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Education should not be a race unless YOU as parent and student want to make it one. Some students like running a mile or playing Stravinsky or baking a cake. But you should not require everyone to do it. Government has ABSOLUTELY NO business either promising or mandating ANY arbitrary standard of "excellence" pulled out of a hat. This is especially true in a system of compulsory education for children of all abilities. Even elite admissions-based institutions are based on competitive comparisons, not any absolute "standard". There is NO fixed standard of what guarantees admission into the University of Washington or Harvard, or any university in any other nation. They simply take the best in a competition, and "meets standard" simply depends on the selectivity of the institution.
Do these buzz words reflect the kind of education reform we should embrace or revolt against? This web page is dedicated to being a centralized introduction and reference to education reform, most of which should be properly called Education Deform for what it is really doing to education. Like other states, Washington was conned in 1993 into passing ESHB 1209 which enacted a failed vision of education based on the trinity of Standards (EALRs=Essential Academic Learning Requirements), Assessment (WASL=Washington Assessment of Student Learning) and Cerification (Certificate of Initial Mastery). The promise was that by the year 2000 or so, all students would achieve at the highest standards. Now by 2010, all 3 concepts have been effectively killed as dumb ideas. The fact is that by pretending to score against "one high standard" that sweeps relative gaps under the rug, the RELATIVE rankings and gaps between the rich and poor, whites/Asians and other minorities, and various neighborhoods DID NOT CHANGE. The bar was was deceptively moved from a starting point which deliberately failed nearly all students to a standard set at the bottom tenth when 90 percent passed.
Nevertheless in the 2010s, we still have some bad ideas such as the culminating project as a part of new graduation standards, and the Classroom Based Assessment, not to mention the remnants of the disaster known as standards-based mathematics and inquiry based science, and no-facts history. Study after study show that high Asian test scores and grades are because of a cultural emphasis on study and academics. Yet the education establishment prescription is blame and fight racism, while rigorous academics is REMOVED from reform curricula. While Asian parents continue to teach basic arithmetic at home and tutoring schools, minorities (and other Americans) are taught mathematics without arithmetic, and emphasis is that they be taught by people and read about stories about people that LOOK like them when Asians are the LEAST represented as teachers, history stories or textbooks pictures.
The progressive education reform movement is the prime culprit in the charge that the schools are being dumbed down into vocational academies. However few realize that it has changed spots into "higher standards" with unrealistically high expectations of performance for all, with the threat of grade retention or holding back a diploma to all who dare to not perform to the "highest world class levels" of performance". What makes it even more interesting is that the "standards based" education movement is a witches brew which is neither progressive (no students should be held accountable to any artificial test scores) or traditional (all students will be rank ordered by tests like the SAT)
There is a "tangled" web between outcome based education, federal initiatives like school-to-work, Goals 2000, national testing, and state level initiatives which have openly embraced the ideas of Marc Tucker's NCEE, Alliance for Restructuring Education, and other spin-offs. California's disasters in reading, math, and assessment proves that education reform movements are the most harmful thing to happen to education in the 20th century, yet states like Washington remain intent on following in their footsteps because of the political popularity of "reform".
These initiatives don't come from teachers, or experts in math or english, and they are not demanded by parents. They are driven by theories created by psychologists and economists who care more about how students feel about "learning" than whether or not they can do math or read. They have absolutely no research that any of this does any good, yet they attack people like Thaddeus Lott who use basics to make inner city kids perform like those in affluent suburbs. Socialism was the attempt to create equal economic outcomes for all, but not even China and Russia were foolish enough to attempt to promise that all students would perform to the highest standards, indeed they have clung to traditional education which often outperforms education systems in more economically "advanced" nations.
There is little to no organized opposition to "big education" which is addicted to whatever the latests "fads" in education are. This may be the most comprehensive survey of buzz words and code terminology to assist parents and policy makers in learning what all these new reforms are about, and what's wrong with most of them.
Washington has already embarked on turning the entire state education system into a new "Performance-Based" system, which is another flavor of the controversial Outcome-Based education model which has seen such dismal results elsewhere. The blueprint for reform includes a new asessment system which basically tosses everything we know about good tests out the window (we don't need no stinking bell curve) with "performance based tests" with written explanations for math problems, full credit for good process with wrong answers, and no credit for correct answers, but no process.
It also includes reforms in teacher training, which will be aligned to the new standards and tests, and teachers will now be required to show that "students have learned" in terms of student test scores and other outcomes rather than simply taking so many hours or completing so many years of service which was previously required for teaching credentials.
This is not good, and not only is it backed by millions of taxpayers dollars, but thousands of corporate dollars as well, with absolutely no provision made for normal people like you and me with day jobs and kids in the schools who look at this and see a bunch of politicians stuffing up their resumes with all these programs that don't work and hurt our kids.There's a whole house of cards that the national education reform movement is based on, and it's not hard to conjure up a huge conspiracy with School To Work, Goals 2000, headed by Bill and Hillary Clinton, Ira Magaziner, Marc Tucker and friends, and supported by any number of liberal corporate sponors and charities, and promoted by education bureaucracies and college teacher training programs. GW Bush carried on under "No Child Left Behind" and President Obama is still promoting "higher standards", but it's all the same idea.
Race/Ethnic Education Issues
These links are to my guide to how races and ethnic groups compare,
why the Asians tend to better, while African Americans and Hispanics
tend to do worse than European Americans. In general, you'll find
that Asians get the best academic results by paying the least
attention to PC issues - bilingual ed, funding , desegregation,
multiculturalism, hiring and affirmative action, while those who pay
the most attention to politics put the least emphasis on grades and
Education Reform LinksThis list based on Fred Batteys list A HREF="http://www.beau.lib.la.us/~edu/">Louisiana Links American Policy Center - Deals with education, legislation, property rights, individual freedoms, etc. Good links. http://www.americanpolicy.com/ Free World Research Ed Loop archives http://www.netins.net/showcase/fwr/loop/emailoop.htm _____________________________________ __________________ Arizona Parents For A Traditional Education. http://theriver.com/Public/tucson_parents_edu_forum/ Comment: Articles from newspapers/magazines, links, good information _______________________________________________________ Berit Kjos Site. Excellent resource for United Nations involvement in our government, education, children and general society, Christian based http://www.beritkjos.com http://www.crossroad.to/index.shtml _______________________________________________________ Joe Esposito "Tangled Web" STW http://www.ionet.net/~study/tang.htm Bill Bonville site. Has excellent OBE paper on here. http://home.cdsnet.net/~bonville/ Comment: Articles; outstanding, detailed document,s What Is OBE On the Horizon: http://sunsite.unc.edu/horizon/welcome/ Our mission is to inform educators about the challenges that they will face in a changing world and steps they can take to meet these challenges. ______________________________________________________ Bob & Barbara Tennison - Oregon Education Wars Front http://www.jb.com/~btennison Comment: Excellent articles, great links, Oregon and national interest. Keeps growing and getting better. _______________________________________________________ California Homeschool Network - Jackie Orsi/Cyndie Moi http://www.comenius.org/chnpage.htm Comment: Oriented to Calif. and homeschool but good general info. _______________________________________________________ Cindy Duckett - http://www2.southwind.net/~educate/ Comment: Excellent statement of purpose, coverage of major issues from state as well as general viewpoint. ----------------------------------------------------------- _______________________________________________________ Diana Fessler's Home Page - Her new homepage http://www.fessler.com/ Comment: Ohio State Board of Education member. Posts policy issues currently under debate. Good factual and info rich site, arguments against many of new reforms. ______________________________________________________ Education Reform: A Rotten Apple? - Brian Bruns http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/9243 Comment: Articles, opinions & links - A well-done site with considerable information _______________________________________________________ Empire State Taskforce for Excellence in Educational Methods New York State (ESTEEM) - Aldo Bernardo http://www.netcom.com/~efny/esteem.html Comment: Excellent articles. _______________________________________________________ Jo Blankenship - http://www.beaulib.dtx.net/~joblank/Schools.htm Comment: Good articles, information and links. _______________________________________________________ Jim and Jody Parsons http://www.intelinet.org/landmark Comment: Addresses Disney influences, computerization and ebonics. _______________________________________________________ World of Christian Apologetics - Father Earle Fox http://road.emmaus.org/ Comment. A site with good info and links. Lots to read and think about. Christianity and Education. _______________________________________________________ Guy L'Heureux http://www.southwind.net/~guylh/ Comment: Oriented to Kansas. Good links. _______________________________________________________ KEWnet - Cindy Duckett http://www2.southwind.net/~kewnet Comment: Good site. Covers Kansas Excellent Quality Performance Accreditation (OBE). Links. _______________________________________________________ Mathematically Correct - Larry Gipson & Mike McKeown teaching/curriculum http://www.mathematicallycorrect.com Comment: primarily associated with mathematics California PO Box 22083, San Diego, CA 92192-2083 email@example.com _______________________________________________________ Mission: America - Linda Harvey http://atgi.com/missiona/ Christian web page with newsletter offering that covers hard issues such as OBE, Abortion, Revisionist History, Homosexuality, etc. _______________________________________________________ Parents for Improved Education in Fairfax County Public Schools (VA) - Maureen Lawrie's web site. http://www.geocities.com/capitolhill/9155/ _______________________________________________________ Paula Janu - The Home Front Online http://www.lightstream.net/~raccoon Home school events, impact of "Stds. For Ohio Schools" on non-public schools, good analysis of bill impacts, good links. _______________________________________________________ Steve Kossor site (loop member) http://www.voicenet.com/~sakossor http://www.voicenet.com/%7Esakossor/ Comment: Kossor Education Newsletter. Very large number of articles, documents. Good links. _______________________________________________________ Texas Alternative Document Draft English/Language Arts /Reading - Jimmy Kilpatrick http://www.htcomp.net/tad Comment: Texas Essential Knowledges and Skills. Good information can be applied to any location. The Spectre of Education Reform - excellent link jump off spot. http://members.tripod.com/~lajfa/index.html The National Right To Read FoundationAnti Whole Language _______________________________________________________ Tim Hyde Site http://www.cococo.net/~thyde Comment: Relatively new site covering education as well as cashless society, New One World Reilgion, nosey questionnaires. _______________________________________________________ United States Justice Foundation - Gary Kreep http://www.electriciti.com/webjefe/usjf.htm Comment: Non-profit, public interest, legal action organization. Freedom of Information data/advice. _______________________________________________________ Wayne Wolfe Free World Research site. http://www.netins.net/showcase/fwr Comment: Good site, many articles, database of "loop" msgs. _______________________________________________________ General Educational: ABC - California, So. LA County http://www.abcusd.k12.ca.us/ _______________________________________________________ ADVANCE Educational Spectrums SCANS - Commercial site, good data. http://www.advedspec.com/aesindex.htm _______________________________________________________ American Association of School Administrators - Good legislation source. http://www.aasa.org/ _______________________________________________________ Anita Hoge Save Our Schools (S.O.S.) site - Activist, patriot. (she was largely responsible for blowing the whistle on OBE in PA) http://www.3Dresearch.com/hoge/ http://www.halcyon.org/obe.html Educating for the 'New World Order' B. K. Eakman This is the incredible story of how one gutsy woman stood the whole education establishment on its head and forced a cabinet level government agency to obey the law. 1.A large number of standardized tests, administered annually to millions of school children throughout the United States and Canada, have been found to contain a substantial number of "affective" questions which have nothing to do with evaluating those students' academic accomplishment or potential. 2.The "correct" answers to these questions, according to the test developers, have a common theme running through them . . . that of subordination of self to group. _______________________________________________________ CA School-to-Career links - California orientation. http://www.stc.cahwnet.gov/LINKS/STClinks.HTM _______________________________________________________ California School Boards Association http://www.csba.org/ _______________________________________________________ Cascade Policy Institute - Oregon patriot site, some education info. http://www.CascadePolicy.org/ _______________________________________________________ CDC Home Page - Strong links to federal sites. http://www.cdc.gov/ _______________________________________________________ Center for Education Reform - Non-profit education advocacy group. Many articles, news alerts. http://www.edreform.com/ _______________________________________________________ Center for Excellence in Education - Admiral Rickover founder. Not much here. http://rsi.cee.org/ Excellence in Education Network Thomas B Forham Foundation / Hudson Institute Backed up by Diane Ravitch, a real conservative think tank backed site with lots of great stuff. Policy committee mixes Hirsch, Thernstrom, Bill Bennett with Goals 2000 people and education reform proponents. _______________________________________________________ Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning - A resource on reading and readinng related issues. http://www.ksagroup.com/thecenter/ _____________________________________________________________ Center on Education and Work - Wisconsin, numerous articles and links. http://www.cew.wisc.edu/ _______________________________________________________ CNE - Geo. Mason Univ. - Combined Geo. Mason/Univ./K-12 cooperative effort. Considerable "party-line" info. http://cne.gmu.edu/cnelink/ _______________________________________________________ Core Knowledge Home Page - Planned progression of specific knowledges, covering history, geography, mathematics, science and the arts. http://www.trinity.edu/departments/education/core/core.html _______________________________________________________ CRESST - UCLA - National Center For Research on evaluation, standards, and student testing. http://www.cse.ucla.edu/ _______________________________________________________ CSIS Information electronic student data - California Student Information Services. http://www.fwl.org/csis/csisinfo.html _______________________________________________________ CTA - California Teachers Association http://www.cta.org/ _______________________________________________________ Division of Education uldavies - Broad education categories/info on K-12 http://education.ucdavis.edu/ _______________________________________________________ Early Childhood Development Center - Texas A&M - Preschool through 3rd grade. Not much here but worth a visit. . http://www.tamucc.edu/~eduweb/ _______________________________________________________ EdWeb Home Page - Education Reform and information technology. Links to world-wide web sites. Good site. http://k12.cnidr.org:90/ _______________________________________________________ Education Commission of the States - Connects to New American Schools. Non-profit. Helps state leaders improve education. http://www.ecs.org/ _______________________________________________________ Education Excellence Network - Thomas B. Fordham Institute and the Hudson Institute. Excellent articles, good links, good information. http://www.edexcellence.net _______________________________________________________ Education Place (Houghton Mifflin Publishers - Internet resources for K-8. http://www.hmco.com/school/ _______________________________________________________ Education Reporter - Eagle Forum http://www.basenet.net/~eagle/educate/educate.html _______________________________________________________ Education Week - magazine site, articles http://edweek.org/ _______________________________________________________ Electronic School - magazine of National School Boards Assoc. http://www.access.digex.net/~nsbamags/e-school.html _______________________________________________________ ERIC - Elementary and Early Childhood . http://ericps.ed.uiuc.edu/ericeece.html _______________________________________________________ ERIC - Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation http://www.cua.edu/www/eric_ae/ _______________________________________________________ Funderstanding! Commercial site; short but complete explanations of OBE programs; links http://www.funderstanding.com/ _______________________________________________________ General Educational Resources - A huge site of "internet links for the classroom" - excellent list of research sites. http://www.hazelwood.k12.mo.us/curriculum/ed/general.htm _______________________________________________________ Global Campus - Resources for education and learning. Images, sounds, text, video. http://www.csulb.edu/gc/ _______________________________________________________ GLOBE Program HOME PAGE - International Environmental Science and Education Partnership. Under NOAA. http://www.globe.gov/ _______________________________________________________ Goals 2000/ School-To-Careers Opposition Research - Kathleen Sundaram Calif. Goals 2000 and STW opposition. http://www2.inow.com/~mukesh/NOGOALS2000.htm _______________________________________________________ Government Web Sites - Calif. DOE, lots of info., links to government sites. http://goldmine.cde.ca.gov/WWW/Government.html _______________________________________________________ Halcyon House - Publisher, Commercial site. Source of books/tapes by most notable OBE opponents. http:www.consumertech.com:80/~msalser/obe.html _________
Education Consumers Clearinghouse*NEW! NOW A MEMBERSHIP BASED WEB SITE WITH ARCHIVES! http://education-consumers.com Networking and Information on the Internet for Parents and Policymakers. A place to question critically education outside of a system hostile to dissent. The Education Consumer's Clearinghouse© is an Internet mailing list whose purpose is to empower education's consumers. It serves as a medium for communication and source of consumer-friendly advice and expertise. Subscribers are able to ask questions, post information and opinion, or just listen. It is supported by advertising and free to users. ______________________________________________ Hotlist of K-12 Internet School Sites. Current listing of Schools online. By State, Region, Elementary, Middle, Junior High, and High. http://rrnet.com/~gleason/frame1.html _______________________________________________________ ISBE Home Page - Illinois State Board of Ed. http://www.isbe.state.il.us/homepage.html _______________________________________________________ Jeff Lindsay - Very large documents library/thought papers, book reviews. Good site. http://www.athenet.net/~jlindsay/education.shtml _______________________________________________________ K12 Higher ED Agencies - Washington state - Office of Supervisor of Public Instruction. Other education and government services. http://www.ospi.wednet.edu/educ_gov.html _______________________________________________________ K-12+ Servers by states - Texas education network. http://www.tenet.edu/education/main.html _______________________________________________________ Leadership For Change Institute - Commercial - Covers Mod-Education Concepts, training courses, etc. Southern/Southwest regions. http://www.sedl.org/change/institute/welcome.html _______________________________________________________ Mary Pride's Homeschool World - A most comprehensive site for homeschoolers or potential homeschoolers. http://www.home-school.com/ _____________________________________________________________ National Center on Education and the Economy - Marc Tucker organization. http://www.ncee.org/ _______________________________________________________ National Education Goals Panel http://www.negp.gov/ Good site with many articles, all from the government perspective. Many links to government and other sites. Worth visiting. _______________________________________________________ National PTA - National Parent /Teachers Assoc. http://www.pta.org/ _______________________________________________________ National Network of Regional Educational Laboratories http://www.nwrel.org/national/regional-labs.html _______________________________________________________ NSBA - National School Boards Association http://www.nsba.org/ _______________________________________________________ NSBA - Institute for Transfer of Technology to Education http://www.nsba.org/itte/abt-nsba.html _______________________________________________________ Parents Raising Education Standards in Schools - Wisconsin - Numerous articles, good information. http://www.execpc.com/~presswis/ _______________________________________________________ Policy Analysis for California Education - Oriented to Calif. http://www-gse.berkeley.edu/research/PACE/pace.html _______________________________________________________ Samuel Blumenfeld Education site. Good site. Blumenfeld Education Newsletter, articles, links. http://www.cyberhighway.net/~phil.blumenfd.html _______________________________________________________ Putnam Valley Schools - Putnam Valley, NY - many school links, articles. http://putwest.boces.org/default.htm _______________________________________________________ ROUTE 6-16: Parents and Teachers - Massachussetts - Commercial site, huge links cross-country. http://www.microsys.com/616/parents.htm _______________________________________________________ Scans - Mid-continent Regional Education Laboratory - many links http://lausd.k12.ca.us/dace/subjects/scans.html also http://www.mcrel.org/ _______________________________________________________ Scans/2000 - Johns Hopkins Univ. - Scans/STW info. http://www.jhu.edu/~ips/scans/ _______________________________________________________ School To Work Sites - National STW office - links to sites. http://www.stw.ed.gov/wwwsites.htm _______________________________________________________ SchoolHouse Talk ****DEBBIE RATHBONE - Calif. but large number of topics. Interesting site. http://wworks.com/~pieinc/index.htm _______________________________________________________ School-To-Career California - Task force. total programs, plans, documents. http://wwwstc.cahwnet.gov/ _______________________________________________________ Separation of School & State Alliance - Interesting site, good information. http://www.sepschool.org/ _______________________________________________________ Surfing the Education Waves - Very large number of links. http://www.edexcellence.net/surfing/surfing.htm _______________________________________________________ TAGFAM (Talented and Gifted Families) - Has information for parents of "gifted" students on dealing with schools. http:www.access.digex.net/~king/tagfam.html _____________________________________________________________ WebEd General Links for K-12 - Virginia site - Interesting documents. http://pixel.cs.vt.edu/k12.html _______________________________________________________ WebEd General Links for K-12 - Univ. of North Carolina - Interesting documents, strong links. http://sunsite.unc.edu/horizon/ _______________________________________________________ Welcome to Far West Laboratory - One of 10 Regional Research and Development Laboratories. Access to all rest. All worth visiting even if somewhat redundant. Party line. http://www.fwl.org/ _______________________________________________________ Welcome to Teachnet.com - Many links, resources, classroom aids. http://www.teachnet.com/ _______________________________________________________ Welcome to The ERICPages - Main ERIC homepage. http://www.aspensys.com/eric2/welcome.html U. S. Government - General Education US News http://www.ed.gov/legislation/GOALS2000/TheAct/index.html _______________________________________________________ GPO Access on the Web - Plumbook access to all depts., agencies, etc. of govt. with names, whether appointed, grade, salaries, etc. http://www.lib.auburn.edu/gpo/index.html _______________________________________________________ Library of Congress http://lcweb.loc.gov/homepage/lchp.html _______________________________________________________ National STW Learning and Information Center. http://www.stw.ed.gov/factsht/stwlc.htm _______________________________________________________ U .S. Department of Education http://www.ed.gov/ _______________________________________________________ Office of Educational Research and Improvement - Many gov. links. http://www.ed.gov/offices/OERI/ECI/ _______________________________________________________ U.S. Department of Labor http://www.dol.gov/ _______________________________________________________ Employment and Training Administration http://www.doleta.gov/ _______________________________________________________ ] Welcome to Skill Standards http://www.ttrc.doleta.gov/skillstd.html _______________________________________________________ U.S. Founding Documents - Emory university School of Law with links to the founding documents. http://www.law.emory.edu/FEDERAL/ _______________________________________________________ U.S. House Of Representatives http://www.house.gov/ _______________________________________________________ U.S. Senate http://www.senate.gov/ _______________________________________________________ United States Department of Justice http://www.usdoj.gov/ _______________________________________________________ Other Sites of Interest CareerNET © : Oregon Career Resources http://www.careers.org/reg/crusa-or.htm _______________________________________________________ Commission For Global Governance - UN affiliated commission. Outlines of plans for global governance by year 2000. http://www.cgg.ch/ _______________________________________________________ Concerned Women for America (CWA) - Largest pro-family organization. Addresses major moral and social issues. http://www.cwfa.org/ _______________________________________________________ DARE - Negative DARE report. Comprehensive data on drugs, addiction. http://www.magic.mb.ca/~lampi/drugs/News/dare_effect.txt __________________________________________ TeacherVision.com http://teachervision.com/tv_index/ Has reader boards for teachers http://familyeducation.com/ Commercialized education site _____________ Eagle Forum - Phyllis Schlafly http://www.eagleforum.org/ _______________________________________________________ Eisenhower National Clearinghouse - Math and Science information. http://www.enc.org/ _______________________________________________________ Family Research Council site. http://www.frc.org/ _______________________________________________________ LII's Eye On The Courts - Scours the net for reports on notable high-profile appellate decisions from courts. Lists with links to materials. http://www.law.cornell.edu/focus/liieye.htm _______________________________________________________ National center for public policy http://www.nationalcenter.inter.net/ _______________________________________________________ Saxon Publishers Inc. Home Page - Publishers of educational materials and textbooks. http://www.saxonpub.com/ _______________________________________________________ UNESCO - UN organization covering education among other things. http://www.education.unesco.org/educsect/ http://www.ewa.org/ Education Writers Association (for reporters) I came across this site which has a terrific compilation of organizations (incl. website and mail addresses) involved in school reform and STW. The list copied to 11 pages on my printer. Though I've seen many of these sites, this is a great resource and puts the info. in one place for easy reference. http://ncrve.berkeley.edu/NAHS/Resources.html This site is operated by the National Center for Research on Vocational Education, funded by a Carl Perkins Grant ($6 million), and identifies schools for inclusion in its New American High Schools program. Education Policy Analysis Archives Lots of articles
There's no escaping educational reform, it's infecting every state of the union and the federal level, not to mention every school district. It is also interesting to note that every true citizen / parent site that isn't supported by massive foundation funds is AGAINST ed reform as it is commonly promoted. There are NO sites promoting ed reform coming from the general public outside of the education industry.
@@Race To The Top (2009-2010) http://worldviewtimes.com/article.php/articleid-5819/Brannon-Howse Race To The Top Federal Control of Education On Steroids Karen R. Effrem, MD EdWatch Director of Government Relations ...these same two ostensibly state government-associated groups (NGA and CCSSO) developing RTTT also produced America 2000 under the Bush 41 administration that morphed into Goals 2000 in 1994 under President Clinton. Goals 2000 and that year's reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act combined for the first time to require that states and school districts comply with federal standards listed in Goals 2000 in order to receive federal education dollars. Those standards include expanding government schooling into the preschool years and a much greater emphasis on the mental health or social and emotional aspects. Many would rightly deem this psychosocial meddling indoctrination, instead of what parents want and expect as the traditional academic aspects of education - reading, math, history and civics.