discovered last year which may represent the first pre-humans who migrated out of Africa to Europe. [Homo ergaster falls in between the more primitive Homo habilis and Homo erectus, a robust creature with advanced stone tools that most scientists thought was the first to move out of Africa] Homo erectus - Java man, found across the world Neanderthals Archaic Homo sapiens Cro-Magnon Homo sapiens %%Links Arizona State's Institute of Human Origins, http://www.asu.edu/clas/iho/ z47\clipim\2000\10\homev\homev.htm http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1979/6/79.06.02.x.html#b Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute Home Hominid Evolution by Stephen P. Broker Excellent overview of evolution and human evolution geared towards teacher preparation %%Africans z56\clip\2002\07\rafonda.txt http://www.rafonda.com/age.html (blog 2002) Age and Origin of the Human Species suggests that speciation occurred in Eurasia, not in Africa, z49\clip\2001\04\origins.txt The Nando Times Europe founded by a few hundred Africans, study finds Genome research at the Whitehead Institute By EMMA ROSS, Associated Press EDINBURGH, Scotland (April 21 2001) - Modern Europeans, and possibly populations in other regions of the world, are descended from just a few hundred Africans who left their homeland as recently as 25,000 years ago, new research suggests. z42\clip\2000\05\earlaf.txt Friday, May 12, 2000, 12:00 a.m. Pacific Fossils show early humans left Africa http://www.seattletimes.com/news/nation-world/html98/mann12_20000512.html by Robert Lee Hotz Los Angeles Times Reliably dated to 1.7 million years ago, the bones offer the earliest known anatomical evidence of the direct link between humanity's ancestral birthplace in Africa and the primitive human forebears who colonized much of the rest of the world. AFRICANS HAVE MORE DNA MUTATIONS, SO MAY HAVE BEEN FIRST http://www.usatoday.com/life/science/genetics/lsg010.htm \clip\97\12\evol.txt USA Today 4/1/97 African origin theory advances "The new study in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences finds that Africans consistently have a greater number of mutations than Asians or Europeans, suggesting that modern humans do have an African beginning. " %%Apelike http://www.pathfinder.com/time/magazine/archive/1994/941003/ 941003.science.html \clip\99\16\onelink.txt October 3, 1994 Volume 144, No. 14 ONE LESS MISSING LINK Bones from the Ethiopian desert prove that human ancestors walked the earth 4.4 million years ago BY MICHAEL D. LEMONICK Reported by Andrea Dorfman/New York "This diminutive, humanlike creature walked the earth some 4.4 million years ago - half a million years earlier than the oldest human ancestors ever identified. That stretches our family tree back almost to the era when humans and apes branched off from a single ancestor." they were enclosed in sedimentary rock that was neatly sandwiched between layers of volcanic ash, which contains radioactive isotopes that make material easy to date. The volcanic layer just beneath the fossils turned out to be about 4.4 million years old. That jibes perfectly with the ages of other fossil animals found, which were already known from analysis of other sites. %%Australoid Australoid originated in Asia 40,000 yrs ago, dark skin adaption to sulight p. 22 Today's World: The Human Race %%Biodiversity HUMANS ARE ADAPTED TO BE DIFFERENT, SO THEY CAN'T BE "EQUAL" zip38\clip\99\21\saildarw.txt National Post Saturday, November 20, 1999 'A miracle happens here' Most people seem willing to accept Darwinism as long as they don't have to believe in nothing but Darwinism by Steve Sailer According to Berkeley anthropologist Vincent Sarich, no mammal exceeds our species in physical variation, except for dogs and a few other artificially selected animals. %%Books The Epic of Man Editors of Life 1961 val=12.50 Wheel from sumeria
%%Brain Size Modern human races, even by the most controversial race science is only about 1%-5% different in brain capacity, "earlier" humans were significantly different. Common wisdom is that there are no valid brain measurement methods. However there are no methods which result in equal or greater sizes for Africans. Asians appear to have only slightly larger brains. Rushton believes that this is consistent with the "African Eve" theory of human origins (Stringer & McKie, 1996), modern humans emerged in Africa some 200,0000 years ago, with an African/non-African split about 110,000 years ago, and with an European/East Asian split about 41,000 years ago. Vincent Sarish, another IQ hawk, disagrees that brain size matters that much by itself. http://www.pro-am.com/origins/research/habilis1.htm Homo habilis Kaveh Nateghi fard@interlog.com T Cranial capacity in CC 375-485 -2.68 A. africanus 750 -1.73 Homo Habilis 1000 Homo Erectus (1) 1200 Human .25M years ago (1) 1300-1350 1.00 Modern Human ---------------------------------------- 1276 Africans (1) 1347 Caucasians (1) 1362 -1.011 US Army AfrAm (1) 1364 Mongloids (1) 1378 1.000 US Army EuroAm (1) 1391 1.009 US Army AsianAm (1) ---------------------------------------- 1700 1.23 Neandertal Worldwide data adjusted for stature 1241 -1.045 African 1297 1.000 European 1308 1.008 E Asian (1) Rushton 1995, unadjusted, differences greater adjusted for body weight. Also 2000 z45\clip\2000\08\afrbrain.txt August 13, 2000 J. P. Rushton BRAIN AT LIMITS OF EVOLUTION? z54\clip\2002\01\brain.txt Man 'now at limit of his intelligence' http://www.portal.telegraph.co.uk/htmlContent.jhtml?html=/archive/1997/01/23 /nbt23.html Thursday 23 January 1997 By Robert Uhlig, Technology Correspondent Researchers at BT's Advanced Applications and Technologies Laboratories, who examined the ability of the brain to process information, found that, at best, we are within 20 per cent of our maximum information processing capacity. Only whales and dolphins approach this complexity. According to a report in today's New Scientist, to produce a significant increase in processing power would require nerve cells to be wider to transmit signals more quickly. %%Brazil 8K-10k Brazil Skulls Look African z48\clip\2001\04\brazskul.txt http://www.sciencenews.org/20010407/fob1.asp Week of April 7, 2001; Vol. 159, No. 14 Early Brazilians Unveil African Look Bruce Bower Human skulls unearthed in Brazil and ranging in age from about 8,000 to 11,000 years look more like modern Africans and Australian aborigines than like modern Asians or Native Americans %%Chimpanzee z41\clip\2000\05\chimpsim.txt 98% Alike? (What Our Similarity to Apes Tells Us About Our Understanding of Genetics) By JONATHAN MARKS Chronice of Higher Education, 0.5.12 More recently, geneticists have been able to determine with precision that humans and chimpanzees are over 98 percent identical genetically, and that figure has become one of the most well-known factoids in the popular scientific literature. DNA is 98% common between humans and chimps. EXN.CA http://www.exn.ca/html/templates/htmlpage.cfm?ID=20000328-52 Remains of 29,000-year-old infant show we're not Neanderthals and probably never were March 28, 2000 3.5% between like species humans or neanderthals 6.6-7.5% between humans and neanderthals %%Collapse WEATHER DISASTER IS KEY TO SOCIETAL COLLAPSE z47\clip\2001\01\collap.txt ARCHAEOLOGY: What Drives Societal Collapse? Harvey Weiss and Raymond S. Bradley [#affiliation] * Science, 1.1.26 That perspective is now changing with the accumulation of high-resolution paleoclimatic data... These climatic events were abrupt, involved new conditions that were unfamiliar to the inhabitants of the time, and persisted for decades to centuries. They were therefore highly disruptive, leading to societal collapse %%Creationist from RBOCCHINO "But it is scientifically unresolved whether these remains are pre-Adamic hominids descended from Adam and Eve, or ancestral to the post-Adamic humans. " 1) Frank B. Salisbury, The Creation (Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book, 1976); 2) Eric N. Skousen, Ph.D., Earth: In The Beginning, (Orem, Utah: Verity Publishing, 1997) %%Difference There is less difference between average white and chinese genetically than in typical crowd in NYC but not the distinguishing characteristics Date sent: Mon, 12 Jul 1999 19:53:21 -0400 From: Samson Vermont The figure of 99.84% common genes between blacks and whites comes from Cavalli-Sforza's The History and Geography of Human Genes, Princeton Univ. Press (1994). Regarding the chimp/human distance, it appears I was a little off. The number is 98.4% common genes (not 98.56%). See Caccone and Powell, "DNA Divergence Among Hominids," Evolution 43 (1989); A. Gibbons, "Our Chimp Cousins Get that Much Closer," Science 250 (1990). Samson Vermont http://www.upi.com/view.cfm?StoryID=23052002-121934-2160r DNA study reveals racial differences From the Science & Technology Desk Published 5/23/2002 2:05 PM CAMBRIDGE, Mass., May 23 (UPI) -- A mosaic pattern of DNA variations consistent across all races promises to help medical scientists unravel the origins of diseases as well as chart the evolution of human populations, an international research team reported Thursday. %%DNA MODERN MUNGO AS DIFFERENT AS NEANDERTHAL WAS z47\clip\2001\01\mung2.txt http://www.sciam.com/explorations/2001/012901human/ The Modern Human Origins Morass Recent studies support a controversial theory of human evolution In the January 16 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Gregory J. Adcock of the Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris and his colleagues extracted and analyzed mtDNA from Australian fossils representing anatomically modern humans. One of these, a specimen known as Lake Mungo 3 (LM3), dates to approximately 62,000 years old. As such, the LM3 mtDNA is the oldest known for a modern. They discovered that the LM3 mtDNA differed from that of living people as much as the Neandertal mtDNA did. z47\clip\2001\dnafrom.txt Cover Story 1/29/01 USNWR http://www.usnews.com/usnews/issue/010129/migration.htm Where We Come From Recent advances in genetics are starting to illuminate the wanderings of early humans "You literally have a genetic clock." Wallace proved that point in 1980, when he was able to differentiate people from Europe, Asia, and Africa by comparing their DNA. z47\clip\2000\12\dnatree.txt http://helix.nature.com/nsu/001207/001207-8.html Nature-science update Thursday 7 December 2000 relics : Humans did come out of Africa, says DNA JEREMY THOMSON Researchers led by Ulf Gyllensten of the University of Uppsala in Sweden have found evidence that we are all descended from a single ancestral group that lived in Africa about 170,000 years ago1. And they suggest that modern humans spread across the globe from Africa in an exodus that took place only around 50,000 years ago. HUMAN DNA SHOWS 10 ADAM 10 EVE z41\clip\2000\05\adam.txt http://www.nytimes.com/library/national/science/050200sci-genetics-evolution.html The Human Family Tree: 10 Adams and 18 Eves By NICHOLAS WADE NYT, 0.5.2 geneticists, by tracing the DNA patterns found in people throughout the world, have now identified lineages descended from 10 sons of a genetic Adam and 18 daughters of Eve. The split between the two main branches in the European tree suggests that modern humans reached Europe 39,000 to 51,000 years ago, Dr. Wallace calculates, a time that corresponds with the archaeological date of at least 35,000 years ago. In Asia there is an ancestral lineage known as M, with descendant branches E, F and G as well as the A through D lineages also found in the Americas. %%Earliest 6M YEAR OLD IS OLDEST HOMINID FOUND z47\clip\2000\12\milman.txt Monday December 4, 1:20 PM Scientists find fossils of man's earliest ancestor By David Fox NAIROBI (Reuters) - French and Kenyan scientists have unearthed fossilised remains of mankind's earliest known ancestor ..It is at least six million years old, which means it is older than the (previously oldest) remains found at Aramis in Ethiopia, which were 4.5 million years old. strata from where the fossils were recovered [proven twice] to show an age of six million years. \clipim\99\10\15\early\early.htm http://piopio.school.nz/earlhomo.htm Earliest Homo Fossil Found November 19, 1996 By John Noble Wilford c.1996 N.Y. Times News Service The fossil was found in sediments with a scattering of crude stone tools, the earliest association between Homo remains and such artifacts. Some suspect ..colder global climate, beginning about 2.7 million years ago.. the Lucy species, split into at least two lineages, A. africanus and A. aethiopicus, and a third group may have appeared as well -- Homo. Australopithecus afarensis, which lived from 3.9 million years ago to at least 3 million Since the earliest evidence of tools is dated at 2.6 million years ago, he said, it is possible that small-brained hominids were the first toolmakers, with brain expansion coming later as one consequence of stone technology. I think we now know Homo existed probably as early as 2.5 million years ago.'' Dr. Tim D. White of the University of California at Berkeley identified an even ore apelike hominid, the 4.4-million-year-old Ardipithecus ramidus, from fossils found in Ethiopia. Both show early evidence for the transition to upright walking. ...discovery in the 1970s of the ``Lucy'' skeleton, a 3.18-million-year-old ancestral hominid later designated Australopithecus afarensis. %%European z49\clip\2001\05\eurohomo.txt Northern Europeans descend from tiny group, scientists find http://www.nationalpost.com/news/world/story.html?f=/stories/20010510/558662.h tml BOSTON - All humans of northern European ancestry are descended from a tiny group of cave men -- perhaps only 10 people, and no more than 50 -- researchers have discovered. The small group formed a bottleneck, squeezing all the genes of northern Europe through a few individuals 30,000 to 50,000 years ago eople in Nigeria, whose ancestors didn't get whittled down to just a few individuals in the forests of ancient Europe, had seven times more variation in their DNA than the Swedes, Germans and others in northern Europe. %%Eve [eve1] 2000: ALL HUMANS SHARE ANCESTOR DUBBED EVE 150,000 YRS AGO z55\clip\2002\04\eve.txt http://dsc.discovery.com/convergence/realeve/feature/feature.html Eve Explained: How Ancient Humans Spread Across the Earth By William F. Allman "two decades ago scientists stunned the world with the finding, based on genetic research, that all humans alive today can claim as a common ancestor a woman who lived in Africa some 150,000 years ago — dubbed, inevitably, "Eve." %%Footprints 3.5 million year old footprints are the world's oldest evidence of upright walking - southern apes. Created by rain after ash fall. %%General Australophithecus http://www.pro-am.com/origins/research/austgen1.htm Kaveh Nateghi fard@interlog.com The earliest modern human predecessors belong to a species of ape-like creatures of the genus Australopithecus, who inhabited southern and central Africa during the Pliocene era at the minimum of 5.5 million years ago. Origins of Human Kind Australopithecus afarensis \clipim\99\10\15\origins\origins.htm http://www.pro-am.com/origins/research/austafar.htm links to all types. A. afarensis was less than 1.5 meters tall, bipedal, brain 1/3 size of modern brain was about the size of chimpanzee, but built for upright walking. http://sciences.homepage.com/genus.htm Development of the Genus Homo Homo habilis, "early Homo" 2.5-1.4 mya (Handy man) Brain about 1/3 modern, 3.5 ft high Homo erectus, 1.8 mya-400 kya \clipim\99\10\13\herectus\herectus.htm Homo sapiens neanderthalensis "Neandertals", ~300 kya - 30 kya neander.htm H. sapiens sapiens ~120 kya to present http://www.pro-am.com/origins/research/habilis1.htm Homo habilis Kaveh Nateghi fard@interlog.com The first ever fossil remains of Homo habilis were discovered in 1964 by the Leakeys. Fossils uncovered in Tanzania date back about 1.8 to 2 million years. A. africanus had a cranial capacity that averaged between 375 cu cm (22.9 cu in) and 485 cu cm (29.6 cu in), the Homo habilis brain averaged 750 cu cm (45.8 cu in)--compared to the modern human brain size of 1,300 to 1,350 cu cm (or 79.3 to 82.4 cu in) zip38\clip\99\19\habilis1.htm Study Alters Time Line for the Splitting of Human Populations http://www.nytimes.com/library/national/science/031699sci- early-human.html \clip\99\09\split.txt By NICHOLAS WADE "The ancestors of Africans and non-Africans split apart almost 200,000 years ago, much earlier than previously thought, a study of DNA in living populations has found. The estimate is so early that it precedes by some 70,000 years the first known fossils of modern humans. The study, published in today's Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, also reports the first fixed DNA difference between African and non-African populations. The difference, which may be rendered less absolute when more people are tested, is in a single chemical unit of DNA that has no functional significance. Several geneticists said the finding did not alter the well-established fact that different racial groups differ very little at the genetic level." AFRICA VS. MULTIREGIONAL MODEL \clip\99\05\humev.txt http://www.sciencenews.org/sn_arc99/2_6_99/bob1.htm February 6, 1999 DNA's Evolutionary Dilemma Genetic studies collide with the mystery of human evolution By Bruce Bower * investigators concluded that modern humans probably arose in Africa around 200,000 years ago and then spread elsewhere, replacing Neandertals and any other species in our evolutionary past * genetic findings that fit just as easily into a contrasting multiregional model. That is, populations of H. sapiens living in different parts of Africa, Asia, and Europe interbred enough over at least the past 1 million years to evolve collectively as a single species. \clip\97\17\neand.txt Seattle Times Company Friday, July 11, 1997 Neandertals are not linked to humans, says study by Robert Lee Hotz Los Angeles Times USENET THREAD ON WHETHER ASIANS ARE CLOSER TO WHITES OR AFRICANS (They're probably close to whites) by U Thant THE ASIANS DISCOVERED AND SETTLED AMERICA (Why Michelle Kwan can play Pocahontas...) http://www.seattletimes.com/topstories/browse/html97/asia_ 021797.html c:\clip\97\04\asiadisc.txt Feb. 17, 1997 Asians or Polynesians got here first, panelists believe Scientists finding clues to support longstanding idea ORIGINAL HUMAN MIGRATION WAS FROM AFRICA New York Times June 4, 1996 More Recent Migration of Humans From Africa Is Seen in DNA Study By KAREN FREEMAN. New evidence is that common migration from Africa might be as soon as 20,000 years ago. \priv\96\19\AFRICA.HTM %%Genetic Analysis SCIENTISTS FIND ONLY 1/2 AS MANY HUMAN GENES AS EXPECTED z48\clip\2001\02\fewgene.txt http://dsc.discovery.com/news/reu/20010212/genome.html Study: Humans Have Few Genes "there is no genetic basis for what people describe as race, and found only a few small differences set one person apart from another. "You and I differ by 2.1 million genetic letters from each other,"" http://www.discovery.com/news/briefs/20001109/hi_europepop.html z46\clip\2000\11\10fath.txt Discovery.com November 9, 2000 SEARCH 10 Men Fathered Europe By Diane Kightlinger, Discovery.com News Nov. 9, 2000 — More than 95 percent of European men today descended from just 10 possible male ancestors, a new genetic study shows. .. present European population evolved from the merging of local populations during the Paleolithic period — between 2 million and 13,000 B.C. — and farmers arriving during the Neolithic — 7,000 to 3,000 B.C. z46\clip\2000\11\genehist.txt Scientists Rough Out Humanity's 50,000-Year-Old Story http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/14/science/14ORIG.html November 14, 2000 By NICHOLAS WADE archaeologists and population geneticists believe they are on the verge of retrieving a record of human history stretching back almost 50,000 years. ... geneticists are now improving their dating methods, even though the dates are still very approximate, to the point that they can begin to correlate their findings with the archaeologists'.... Analysis of the Y chromosome has already yielded interesting results. ...considerable similarity between Jews and Israeli and Palestinian Arabs, as if the Y chromosomes of both groups had been drawn from a common population that began to expand 7,800 years ago. %%Hand Scientific American Frontiers Life's Really Big Questions Dec 19, 2000 PBS z47\clipim\2000\12\20\lucy\lucy.htm http://www.pbs.org/saf/1103/features/meetlucy.htm Lucy had a brain like a chimp, but a body and hands and legs that worked like humans. It is now thought that the body is what later drove the size of the brain by enabling making tools, and it's the pinky, not the thumb that makes making stone tools practical. %%Homo erectus Discovering Archaeoligy Sept 1999 p85 1.8-300,000 yr ago brain 800-1,000 cc vs 1100-1400 tools simple choppers to hand axe span - 1.5m years fire - first range - across africa, europe, asia height up to 6 ft, lean rugged bones speech - barely or none art - no evolution - between homo habilis and homo sapiens / neandertal [[China NANJING MAN SHOWS MAN EVOLVED OUTSIDE OF AFRICA TOO z48\clip\2001\03\nanjing.txt http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/nm/20010220/sc/evolution_china_dc_1.html Tuesday February 20 9:43 PM ET China's 'Nanjing Man' Challenges Out of Africa Theory By Michael Perry SYDNEY (Reuters) - Australian and Chinese scientists have dated China's ``Nanjing Man'' as 580,000 to 620,000 years old, further supporting a multi-regional theory of human evolution which argues Asians evolved locally and not out of Africa. Homo erectus ``Nanjing Man,'' a male and female skull discovered in 1993 in Tangshan Cave near Shanghai %%Java Man Homo Erectus / Ergaster arrived 2 mya, lived until 50,000 years ago until displaced by homo sapiens. They came out of the first "out of Africa" migration 2 million years ago and spread across Europe and Asia. They were thought to be ancestral to modern humans, but might just be another branch on the family tree. More likely is that they were ancestral to Neanderthal. HOMO ERECTUS NOT ANCESTOR BUT ANOTHER FAMILY BRANCH. z47\clip\2001\01\javaman.txt January 10, 2001 BOOKS OF THE TIMES 'Java Man': Aliens on Earth: We Used to Call Them Ancestors By RICHARD BERNSTEIN JAVA MAN How Two Geologists' Dramatic Discoveries Changed Our Understanding of the Evolutionary Path to Modern Humans By Carl C. Swisher III, Garniss H. Curtis and Roger Lewin. Illustrated. 256 pages. Scribner. $27.50. http://www.nytimes.com/2001/01/10/arts/10BERN.html?pagewanted=all Mr. Curtis and Mr. Swisher found that the Ngandong skulls are only about 50,000 years old. This would mean, first, as the authors write, that "Homo erectus had survived in Java until perhaps 53,000 years ago, and maybe as recently as 27,000 years ago." %%Language SIBERIAN LANAGUAGE LINKS NATIVE AMERICANS, ASIA http://cnn.com/TECH/science/9811/08/science.languages.reut/ Obscure language links Asians and Native Americans November 8, 1998 [Graphic] * Speakers formed a single population * Similar words for birch bark * Evidence of several migrations Merritt Ruhlen of Stanford University has found compelling similarities between Ket, a language spoken by just 500 people in remote Siberia, and Na-Dene, a family of Native American languages. %%Lucy Named for Beatles song when they found this fossil in Ethiopia in 1974. Head not much bigger than baseball, not very close to a human, but an upright walker built like a large-brained hominid. This was the first really old (3.5mya) complete skeleton found. Lucy was an Australopithecine, and the they are a different genus from our own genus Homo. Until 2000, was thought to be earliest human ancestor, but beaten out by "millenium man" who is much earlier and human-like. Excerpt from Johanson's book on Lucy http://www.dla.utexas.edu/depts/anthro/courses/98spring/selby302/lecture2.html The meaning of progress z47\clipim\2001\18\progress\progress.htm "Others were not human. Lucy was not. No matter what kind of clothes were put on Lucy, she would not look like a human being. She was too far back, out of the human range entirely." MILLENIUIM MAN DISPLACES LUCY AS EARLIEST ANCESTOR 6M z48\clip\2001\02\lucy2.txt http://archives.seattletimes.nwsource.com Seattle Times February 07, 2001 Fossils cast doubt on `Lucy' as human type, finders say more humanlike and, at 6 million years, nearly twice as old as the remains of "Lucy" -- a finding bound to fuel controversy over the origins of man. %%Lucy's Knee Creationists claim Lucy's knee was found far away, this has been discredited, but even after retractions, they continue to say this. http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/knee-joint.html %%Menopause Date sent: Wed, 10 Mar 1999 18:59:28 -0500 From: "J. P. Rushton" you might want to look at menopause in cultural and ethnic context as differences in timing. I believe that African women (and their descendants) are earlier than European women (and their descendants) who are earlier than East Asian women (and their descendants). This same pattern is found for most life-history periods of maturation and suggests some genetic coding and alliance with other suites of behavioral characteristics. Just a thought. --Phil Rushton Some info in Race, Evolution, and Behavior especially in chapter 7 on maturation rates MILLENIUM MAN DISPLACES LUCY AS EARLIEST ANCESTOR 6M z48\clip\2001\02\lucy2.txt http://archives.seattletimes.nwsource.com Seattle Times February 07, 2001 Fossils cast doubt on `Lucy' as human type, finders say more humanlike and, at 6 million years, nearly twice as old as the remains of "Lucy" -- a finding bound to fuel controversy over the origins of man. %%Mongoloid Mongoloid originated in Asia 40,000 yrs ago, expanded into Americas and Polynesia. Flat face, nose, flap of skin above eye are adaptions to cold p. 22 Today's World: The Human Race %%Mungo Man z47\clip\2001\01\mungo2.txt http://www.theage.com.au/news/2001/01/13/FFX4PGY4VHC.html Mungo jumbo By PENNY FANNIN Saturday 13 January 2001 Mungo Woman. Radio-carbon dating showed she had died between 24,500 and 26,500 years ago. Easteal found that Mungo Man's DNA bore no similarity to the DNA from any other sample. [Thorne claims this disproves Out of Africa] http://www.newscientist.com/dailynews/news.jsp?id=ns9999307 The oldest human DNA ever recovered dents the "out-of-Africa" theory A man who died about 60,000 years ago in Australia could force a rethink of our theory of human origins. [his DNA is extinct even though he looks like a modern man, if he were from Africa, he should be similar to modern humans] %%Muscle Study: Human evolution favors smarter brains over stronger muscles Economist May 31, 2014 Brawn v Brain: Muscled out as the human brain has got stronger, so the species's muscles have got weaker. * Human brains constitute only 2% of an adult's body weight but consume a fith of metabolic engery * the invention of cooking makes more nutrients available permitted the neurological expansion which created Homo Sapiens.. muscles, it seems has economised a lot * prefrontal cortex metabolism has changed four times faster in humans than in chimpanzees since lines split 6m years ago, while other brain regions and kidneys showed no such change * in trials of strenght between people, chimps and monkeys.. both chimps and monkeys are twice as strong as people with untrained apes and monkeys outperforming university level basketball players and proffessional mountaineers. %%Peking Man From 1927, caves near Peking show 400,000 year old remains of humans very similar to moderns, but with skull with small forehead, 4/5 brain size. p. 403 Life Our Century in Pictures. %%Piltdown Man Hoax widely cited by creationists z51\clip\2001\08\piltdown.txt NYT AUG 21, 2001 E. T. Hall, Archaeologist Who Debunked Piltdown Man, Dies at 77 By WOLFGANG SAXON E. T. Hall, an archaeologist and art historian who devised scientific tools used to unmask the fraudulent Piltdown Man and to try to determine the Shroud of Turin's age, died Aug. 11 in Oxford, England. He was 77. He first came to public notice in the 1950's with the revelation that Piltdown Man, once believed to represent the "missing link," was an elaborate hoax whose authorship has never been firmly established. the jaw later turned out to be the doctored bones of an orangutan. %%Primates \doc\web\99\07\humev.txt humans chimp 98% common dna but humans evolved faster %%Race Human races have evolved as adaptations to local conditions. Creationists believe all are descendants of the sons of Noah. Sforza has done the most work in mapping races, yet he says there are not distinct, pure races. CAVALLI SAYS THERE IS NO RACE, BUT HAS 4 ETHNIC REGIONS... z55\clip\2002\02\whoare.txt Who are We? http://www.science-spirit.org/articles/printerfriendly.cfm?article_id=280 by Jill Neimark The Secrets of Blood Priests, Slaves, and Rebels The Crimes of Culture Race, Genome, and God Cavalli will gladly tell you there is no such thing as race, Marks says, but his genetic diversity map has four color-coded ethnic regions. The [Bell Curve] relied in part on the work of geneticist Philippe Rushton, a professor at the University of Western Ontario in Canada. ETHNIC GROUPS ENGINEERED UNDER INFLUENCE OF WHERE THEY SETTLED z45\clip\2000\08\sforz2.txt CHAPTER ONE Genes, Peoples, and Languages By LUIGI LUCA CAVALLI-SFORZA North Point Press Exposure to a new environment inevitably causes an adaptation to it. In the 50,000-100,000 years since the African diaspora, there has been an opportunity for substantial adaptation, both cultural and biological. We can see traces of the latter in skin color and in size and shape of the nose, eyes, head, and body. One can say that each ethnic group has been genetically engineered under the influence of the environments where it settled. Black skin color protects those who live near the equator from burning under the sun's ultraviolet radiation, which can also lead to deadly skin cancers. In more recent times, the careful genetic study of hidden variation, unrelated to climate, has confirmed that homogeneous races do not exist. It is not only true that racial purity does not exist in nature: it is entirely unachievable, and would not be desirable. HUMAN RACES ARE DIFFERENT BUT NOT DISTINCT (?!) z45\clip\2000\08\sforza.txt August 20, 2000 How Far From the Tree? Reconstructing our evolutionary history using modern genetic data. By MARK RIDLEY GENES, PEOPLES, AND LANGUAGES By Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza. Translated by Mark Seielstad. 228 pp. New York: North Point Press/Farrar, Straus & Giroux. $24. A major achievement of human genetics has been exploding the theory that races are genetically distinct. The reality would be a blurry mess. But that is exactly what ancestral relations are like within the human species. It is difficult to say what a tree means when its branches are within one species, and Cavalli-Sforza says little about that question. z40\clip\2000\04\sforza.txt SFORZA UNITES THE RACES BY CONNECTING YHEM? April 1, 2000 Dismantling Race and Unifying the Human Species By EDWARD ROTHSTEIN one of Mr. Cavalli-Sforza's great achievements is that he straddles the divide. There may be no contemporary scholar who has a more detailed understanding of human diversity or a more compelling vision of its unified history. ..why Mr. Cavalli-Sforza begins "Genes, Peoples and Languages,"a compressed yet wide-ranging survey of his ideas, by dismantling the idea of race. He argues that the differences commonly associated with race are purely a matter of surface appearance, adaptations by various populations to the climates in which they evolved. PHYSICAL EVOLUTION FOLLOWS LANGUAGE EVOLUTION z40\clipim\2000\04\01\mother.efx The Mother Tongue US News and World Report Nov 5, 1990 Has tree of language and physical relationship of races. "It's quite clear why you have a correlation between genes and language", says Stanford University geneticist Luigi Cavalli-Sforza, a pioneer in the new genetic techniques.. As the genes became different, the languages become different too" from Mankind Quarterly, Vol. 35 (Winter 1994) No. 1-2, 71-108. Posted with permission of Mankind Quarterly, Institute for the Study of Man, 1133 13th St., N. W., Suite C-2, 20005 (Telephone 202-371-2700). Based on gene similarity analysis, man has branched out in the following order: African --------+ Australian + SE Asians + NE Asians, Arctic Asians Am Indians + Europeans Says southern Chinese more like Filipinos than northern Chinese. --------------------------------------------------- RACE SCIENCE = RACISM? EVOLUTION AS EXPLANATION / JUSTIFICATION FOR RACES? The Christian right detests evolution because it conflicts with the geneology of Adam and Noah, but the left may detest it because evolution may explain why the races may never be totally equal, no matter how developed. J. Philippe Rushton's "Race, Evolution and Behavior: a life history perspective" transaction (1995) is an obscure but controversial and fascinating book. Going far beyond IQ, Rushton identifies a pile of traits which rank humans in the order from African to European to Asian. He takes r-k theory, a tradeoff between many offspring and fewer "smarter" offspring to explain many of the differences in physical and behavioral traits between the races, just as they explain differences between species. By this theory, Asians, not Europeans are the most highly evolved for intelligence (if not economic developement, which appears to have been won, at least by the 20th Century by the Europeans) and health factors. The Africans, by contrast are the original model, adapted well enough for Africa, but not as well adapted for colder climates which require more cognitive talents. AHU comment - civilization can and has reduced differences between the races enormously to the point where the average African American is far more economically advanced than the average NE Asian Chinese peasant. My opinion is that any "innate" differences are merely obstacles to overcome, not justification for preventing developing any human to less than their full potential. He cites data on p. 6 from Stringer C.B. & Andrews P. 1988 Genetic and fossil evidence for the origin of modern humans. 200,000 years ago Africans emerge from other hominids 110,000 years ago Euro/Asians split 41,000 years ago NE Asians split SE Asians may be a mixture with what were originally Australian aborigines who dominated SE Asia. %%Shoe World's oldest shoes in Oregon Seattle Times Dec 1, 1999. 10,000 year-old sandals found in 1938 among 70 pairs unearthed with cave. Expert proclaims items found in Ore desert cave to be oldest in world. Sandals found below Mazama 7,500 yr ash layer. Found in sizes from child to adult, caked in mud z39\clipim\99\12\05\shoes.gif %%Skin Color Rushton: As for pubic and oral areas being less red this may possibly be due to the extra layer of subcutaneous fat Orientals have (an adaptation against cold of northeast asia whwre they evolved 40 to 10 thousand years ago). Orinetal skin is as white as European (I believe) but the 'yellow" look comes from the blood vessels not being as visible as in Europeans due to this extra fat deposit. This may clear up a certain mystery? All best, Phil %%workday z48\doc\web\2001\02\origaff.txt JOURNAL of ANTHROPOLOGICAL RESEARCH Volume 56, Number 3, Abstract THE DARKER SIDE OF THE "ORIGINAL AFFLUENT SOCIETY" David Kaplan Anthropology Department, Brandeis University, Walthum, MA 02254-9110 Hunter gatherers emerged from the "Man the Hunter" conference in 1966 as the "original affluent society." [but concludes it's probably wrong] http://www.dla.utexas.edu/deps/anthro/courses/98spring/selby302/lecture2.html Robbins argument: It was the original affluent society, two hours of subsistence per diem. Kung bushmen did not spend much time getting food. About 2.3 days at work of 6 hors, overall 20 hrs of work per week, most active about 32 hours a week. Robbins calls it intensification. Kuikuru of rain forests in Brazil work only 2 hrs per day. 3,000 acres feed 100 families. @@Hovind, Dr. Kent PhD in education, taught high school science. Very popular Christian proponent of 6x24hr day earth, and that dinosaurs may still be living with us today, the gas you put into your car may contain pre-flood people as well as dinosaurs in it. $250,000 bet if you can come up with any evidence (well, that he'll accept) that the earth is more than 6,000 years old. Lucy's knee was gathered miles away, dinos are big lizards, the pleisosaur is a dinosaur (it's a reptile), there were dinosaurs in China and on pottery. Creation Science Evangelism Dr. Kent Hovind's website @@Hutton, James Founder of Modern Geology 1788 18th century first theorized that the earth was formed by very slow processes of sedimentation and uplift and erosion, it was in stark contrast to church view that the land was created all at once. "Uniformitarianism" is process of natural process rather than supernatural flood shaping the land. zip38\clip\99\19\notes.htm http://geoserv.geology.wmich.edu/dave/geol435/notes.htm INTRODUCTION TO SEDIMENTOLOGY AND STRATIGRAPHY Earth Rvealed - noticed that granite formed unconformity through strata, conflicted with biblical view that earth was created at once. "no vestige of beginning, no evidence of end". First to theorize geologic time The Scots Magazine - Feature THE ROCKS REMAIN Tom Weir visits the scene of James Hutton's greatest geological discovery. READERS of the July issue may recall my promise to write about the bi-centenary of James Hutton, the self-taught geologist who died in 1797 and is revered.. 6/17/98 http://www.scotsmagazine.com/smft0997.htm zip38\clipim\99\10\25\hutton\hutton.htm When James Hutton and his enlightened friends pursued their different sciences, the Christian world believed that the Earth was created about 4000 BC. Today, two centuries after James Hutton read the truth in the rocks, scientists estimate the age of the Earth to be four and a half thousand million years old. The Genesis of Man http://cyberfair.gsn.org/adelaar/ The earth until the late 18th century the prevailing view was that the Earth was basically volcanic in origin, and that sedimentary rocks, particularly those containing fossils, were the result of catastrophes such as volcanic eruptions or the biblical flood. Such animal remains were termed antediluvian - from "before the deluge". This view was challenged in 1788 by the work of William Hutton, an Edinburgh doctor and scientist. He was intrigued by geological unconformities, in which rocks of strikingly different types are in direct contact and lie on top of each other. Hutton stated that this dynamic process had occurred uniformly and continuously for many millennia. The principal was termed Uniformitarianism, and it was finally made widely known and understood by John Playfair in 1802 and Charles Lyell in 1838. @@Ice Age %%creation Ice ages claimed not be consistent with evolution Actually, it has everything to do with it, how else would you explain the Ice Ages for example? 1.Why did the glacial sheet, in the southern hemisphere, move from the tropical regions of africa toward the south polar region and not in the opposite direction...? [with debunking response] %%evolution http://encarta.msn.com/index/conciseindex/48/04874000.htm Earth entered last ice age 2.5 million years ago. Every 150 million years, the galactic environment appears to change. Cold and warm phase have 100,000 year cycles ICE AGE WAS 10F COLDER THAN NOW Scientist's climiate of controversy Seattle Times April 16, 2000 earth's avg temp was only 9F deg colder during the last ice age, in the 50th century, surface temp up by 1F Intergovernment Panel on Climate Change projects 2.5-8 in 21st century %%flood The Pacific Northwest had some of the largest floods in the world Ice Age floods left their mark Linda Ashton Seattle Times June 4, 2000 12,000 years ago, ice dam in Montana broke and carved out the Columbia River basin. Water at 65 mph carried boulders as big as houses from Canadian rockies to Eugene. They occured 4-5 or as many as 100 times %%planet Life's Really Big Questions Scientific American Frontiers Dec 19, 2000 PBS http://www.pbs.org/saf/1103/features/deepfreeze.htm In "Noah's Snowball", 600 million years ago, the Earth cooled a few degrees, setting off a feedback loop that left the entire planet entombed in ice miles thick. The Earth's volcanoes, however, reversed the trend by belching carbon dioxide, the now notorious greenhouse gas, into the atmosphere. Within a hundred years, the planet's climate flip-flopped from the coldest it's ever been to the warmest triggering the cambrian explosion. @@Ice Cores %%Creationist Hovind National Ice core laboratory denver core from greenland 10,000 ft claims rings are warm/cold, not years Scientific am feb 1998 p. 82 135,000 annual ringd The lost squadron p38 1990 263 ft of ice creation ex nihlo june-aug 1997 p. 13 800-350-3232 5.5 ft per yr, 10000 ft = 18324, 4400 yrs to accumulate since flood is no problem why not more ice . hundreds of layers of ice mommy1995 During the ice age layers of ice were compacted so tightely that the age of the ice was once upon a time mistaken. Subject: How do YE creationists explain the Greenland ice cores? Date: 1998/07/08 Author: mike.darnell "The ice sheet "archive" was created as snow fell over Greenland year after year, trappi ng the gases, chemicals, and dust of the atmosphere, and eventually compressing into ice. The GISP2 core, along with a complementary core drilled by the European Greenland Ice Core Project (GRIP), spans more than 100,000 years of climate history." For details, see: http://www.geo.nsf.gov/adgeo/press/pr9456. htm Richard Harter, cri@tiac.net, The Concord Research Institute From the creationist FAQ: Q: What about the Antarctic ice core data? A: Now I put it to you. Coop up a bunch of men in a Quonset hut in the worst weather in the world, with nothing to do but gather data and drink, and what do you expect? maycock@andrews.edu One creationist told me that she thinks the determination of the number of layers is "just extrapolation," and that the layers have been too distorted to be accurately counted. But the best evidence indicates that the counts are fairly reliable (extremely accurate for the more recent layers, i.e., the last 11,500 years), so this argument against creationism seems to be valid. P38 I've been given a couple of copies of the journal Creation ex nihilo. In the august 1997 issue they question the reliability of ice cores. A squadron of P38s and B17s that were ditched in Greenland July 15 1942 were recovered in 1992 75 m beneath the surface. They are unlikely to have sunk to that depth since a P38 exerts a pressure of 0.18 tonnes/ square metre, which would only decrease the melting point by 1/5000 of a degree. That would make the 3000 m ice core retrieved in Greenland in 1990 possibly only 2000 years old. [followed by debunking] %%General link 1998/07/11 Author: Don Lindsay http://www.cs.colorado.edu/~lindsay/creation/icecap.html you will discover that direct layer counting has been done to layer 50,000. And, there are multiple evidences that the count is a correct count of 50,000 years, plus or minus 5 percent. For instance, carbon dating of pollen and soot has been done at many layers. 100,000 YRS OF HISTORY IN ICE CORE FROM CHINA zip36\clip\99\16\chinice.txt http://www.apnet.com/inscight/06201997/graphb.htm From the SCiENCE newsroom Posted 20 June 1997, 5 pm PST Hot News From Chinese Ice It's hard to imagine the Dalai Lama in Bermuda shorts, but a new climate record suggests that thousands of years ago, the Tibetan Plateau may have been toasty warm. zip36\clipim\99\08\24\icecores\icecores.htm http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/icecores.html From the data gathered from the Vostok ice-core indicates that the minimum age of the earth is 160,000 +- 15,000 years. The Vostok ice-core shows no effects of catastrophic geological changes. By this I mean no petroleum, no vermin, no weird Venus gasses, no red snow, no manna in amongst the layers. Also no evidence for rapid rotational changes in the earth, no floods, no major asteroid bombardments. http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/faq-noahs-ark.html#implications Why is there no evidence of a flood in ice core series? Ice cores from Greenland have been dated back more than 40,000 years by counting annual layers. [Johnsen et al, 1992; Alley et al, 1993] A A worldwide flood would be expected to leave a layer of sediments, noticeable changes in salinity and oxygen isotope ratios, fractures from buoyancy and thermal stresses, a hiatus in trapped air bubbles, and probably other evidence. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/warnings/stories/ \clip\99\16\icecore.txt Stories in the Ice by Peter Tyson Online \zip36\clipim\99\08\24\icecore\icecore.htm Producer, NOVA Nature's Time Machine How would you like to have a time machine that could take you back anywhere over the past 300,000 years? You could see what the world was like when ice sheets a thousand feet thick blanketed Canada and northern Europe, or when the Indonesian volcano Toba blew its top in the largest volcanic eruption of the last half million years. Well, scientists have such a time machine. It's called an ice core. @@Iceman June 1993 Natl Geographic p. 36 Died 3000 BC Copper Age 4000-2200 bc Oldest copper 8000 BC. Copper age: milk cow, butter, cheese oldest wheel 3200 bc. Oldest plow 6,000 @@Indus Re: Oldest Civilization Date: 1999/08/12 Author: padhu1 The oldest known civilization known as the Indus Valley Civilization which was centred with the twin cities of Mohenjadaro and Harrappa. The archaeology experts state this civilization should have existed nearly 5000 years back and extended for nearly 400 Kms approx. Lot of exavacation have been found. The script of the civilization has not been deciphered clearly. It is believed that the Dravidians or original aborginees of India were the inhabitants of this civilization. Till date the reason for the extinction is unclear. Their lot of view points debatable. The picture photographs of the site is available in lot of sites http://www.harappa.com/indus/slideindex.html @@In Place According to the Rabbi God ("Hashem" translated as "The Name") created the universe in one utterance. It is a simple matter for Hashem to have created billions of years of history in that one utterance as well. So Life was created some thousands of years ago with all of its history already in place. It is therefore not surprising that scientists today find evidence of evolution and theories dating the inception of life back billions of years. The All-Powerful Hashem simply put it all there in an instant at the moment of creation. @@India http://www.stockton.edu/~gilmorew/consorti/1bindia.htm Indian civilization, which is one of the oldest civilization on the earth and the first in South Asia, first developed sizable urban communities along the Indus River Valley and its tributary system, centered in the area of contemporary Pakistan, in the 3rd millennium B.C.E. Two prominent cities at the core of Indus River Valley civilization-- Harappa and Mohenjo-daro-- exelled in urban planning, hydraulic engineering, and sophisticated sculptural renderings. @@Intelligent Design These guys believe in the big bang and scientific evidence but they believe that the existence of information in DNA code could not be constructed by chance (well, maybe some random mutations, but not the whole thing...) So evolution isn't wrong, it's just not random. If you rolled a dice 5 times, you wouldn't get a blueprint for a monkey. (yeah, but what you rolled a universe worth of particles for 14 billion years???) I disagree with the idea that random rocks are not evidence of intelligent design while DNA codes are. If God created all things living and non-living, then the mountains and oceans and stars are just as much his creations as his living creatures. http://www.arn.org/arn2.htm Access Research Network %%Background z55\clip\2002\04\intdes.txt Intelligent Design Creationism and Its Critics': Supernatural Selection http://www.nytimes.com/2002/04/14/books/review/14HOLTLT.html?pagewanted=all& position=top New York Times Book Review, 2.4.14 By JIM HOLT INTELLIGENT DESIGN CREATIONISM AND ITS CRITICS: Philosophical, Theological, and Scientific Perspectives. Edited by Robert T. Pennock. Illustrated. 805 pp. Cambridge, Mass.: A Bradford Book/The MIT Press. Cloth, $110. Paper, $45. " SEEING how the Darwinians go about rebutting these arguments makes for high intellectual entertainment. To counter Behe's irreducible complexity argument, they give a fascinating account of how proteins that originally evolved for one function can be co-opted by the cell for another; through such ''exaptation,'' complicated cellular machinery can be built up in a gradual Darwinian way. " ID: SAYING THAT DARWIN IS WRONG DOES NOT MAKE A THEORY z55\clip\2002\02\slatid.txt Unintelligible Redesign This is the way creationism ends. Not with a bang, but with a whimper. By William Saletan Posted Wednesday, February 13, 2002, at 10:48 AM PT Unlike creationism, ID accepts that the Earth is billions of years old and that species evolve through natural selection. It posits that life has been designed but doesn't specify by whom. I don't know whether they stand up to his rebuttal or not. They don't add up to a theory. A theory isn't just a bunch of criticisms, even if they're valid. z49\clip\2001\04\battle.txt NYT April 8, 2001 Evolutionists Battle New Theory on Creation By JAMES GLANZ Dr. Behe, Dr. Dembski and Phillip E. Johnson, a professor emeritus of the law school at the University of California at Berkeley, are regarded as the intellectual fathers of the design theory movement. Dr. Dembski eventually developed what he called a mathematical "explanatory filter" that he asserted can distinguish randomness from complexity designed by an intelligent agent. The center's $1.1 million annual budget is supplied largely by Christian foundations that broadly endorse the implications of the intelligent design theory %%Behe IF ANY PIECE IS MISSING IT WON'T WORK, THEREFORE EVOLUTION IS IMPOSSIBLE z75\clipim\2003\11\25\MolecularMachines.doc Molecular Machines: Experimental Support for the Design Inference Michael J. Behe %%Dembski z47\clip\2000\12\dembski.txt http://www.spectator.org/archives/0011TAS/heeren0011.htm The American Spectator -- November 2000 The Lynching of Bill Dembski Scientists say the jury is out -- so let the hanging begin. by Fred Heeren Mathematician William Dembski stands accused of bringing shame upon a major university. Not only that, say his colleagues, he has managed to disgrace the entire scientific enterprise. http://www.arn.org/dembski/wdhome.htm A mathematician and a philosopher, William A. Dembski is associate research professor in the conceptual foundations of science at Baylor University and a senior fellow with Discovery Institute’s Center for the Renewal of Science and Culture in Seattle. Has link to Simpson's creation episode. Author: The Design Inference Eliminating Chance through Small Probabilities Mere Creation Science, Faith & Intelligent Design Intelligent Design The Bridge Between Science and Theology DESIGN DOES NOT DEPEND ON 6X24HR DAY EARTH http://www.origins.org/offices/dembski/docs/bd-theologn.html design z42\clip\2000\06\know.htm What every theologian should know about creation, evolution and design William A. Dembski ... critique of Darwinism in no way hinges on the Genesis account of creation. On no occasion do design theorists invoke Genesis 1 and 2 as a scientific text, trying to conform natural history to the Genesis account of creation or vice versa. Design as a theory holds to neither a day-age, nor a gap, nor an apparent age interpretation of Genesis. Thus it is illegitimate to characterize design theorists as old-earth creationists DESIGN DO NOT DENY EVOLUTION AS MECHANISM [do not endorse] Progressive creation holds that God intervened at various points in natural history, creating new kinds, as it were, from scratch. Progressive creation can accommodate a considerable degree of evolutionary change once a given kind is in place. According to this view the creation of a given kind induces an evolutionary envelope within which considerable, but not unlimited, variation is possible. For instance, we might imagine God creating an initial pair of dogs, and all subsequent dogs being related to this initial pair by common descentóeverything from a St. Bernard to a Chihuahua. Nevertheless, the progressive creationist would be uninclined to view dogs and amoeba as sharing the same genealogical tree For myself, Yes, I believe that God created the world with a purpose in mind, and No, I don't believe that God created the world in six 24-hour day periods. No, I don't believe in fully naturalistic evolution controlled solely by purposeless material processes, and Yes, I do believe that organisms have undergone some change in the course of natural history (though I believe that this change has occurred within strict limits and that human beings were specially created). DR. Stephen Meyer of Whitworth College will be speaking on Intelligent Design at Seattle Pacific University Tuesday 16th 2000 \clip\99\16\design.txt http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/WPlate/1999-08/21/026l- 082199-idx.html Darwinism and Design ~ By Jay Richards Saturday, August 21, 1999; Page A19 Before Darwin, most scientists argued that living things display the hallmarks of intelligent design. @@Irrigation Began at least 7,000 yrs ago in nr east China. The Human Race Linda Gamlin @@Isochron dating methods ISOCHRON METHODS DETECT IF INITIAL CONDITIONS ARE UNACCEPTABLE http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/isochron-dating.html#generic zip36\clipim\99\08\26\isochron\isochron.htm zip36\clip\99\16\isochron-dating.html All radiometric dating methods require, in order to produce accurate ages, certain initial conditions and lack of contamination over time. The wonderful property of isochron methods is: if one of these requirements is violated, it is nearly certain that the data will indicate the problem by failure to plot on a line. Where the simple methods will produce an incorrect age, isochron methods will generally indicate the unsuitability of the object for dating. Not foolproof but... The large majority of isochron dating results are in accordance with the mainstream age and history of the Earth. If the results were essentially random numbers, that would not be the expected distribution of results @@Japanese JAPANESE ONLY HAVE 5% JAPANESE DNA he found about 25% Korean, 25% Chinese, 16% Okinawan, 5% Ainu, 5% "Japanese", and 16% others @@Jews Authors of Genesis and much of world cicilization in their own little way Good timeline of jews http://jewishamerica.com/TimeLine/index.htm Ken Jacobs on jewish timeline, origin of the jews giftjew.txt The Gifts of the Jews How a Tribe of Desert Nomads Changed the Way Everyone Thinks and Feels Thomas Cahill Doubleday 1998. Creation and flood legends appear to be based on the Sumer legends. Abraham was a sophisticated resident of the Sumer civilization that was called by god to leave and become a nomad to create a nation. The Jews are said by the author to have created the modern notion of a history of change. %%opposition JEWISH RABBI FROM 1000 SAYS CREATION IS AN ALLEGORY z75\clip\2005\08\allegory.htm http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/cgi-bin/PrintStory.pl?document_id=2002453881&zsection_id=2002151194&slug=glickmancolumn27m&date=20050827 Rabbi Mark Glickman As Rashi said: Bible's creation story offers allegory, not science By Rabbi Mark S. Glickman Special to The Seattle Times "Rashi — Rabbi Shlomo Yitzchaki (1040-1105) — was a French sage whose biblical commentaries are known for their clarity, brevity and straightforwardness. ..In his commentary on Genesis 1:1 ("In the beginning, God created ... "), Rashi takes a careful look at the grammatical structure of the verse, and concludes: "The text does not intend to point out the order of [the acts] of creation, to point out that [heaven and Earth] were created first."" .. the truths of this story are metaphoric truths, and far more profound. The biblical account is a creation-parable, an allegory that teaches many lessons about the fundamental nature of our God-given world. LITTLE OPPOSITION TO EVOLUTION FROM JEWS OR MUSLIMS According to Ron Unz: .. asked Elliott Abrams, who's a smart guy and had recently written a pretty good book about different Jewish groups and religious trends in America. Apparently, most of the Orthodox (including the ultra-Orthodox?) don't much oppose Darwinism, based on the notion that everything in the world is controlled by G-d, and whatever happens---including one species transforming into another---is part of the divine fabric. the Jewish position on Darwinism appears similar to that of Muslims. Apparently, most Islamic fundamentalists also don't have any huge problems with evolution. @@Kennewick man Non-native american man found in WA state thought to be over 9,000 years old, related most closely to the Ainu, Asians who look similar to Caucasians who were dominant in Japan as late as 3,000 years ago. PNW INDIANS, KENNEWICK MAN LINKED TO AINU z50\clip\2001\07\ainu.txt http://uk.news.yahoo.com/010731/80/c01qo.html Tuesday July 31, 03:44 PM Reuters - First Americans linked to ancient Japanese - study "they showed close ties to the modern-day Ainu of Hokkaido and their Jomon predecessors in prehistoric Japan, and to the Polynesians of Oceania, according to the study. [rather than any mainland Asians]" crossed land bridge 15,000 years ago. z45\clip\2000\10\racebone.txt http://abcnews.go.com/sections/science/DailyNews/race_kennewick001006.html A Question of Race oct 6, 2000 Forensic Anthropologists Disagree About Racial Characteristics and Bone Structure A controversy erupted when anthropologists said the Kennewick Man resembled Caucasians more than American Indians. But how much can scientists tell from a skeleton? By Willow Lawson ..in the Ainu of Japan. All of Japan, even just 3,000 years ago were bearded, white people." \clip\2000\04\kenn.txt The Color of Bones How a 9,000-year-old skeleton called Kennewick Man sparked the strangest case of racial profiling yet. By SCOTT L. MALCOMSON Photograph by James Chatters/Applied Paleoscience. KENNEWICK MAN FROM SE PACIFIC ASIA http://www.nytimes.com/library/national/science/101699sci-kennewick-man.html z38\clip\99\20\kennwi.txt New York Times October 16, 1999 Expert Panel Recasts Origin of Fossil Man in Northwest By TIMOTHY EGAN EATTLE -- The ancient bones of Kennewick Man most closely resemble Asian people, particularly the Ainu of northern Japan, and Polynesians from the South Pacific, the scientists said. zip36\clip\99\16\kenwick.txt \clip\99\16\kenwick.txt Seattle Times Company August 02, 1999 Pay respects to living with Kennewick Man August 11, 1999 Hearing ordered on Kennewick Man tests Earlier radiocarbon tests placed the bones at about 9,200 years old. Tuesday, July 27, 1999 Kennewick Man shows unusual characteristics Today, a team of Interior Department scientists examining Kennewick Man's remains was meeting in Walla Walla with five Native American tribal groups to report on the team's investigation and announce plans to continue their efforts to better understand who Kennewick Man was and where he came from. [ he does not match australians either] Tuesday, February 23, 1999 Getting a look at Kennewick Man's face November 12, 1998 Oral histories are speaking; will we hear? If you believe science, then Kennewick man is more than 9,000 years old and a "Caucasoid." His very existence raises questions about who was here first. But American Indians have their own stories of how they came to be. These stories, often religious in nature, center on a different truth. from: http://www.runestone.org/km.html Kennewick Man does not stand alone. There is an entire group of skeletons similar to him, all dating from about the same period. Douglas Owsley, a forensic anthropologist at the National Museum of Natural History, examining a find from Nevada called the Spirit Cave man, remarked that this specimen is "most similar to the Ainu from Japan and a medieval Norse population...I'm reluctant to say he's a white guy, but he's certainly very different from modern Asians and Native Americans." @@Dating %%Contamination http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/faq-age-of-earth.html#constant It is Some dating methods (e.g., K-Ar and carbon-14) do not have a built-in check for contamination, and if there has been contamination these methods will produce a meaningless age. For this reason, the results of such dating methods are not treated with as much confidence. %%Methods @@Dinosaurs @@K-T Great Dinosaur Extinction The end of dinosaurs coincides with the global K-T boundary layer which has iridium thought to have come from a giant metor strike in the gulf of mexico. http://hannover.park.org/Canada/Museum/extinction/cretcause. html Speculated Causes of the End-Cretaceous Extinction zip36\clipim\99\08\31\cretcause\cretcause.htm Evidence for catastrophism is found in a layer ... contains unusually high concentrations of Iridium, found only in the earth's mantle, and in extra-terrestrial meteors and comets. This layer has been found found in both marine and terrestrial sediments, at numerous boundary sites around the world. http://www.imax.com/t-rex/popdiedout.html There are many theories about why the dinosaurs died out seemingly all at once nearly 65 million years ago. The most popular idea of the mass dinosaur extinction is the "Meteor Theory." http://tyrrell.magtech.ab.ca/tour/extinctn.html K-T boundary Yucatan metor strike Wayne Hortensius, Calgary, Alberta, Canada for the Royal Tyrrell Museum In the badlands north of the Museum lies an inconspicuous line. Next to a coal seam and rich in the tell-tale element iridium, this reddish line marks the end of an era. Below it are the remains of dinosaurs, mixed with the fossilized remains of the animals that shared their world. Above it is a new world. Although many organisms survived the extinction at the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary, dinosaurs didn't. This line marks the end of their era. @@Language %%Creationist Bible says the Tower of Babel is the root of all languages, before that (sometime after the Flood but before recorded history) all humans spoke only one language. %%Americas [[Meadowcroft [mead] MEADOWCROFT DATES TO 16,000 YRS AGO z55\clip\2002\04\meadow.txt http://dsc.discovery.com/convergence/realeve/interactive/migration.html Meadowcroft site in Pennsylvania has artifacts dating 16,000 yrs ago. Blade core fragments resemble those found in north China 28-29,000 yrs ago. Evidence indicates many arrivals from China, Malaysia, Japan, Siberia and Central Asia. \doc\web\99\14\firstam.txt History Channel In Search of the First Americans Thomas Jefferson believed that the nearly thousand native american languages must have taken thousands of years to develop. Classified down to six, and later 3 major language groups, Eskimo-Aleut, Amerind, and Nadimec, indicates 3 major migrations. %%General This is a passage from an essay by Robin L. M. Dunbar, Origin and Evolution of Language. INDO-EUROPEAN SPROUTS AVG 1 NEW LANGUAGE EACH 1,600 YEARS Steve Sailer notes: --- Ancestral Indo-European, the language spoken by a small group of (probably Anatolian) agro-pastoralists around 6000 BC, has given rise to around 150 descendent languages from Gaelic in the west to Bengali in the East over an 8,000-year period. Interpolating these values into the ***standard Gaussian logistic growth equation for biological population growth*** suggests that the Indo-European language family has evolved at a rate equivalent to the budding off of a new language from each existing language, on average, about once every 1,600 years ‹ or about as long as it has taken modern English and Scots to evolve out of Anglo-Saxon. --- z54\clip\2002\01\gram.txt 'Hard-Wired' Grammar Rules Found for All Languages New York Times January 15, 2002 By BRENDA FOWLER In 1981 the linguist Noam Chomsky, who had already proposed that language was not learned but innate, made an even bolder claim. The grammars of all languages, he said, can be described by a set of universal rules or principles, and the differences among those grammars are due to a finite set of options that are also innate. LANGUAGE EVOLUTION GUIDED BY PHYSICAL EVOLUTION z45\clip\2000\10\grad.txt http://archives.seattletimes.nwsource.com/ Seattle Times Company October 20, 2000 Gradual process helped tongues to wag By Robert S. Boyd Knight Ridder Newspapers "Lucy," an advanced form of ape who lived in Africa 3.6 million years ago, had an ape-like vocal tract and therefore could not speak. 300,000 yrs ago a Neandertal would have sounded "like a village idiot," Lieberman said. "Their speech capabilities were intermediate between those of still earlier hominids and modern humans." PHYSICAL EVOLUTION FOLLOWS LANGUAGE EVOLUTION z40\clipim\2000\04\01\mother.efx The Mother Tongue US News and World Report Nov 5, 1990 Has tree of language and physical relationship of races. "It's quite clear why you have a correlation between genes and language", says Stanford University geneticist Luigi Cavalli-Sforza, a pioneer in the new genetic techniques.. As the genes became different, the languages become different too" @@Life http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/precambrian/archaean.html Introduction to the Archaean Era 3.8 to 2.5 billion years ago It was early in the Archaean that life first appeared on Earth. Our oldest fossils date to roughly 3.5 billion years ago, and consist of bacteria microfossils. zip36\clip\99\16\billlife.txt http://archives.seattletimes.com Friday, August 13, 1999 Study adds a billion years to life on Earth by Randolph E. Schmid The Associated Press WASHINGTON - Scientists studying Australian rocks have found evidence that primitive forms of life existed 2.7 billion years ago - a billion years earlier than had been previously shown. @@Light Transit Time Distances between stars can be millions or billions of light years away, yet we can observe them, this is inconsistent with a universe only 10,000 years old. Explanations: * the universe was created complete with billion year old light * the speed of light is not constant. * speed and distance don't behave the way we think they do. * we can't accurately measure distance beyond a few light years. %%Creationist Light has been slowed to 30 MPH with the "medium". http://www.parentcompany.com/creation_explanation/cx6h.htm zip36\clipim\99\08\18\creax\creax.htm There are several possible solutions for the problem of light transit time in a universe billions of light years across but which is only ten thousand or so years old: willypete@juno.com Light theorists have recently been calling into question all of the assumptions written into conventional dogma on the subject, including its speed and behavior. http://www.mbnet.mb.ca/~georgkev/const-c/constc.html 27 Aug 1999 07:32:31 -0400 From: Fred Battey To add a note here, we have always been taught that light was the fastest thing there was. Yet when there is a solar storm/flare on the sun the electromagnetic shock waves traverse the distance to the earth at speeds of millions of miles an hour. We are only limited by our willingness to observe, doubt and learn. Fred %%Constant http://www.nytimes.com/2001/08/15/science/15PHYS.html z50\clip\2001\08\splight.txt August 15, 2001 Cosmic Laws Like Speed of Light Might Be Changing, a Study Finds By JAMES GLANZ and DENNIS OVERBYE A Small Change, With Huge Implications the finding could mean that other constants regarded as immutable, like the speed of light, might also have changed over the history of the cosmos. The magnitude of the change apparently observed by the group is minute, amounting to just 1 part in 100,000 in a number called the fine structure constant over 12 billion years. [alpha constant defined in terms of light and other properties] @@Magnetism Paleomagnetism in geology Earth's magnetic fiels has reversed many times over past 4m years @@Mail List Hard Core Evolution Mailing List Evolution-t was designed to discuss scientific views of different evolutionary theories and recent research. It encompasses a broad range of topics, including Darwinian vs non-Darwinian evolution, phylogenetic analysis, genetics, behavioral ecology, human evolution, etc. Members are asked not to discuss evolution vs creationalism, since this topic is better handled by the newsgroup Talk.orgins. To subscribe : Majordomo@majordomo.umd.edu @@Mammoth Mastadon Elephant like beats that disappeared after the ice age, perhaps due to human hunting. Wrengel Island in Siberia has evidence of mammoths up to 3,700 years ago Nature's Death Traps, The Extinction Files The Call of Distant Mammoths Why the Ice Age Mammals Disappeared 1997. Clovis pursued animals that were not adapted to man, perished, then Clovis vanished. Megafauna vanishes whenever man appears. Ends with warning about human overpopulation @@Mars z48\clipim\2001\03\marslife.txt http://dsc.discovery.com/news/ap/20010226/marslife.html Study: Crystals Prove Life on Mars Associate Copyright 2001 Feb. 26, 2001 A crystal found in a meteorite from Mars could only have been formed by a microbe and may be evidence of the oldest life form ever found, researchers say. "magnetite could not come from Earth organisms because it was encased inside the meteorite in a carbonate mineral that has been age-dated at 3.9 billion years old. " @@Math http://aleph0.clarku.edu/~djoyce/mathhist/mathhist.html History of mathematics It has roots in ancient Egypt and Babylonia, then grew rapidly in ancient Greece. Mathematics written in ancient Greek was translated into Arabic. About the same time some mathematics of India was translated into Arabic. Later some of this mathematics was translated into Latin and became the mathematics of Western Europe. Over a period of several hundred years, it became the mathematics of the world. http://aleph0.clarku.edu/~djoyce/mathhist/chronology.html 1700 B.C.E. Ahmes (c. 1650 B.C.E.) *MT 700 B.C.E. Baudhayana (c. 700) @@Medicine Medical uses of evolution theory Darwinian medicine Bill Wimsatt @@Meteor Crater Meteor Crater Visitors Center http://www.meteorcrater.com/Mcrater.htm 50,000 years ago, a huge iron-nickel meteorite, hurtling at about 40,000 miles per hour, struck the rocky plain of Northern Arizona with an explosive force greater than 20 million tons of TNT. The meteorite estimated to have been about 150 feet across and weighing several hundred thousand tons, in less than a few seconds, left a crater 700 feet deep and over 4000 feet across. @@Milky Way Galaxy Specs Number of stars - 100 billion Oldest Starts - 10 billion year old Diameter - 100,000 light years, about half of Andromeda Thick - 13,000 light years Distance from sun to center 24,000 light years Distance to nearest spiral galaxy (Andromeda) 2 million LY http://www.science.mcmaster.ca/HAA/Events/EH423.html Bob Roy If our Milky Way Galaxy were the size of an aspirin, the nearest galaxy would only be 13cm away if our Sun were the size of an aspirin, the nearest star would be 140Km away http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/user/gr/public/gal_milky.html Cambridge Cosmology: Milky Way The disk of the Milky Way has four spiral arms and it is approximately 300pc thick and 30kpc in diameter. It is made up predominantly of Population I stars which tend to be blue and are reasonably young, spanning an age range between a million and ten billion years. @@Mississippi Hovind: Prentice hall general science 1992 p. 145 miss riv 80,000 tons of sediment per hr delta getting bigger less than 30,000 yrs - gulf of mexico. He believes 6000 yr s ago, flood, was running off, most mud was mostly formed from flood @@Mitochondrial Eve / DNA\ http://www.answersingenesis.org/docs/4059.asp A STUDY GUIDE for REFUTING EVOLUTION by Jonathan Sarfati, Ph.D., F.M. What does "Mitochondrial Eve" mean? (p. 88) Since mitochondrial DNA is inherited only through the mother's line, the similarities are consistent with the idea that all people on earth are descended from a single human female @@Moon %%Creationist Hovind: Moon is moving farther away, it would be too close if billions of years old. Moon should have much more dust on it. The earth is slowing down, days would be too short. %%Dust http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/moon-dust.html Meteorite Dust and the Age of the Earth Copyright © 1996 by Tim Thompson [Last Update: September 5, 1996] Morris chooses to pick obsolete data with known problems, and call it the "best" measurement available. His calculations are based on a figure that is nearly three orders of magnitude too high. With the proper values, the expected depth of meteoritic dust on the moon is less than one foot. [measured dust at the top of a mountain, not correlated by other data such as dust in existing sediments or sattelites] %%Natural 1994 Sagan: Pale blue dot p. 237 based on Apollo samples, formed 4.5b years ago from collision with world the size of mars. The emerging picture is not of stately progression but mere lucky chance. Does not seem to have been sculpted by a master craftsman. http://www-curator.jsc.nasa.gov/curator/lunar/lunar.htm Recent computer models indicate that the Moon could have been formed from the debris resulting from the Earth being struck a glancing blow by a planetary body about the size of Mars. The chemical composition of the Moon, derived from studies of lunar rocks, is compatible with this theory of the origin of the Moon. We have learned that a crust formed on the Moon 4.4 billion years ago. %%Rock History Lost and Found: Apollo 15 found a rock thought to have come from the original crust 4.5 billion years, much older than earth rocks 3.5B %%Creationist Astronomical and Physical Sciences: The Universe, the Solar System, the Earth, and Life Were Recently Created. http://www.indirect.com/www/wbrown/onlinebook/scc/astronomy1. html If the moon was not pulled or splashed from the earth, was not built up from smaller particles near its present orbit, and was not captured from outside its present orbit, only one hypothesis remains; the moon was created in its present orbit. @@Mormon Duwayne Anderson says that http://scriptures.lds.org/moses/2. outlines the official creation myth of the LDS Church. @@Morris, Henry Creationist claims evolution violates laws of thermodynamics in "Are You Brainwashed" @@Moth z56\clip\2002\06\pepmoth.txt http://www.nytimes.com/2002/06/18/science/life/18MOTH.html?ex=1025406344&ei=1&en=9863e25a48fce009 Staple of Evolutionary Teaching May Not Be Textbook Case NYT June 18, 2002 By NICHOLAS WADE "they were glued in place for good reason: the peppered moth almost never rests on tree trunks, its preferred hideaway probably being under twigs in the high canopy of trees." @@Mount St Helens Mt St Helens is held up as proof of a young earth, yet its existence pretty proves that the earth must be older than this volcano, and it was not created in its 1980 form, but evolved that way over thousands or millions of years. http://www.misslink.net/chofgod/sthelen.html zip36\clip\99\16\sthelen.htm Mt. St. Helens a Voice for Creation (c) 1996 Mark E. Howerter http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/msh/llc/cs/eheh.html ERUPTIVE PERIODS AT MOUNT ST. HELENS The stratigraphic record of eruptive activity during the last 13,000 yr is believed to be reasonably complete The Ape Canyon eruptive period was followed by a dormant interval which may have lasted from about 35,000 to 20,000 yr ago. Most of this 15,000-yr interval coincided with climates which, at times, were evidently somewhat cooler than those of the present (Alley, 1979, p. 233). http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/msh/llc/cs/ehdis.html One of the most interesting features of Mount St. Helens' history is the change in eruptive behavior that occurred about 2,500 yr ago. Eruptions of dacite had characterized the volcano for more than 35,000 yr. zip36\clip\99\16\eheh.htm http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/frequent_questions/grp6/ question584.html The oldest rocks at Mt. St. Helens are about 40,000-50,000 years old. Wood, C.A., and Kienle, J., 1993, Volcanoes of North America: Cambridge University Press, New York, 354 p. @@Moth \clip\99\16\design.txt http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/WPlate/1999-08/21/026l- 082199-idx.html Darwinism and Design ~ By Jay Richards Saturday, August 21, 1999; Page A19 ...recent experiments show that all developmental mutations are harmful.this story was discredited in the 1980s, when biologists discovered several errors in the studies, including the fact that peppered moths do not normally rest on tree trunks. Even if accurate, all this "evidence" would have shown was that natural selection can affect an existing population, which no one disputes. It never told us anything about the origin of moths. [The writer is a senior fellow and program director of the Discovery Institute's Center for the Renewal of Science and Culture in Sea @@Mummy The oldest mmummies have been radiocarbon dated at 9,400 years old. Creationists of course believe there can be no history before 6,000 ya %%Burial Mummies the Real Story Discovery: People started to bury bodies about 45,000 years ago. %%China Mystery of the Desert Mummies Discovery Oct 1999 Mummies found in China Desert of Caucasians from Indo-Europe who rode horses. Oldest mummy was C14 dated at 4,000 years ago. Horse found in at base of Urals was dated at 5,000-5,500 years ago with evidence of use of mouth bit. These people carefullly prepared grave sites for mummies, eventually Mongolian peoples were found side by side in later grave sites. These people weaved wool clothing common in Europe long before the Chinese knew how to do this. http://www.seattletimes.com/news/nation-world/html98/icem_ 19990826.html zip36\CLIP\99\16\iceman.txt Seattle Times August 26, 1999 Iceman could shed light on first Americans by Joseph B. Verrengia The Associated Press "Radiocarbon testing is accurate to within 50 years on an artifact that is 10,000 years old. Separate tests on ice samples from the glacier also would help to establish the man's age. Five years ago, radiocarbon dating of a Nevada mummy revealed it was 9,400 years old - the oldest mummy in North America. @@Mutations Creationists claim that design by evolution is impossible since all or nearly all mutations are harmful. The problem with this view is that even if 100% percent of harmful mutations die, it doesn't matter, since if even one mutation is beneficial, it will survive and improve the species as a innovation. %%Harmful \clip\99\16\design.txt http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/WPlate/1999-08/21/026l- 082199-idx.html Darwinism and Design ~ By Jay Richards Saturday, August 21, 1999; Page A19 ...recent experiments show that all developmental mutations are harmful. %%Rate z55\clip\2002\01\mutate.txt Mutation rates in mammalian genomes PNAS -- Abstracts: Kumar and Subramanian 99 (2): 803 http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/99/2/803 Published online before print January 15, 2002, 10.1073/pnas.022629899; Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Vol. 99, Issue 2, 803-808, January 22, 2002 Our results suggest that the average^ mammalian genome mutation rate is 2.2 × 10^ - 9 per base pair per year, which provides further opportunities for estimating species and population divergence times by using molecular clocks. @@Navigation The conquest of the planet by ships was a significant step in the evolution of technology and society. The Europeans got the real knack of this first, which may be the biggest reason they got to be the bad guys accused of dominating everybody else. - navigation by visual coast from Europe (Vikings) - navigation blind west from Europe to North America (Columbus) - navigation around world (Magellan) - chronometer enables computation of longitude Chinese weren't very good at navigation @@Neandertal or Neanderthal Inspiration for "cave man" caricature sterotype. Form of humans previous to modern ones in Europe, perhaps related to Homo Erectus, Human version 1.0. They disappeared or some think merged with modern humans. They are definitely a different species, no chin, not much forehead "apelike" in appearance. DNA extracted from remains in Neander valley in Germany show about 4 times the difference expected in humans. They were the 2nd last (homo sapiens is the only remaining) species of humans. They lasted for 150,000 years. They lived side by side with humans for tens of thousands of years, first meeting in the middle east. Gradually they were pushed back to the Iberian peninsula where the last remains are dated at 27,000 years ago. Even very small competitive advantage is estimated to result in dominance in 33 generations or a few thousand years. There are skeletal remains of people who have features of both, but no genetic evidence of their genes in modern humans. They could
MANMADE INNOVATION ALSO FOLLOWS RULES OF EVOLUTION On 2000-06-23 John.van.Wyhe@Cambrdge.org.uk said: List members might be interested in a new book by Cambridge Uni Press which I am reading now: John Ziman, ed., Technological Innovation as an Evolutionary Process. "Technological artefacts and biological organisms 'evolve' by very similar processes of blind variation and selective retention. This analogy is explored systematically, for the first time, by a team of international experts from evolutionary biology, history and sociology of science and technology, cognitive and computor science, economics, psychology, education, cultural anthropology and research management. z56\doc\web\2002\05\scievol.txt Notes by Steven Tripp Basalla, G. (1988). The evolution of technology. London: Cambridge University. Holton, G. (1988). Thematic origins of scientific thought (Revised ed.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University. @@Race Creationists believe that all people are descendents of the sons of Noah. Evolutionists believe that races and lanaguages evolved from common ancestors long before the dating of the flood. EDEN IN KUWAiT, ALL RACES EVOLVED AFTER NOAH 5,000 YA z47\doc\web\2000\12\crearace.txt ..typically date the origin of modern races to the Tower of Babel (on a strict YEC chronology, that would be around 2250 BC.... don't believe in macro-evolution, but they make up for it by REALLY believing in microevolution; all the differences, originated in the few thousand years since the end of Noah's Flood From: steven_j@my-deja.com z45\clipim\2000\08\23\racedna.htm z39\clipim\2000\02\14\race\raceyes.htm raceno.htm http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/first/race.html "E. Aranyosi" : It's a debate between Dr. C. Loring Brace and Dr. George W. Gill about the reality, or lack thereof, of "race" as defined by American popular ideology. @@Racism z49\clip\2001\04\evolrace.txt DARWIN CALLED SOURCE OF RACISM BR legislator calls theory racist 4/18/01 Advocate BR legislator calls theory racist By WILL SENTELL Capitol News Bureau Tonja Myles, right, joins state Rep. Sharon Weston Broome= , D-Baton Rouge, during a briefing session on a legislative resolution that= condemns Charles Darwin's theory of evolution as racist. [photo shows 2 black persons] PASSING OF THE GREAT RACE - THREAT TO WHITES FROM RACE MIXING greatra.txt Written during the First World War, 'The Passing of the Great Race' was a best-seller when printed in 1916, and was revised and reprinted in 1918 by Charles Scribner's Sons, a major New York based publishing company. Grant, then chairman of the New York Zoological Society; trustee, American Museum of Natural History; and councilor, American Geographical Society (i.e. hardly a fringe-thinker), argues for an ethnological model of Nordic supremacy and heridity/racial foundation of the history of Europe that would have done the German NSDAP and Nazi philosophers like Alfred Rosenberg proud. After World War II, books like 'Passing' became guilty of 'Crimethink' in an increasingly multi-cultural society, @@Radioactive Dating Evolutionists use radioactive date to put absolute rather than relative dates on items. Creationists argue that since radioactive dating is not reliable, and it conflicts with a 6,000 year old earth, it is useless. http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/geotime/radiometric.html zip36\clipim\99\08\18\radio\radio.htm Although Boltwood's ages have since been revised, they did show correctly that the duration of geologic time would be measured in terms of hundreds-to-thousands of millions of years. %%Assumptions http://ww2.customcpu.com/mgroseth/origins/RadiometricDating. html Radiometric Dating Four assumptions must be made for most dating systems: 1.Uniformitarianism = R was constant over the period in question. 2.Closed Isolated System = No outside influences affected the system, . 3.Base Initial Conditions = There was no B to start with, . 4.Conservation (which can be considered as part of #2) = All of A either remained A or was converted to B, . %%Constant Decay Creationists believe radioactive decay must not be constant in order to explain a 6,000 year old planet, however this has not been observed. Any variations found are 20 order of magnitude smaller than that needed to explain a young earth. http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/faq-age-of-earth.html#constant zip36\clip\99\16\faq-age-of-earth.html To summarize: both experimental evidence and theoretical considerations preclude significant changes to rates of radioactive decay. The limits placed are somewhere between ten and twenty orders of magnitude below the changes which would be necessary to accomodate the apparent age of the Earth within the young-Earth timescale (by means of accelerated decay). %%K-AR %%Potassium Argon http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/geotime/radiometric.html zip36\clipim\99\08\18\radio\radio.htm The potassium-argon method can be used on rocks as young as a few thousand years as well as on the oldest rocks known. Potassium is found in most rock-forming minerals, the half-life of its radioactive isotope potassium-40 is such that measurable quantities of argon (daughter) have accumulated in potassium-bearing minerals of nearly all ages, and the amounts of potassium and argon isotopes can be measured accurately, even in very small quantities. Where feasible, two or more methods of analysis are used on the same specimen of rock to confirm the results. %%inaccurate http://ww2.customcpu.com/mgroseth/origins/RadiometricDating. html Radiometric Dating Assumptions 2 and 3 previously discussed in the section on dating methods are crucial to this method of dating. They are also flawed. Modern rocks formed from volcanoes often yield ages of a billion years or more because initial amounts of Lead, Argon and Strontium are present. In addition, a single rock will yield several ages 100s of millions of years apart. 13 Aug 1998 14:06:11 GMT, matts2@ix.netcom.com (Matt Silberstein) wrote: > This is not. It is entirely built upon the assumption that: > 1. the rate of radioactive decay has not varied, > 2. the rock's content of daughter lead at time zero is known, and > 3. no parent uranium or daughter lead was either added to or taken > from the rock since time zero. @@Random Chance Proteins cannot form by random chance Actually atoms combine to form complex molecules all the time, amino acids can be created by adding electricity to some basic molecules. @@Red Shift / Doppler effect Known spectrum lines for elements from stars appear "shifted" towards the red, in accordance with the Doppler effect. This is commonly used to conclude the universe is expanding in all directions, and the faster an object is moving away, the farther it is away. If you run the system backwards, you get a universe which started with a "big bang" 10 to 20 billion years ago, you can also predict the farthest objects you should be able to see - which have been observed by very powerful telescopes. Creationists believe there are other explanations such as non-constant speed of light. %%Creation http://www.parentcompany.com/creation_explanation/cx6h.htm %%Non constant light velocity http://www.best.com/~dolphin/cdkconseq.html Implications of Non-Constant Light Velocity by Lambert Dolphin @@Religion %%As Religion \clip\99\16\darwchu.txt The Wall Street Journal August 16, 1999 Commentary The Church of Darwin By Phillip E. Johnson, professor of law at the University of California, Berkeley, and the author of "Darwin on Trial" (Intervarsity Press, 1993)._ %%Compatible Stan Pruss See http://www.reasons.org/ for a site started by an astrophysicist who says modern cosmology and evolution convince him there is a God and who finds it consistent with the Bible. (this site has very little content, you'll have to buy their books) %%Non-Christian From: "Razib" Subject: Re: Jewish views on young-earth creationism? re: jews, it is likely that the only creationists among jews (religious and non-religious inclusive, but excluding jews who convert to christianity) are within the 1 out of 10 who are "orthodox." some of the hasidic rebbes have claimed that the early is 6,000 years old and what not (menachem schneerson for example did i think before he died). i just recently read a book that was a debate between a reform rabbi and an orthodox haredi (i.e.; not modern orthodx, rather more 'traditional' and fixed on scholarship) scholar, and the latter regularly appealed to the extent literature in intelligent design. oh, and muslims often retrofit ID and creationist tracts. From: "Philippe Gouillou [c]" In my life the most virulent pro-God-Creator-Of-Everything I've met ore read were Muslims: they are very active on Internet. Of course their version of creation is not exactly the Creationnism of some Christians, but the difference seems tiny. %%Presbyterian PREBYTERIANS NOW AGNOSTIC ON EVOLUTION z50\clip\2001\06\presbev.txt NYT June 22, 2001 Presbyterians Allow Flexibility on Creation By THE ASSOCIATED PRESS DALLAS, June 21 Leaders of the Presbyterian Church in America voted today to allow varying interpretations of biblical accounts of creation. @@Riddle, Mike Seattle area classic young earth creationist / speaker http://train2equip.com/ @@Rocks %%Igneous Formed of molten magma, granite is common. Most of continents is "intrusive igneous" which cools far beneath surface. %%Metamorphic %%Sedimentary Formed as layers of sediment at seafloor such as sandstone, slate, coal @@Salt water Hovind: believes the flood was fresh water, adapted not evolved to salt water, minor compared to evolution @@Scientific Creationism Creationists have gone, on the offensive by using orlmisusing science to dismiss the evidence for evolution mijac explains SC creation-related links page at the Christian Education Awareness Network (CEANet) web site: Creation-Related Links at CEANet: http://www2.whidbey.net/jmboyes/create.htm @@Scopes Trial "Inherit the Wind" DISCOVERY: SCOPES DARWINIST BOOK WAS EUGENIC, RACIST z55\clip\2002\02\scopes.txt Facts to the Wind Reviewing Monkey Trial, a PBS documentary. Benjamin Wiker, fellow at the Discovery Institute February 16-17, 2002 http://www.nationalreview.com/weekend/television/television-wiker021602.shtml the very high-school biology textbook at issue in the trial, George William Hunter's A Civic Biology. the textbook which John Scopes was using was offensively racist and blatantly eugenic. "five races or varieties of man…the Ethiopian or Negro type…the Malay or brown race…the American Indian…the Mongolian or yellow race…and finally, the highest type of all, the Caucasians, represented by the civilized white inhabitants of Europe and America." z42\clip\2000\07\monkey.txt http://www.associate.com/ministry_files/ Other_Electronic_Texts/Christian_Distribution_Network/17_The_Scopes_Monkey_Trial The maximum fine for violation of the Butler act was $200. Imprisonment was not a provision of the law and John Scopes was never jailed. The ACLU advertised in newspapers to locate a teacher in Tennessee who would be willing to test the Butler Act in the courts (with all expenses to be paid by the ACLU) Web review of many treatments of the story by Lyndsey McCabe American Studies Program The University of Virginia http://xroads.virginia.edu/~UG97/inherit/intro.html By 1925, states across the South had passed laws prohibiting the teaching of evolution in the classroom. Oklahoma, Florida and Mississippi had such laws, and narrow margins determined those in North Carolina and Kentucky but the American Civil Liberties Union in New York, which was becoming increasingly more wary of what they saw as an infringement on their constitutional rights. With an eye on Tennessee, the ACLU set out to initiate a court case to test the constitutionality of the Butler Law. Within days of the ACLU's decision to test the Butler Law, George W. Rappelyea spotted a press release in a Tennessee newspaper offering legal support to any teacher who would challenge the law Just five days after the trial ended, Bryan lay down for a Sunday afternoon nap and never woke up. The diabetes with which he had contended for years had finally taken his life. At issue in both of these conflicts was who had control of the society. Who controlled the schools - the masses or the teachers? In 1955, the Butler anti-evolution law in Tennessee was still on the books. But to the ACLU the existence of such a law was a threat to democratic freedom and the right to freedom of thought. On July 10, 1955, the ACLU formally requested that Tennessee Governor Frank G. Clement initiate the repeal of that law. For the ACLU, this was a prime opportunity to demonstrate the enduring strength of the First Amendment - 30 years after the first debate. This debate, however, never materialized, and the Tennessee anti-evolution law was to remain on the books for more than a decade after Inherit the Wind crossed the stage. (1960s) @@Sculpture z45\clip\2000\09\sculp.txt 'Lump of rock' turns out to be world's first sculpture By David Keys, Archaeology Correspondent The Independent - UK 24 September 2000 http://www.independent.co.uk/news/World/Middle_East/2000-09/sculpture240900.shtml New scientific data suggests that early humans were producing representations of life 220,000 years ago Recently analysed scraps of bone and elephant ivory from eastern Germany bear apparently abstract fan-shaped man-made engraved patterns dating back 350,000 years. symbolic thought only really blossomed 100,000 years after the final emergence of homo sapiens some 150,000 years ago, the new research suggests it may have existed in a simple form much, much earlier -between 200,000 and 350,000 years ago. @@Shakeout In market evolution, when a product is invented, it attracts lots of imitators with minor variations, but soon they all die off leaving only 1 survivor and a few minor imitators Computer Dealer March 1986 After the Shakeout Lamont Wood We've been hearing about the shakeout in computers for years. Well guess what? Every new industry has one as part of the cycle of growth and maturity. What happens next can be predicted with confidence. z39\clipim\2000\02\19\shake.efx @@shoe INVENTION OF SHOES CAUSE TOE EVOLUTION "Clues to Shoes" Natural History Sept 2005 p. 16 Oldest surviving shoes are 9,000 yrs old. Toes without shoes are needed for walking. Erik Trinkaus at Washington University in St. Louis examined toes from remains of Neanderthals 75-40,000 years old, Middle Paleolithic modern 100,000 yrs, upper Paleolithic 28-20,000 years and recent humans. Neanderthal toes were several more times more robust, declined most rapidly between Middle P. and midpoint of the U. P. Concludes that as recently as 28,000 yrs ago humans wore shoes on a regular basis. @@Soil The soil is what you get after rocks break down into tiny bits. It wasn't created, it EVOLVED from big rocks. Earth Revealed: (tv series) The soil in the US midwest plains took about 15,000 years to create one meter of soil. @@Species According to genesis, Adam named all of the land animals on his first day of work. He'd need to count a _lot_ of animals. Creationists believe in micro-evolution, but that there is no evidence, and that it is impossible for one species to evolve into a different species. National Geo Feb 1999 1.75 million classified species estimates as high as 100 million actual species 963,000 insects 270,000 plants 100,000 fungi lichens 80,000 prtosoans algae 75,000 Chelicerates (spiders, scorpion) 70,000 Mollusks (snail, octopus) 40,000 Crustacean 25,000 Nematode worm 22,000 Fish 20,000 Flatworms 12,000 Annelid worms (earthworms) 10,500 Reptile amphibian 10,000 Bird 10,000 Cnidarians jellyfish coral anemones 10,000 sponges 4,500 mammal 4,000 bacteria archaea 10,000 other (starfish etc) z46\clip\2000\11\fastevo.txt SALMON INTRODUCED IN 1937 HAVE EVOLVED INTO TWO SPECIES New York Times Science October 24, 2000 to October 30, 2000 The Week in Science: Evolution May Come Sooner Than Believed "salmon that were introduced into a lake near Seattle in 1937 seem now to have split into two populations, one of which lays eggs on a beach and the other prefers to breed in a river that feeds the lake. The two populations have developed slight genetic differences, and are not completely successful when they breed with each other. " %%Definition The usual definition of species are creatures distinct enough that they can't interbreed, but lots of different animals considered to be species can interbreed. %%Interfertility Steve Sailor 1/2001: Lions and tigers, for example, are not very attracted to each other but they are quite interfertile. Some whales and dolphins are interfertile. Greg Cochran claims that he read a book listing many more examples of wildly different animals successfully breeding, but he won't tell me more examples because they'll gross me out. %%Intermediate Creationists claim there is no example of intermediate species, but they don't claim it's "macro" evolution unless it's changing from a dog into a cat. z47\clip\2001\01\speci.txt http://unisci.com/stories/20011/0118014.htm Darwin's Missing Evidence On Speciation Finally Found "Their description of the intermediate forms of two reproductively isolated populations of songbirds that no longer interbreed is the "missing evidence" that Darwin had hoped to use to support his theory of natural selection, but was never able to find. " Biologists at the University of California, San Diego have demonstrated, in a study of the songs and genetics of a series of interbreeding populations of warblers in central Asia, how one species can diverge into two. @@Standards The making of standards happens pretty much according to the laws of shakeouts and evolution as well z40\clipim\2000\04\01\standards.efx Too many is as good as one Datamation Feb 1, 1986 p. 103 Batteries, voltage, CD, cassette, computers, disk formats. @@Star distance @@Distance %%Distance Ladder z51\doc\web\2001\08\distance.txt Astronomy's Explore the Universe 2002 p. 22 Going the Distance Marcia Bartusiak z51\doc\web\2001\08\distance.txt Astronomy's Explore the Universe 2002 p. 22 Going the Distance Marcia Bartusiak 1838 Bessel measured 61 Cygni 10.4 (actual 11.4) parallax Henrietta Swan Leavitt discovered period of Cephid variables varies with distance 1923 Hubble uses Cephids in M31, M33, NGC 6822 to discover universe outside galaxy Constructing the Distance Ladder: local distance measurements Planetary Nebulae can be found in galaxies without Cephids Surface brightness of elliptical galaxies agree Tully Fisher - links galaxy luminosity and rotation rate. Hydrogen emmisions to measure rotation - 100M LY Type 1A supernova have known brightness, can be seen to edge of universe A dozen can be spotted in a session of hundreds of thousands of galaxies at a time VLBI Very Long Baseline Array 10 radio telescopes around world allow direct measurement of M106. Measure speed of water masers at galaxy center with doppler shift vs as seen from earth, 24M LY Quasar jets are in 10% of quasars and galaxies. Use doppler to compare apparent and actual motion based on observed height of man standing on moon, ok with VLBI, 6B LY, consistent with hubble constant Gravitational lensing - compare multiple image delays in flare - 417 day delay for quasar 0957+561 2nd image Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect - changes in big bang background radiation give size of cluster which can be checked vs apparent size, several billion LY, good as 2nd check. Large Magellanic cloud dist varies 180 parallax vs RR Lyrae and eclipsing binaries 140-150,000 Yellow RR Lyrae stars have 1 day periods, same magnitude Methods and light years effective Graphic Parallax 1-100 Proxima Centauri Cephid Variables 100-10^7 Hyades Star Cluster 100 Virgo Cluster 50M Magellinic Clouds 10^5 Andromeda Galaxy 10^6 Planetary Nebulae 10^5-10^8 Tully Fisher Relation 10^6-10^9 VLBI: Radio Jet Proper Motion 10^6-10^10 VLBI: Maser Proper Motion 10^6-10^10 %%Farthest LENSING USED TO VIEW 13.4B YEARS AGO Scientists see one of the earliest galaxies Seattle Post Intelligencer Oct 6, 2001 A3 (NYT) Gravitational lensing was used to observe light from a forming galaxy 13.4 billion light years away, 30 times brighter than without lensing, compared to estimated age of 14 billion. 500 light year across, probably 2M years old with mass of 1M suns. %%visible Only about 2,500 stars are apparently visible to the unaided eye. (talk.origins) %%distance We can measure star distance by parallax up to 1630 light years away. Obviously, any star which more than 6,000 years away that is visible puts a dent in the idea that all of the stars were created on one day 6,000 years ago. Creationists counter that light may travel faster than the speed of light, or that the stars and light in transit were all created at once. HOW CAN WE SEE STARS FROM BEYOND 6,000 LY AWAY? http://www.angelfire.com/mi/dinosaurs/stardistance.html z42\clip\2000\06\stardist.htm Are stars Billions of light years away? If the earth is only 6,000 years old, how do we see stars billions of light years away? Dr. Kent Hovind provides the following answer: A: This is one of the most commonly asked questions and deserves an honest answer. Below is first a short answer then a more thorough answer. There are three things we need to consider when answering the starlight question. 1. Scientists cannot measure distances beyond 100 light years accurately. [false, 1630 LY] 2. No one knows what light is nor that it always travels the same speed throughout all time, space and matter. [false, it has always been observed to follow natural laws] 3. The creation was finished or mature when God made it. Adam was full grown, the trees had fruit on them, the star light was visible, etc. http://epsc.wustl.edu/classwork/classwork_171/notes_2_8.html zip36\clipim\99\08\23\star\star.htm Stellar Properties. I. Distance: closest 4.5 light years, farthest 15 billion light years Measure star distance by a) parallax b) brightness Earth-based telescopes can distinguish up to .01 seconds of arc and the Hipparcus satellite in orbit above Earth's atmosphere can distinguish up to .002. Using the formula: d = 1/p = 1/.01 = 100 parsecs or 326 light years d = 1/p = 1/.002 = 500 parsecs or 1630 light http://www.seds.org/hst/GalaxEvB.html Galaxies in the Young Universe Students for the Exploration and Development of Space A NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image of the farthest cluster of galaxies in the universe, located at a distance of 12 billion light-years. Because the light from these remote galaxies has taken 12 billion years to reach us, this image is a remarkable glimpse of the primeval universe, at it looked about two billion years after the Big Bang. The image is the full field view of the Wide Field and Planetary Camera-2, taken on September 6, 1994. The 4.7-hour exposure reveals objects down to 28.5 magnitude. (measured by red shift and magnitude) http://oposite.stsci.edu/ftp/pubinfo/background-text/expand.txt MEASURING THE EXPANSION RATE OF THE UNIVERSE zip36\clip\99\16\expand.txt 1900 - 1910 Harvard astronomer Henrietta Leavitt Cephic variable stars that are reliable milepost markers for measuring astronomical distances. In 1929, Hubble made another startling discovery: The more distant the galaxy from Earth, the faster it moves away. 1990s Using the Hubble Space Telescope, 14 internationally-based astronomers move toward pinning down the Hubble Constant. The first is to measure Cepheid distances to about 20 galaxies and calibrate five secondary methods for measuring the relative distances to galaxies. @@Stone Age STONE AGE CULTURE 80-100K YRS AGO IN SAFR BLOMBOS CAVE The Telegraph Stone Age man wasn't so dumb http://www.telegraph.co.uk/et?ac=000343180237640&rtmo=VMDVV36K&atmo=99999999&pg=/et/00/2/10/ecfman10.html The prehistoric occupants were painting their bodies red for rituals and carving abstract symbols. They were fishing and using bone awls, perhaps for leather working. This is a South African team's interpretation of life in Blombos Cave some time between 80,000 and 100,000 years ago, not 40,000 as would be expected. @@Stonehenge Stone age temple constructed starting 5500 years ago in Britain. People prepared burial bodies elaborately, were astronomers. Life expectancy = 30 yr, infant mortality 50%. Earth's Mysteries http://witcombe.sbc.edu/earthmysteries/EMStonehenge.html Stonehenge Phase III, sub-phase 3vi (c. 2550-1600 BCE) The Y and Z Holes Stonehenge Phase I (2950-2900 BCE) @@Sedimentary Layers @@Strata Many creationists such as Hovind believe strata was deposited by the flood all at once. The Christian Geology Ministry believes it was already were present at the time of creation.

Conventional geologists believe each layer of strata was laid down at the bottom of the seas during different eras separated by millions of years of time.

Earth revealed - 19th century named the strata in relative sequence. Fossils always show up in the same sequence and strata, original horizontality holds sediments were originally horizontal. Later radio dating consistent with earlier estimates and ordering. Cambrian and other layers named for sites where things were found

http://www.kjvbible.org/ Christian Geology Ministry When you honestly think through all these considerations, it becomes quite clear that the fossils of the earth's sedimentary rock layers have been there a long, long time. Those creatures were dead and buried and the strata was already present on the planet when we find the earth void and without form at Genesis chapter 1, verse 2. No other interpretation meets all the criteria of truth.

\zip36\clipim\99\08\24\SedimentLayers.htm http://ww2.customcpu.com/mgroseth/origins/SedimentLayers.html Sediment layers Origins of the Column The standard geological column is composed of 10 layers or strata; the Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary. The standard geological column was first devised by catastrophists and scientific creationists prior to 1860. Approximately 77% of the earth's surface area has 7 or more of the 10 strata missing; approximately 94% of the earth's surface has 3 or more strata missing; and approximately 99.6% has at least 1 strata missing. Only few locations, like west Nepal, west Bolivia and central Poland, actually contain all 10 strata.

Hovind evolution debate "It's a big hoax" There is no such thing as a index fossil. It all happened over a few months. Clams live on the bottom, birds will end up on top. It's only found in textbooks All of the layers of the earth are the same age.


The Sumerians published the first known version of the Genesis story,
but it had many instead of only one god.


The Assyro-Babylonian Mythology FAQ version 1.8
history. Similar, evolved from Sumerian dieties


Sumerian Mythology FAQ (Version 1.11html)
by Christopher Siren, 1992,1994
Sumer may very well be the first civilization in the world 
7,000   start of farming villages
5,000   Sumeria collapses

Sumerian cuneform, the earliest written language, was borrowed by the
Babylonians, who also took many of their religious beliefs. In fact,
traces and parallels of Sumerian myth can be found in Genesis.

The Jemdat Nasr period lasted from 3200 BC to 2900 BC. It was not
particularly remarkable and most adequately described as an extenson
and slowing down of the Uruk period. This is the period during which
the great flood is supposed to have taken place.

The bulk of Sumerian parallels are the book of Genesis. As in
Genesis, the Sumerians' world is formed out of the watery abyss and
the heavens and earth are divinely separated from one another by a
solid dome. The second chapter of Genesis introduces the paradise
Eden, a place which is similar to the Sumerian Dilmun, described in
the myth of "Enki and Ninhursag"

"The Lord God formed man out of the clay of the ground and blew into
his nostrils the breath of life, and so man became a living being."
Enki and Ninmah (Ninhursag) use a similar method in creating man.
Nammu, queen of the abyss and Enki's mother, bids Enki to "Kneed the
'heart' of the clay that is over the Abzu " and "give it form"

The one who cures his rib is named Ninti, whose name means the Queen
of months, (Kramer & Maier 1989: pp. 28-30) the lady of the rib, or
she who makes live. This association carries over to Eve. 

The prologue of "Gilgamesh, Enkidu and the Underworld" may contain
the predecessor to the tree of knowledge of good and evil. This tree
not only contains a crafty serpent, but also Lilith, the legendary
first wife of Adam. 

In the Sumerian ark, the pious Ziusudra is informed of the gods
decision to destroy mankind by listening to a wall. He too weathers
the deluge aboard a huge boat. The flood lasts a long time, but
Ziusudra comes to rest within seven days and not the near year of the
Bible. He does not receive a covenant, but is given eternal life.

@@solar system

The oldest rocks and metorites all come up at about 4.5 b years ago,
as well as models for evolution of the sun.

The planets A&E 4.5 billion years ago a supernova on the edge of the
galaxy exploded, ran into a gas cloud, forming sun once enough gas
collected, remaining heavy elements formed planets

The Solar FAQ Solar Neutrinos and Other Solar Oddities 1998,1999 by
Sverker Johansson
http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/faq-solar.html#_Toc430357861 This
process can be used to calculate the age of a star. In the sun's case
the result conforms nicely to expectations from radioactive dating of
the rest of the solar system (around 4.55 billions of years (Strahler
1987), leading to a predicted age of the sun of 4.563 -4.576 billions
of years (Wasserburg 1995)). Guenther & Lemarque (1997) find 4.5± 0.1
billions of years for the age of the sun, whereas Brun & Turck-Chieze
& Morel (1998) favor an age closer to 4.6 billions of years, as do
Dziembowski et al (1998). 


talkorigins.org FAQ "Supernovae, Supernova
Remnants and Young-Earth Creationism" [1]

SN1987A directly measured as 186,000 light years from earth
SN1987A and The Antiquity of the Universe by Todd S. Greene. Measures
how long shockwave hit the closest vs farthest part of radius around
exploding star, which gives radius in light year of ring, solve for
distance given apparent size of the ring in arc seconds.  Now
let's plug everything in: 

     1.radius = 6.23 x 1012 km (see note 1 below) = 0.658 light-years 
     2.angle = 0.808 arcseconds (see note 1 below) = 0.000224 degrees 
     3.distance = 0.658 ly ÷ tan(0.000224) 
     4.distance = 0.658 ly ÷ 0.00000392 
     5.distance = 168,000 light-years 

Note that taking the measurement error limits into account makes this
value 168,000 light-years ± 3.5%. 


Getting the Facts Straight: A Viewer's Guide to the PBS Series
"Evolution" Discovery Institute is pleased to release its
comprehensive "Viewer's Guide," downloaded in PDF
format on Discovery's special website for the series,

@@Tidal Rhythmites / Time

Sediments are often deposited with the tides and years, geologists
can compute how many years it took for sediments to develop (this
proving that it didn't all happen in one year for all sediments as
creationists claim) and even showing how the length of a day varied
compared to the length of a lunar month or a solar year.

Andrew MacRae: Layer by layer, the sediment records the tidal events
like the ticks of a clock, day after day, over a period of months and
(if thick enough) years.  From that, all sorts of lunar, earthly, and
solar astronomical cycles can be detected, and their long-term
changes studied over geological time.  Rhythmites are also a very
sensitive indicator of the environment of deposition. 


Evolutionary/Geological Timeline Version 1.0

The Ages of the Earth

@@Toba Eruption

The Eruption of Toba was seen as a key moment in human evolution, as
population fell to as few as 1,000 worldwide.

From: Henry Harpending [mailto:harpend@xmission.com]
Sent: Wednesday, November 22, 2000 10:05 AM
> Do we really have good reasons to think that the population crashed rather
> than there just being reproductive isolation?
Absolutely not.  We had an awful time with the BBC crew since they had a
script and we did not have the proper enthusiasm for their scenario.  The
idea that Toba is responsible for the human genetic pattern is, IMHO,
marginally plausible only.  

\clip\99\21\volcwin.txt University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign
(http://www.uiuc.edu/) Posted 9/8/98
http://www.admin.uiuc.edu/NB/98.09/Volcanic.html news release Ancient
'Volcanic Winter' Tied To Rapid Genetic Divergence In Humans
CHAMPAIGN, Ill. -- A new hypothesis about recent human evolution
suggests that a horrific "volcanic winter" 71,000 years ago, followed
by the coldest 1,000 years of the last Ice Age, brought widespread
famine and death to modern human populations around the world.


The use of tools predates modern human beings. The use of stone tools
predates Biblical culture. Adam and Eve did not hunt mammoths with
stone knives.

History Channel Power Tools October 1999 Homo Habilis (handyman) was
about 3 evolutionary generations, 2.5 million years away, was 3.5 ft
tall, 1/3 brain size of modern humans, was first to make sharp tools
from stone. Also hammers for cracking nuts and bones to get marrow.
Believed to spark evolution, after this comes change in teeth and
brain. 1.5 million years hand axe with wide flat cutting edge. 0.5
smaller "steak knife" style edges. 100,000 yrs modern humans near
Neanderthal - rock tied to a stick. 6,500 yrs ago end of stone age.
Mesopotamia found copper could be used for tools. Egyptians had hand 
drills. 1100BC iron . Clawed hammer head Roman Empire 2000 ya

The name of this species, Homo habilis, which means "Handy Man",
comes from the early stone tools with which it was associated. This
small-brained specimen comes from East Turkana,

@@Torralba, Spain

Large kill site of Homo Erectus in Spain at least 400,000 years ago.
Bones of elephants, rhinos, deer, but no dinosaurs. Evidence of fires
used to drive elephants into the swamp where they were trapped.


The Emergence of Man John E. Pfeiffer 1969 p. 112

The meaning of progress
Homo erectus was a big game hunter: the first predator that they had
ever had. Burst into a world that was a new ecological niche.  Hunted
in groups; using stratagems and communication. They clearly had
empathic communication which is the communication of emotion. But
speech is probable too. Bulge on the left frontal love called Broca's
area. Developed in fossil skulls previous to homo erectus (H.
habilis, 2,000,000 years ago H. erectus, by 300,000 ybp was
approaching human standards of conduct. Complex communication (but
not true language) was possible among them, much more complicated
than that of modern day chimpanzees for whom over 300 different calls
have been recorded. 

@@Tower of Babel

http://unmuseum.mus.pa.us/babel.htm Babylon was one of a number of
cities built by a succession of peoples that lived on the plain
starting around 5,500 years ago Archaeologists examining the remains
of the city of Babylon have found what appears to be the foundation
of the tower: a square of earthen embankments some three-hundred feet
on each side. The tower's most splendid incarnation was probably
under King Nebuchadnezzar II who lived from 605-562 BC. The King
rebuilt the tower to stand 295 feet high. 


Apr 7th 2005  
...the thesis propounded by Jason
Shogren, of the University of Wyoming, and his colleagues. For Dr
Shogren is suggesting that trade and specialisation are the reasons
HOMO SAPIENS displaced previous members of the genus, such as HOMO
NEANDERTHALENSIS (Neanderthal man), and emerged triumphant as the only
species of humanity. 

@@Transitional Forms

Actually there's quite a bunch of transitoinal fossils, 
especially of newer animals.

@@Tree of Life (Phylogeny)


The tree of life
One branch per page

From the base to primates:

     ,===== Eubacteria  ("True bacteria", mitochondria, and chloroplasts) 
=====|||||| Archaea  (Methanogens, Halophiles, Sulfolobus, and relatives) 
     `===== Eukaryotes  (Protists, Plants, Fungi, Animals, etc.) 

       ?=== Viruses 

     ====== Microsporidia 
     |===== Retortamonads 
     ====== Mitochondrial Eukaryotes  (animals, plants, and most other eukaryotes) 

                       ===|  === Crown Eukaryotes  (animals, plants, fungi, stramenopiles, etc.) 
                    ===|  |
              ======|  |  ====== Dictyosteliida 

                    === Metazoa  (animals) 
        ======|  |
        |     |  ====== Choanoflagellates 
        |     |
        |     ========= Fungi  (mushrooms, molds, yeast, chytrids, etc.) 
        |============== Green Plants  (green algae and land plants) 

     |        |  |                     ========= Arthropoda  (insects, spiders, crabs, etc.) 
     |        |  |                     |
     |        |  |                     |  ====== Annelida  (segmented worms) 
     |        |  |     |   |  |  |============== Mollusca  (snails, clams, squids, etc.) 
        |           |  |
        |           |  |            ============ Chordata  (vertebrates and relatives) 
        |           |  |         ===|
        |           |  |      ===|  ============ Hemichordata 
        |           |  |   ===|  |
        |           |  ==D=|  |  =============== lophophorates 

<<===|  |     === Cephalochordata  (amphioxus) 
     ===|  ===|
        ===|  === Yunnanozoon  
           ====== Craniata  (hagfishes and vertebrates) 

     Hyperotreti   (hagfishes)
---- Vertebrata   (lampreys and jawed vertebrates)

                   ==2==|    |
                        ==3==|===== Osteostraci  
                             ====== Gnathostomata  (jawed vertebrates) 

                                      === Sarcopterygii  (lobe-finned fishes and four-legged vertebrates) 
          ==Teleostomi=|              === Actinopterygii  (ray-finned fishes) 
     ===1=|            |
<<===|    |            ================== Acanthodii  
     |    =============================== Chondrichthyes  (sharks, rays, sawfish, and chimeras) 

<<===|     |  ====== Dipnoi 
     |     |
     ======|  ====== Rhizodontimorpha  
           |  |
           ===|  === Osteolepimorpha  
                 === Terrestrial vertebrates  (mammals, reptiles, amphibians, birds etc.) 

Mammals birds                                                       === Amniota 
                                                   |            ======= Living Amphibians 
                                                   |         ===|

===================== Synapsida  (mammals and their extinct relatives) 
               ======= Diapsida  (lizards, crocodiles, birds, Sphenodon, and their extinct relatives) 

                            === Therapsida  (mammals and their extinct relatives) 

     |  ======|  ================== Rodentia 
     |  |        ================== Primates 



HTTP://biology.fullerton.edu/courses/biol_403/web/Hierarchies. html


Trees produce rings of growth each year, these can be matched to date
sites where there is wood and charts have been made of rings.


Creationists deny any dating system that goes beyond 6,000 years,
including tree rings.

hovind: oldest tree is 4300 yr old. Tree ring dating not
reliable unless it agrees with bible

mommy1995 A ring on a tree does not
stand for a year like they use to believe.  It wasn't till recently
that they found that 1 ring stand for a period of time not just 1


Earth Revealed - scientists have found trees as old as 8,000 years old

Oldest trees in world: up to 20,000 years
for Huon Pine in Tasmania

http://biology.fullerton.edu/courses/biol_445/web/bristle.htm While
the coast redwood can reach 300 feet tall and a giant sequoia's trunk
alone can weigh 1385 tons, none can match the longevity of the Great
Basin Bristlecone Pine, Pinus longavea. These subalpine conifers have
been aged at an astounding 4,900 years old. Due to this noteworthy
characteristic, a vast array of information is available on these


http://www.emporia.edu/earthsci/student/nang/treering.htm Common
Species for Tree-Ring Dating Nang Kham Noam, Quaternary Geology, ES
767, Spring '97 Trees recorded the climatic and evironmental
changes and provided information to reconstruct past events such as
floods, droughts, temperature changes, forest fires, earthquakes,
etc. Laboratory of tree-ring research at the University of Arizona
used crossdating to reconstruct the past climate back to 9000 years.
Besides crossdating, tree-rings are used for calibration of the
radiocarbon time scale and can be drawn back to nearly 10,000 years.
If radiocarbon calibration of tree-rings is combined with varve
records, timescales can be drawn back to 28,000 years.

http://ww2.customcpu.com/mgroseth/origins/TreeRings.html In 1957
Schulman found a Bristlecone dating back 4600 years. The tree is not
marked for its own protection.  Laboratory tests have shown that
under various conditions, like a particularly wet season, the trees
can grow more than 1 ring. The research has even suggested that many
periods in history may have been characterized by the growth of an
extra ring every four years. This tends to indicate that the tree
ring series extends back something less than some sources claim. 

\doc\web\99\12\treering.txt Solving the Riddles of Wetherill Mesa
National Geographic February 1964
See "Secrets of the Southwest Solved by Talkative Tree Rings" by
Andrew E. Douglass, National Geographic December 1929

The Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research was organized in 1937 as an
outgrowth of the pioneering tree-ring studies initiated by Andrew
Ellicott Douglass at the University of Arizona in 1906. 
Crossdating in Dendrochronology: Ring Anomalies Question: If one tree
ring is grown each year ("annual rings"), why not just count the
rings? Answer: Ring growth is not always annual: Occasionally, a ring
isn't grown during a year -- called "locally absent" or "missing" for
that year http://tree.ltrr.arizona.edu/skeletonplot/ringanomalies.htm

http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/faq-noahs-ark.html#implications Mark
Isaak Why is there no evidence of a flood in tree ring dating? Tree
ring records go back more than 10,000 years, with no evidence of a
catastrophe during that time. [Becker & Kromer, 1993; Becker et al,
1991; Stuvier et al, 1986] 


The first wildly successful complex animals, came up from soft worms,
turned into arthropods (bugs). 2nd in fame only to dinosaurs. Now
extinct, died out with Permian extinction 255M years ago.

Creationists like Hovind believes that they lived the same time as
all the other creatures, and there is evidence they are still alive
today. (But there isn't any evidence of evolution)

Kevin's trilobite page

Springina looks like a trilobite, but it's a 
soft worm.
The striking Vendian fossil Spriggina (shown here) and its close
relative Marywadea make up the Sprigginida, a clade of soft-bodied
organisms that are restricted to the Precambrian. 

1998/05/06 Author: Mark Isaak karl wrote: Trilobites are found the
same way, that is, millions of them spread out through the fossil
record as demonstrated in the various strata .  When they are found
there is only slight differences between the trilobite fossils.  Once
again, there is no intermediates or proto-trilobites ancestral linage
found. ...  You seem to be neglecting the fact that intermediate and
proto-trilobites have been found.  


[Classic] Uniformitarianism is the philosophy that process have
always occurred at roughly constant rates (the present is the key to
the past). Catastrophism is the belief that processes have
occasionally occurred as the result of a catastrophic (violent) event
(such as flood, volcano, etc.) 



Creationists believe the universe was created during the first few
days of creation. Interestingly, even though the stars in the sky
have been constant throughout recorded history, the stars are far
enough away that even if they were created 6,000 years ago, most of
the stars would not be visible for millions of years. They
acknowledge that stars do "evolve" in that they explode and leave
nebulas, but they do not believe we have seen any stars being created.


How do we know how old the universe is?
* The most distant stars and galaxies are 12B light years away
* Turn the expansion of the universe backwards, depending on the 
Hubble constant
* Radioactive dating with supernova events

http://cfpa.berkeley.edu/darkmat/bbage.html Independent age estimates
For a value of H=50 km/sec/Mpc, we have an age of 10 billion years,
while for H=100 km/sec/Mpc, the age is 20 billion years. Hence, we
conclude that the age of the Universe, as derived from Hubble's Law,
is somewhere between 10 and 20 billion years old. 

Radioactive dating: The heavy elements in the Universe were largely
produced in supernova explosions. In order to estimate the age of the
Universe, we must combine the age of the radioactive elements with
the supernova age.  The rate of supernova events in our Galaxy is
estimated to be about one every 30 years or so. If we add in the time
for galaxy formation, around 1 billion years, we find an estimate for
the age of the Universe in the range between 11 and 18 billion years. 


Virtual Universe Natural History Magazine April 2004
Hayden Planeterium as developed 3D computer model of universe
Virtual Universe
Centuries of astronomy, plus video-game technology, 
combine to offer a stunning new perspective on our place in space. 
By Brian Abbott, Carter Emmart, and Ryan Wyatt
Click on galaxy for slide sho

Scale of Universe
Light Day - just outside the distant space probe, planets
Light Week - planets lost in glare of sun
Light Year - Oort Cloud
20 LY - Dozen closest stars with planets, constellation lines diverge
65 LY - dozens of stars with planets, distance of radio signals
1000 LY - beyond most visible constellation stars
5000 LY - star clusters show how flat galaxy is, center of galaxy visible
(Age of creationist universe)
2M LY - distance to M31
50M LY - out to Virgo galaxy cluster
500M LY - galaxy pattern looks like big soapy web
5G LY - looks like cobweb
13G LY - quasars, edge of visible light
(Age of big bang universe - edge of universe is probably much larger now)


The Human Journey In Search of Human Origins Trace the origins of
modern man. Visit a South African cave that yielded a 3.3 million
year old skeleton and Africa's Klasies River Mouth, where our ancient
ancestors lived, ate, and raised their families. 

Tale of Two Species Explore archeological evidence supporting the
theory that modern humans emerged from Africa while a
similar-looking, yet biologically different, species lived in caves
and rock shelters in the Middle East. 

The Creative Explosion As ancient inhabitants of the Middle East
ventured into Asia, they adapted to the changing climate and natural
resources. They discovered a new food source in seafood and exhibited
the first signs of cultural evolution with cremation and rock art. 
75,000 yrs ago Toba erupted, 10 year winter, humans fell from 100,000
to as few as 1,000.


From: "Derbyshire, John"  Date sent: Fri,
12 Mar 1999 20:11:20 -0000 Vietnamese" women--those who end up in the
U.S.--are racially South-Chinese (ancestors predominantly from
Chaozhou and Shantou)--with only a small admixture of SE Asian
aboriginal.  Filipinas, by contrast, descend mostly from the
big-boned big-featured Polynesians that Gauguin painted.  Different
body type altogether.


By Arne Emil Christensen 
http://odin.dep.no/ud/nornytt/uda-302.html In the period from 800 to
1050 A.D., the Nordic peoples made their dramatic entry into the
European arena. They stormed forth, terrorizing well established
societies which were accustomed to war, but not to the startling
tactics of the Vikings. 

@@Washington Timeline

40-17 billion years ago --- Cascade Mts formed, Olympic Mts are
islands out to sea.
17-6 million years ago --- Floods of lava cover Columbia Basin,
destroying Columbia River waterway.
6 - 10 thousand years ago --- Washington Ice Age.
40,000 years ago --- First ash deposits from Mt St Helens.

@@Water Wheels

Welcome to Charlotte!
HYDRO POWER .. energy from water! A little over two thousand years
ago, humans began using water power to grind grains. A large wheel
pushed by a stream of running water drove a heavy stone wheel around
in circles, crushing the grain beneath its..
98%  12/11/96 http://www.swifty.com/apase/charlotte/hydro.html

@@Weight of evidence


Hovind: overwhelming weight is creation evidence

@@Wells, Jonathan

z45\clip\2000\10\enddar.txt The Washington Times Commentary Section
October 25, 2000 End of Darwinism?  Of the great thinkers who
fashioned the modern worldview, only one — Charles Darwin — remains
inviolable.  Evolutionary materialism — the belief that life arose
and evolved by chance — is, after all, a mid-19th century notion.
The missing links and vital fossil records have not been found.
Jonathan Wells is a senior fellow of the Center for the Renewal of
Science and Culture at the Seattle-based Discovery Institute and one
of the luminaries of the emerging Intelligent Design movement "Icons
of Evolution" (Regnery) dissects 10 commonly invoked evidences for
Darwinian evolution.


It's a little tricky tracking down who made the first wheel, but it
says writing and the wheel were both invented 6-5,000 yrs ago in The
Human Race by Linda Gamlin

http://www.palmetto.org/whit081900.htm WHEN THE WAGONS FIRST ROLLED
WEST August 19, 2000 Whitaker complains that "aryan" Indo-Europeans
don't get proper credit for inventing and spreading the wheel to
Greeks, Egyptians, or Chinese. First wagons 4,000 years ago.

Discovery Mysteries of the Desert Mummies. A fragment of a wheel
3,000 years old was found in the Chinese desert.

http://www.magnet.mt/home/cos/medstat98/malta/history.htm Central
Office of Statistics Auberge D'Italie, Merchant's Street Valletta -
MALTA Equally strange and mysterious are the cart ruts found on many
of the rocky ridges in Malta. The most popular theory is that these
were made by primitive slide-carts used before the invention of the

DiscussionTime  Let us browse what India
has contributed to the world in the name of humanity: Wheel - modern
transport would be lost without it

1999/03/27 Fabian btw, it weren't
even a white guy who invented the wheel - it were them asians :) And
teh bow and arrow was first invented in Africa - at least, that is
where the oldest examples were found.

page 100 of Race, Evolution, and Behavior, Rushton cites J.R. Baker's
1974 book Race. In it, Baker summarizes the reports of seven major
white explorers of Africa in the mid-19th century, including Fynn,
Livingstone, and Galton.  Areas include those uninfluenced by Arab or
European cultures. The most astonishing observations mentioned are
that by 1850 or so there was 1) no invention of the wheel for pottery
or grinding corn or for vehicular transport



Early origins of alphabet found in Egypt desert ST Nov 14, 1999 a9
carved in cliffs, dated 1900-1800 bc, 2-300 yrs earlier than before


3,400ya   Writing in China on bones


NYT JUL 31, 2001
Rethinking a History That's Carved in Stone
a previously unknown civilization that began about 2300 B.C. across
much of modern Turkmenistan and parts of Uzbekistan and Afghanistan.
the inscription bears more than a passing resemblance to Chinese
writing not an early script, but one that was not used until about
200 B.C.

humans began expressing themselves with symbols and signs in cave art
and rock carvings as early as 30,000 years ago.  The Sumerians, from
what is now southern Iraq, are credited as the first to convert
picture-writing into true writing more than 5,000 years ago.


History Channel "The Real Scorpion King" 2002: Says 3250 BC writing
was likely invented by first king of egypt. Tags from his tomb can be
read by heiroglyphics rules, predate and are more complete than


INTRODUCTION The ancient Egyptian language is one of the very oldest
languages of the world. Egyptian was spoken from about 4,000 BC until
the 11th century AD. The Egyptian language has almost 5000 more years
of recorded history than any other human language.
Hieroglyphic (about 3100BC-about AD400) was the earliest script form
of Egyptian.


Media history timeline

45,000 BCE: Neanderthal Man carves on Wooly Mammoth tooth, discovered
near Tata, Hungary
30,000: Ivory horse, oldest known animal carving, from mammoth ivory,
discovered near Vogelherd Germany
28,000: Cro-Magnon notation, possibly of phases of the moon, carved
onto bone, discovered at Blanchard, France
c. 10,000: Engraved antler baton, with seal, salmon and plants
portrayed, discovered at Montgaudier, France
c. 8,000 -- 3100 BCE: In Mesopotamia, tokens used for accounting and
3500 -- 59 B.C.E.
3500 BCE: In Sumer, pictographs of accounts written on clay tablets.
**3250: Dating of King Scorpion tags, first egyptian Heiroglyphics
2200: Date of oldest existing document written on papyrus.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
1500: Phoenician alphabet.
1400: Oldest record of writing in China, on bones.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
775: Greeks develop a phonetic alphabet, written from left to right.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
Irving Fang and Kristina Ross, 1995-1996


http://www.clas.ufl.edu/users/seeker1/scholarly/orality.htm Silent
reading was next to impossible because the Greeks and most ancients
used scriptura continnua - no spaces, no punctuation. It was unknown
to learned people such as St. Augustine.  These graphic units were
invented by European monks during the period that we now call the
"Dark Ages," around 600 CE, in the British Isles. Again, spaces and
punctuation seem like a small, almost meaningless innovation, but
they allowed people to read silently and privately to themselves,
without even sub-vocalizing.  What modern people today know as
"reading" did not exist before this time. Those small marks made a
very big difference. 


Canaanites were the first to employ an alphabet which evolved from
1800 BC, Phoenician and Early Hebrew were early offshoots. There were
only consonants. Greeks added vowels The Rise of the Greeks M. Grant
p. 356
p. 334 Oldest greek inscription is C 740. Letters derived from
Semitic glottal stops and breathings were employed to signify vowels
8th century (800) Greeks borrow Phoenician alphabet

http://www.clas.ufl.edu/users/seeker1/scholarly/orality.htm What
Havelock called the "Greek Revolution" occurred around 700 BCE, and
it is as significant in some ways as the birth of writing itself.
(1986: 98.) What basically happened is that the Greeks of that time
took the Phoenician alphabetic system - and added vowels.  However,
the use of vowels in writing facilitates faster language-learning,
because it eliminates phonemic guess-work and makes context less
important in sounding out a word.

http://www.imultimedia.pt/museuvirtpress/ing/alfa/e8.html The Virtual
Museum of Printing-Press The Greek writing is from Semitic origin,
and came directly from the ancient Phoenician.  Greeks proceeded to
important alterations in the moment they adopted this alphabet
turning them to a writing made from the left to the write and the
vowels in special letters.