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Arthur's Index: Economy

(c) Arthur Hu's Index please cite when using data from here arthurhu (a) hufamily.com (no space) on how to get more complete data or complete text of these references


In case you haven't figured it out, I am in favor of free (not fair, free) trade, and against regulation and protectionism. Business should go to the most efficient producer with the lowests costs, and if it means the biggest and baddest companies, and saying goodbye to mom and pop shops and farms, so be it. Incomes and free time are up, not down, and the US is the world leader in productivity, standard of living and export, contrary to reports that we are being left in the dust by our old WWII enemies Japan and Germany.


see economy.htm


@@Age, Modern

29 Apr 2002 It's the End of the Modern Age By JOHN LUKACS
Chronice of Higher Education, 2.4.26 What were its main features?
First of all, it was the European Age. Until about 500 years ago, the
main theater of history was the Mediterranean, and the principal
actors were the people along or near its shores, with few important

@@Age, Income

Data: conference board from
Business Week March 10, 1986 p. 68
Spending power increases with age
Age     Discretionary income
under 35      2,628
35-50         2,904
US Average    3,444
55-60         3,685
60-65         4,571
65 over       5,219


Once, the US was a nation of farmers, now it's less than 2% of
workers or GNP.

"Agriculture's share of the gross state product fell from more than
2.4 percent in 1977 to 1.6 percent in 1997" Rural vs. urban: sign of
the times? Seattle Times Oct 5, 2000

6, 1996 Copyright Forbes Inc. 1996 © Issue Date May 6, 1996
http://www.forbes.com/forbes/050696/brimelow.htm What happened to all
those blacksmiths?  By Peter Brimelow The most striking
technology-driven change since 1900: the implosion of agriculture. In
1900 it took 35 of every 100 American workers to feed the country.
Today it takes fewer than 2--and we eat better than ever. (Or at
least more.)


An Allowance Isn't a Universal Right
Wall Street Journal Aug 7, 2002 Wendy Pollack

9% Under six $6.42
52% 6-12     $6.18
39% 13-17    $15.07

<$35,000 $5.53
$35,000-$74,999 $11.09
$75,000+ $10.82
75% doing chores
29% grades
18% earned somehow
18% nothing
Harris Interactive Poll May-June 2002

Making allowances Seattle Times June 4, 2000 Stephanie Dunnewind Some
make $400 / mo. Rand Youth Poll interviews 1999 13-15 averaged $32
per week, $30 in earnings.  $40 a week for allowance 16-19. Teen's
diary - $111.68 including eating out for food.

Wall Street Journal Feb 4, 1997
Allowance Money
Current Dollars
1968  $2.8 billion *
1995 $20.2 billion *******

Allowance, gifts 4-12
Sourc: James U. McNeal Texas A&M University

Kids $50 allowance has experts divided over division Ray Rivera
Seattle Times June 4, 2000 Ohio State University researchers
calculated $50 per week in allowance. Using same data, U Wash Sabrina
Pabilona found teens $8.24 per week


z41\clipim\2000\05\10\ibd.efx Economist Rosen On Why Athletes Are
Rich May 9, 2000 Investor's Business Daily Ira Carnahan. Athletes get
a little bit of money from lots of people. Society spends a lot more
money on education and teachers but they don't have the scale.


Auto Industry is job 1, out of 10. Center for Automotive resaerch 
says manuf and sales 6.6m jobs, service and highway maintenance 6.7m,
more than any other industry.
Seatimes 9/28/03


Biggest Car Makers 1997
Source AECA
Production in million units

General Motors US   8.1 ********
Ford US             6.6 *******
Toyota Japan        4.7 *****
Volkswagen Germ     4.3 ****
DaimChrysler G/U    3.8 ****
Fiat Italy          2.9 ***
Nissan Japan        2.8 ***
Honda Japan         2.3 **

Seattle Times Jan 28, 1999 p. D1


Automobile sales account for approximately 24 percent of total U.S.
retail sales tracked by the Commerce Department.  Automakers rev up
incentive deals By John Porretto The Associated Press Seattle Times


Men Behaving Badly
New York Times Magazine, 2.10.13
Philip Reed, a writer who last year posted a diary on the Internet
about his stint as a car salesman, described a seminar in which he was
taught how to shake hands 'You work 12-hour days, and there's a lot of
waiting around for customers. At the same time, there's big money to
be made and a lot of pressure to make a deal, and when you're the one
selling cars, you feel you can do no wrong.''

FAST LANE: Car sales boost employment at auto dealerships.
Bureau of 
Labor Statistics counted a seasonally adjusted 1.1 million workers at 
new- and used-car dealerships in December, up 1.6% from December 


z47\clipim\2001\01\02\blind\blind.htm December 26, 2000 Blind Workers
Face Discrimination In the Newly Tight Labor Market By JEFFREY A.
TANNENBAUM Staff Reporter of THE WALL STREET JOURNAL says he'll earn
about $13,000 this year from tarot readings, The nonprofit American
Foundation for the Blind says the jobless rate is 58% for the legally
blind of prime working age (18 to 54). Of the employed blind, 35%
feel underemployed. Unless they are over age 65, blind persons can
lose their federal disability benefits if they earn more than $14,000
a year. Mr. Griffith says he receives $984 a month in benefits plus
Medicare health coverage. [he'd need $25,000 to break even]

@@Call Center

Call-center jobs continue to be shifted to English-speaking countries
overseas, including India.  Most analyses put the cost of a US call
center worker at $15,000 to $34,000, compared to $7,000 overseas.
Some predict that India will eventually become the "back office" of
the US. MIGRATION NEWS Vol. 9, No. 6, June, 2002



z48\clip\2001\02\capfail.txt By Hernando de Soto Los Angeles Times
de Soto, the Peruvian economist, is author most recently of ``The
Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and Fails
Everywhere Else.'' (Basic Books, New York 2000. "For a very simple
reason: to be useful in an expanded market, capital must first be
represented according to law in a property document where it can then
be assigned a status that allows it to produce additional value. What
most people possess outside the West is not represented (or
``paperized'') in such a way as to produce capital. "


"Greed Isn't Good"
Gregg Easterbrook, TNR Online
July 1, 2002
The top ten CEOs in earnings for 2000 averaged $154 million, versus a
top ten average of $3.5 million in 1980--a 20-fold increase, adjusting
for inflation. 
The corporate world is now embroiled in two controversies. There's the
fraud at Enron, WorldCom, Arthur Andersen, and elsewhere; and there's
the payment of absurd sums to CEOs.


Of generic windows laptop that sells for $1000, retailer keeps less than $50,
intel and microsoft $300, keyboard $15 or $20, shipper slightly less....
"When all other costs were accounted for, perhaps $30 to $40 - 3 to 4
percent of the total -- would stay in China with the factory owners and
the young women in the assembly line" Atlantic July/Aug 2007 China makes
the world takes p. 69


Expected spending on holiday gifts 1998
Male $961
Female $748
Deloitte & Touche consumer survey


The United States is usually #1 or not far from #1 on most rankings.
Japan and Germany aren't even close. Forget Russia.

Investor's Business Daily April 29, 2000
Global survey of business executives, economists and government 
officials shows US still #1 as most competitive nation in 2000
US 100 Singapore 78 Finland 76 Netherlands 72
Germany #8
Japan #17
National Institute for Management Development

\priv\96\19\compete.txt US slips to 4th place in 1996 ranking by
Geneva-based World Economic Forum

\priv\96\12\homeweal.txt US is the most competitive nation in the
world in 1995 Singapore #2 Hong Kong is #3 japan is #4 Swiss #5 6
Germany 7 Netherlands 8 New Zealand 9 Denmakr 10 Norway

3/19/96 economy.compete \priv\96\04\compet.txt US Tops In
Competitiveness LAUSANNE, Switzerland (AP) -- World business leaders
rate the U.S. as the most competitive nation, followed by Singapore
and Japan, according to a global survey released Monday. Germany 4, S.
Korea 5

d:\doc\94\18\priv\usbest.txt - US has most competitive economy in the
world over Germ and Japan  

@@Consumer Price Index
see inflation

@@Contract workers

http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/tips_042197. html
Copyright © 1997 The Seattle Times Company Monday, April 21, 1997
Temptations of temping: Contracting is becoming a new way of work
life, especially at firms such as Microsoft 


"Software Theft Extends Well Beyond China" Wall Street Journal May 20, 
1996 p. 1
Losses to Piracy
Country   Loss($M)  Rate
China     $527      98%
France     771      57
Germany   1,900     50
Japan     2,000     67
S. Korea  546       78
U.S.      2,900     35
Source: Business Software Alliance, 1994 survey

@@Cost Of Living


Long Distance is Dying Fortune March 2, 1998
Cost of 3 min call to London from New York

1930  234.74
1940  196.08
1950   65.08
1960   52.98
1970   32.33
1980    7.61
1990    4.43
1995    2.48 est
1998    2.25 est

American industrial output weighs the same as it did 100 years ago.
The real GDP is 20 times higher for the same weight.  David R.
author Henderson drheand@mbay.ref


"The Low Cost of Living", Wall Street Journal April 9, 1998 ed.  W.
Michael Cox \clip\98\07\lowcost.tif Inflation? Everything we own and
use costs less in terms of hours worked than before in real dollars.
The rich fund development of new items util prices go down for the
"rest of us".


\clip\97\09\cubaecon.txt purposes. Wroe, Ann, A crash course in
economics., Economist, 1 Jan 1996.

googdoc: The demise of the free lunch Oct 8th 2009 | HAVANA
The Economist print edition
four government ministries in Havana had to make new arrangements for
lunch. The ministries’ free canteens were shut down and workers given
a wage increase of 15 pesos ($0.60) a day in compensation. Since that
raises their salaries by more than half in return for losing an often
poor-quality lunch, Raúl Castro is tossing into the dustbin of Cuban
history the idea espoused by Ernesto “Che” Guevara, at the start of
the revolution that Cuba’s communist economy should be based on “moral
incentives”, rather than material ones, and that this process would
create a “new man”. Through various zigzags Fidel never wholly
relinquished that idea. When opponents criticise Cubans’ derisory
wages (averaging $20 per month), officials always point to the
additional “social wage” of free housing, health, education, transport
and food rations.


Debt is not such a bad thing, you buy cars on credit, and use
mortgages to buy houses.


Federal Debt as % of the GNP
1946 110 ***********
1950  80 ********
1960  40 ****
1970  30 ***
1980  30 ***
1990  42 ****
1996  50 *****

Congressional Budget Office
Wall Street Journal Feb 4, 1997 F020497-2

Article observes that households include a mortgage, which would
be disqualified if you couldn't have any debt

\priv\96b\06\netdebt.txt AP 2-Jul-1996 19:05 EDT REF5854 Copyright
1996. The Associated Press. All Rights Reserved.  America's Debt
Level Increases

\doc\96\03\burdebt.txt "The Burdensome National Debt" The Economist
Feb 10, 1996 p. 68. National debt isn't such a bad thing, it may
produce a better return than some other things, and crowd out silly
private ventures like the Channel Tunnel. Britain was at 200% debt
after WWII, and the US at 120%, but could not have afforded to have
lost the war. The transfer is not across generations, but from
taxpayers to the people getting the interest.

@@decline (also see improvement)

FAMILIES UNDER 30 SEE INCOME DECLINE 33% d:\clip\97\20\famdecl.txt ap
09/16/1997 10:01 EST Families See Income Plummet By LAURA MECKLER
Associated Press Writer WASHINGTON (AP) -- With more single moms and
a tougher road for less educated workers, the typical young family
saw its income drop by one-third over two decades, the Children's
Defense Fund said today.  While other families have generally held
their ground, median income for parents under age 30 dropped 33
percent between 1973 and 1994, according to the fund, a liberal
advocacy organization. 

\doc\96\02\paycheck.txt earnings down for high school dropouts, but
up counting fringe benefits and family incomes went up.

\priv\96\01\worktake.txt US News and World Report 1/16/96 Cover Story
Median household income has been flat for 20 years, and workers' real
weekly wages have dropped $23 or almost 5 percent since 1979.

\priv\95\17\stagwage.txt -  Labor Secretary Reich said that "Since
1979, the inflation-adjusted income of the top 5 percent of households
grew by almost 40 percent, but real median earnings for full-time
workers have fallen by 2 percent"
\doc\95\06\incmineq.txt In 1976, 78% of steel and auto workers were
high school dropouts. Between 1973 and 1993, high school educated
workers wages declined by 30 percent in real income.

\priv\95\03\glashalf.txt - The glass is half full, we're actually
still making progress if you take technology and false inflation into


1955 Defence 62% fed budget, payments to indiv 21. 2001: 17/61
newsweek 1/27/02 robert samuelson

Defence spending is 2.6% of world GDP, about 3% of United States GDP.

Stockholm International Peace Research 2000 yearbook
US Billions dollars
259.9 3.6%  us
 51.2  7%  Japan
 46.8  7%  France
 39.5  5%  Germany
 31.8  4%  UK
      4.1% other
780.0      world
overall 2.6% of world gnp

US and Allies: $600 billion
Russia, China and all other possible adversaries: $100 billion
US alone: $350 billion

Newsweek 4/16/2001 p. 30
Defence budget billions       $14.5  $270
Pct of GDP 1999                 1.2   3.2

The Economist June 14, 1997 p. 5 "Leaner and Fitter" chart US
aerospace industry: Employment has declined from 100% in 1990 to 60%
in 1995. Net profit has actually risen from 3% to 6%, while revenues
have fallen from 100% down to 70% and is back up to 80%.

@@Deregulation (Transportation)

"Delivering the Goods" Economist Nov 15, 1997 p. 15 F120297
Deregulation of airlines, road haulers and railways freed them from
restrictions on what they could carry. Railways could drop
unprofitable branch lines, trucks could carry goods on return trips,
resulting in huge productivity gains. Railways reduced employment,
trackage and equipment, while hauling much more cargo. "Impressed by
the results, Japan and mamany emerging economies began to deregulate
freight transport in the 1990s" "In America, the period of huge
productivity gains in transportation may be almost over after two
decades of regulation.  But in most other countries, the process
still has far to go"

US Ton carried per rail car up by 77%, Europe only by 20%
Tonne-km per wagon, '000
                  1985      1996
USA               900 **      1,600 ***
European Union    250 ***     300   ***
Source: Assocation of American Railroads, International Union of Railways

Rail Shipping Costs Plummet:
American rail freight revenues collected per ton-mile, cents
1985  3.0
1991  2.6
1996  2.3
Source: Association of American Railroads

@@Doctor (shortage or surplus?)

\clip\97\19\doctor.txt U.S. to pay hospitals not to train doctors
Date sent: Mon, 25 Aug 1997 21:21:13 EDT [there is an alleged glut of

San Jose Mercury News, Statistical Abstract of the U.S. American
Medical Association
1990, average physician made 7 times as much as average, surgeon 10
times as much
$236,400 surgeon
$207,300 ob-gyn
$164,300 all physician
$104,100 general family pediatrician
 $23,602 all wage earner

@@Dot Com Bust

High tech fall was fast, hard deep John Cook Seattle PI 2001 could go
down as the year the dot com boom finally went bust. Over 18,900 lost
jobs in the technology sector. A billion dollars in venture capital
evaporated in the state as four dozen companies shut doors.
Nationally 537 Internet companies closed or went bankrupt


Doomed to the scrap heap Seattle Times Jan 24, 199
average spending on consumer electronics $150 1979
nearly $1000 in 1997
1.6B devices in use, value $500 billion dollars

@@Enron debacle

z54\clip\2001\12\enron.txt "The Enron outrage" Free-market ideologues
said the energy titan's triumphs proved them right. Now they should
admit its humiliating collapse proves they were wrong.  By Thomas
Frank Salon.com Dec. 13, 2001 | "I believe in God and I believe in
free markets," Enron CEO Kenneth Lay told the San Diego Union-Tribune
back in February.


From Gregory Cochran:

Entertainment revenues:
  domestic movie revenues                      8.4 billion   for 2001
   video game revenue                             9.4 billion   for 2001
   US  television advertising revenue:      54 billion for   2000
   cable subscription revenue: around      30    billion for 2001
   rental of videocassettes and DVDs:    10.3 billion
   buying videocassettes and DVDS:      10.8 billion
   total US music sales for 2001:            13.7 billion
The total that consumers are actually willing to shell out for
entertainment in the US is something like 100 billion a year.

@@Exotic Dancing

October 29, 2002 Books Former Lusty Lady dancer turned author explores
allure of stripping By Patti Jones At the Lusty Lady peep show on
First Avenue, men duck in by the dozens at lunchtime. 
She figured if she could write about sex work, she could understand
it. The result is "Bare: On Women, Dancing, Sex, and Power" (Knopf,
$24), The top pay at the Double-L in 2001 was $27 an hour. 


Contrary to reports that the US lags behind its competitors, the
United States is the world's largest exporter.

The Economist April 6th 1996 p. 109
Source WTO
Exports of merchandise trade1995 $bn
% world total

11.6 1 United States
10.1 2 Germany
 8.8 3 Japan
 5.6 4 France
 4.8 5 Britain
 4.6 Italy
 3.9 Netherlands
 3.8 Canada
 3.5 Hong Kong
 3.3 Belgium/Lux
 3.0 China
 2.5 S Korea
 2.4 Singapore
 2.2 Taiwan
 1.8 Spain
 1.6 Switzerland
 1.6 Mexico
 1.5 Malaysia

US = nearly 600 billion

\doc\96\01\exports.txt Economist NOv 18th 1995 p. 115
US is #1, Japan #3 world exporter

Leading world exporters, 1996
United States
South Korea
Source: IMF

@@farm worker

\clip\97\09\farmwork.txt New York Times March 31, 1997 Farm Worker
Pay Fell in 2 Decades, U.S.  Surveys Find By STEVEN GREENHOUSE
Agricultural economists and some industry surveys found that farm
workers' wages have fallen 20 percent or more over the past two
decades after accounting for inflation, but other surveys show only a
2 percent drop since 1989 vs. 3% for all workers.

@@Federal Budget

2/5/1991 San Francisco Chronicle
Where federal money comes from:
30% Social Insurance Receipts
37% Individual income taxes
19% Borrowing
 7% Corporate income taxes
 3% Excise taxes
 4% Other

Where federal money goes:
41% direct payment to individuals
20% national defence
14% net interest
12% grants to states and localities
 7% other federal operations
 6% deposit insurance
Office of management and budget
1992 budget = 100 billion dollars

@@Financial Advisor

239,000 jobs in US in 2000 according to Dept of Labor, median annual
salary was $52,000 Seattle Times May 19, 2002 More Seek Financial
Advice J.C. Conklin Dallas Morning News.

@@foreign programming

\clip\96\05\indiprog.txt Date: Tue, 17 Sep 1996 03:09:36 -0400
High-Tech Companies Turn to India's Silicon Valley for Software
Services By Jennifer Bjorhus, The Seattle Times India now exports
about $485 million worth of software work a year, most of it to the
United States, according to India's National Association of Software
and Service Companies.

@@foreign workers

\clip\96\02\forprog.txt Date: Thu, 15 Aug 1996 16:21:05 -0400
Overseas programmers spend nights solving America's computer problems
By Shankar Vedantam Knight-Ridder Newspapers

@@Free Time

MORE, NOT LESS FREE TIME \clip\97\15\fretime.txt Americans Said To
Have More Free By MICHAEL RAPHAEL Associated Press Writer Thursday,
June 5, 1997 1:23 am EDT
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/WAPO/19970605/V000423- 060597-idx.html
" John Robinson and Geoffrey Godbey declare in their new book, ``Time
for Life,'' that in contrast to recent studies showing a decrease in
free time, Americans are now enjoying an average of close to 40 hours
of leisure a week -- up from 35 hours in 1965.Despite the large-scale
entry of women into the workforce since 1965, both men and women saw
an increase in their free time. Men's leisure time increased five
hours to 40.4; women's climbed six hours to 38.9."

@@Garbage Collectors

Seattle Times Extra 2/16/1999
King County Garbage collectors earn
$40,000 plus benefits and overtime
65 lb lift requirement. No female
drivers, few applicants
500-700 can lifts per day
Startting drivers get 14.34/hr for

@@General Motors

Wall Street Journal 8/28/97
Employees nearly 440,000 in 1990, now 300,000
1996 Revenue $164 Billion
Average hourly wage $19 (nonskilled production worker)
With Benefits $44
Source: GM

@@Generation Mobility

Less chance to rise in life Business Week Nov 18, 2002 Only 14% of US
households can make a 6 figure income [And that's a crisis?]. 1980s
studies figured 20% of earnings gap persist one generation, later
raised to 40%.  No Bhash Mazumder says it's 60%. Many poor can't
afford education to send them to best schools.

@@generation competition


http://www.businessweek.com/1997/12/b3519123.htm Business Week
3/24/97 THE COMING JOB BOTTLENECK What an aging workforce means for
everyone else 

@@generational progress


\doc\97\03\econimm.txt Source: "Economists in Survey..." Wall Street
Journal March 6, 1997 p. A2 (survey of academic economists by the
Wall Street Journal, 1997)

Do you expect your children's generation to have a
higher standard of living than your own
             Yes     No     Not Sure
Public      43%      47%    12%
Economists  70%      10%    10%



http://www.forbes.com/forbes/97/0407/5907042a.htm \clip\97\09\vw.txt
Ferdinand Piëch has done wonders at Volkswagen,but there's one
problem he can't do much about: Hans and Fritz work short hours for
fat paychecks.  Bringing back the Beetle By Paul Klebnikov 

"Out of VW's 243,256 employees, 57% are in Germany. These workers get
six weeks paid holiday every year. They work a 30-hour week. The
German autoworker is the highest paid in the world. The average
German autoworker earns $39 an hour in wages and benefits. In the
U.S. the average autoworker earns about $25; in Japan, $27. "


\clip\96\05\globinv.txt AP 24-Sep-1996 20:00 EDT REF5808 Global
Investment Hits Record $315B

"Domestic Myths on Globalization" Oct 27, 1995 
Wall Street Journal Marina Whitman F111795

@@Gross national product / GDP Gross Domestic Product

Leadership? The United States has the world's largest economy any way
you care to measure it. Information has become more important, as the
weight of the nation's GNP is the same as it was 100 years ago, but
is worth 20 times more.

Long Distance is Dying Fortune March 2, 1998
American industrial output weighs the same as it did 100 years ago.
The real GDP is 20 times higher for the same weight.  David R.
author Henderson drheand@mbay.ref

1997 p. 110 "The Size of the Economies" f062997

Ranking of Countries by Market Exchange Rates
2 Japan
3 Germany
4 France
5 Britain
6 Italy
7 China
8 Brazil
9 Canada
10 Spain

Ranking by Purchasing Power Parity $trn, 1995
1 US 7.0
2 China 3.8
3 Japan 2.8
4 Germany 1.8
5 India 1.6
6 France 1.3
7 Italy 1.2
8 Britain 1.0
9 Brazil 0.8
10 Indonesia 0.8

in billion
11 Russia 670
12 Canada 620
13 Mexico 590
14 Spain 580
15 South Korea 500
16 Thailand 450
17 Iran 420

Source: World Bank
Ranking of Countries by purchasing power parity

\priv\95\14\badgdp.txt - why gnp is a bad measure of wealth
vs. genuine progress indicator.

\priv\95\14\badgdp2.txt a bogus "genuine" progress indicator by


\priv\95\14\ridehigh.txt "Riding High" business week Oct 9, 1995 pl
134 Increasing productivity will increase out standard of living,
wages sometimes take some time to catch up. There will be a painful
upheaval, as in previous transitions such as from northeast to south
and to overseas.


Does Wealth Produce Happiness?
Economists' Answer Isn't So Simple
IN Wall Street Journal, 4 i 02


Experienced hands rate 'slight' hiring edge Electrical Engineering
Times June 10, 1996 National Association of Colleges and Employers
finds that 37% of employers are moving towards hiring more new
graduates. Overall, 60% of new job openings go to experienced wokers
at 249 surveyed employers. F061396


and http://docs.google.com/Doc?id=dfthx7q4_1602fnq5vcdz
[If anybody can find the original study, let me know. The link below does not mention specific Asian ethnic groups]

The comments are actually even more interesting. One Canadian feels threatened by advanced Asian immigrants, and wants to keep them out. Another echos the condemnation of racism, while another asks if student not being able to name 5 famous black canadians is really an example of "discrimination". Then another questions if upholding Asians to the top ranks is in itself promoting discrimination. My comment would be that the drumbeat of blaming black lack of progress on "racism" pretty much sums up why they are behind. A professional black woman who career supposedly suffers in comparison with a comparable Asian according to this study, asks what the Asians are doing differently, and I would point out what they are NOT doing is complaining about a lack of Pakistani or Filipino lecturers, or demanding setting up Asia-centric high schools to combat high drop out rates.

Immigrants face growing economic mobility gap MARINA JIMÉNEZ From
Monday's Globe and Mail October 6, 2008
thanks to tip from benny.wong at utoronto.ca

"What are South Asian and Chinese immigrants doing that somehow gets
them ahead?”"

(Whites on top replaced by Chinese / Japanese )
"The old vertical mosaic – with whites from Britain and Europe at the
top and visible minorities underneath – is no longer valid. Instead,
second- and third-generation Chinese and Japanese surpass all other
groups of newcomers, including whites, while for blacks and other
groups, there is little or no economic mobility across generations."

"Children of Chinese and South Asian immigrants to Canada do
dramatically better over time than the offspring of blacks, Filipinos
and Latin Americans, new census data reveal......The 2006 census data
show that first-generation white immigrants with university degrees,
aged 25-44, earned $68,036 a year on average – just above the
Canadian-born baseline of $65,000. Those from Japan earned $58,294 and
those from China $55,270, while black immigrants earned $51,317 a
year. The below-average incomes relate to immigrants' language
barriers, lack of Canadian job experience, and difficulties getting
their credentials recognized. The balance shifts, however, with the
second and third generation. The Chinese catapulted ahead, with the
grandchildren of immigrants earning an average of $79,022 a year.
Incomes for South Asians also increased substantially by the third
generation. In contrast, blacks languished, with third-generation
immigrants earning less than newcomers. The incomes of Latin Americans
also fell across the generations."

[The root cause is black lag is racism] "Canada's black
community has struggled with racial stereotyping and
higher-than-average rates of poverty." Cites 40% dropout rate in
Toronto schools forced board to create an afrocentric school.

[here they cite discriminatin against blacks - nobody can name many
black canadians] "Ms. Hines observed that she never encountered
discrimination until she began studying for her master's degree at the
University of Toronto. She was shocked to discover there were no other
black students or lecturers. When the class was asked to write the
names of five black people, many could only come up with Lincolnw
Alexander, Ontario's former lieutenant-governor, and Michael (Pinball)
Clemons of the Toronto Argonauts football team." [Philip McRae from
Vancouver writes: Is this an example of discrimination???]

"The higher education levels among Chinese and South Asians appears to
reflect the values of their parents – middle-class, educated newcomers
who may be underemployed when they arrive, but who expect their
children to advance." [But nobody asked how many South Asians they could name
or complain about a lack of Japanese lecturers, or lack of Asian-centric
high schools]

From the main report:

"money has little to do with this intergenerational tie, indeed if
anything, lower earning immigrant parents have more educated

"The relative decline in the economic status of immigrants,
particularly recent immigrants, has been well documented in Canada"

Summarized data in table form:

Complete pdf report
http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11f0019m/11f0019m2008316-eng.htm I also very much agree with your ratios approach.

Here's a white nationalist response: Chris E. from Canada writes:
Nature's balance can be influenced by man. Rather than just say that
whites should roll over and die in this century in the face of a
proliferation of migrants, we can do what the people of Europe did
when the Mongols or the Persians or the armies of the Ottomans invaded
- not allow it. Stand up and fight for white civilization. Don't be
ashamed or feel guilty; the adversary will have no pity. There is no
reason for the passing of the white race. Nature has given us the
choice - to live or perish, and she will reward us with destiny.
Reform immigration now.

Here's another "discrimination is at fault" view: Ambrosia Miles from
toronto, Canada writes: There are many factors that contribute to
immigrants' ability to thrive in Canada. Thanks to the previous
posters who rolled out all the stereotypes they asociate with certain
groups' relative success or lack thereof. It is also fact that
students of certain backgrounds, skin colours, etc. tend to be steered
by educators here, from a very young age, towards less academic
pursuits. This type of discrimination is incidious and often not
conscious on the part of teachers/guidance counsellors, etc. Standards
and expectations - and, consequently, support - are different,
therfore, for a young black boy than his white or Chinese conterpart.

Lucas McCain from San Francisco de Macoris, Dominican Republic writes:
So why is it that whenever a black person does not do well it is
always the fault of the vile, evil white man who does everything
possible to keep the black man from succeeding?...Now in spite of the
evil, vile white man, he became one of the great success stories of
our time. His name is Colin Luther Powell.

john may writes: "Attitude and dedication trumps ethnicity every time."

J Kooman writes: I am concern that the article is promoting the
perception of Asian generation X superiority; claims that they are
better education, better networked, financially more successful, and
... (the future of Canada??) That is another form of promotion of


\clip\96\08\canajob.txt Car jobs moving to Canada where costs are
30% less and productivity is high

\clip\96\02\nikework.txt New York Times August 9, 1996 For Indonesian
Workers at Nike Plant: Just Do It By SETH MYDANS Factory workers are
lifted out of poverty by Nike jobs, instead of being harmed.



\clip\98\04\costlow.txt The Seattle Times Company Nation and World :
Friday, March 27, 1998 Cost of living lower now than in good old days
by Art Pine Los Angeles Times WASHINGTON - Remember the good old days
when a typical American home sold for $14,500, a haircut went for
$1.50 and gasoline was about 30 cents a gallon? [Workers worked 6.5
hrs per square foot of an average house in 1950, now they work 5.6
hrs for houses that are much larger]

\doc\96\08\dobetter.txt Readers Digest Dec 1996 p. 54

Tales of economic decline are used to blame minorites and immigrants
and set Americans against each other. Except that living standars are
rising, and Americans are, by and large, pretty happy. Minorities are
less happy, but still optimistic that the American Dream is in their
reach. Of course, what would you expect from Readers Digest?

The Roper Center did a poll of Americans and how they are doing

75% who were working 15 years ago are making more

53%W 52%B 63%H  are making "much more"

61% believe they are better off than their parents were at their

Able to help children out financially better than their parents
Better  W58 B66 H86 All 62
Not     W33 B26 H10 All 29
Same    W 9 B 8 H 3 All 9

70% are very or somewhat satisfied with life style and living

All income groups are above 50% except below $20,000

50% said they had not achieved the "American Dream", but
68% 30-40
69% Yes 61-70

it was highly dependent on age.

Americans travel more, farther, own more cars, better and bigger
homes and apartments, 55% thought their parents were very serious
about shopping for the lowest prices, but only 35% are today.

Despite headlines about layoffs affecting white collar workers, job
security concerns have stayed about the same for the past 20 years
(and unemployment rates have actually dropped on average)

Do you earn enough money?  W48 B21 H33
If not, will you?              B60 H59
Better than parents?           B84 H86
Good chance of improving       B78 H86
standard of living 

\clip\96\05\fammatr.txt The Wall Street Journal Interactive Edition
-- October 2, 1996 Editorial Family Matter While GDP per capita rose
46% percent from 1970, median family income rose only 9.5%.... But
when you control for shrinking family size, the famous "median family
income" is not so low. The median income for married couples in 1994
was 19% higher in inflation-adjusted dollars than it had been in
1970, eliminating half the gap rather than showing the difference
went to the upper classes.

\clip\96\05\fambetr.txt Date: Sun, 22 Sep 1996 07:14:02 -0400 From:
NewsHound@sjmercury.com (NewsHound) U.S. families are changing -- for
better or worse Politicians disagree on effect of assistance By Steve
Johnson Mercury News Staff Writer Never mind that the American family
earns more, is better educated and in many ways healthier, and its
teens are less likely to abuse drugs or have babies than years ago.

\priv\95\17\stagwage.txt -  Labor Secretary Reich said that "Since
1979, the inflation-adjusted income of the top 5 percent of households
grew by almost 40 percent, but real median earnings for full-time
workers have fallen by 2 percent"
\doc\96\01\greatexp.txt Great Expectations Newsweek January 8, 1996
p. 24 Robert Samuelson. Incomes are actually up 10-20% over the past
two decades, not stagant, when inflation is propertly corrected for.
\doc\96\01\marxdumm.txt "Coming this year: Marx for Dummies" Wall
Street Jounal Jan 25, 1996 ed. Karl Zinsmeister, fellow at Amerian
Enterprise Institute f012596 Boomer income is 55% higher than 30
years ago. Average home is twice as big. 79-94 men's wages up 14%,
not down 14%. Average family is 12% smaller in 93 than in 70.

\doc\96\02\paycheck.txt earnings down for high school dropouts, but
up counting fringe benefits and family incomes went up.



Census Finds Immigrants Lower City's Income Data
August 6, 2002

New Jersey median income adjusted for inflation
Black  1.1    $38,513
White  5.1    $59,153
Asian  3.8    $73,145
Latino 1.1    $39,609
$182,792  Scarsdale NY
$200,000  White upper eastside Manhattan NYC
 $18,629  Asians NY Chinatown
 $14,908  Coney Island NY


Seattle Times May 12, 2003 
Wages slide for workers glad to have paychecks 
By Shirleen Holt
Seattle Times business reporter
[wages peak between 2001 and 2002]


Time Dec 6, 2010 p. 76 "Was It Really So Bad?"
Average after-tax income (inflation adjusted)

2000       2007
1,038,700  1,319,700 Top 1% 
 $170,300    198,300 Highest fifth
  $16,500     17,700 Lowest fifth

http://www.cbpp.org/cms/index.cfm?fa=view&id=3220 Income Gaps Between
Very Rich and Everyone Else More Than Tripled In Last Three Decades,
New Data Show By Arloc Sherman and Chad Stone
June 25, 2010

¦In 2007, the share of after-tax income going to the top 1 percent hit its highest level (17.1 percent) since 1979, while the share going to the middle one-fifth of Americans shrank to its lowest level during this period (14.1 percent).

¦Between 1979 and 2007, average after-tax incomes for the top 1 percent rose by 281 percent after adjusting for inflation — an increase in income of $973,100 per household — compared to increases of 25 percent ($11,200 per household) for the middle fifth of households and 16 percent ($2,400 per household) for the bottom fifth (see Figure 1).

Bush-Era Tax Cuts Have Exacerbated Income Gaps
Legislation enacted under the Bush Administration provided taxpayers
with about $1.7 trillion in tax cuts through 2008. Because high-income
households received by far the largest tax cuts — not only in dollar
terms but also as a percentage of income — the tax cuts have increased
the concentration of after-tax income at the top of the spectrum

Table 1:
Average After-Tax Income by Income Group 1979 - 2007 (in 2007 dollars)  
Income Category 1979 2007 Percent Change

Income category -    1979 -  2007 - %change 79-07 dollar change 79-07
Lowest fifth      $15,300   $17,700   16%         $2,400 
Second fifth      $31,000   $38,000   23%         $7,000 
Middle fifth      $44,100   $55,300   25%        $11,200 
Fourth fifth      $57,700   $77,700   35%        $20,000 
Top fifth        $101,700   $198,300  95%        $96,600 
Top 1 Percent    $346,600 $1,319,700 281%       $973,100
Source: Congressional Budget Office, Effective Federal Tax Rates:
1979-2007, June 2010. 

contrary view: Rich got richer, but so did everybody else
Case Closed: Trickle Down Policies Work
July 11th, 2010 ·

I recently wrote about the increasing American wealth gap here and
here, but I never get tired of pointing out the stubbornness of class
warfarists, so I’m giving it another go.

Americans everywhere should be celebrating, rather than bemoaning the
findings of a recent study by the Center on Budget and Policy
Priorities (CBPP) that shows that the gap between the wealthy and the
poor has increased over the last thirty years.

Why celebrate? Because the study also shows that all classes of
Americans have improved their financial condition since 1979

Sadly, but predictably, the anti-rich left, rather than being joyful that all canoes have lifted, are consumed with grief that the yachts have not sunk.

But this, my friends, is no honorable grief, but one borne of envy and
class hatred.

Unless and until the rich experience a significant decline in their
own incomes, no amount of increase in the incomes of the poor and the
middle class will assuage the class warmongers.

And Stalin, Mao and Che will be playing ice hockey in hell before
anti-capitalists will ever admit that supply-side economics works and
that when the rich get richer so do everyone else.



1994 Per Capita incomes, US Commerce 	  
                          Per Capita 	 
     State                Income     	 
     Ala.                 $19,181    	 
     Alaska               24,002     	 
     Ariz.                20,489     	 
     Ark.                 18,101     	 
     Calif.               24,073     	 
     Colo.                23,961     	 
     Conn.                31,776     	 
     Del.                 26,273     	 
     D.C.                 33,452     	 
     Fla.                 23,061     	 
     Ga.                  21,741     	 
     Hawaii               24,590     	 
     Idaho                18,906     	 
     Ill.                 25,225     	 
     Ind.                 21,433     	 
     Iowa                 20,921     	 
     Kan.                 21,841     	 
     Ky.                  18,849     	 
     La.                  18,981     	 
     Maine                20,105     	 
     Md.                  26,333     	 
     Mass.                28,021     	 
     Mich.                23,915     	 
     Minn.                23,971     	 
     Miss.                16,683     	 
     Mo.                  21,819     	 
     Mont.                18,445     	 
     Neb.                 21,477     	 
     Nev.                 24,390     	 
     N.H.                 25,587     	 
     N.J.                 29,848     	 
     N.M.                 18,206     	 
     N.Y.                 27,678     	 
     N.C.                 21,103     	 
     N.D.                 18,625     	 
     Ohio                 22,514     	 
     Okla.                18,580     	 
     Ore.                 21,611     	 
     Pa.                  23,558     	 
     R.I.                 23,844     	 
     S.C.                 18,998     	 
     S.D.                 19,576     	 
     Tenn.                21,038     	 
     Texas                21,206     	 
     Utah                 18,232     	 
     Vt.                  21,231     	 
     Va.                  23,974     	 
     Wash.                23,774     	 
     W.Va.                17,687     	 
     Wis.                 22,261     	 
     Wyo.                 20,684     	 
     U.S.                 $23,208    	  

As cited in Seattle Times 9/25/96 "Per-capita income growth tops '95
inflation "

Note that the states with the worst test scores (DC and Mississsippi)
are not the ones with the lowest incomes, race is more important than


"World's per-capita income $45 higher, World Bank says" Seattle Times
Dec 31, 1995 p. A8. The World Bank estimates world Pc income of 159
nations as $4,600 in 1994, up $45 from previous year, and first
increase after a 3 year decline. Published in the World Bank Atlas
1996. Ethiopia is $130 in 1994

Hourly Compensation Cost

Wages and benefits for Factory Workers in dollarsa

            1995    1997 est
Germany     31.85   27.81
Japan       23.66   19.01
France      19.34   16.91
USA         17.19   18.17
Korea        7.40    4.29
Malaysia     2.43    1.81
Thailand     0.68    0.34
China        0.27    0.33

(Based on chart in Wall Street Journal 1/26/98)
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Morgan Stanley
Dean Witter


Income inequality is commonly presented as an indicator of how rotten
things are getting, but it's not as important as how well the poor
are doing in absolute terms. If my income doubles while richer
neighbor goes up by 4 times, am I better or worse off? If my income
stagnates because I depend on welfare, while my neighbor invents DOS
and gets rich, is that unfair?

\clip\99\09\wagegap.txt (pay) www.businessweek.com BUSINESSWEEK
ONLINE : MARCH 15, 1999 ISSUE ECONOMICS Commentary: Strong Growth
Will Shrink the Wage Gap

"in 1980, the median male college graduate earned about a third more
than the median high school graduate; by 1993, that gap had widened
to more than 70% ...  The result: Low-income workers have been
gaining ground. In 1993, hourly wages of a median worker--one right
in the middle of the income distribution--were 2.03 times the
earnings of workers in the lowest tenth percentile. In 1997, the wage
ratio had dropped to 1.93 times, the lowest figure in 16 years,
according to the Economic Policy Institute."

"In 1979, some 49% of high school graduates went on to college the
following fall. In 1997, a record 67% went on to college. Thanks
largely to this supply-side response, the wage gap between high
school graduates and those with a four-year college degree has been
stable since 1993"
chart: \clipim\99\03\16\wagegap.gif

\images\98\01\010897\p02.tif Income Inequality Without Class
Conflict WSJ Dec 18, 1997

\clip\96\01\wagegap.htm WSJ 7/22/96 Wage Gap Finally Hits Plateau For
College, High-School Degrees says that the wage gap between college
and high school has peaked and leveled off f090996 Chart shows gap
goes up to 70% in 85, 80% in 91, falls to 72% in 1994

Percentage of wealth by income in 1994:
Poorest fifth of all families      -0.64%
Poorest 10%                        -0.70
Next poorest fifth                  1.58 
Middle fifth                        5.56 
Next-richest fifth                 12.77 
Richest fifth                      78.47
Richest 10%                        66.76

data posted by Ed Kent(ekent@brooklyn.cuny.edu) from data
in The New York Times (6/22/96) 

After peak in 1973, real earnings in the bottom 20% are down by 24%,
but top 10% as increased by 10% GOP ingores income inequality Wall
Street Journal May 23, 1995.

\priv\96b\01\richer.txt AP 20-Jun-1996 1:05 EDT REF5554 Report: Rich
People Getting Richer In the first two years of the Clinton
administration, 1993 and 1994, the share of national income earned by
the top 5 percent of households also grew at a faster rate than
during the eight years of the Reagan administration

\doc\96\03\richgap.txt "Study Finds Gap Growing Between Rich, Poor in
U.S."  Los Angeles Times March 20, 1996 p. A1 Rand corp study finds the
spread in income due to single poor parents and affluent two-worker

>>"When winners take all" Economist Nov 25, 1995 p. 82 Discussion of
"The Winner-Take-All Society". By Robert Frank and Philip Cook. The
Free Press, New York 1995. Income inequality may indicate a winner-take-all
effect that is good for society, like Hollywood. F121995
\priv\95\14\povus.txt  - Income inequality on the
increase in the US?

\doc\95\06\incmineq.txt After peaking in 1973, real earnings in the
bottom 20% are down by 24%, while the top percent is up by 10%.

\priv\95\05\wealgap.txt - US has largest gap between poor and rich in world

@@inflation or consumer price index / CPI

The consumer price index is the most common measure of inflation and
buying power, but it is based on the price of a fixed set of goods,
not what people actaually buy, and does not reflect the quality of
goods such as electronics, cars and computers which could not be
bought at any price a decade before by consumers.

In reality, household income has not stagnated, but increased by 15%
since 1980. 23% since 1974, and cars are more energy efficient.

--------------------------------------------------------------- ---------

MEDIAN HOUSEHOLD INCOME UP 23% FROM 1974 TO 1994 Seattle Times Dec
12, 1996 Truth in Statistics: It's time to Change the CPI. 

\clip\96\10\cpifix.txt New York Times December 4, 1996 Panel Says
Errors in Inflation Data Drain U.S. Budget. The inflation rate is
overstated by 1.1 percentage points, but when inflation is only 2 or
3 percent per year, even one percentage point amounts to a 30 to 50
percent error. Immigrants are blamed for stagnating incomes when a
faulty CPI is at fault when living standards are clearly higher than
20 years ago for most people.
\clip\96\10\cpiinflat.gif graphic

Social Security Benefits paid to those retiring in 1984:

                          1985     1997  Index Increase   Ratio
Actual                    450      689   1.53  238        1.00
If Reduced by 1.1 points  450      600   1.33  150        0.63

Payments would be reduced by 13% overall, the increase would be only
63% of the current rate.

\doc\96\03\usbetter.txt "Group Says U.S. Workers Are Better Off Than
Thought" New York Times April 19, 1996 p. C1 
The National Association of Manufacturers says that when problems
with government reporting of inflation are corrected for, wages have
not stagnated, but risen 15% since 1979. The economy has created 8.4
million jobs since 1992. The real problem is that a typical family
paid only 20% of wages for state and federal taxes in 1955 compared
to 37% today.
--------------------------------------------------------------- ---------

\doc\96\03\usbetter.txt "Group Says U.S. Workers Are Better Off Than
Thought" New York Times April 19, 1996 p. C1 

The National Association of Manufacturers says that when problems
with government reporting of inflation are corrected for, wages have
not stagnated, but risen 15% since 1979. The economy has created 8.4
million jobs since 1992. The real problem is that a typical family
paid only 20% of wages for state and federal taxes in 1955 compared
to 37% today.

--------------------------------------------------------------- ---------
\doc\96\07\cpi.wk1 - Consumer Price Index

Price Indexes 1950-1994
PPI 1982=1.00, CPI 1982-84=1.00
        Annual average measured by
        Index           Annual Change
        Prices  Prices  Prices  Prices
    1950   3.546   4.151
    1955   3.279   3.732    1.6%    2.2%
    1960   2.994   3.373    1.9%    2.1%
    1965   2.933   3.166    0.4%    1.3%
    1970   2.545   2.574    3.0%    4.6%
    1975   1.718   1.859    9.6%    7.7%
    1980   1.136   1.215   10.2%   10.6%
    1985   0.955   0.928    3.8%    6.2%
    1989    0.88   0.807    1.7%    3.0%
    1990   0.839   0.766    4.9%    5.4%
    1991   0.822   0.734    2.1%    4.4%
    1992   0.812   0.713    1.2%    2.9%
    1993   0.802   0.692    1.2%    3.0%
    1994   0.797   0.675    0.6%    2.5%

PPI = Producer price index
CPI = Consumer price index
Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics and
US Bureau of Economic Analysis, Survey of Current Business (montly data)

As cited by "The Universal Almanac 1996" Wright ed.

=============================================================== ===

@@japan vs. US

- Japan has higher per capita GNP, but can buy less with it

- US exports more than Japan

\clip\96\05\indiprog.txt Date: Tue, 17 Sep 1996 03:09:36 -0400
High-Tech Companies Turn to India's Silicon Valley for Software
Services By Jennifer Bjorhus, The Seattle Times India now exports
about $485 million worth of software work a year, most of it to the
United States, according to India's National Association of Software
and Service Companies.  According to Rubin's calculations, the U.S.
software industry employs 2 million people -- far more than any other
country, including Japan, which employs about 1 million, but there is
still a shortage.

@@job export

\priv\96b\08\chinajob.htm Time July 22, 1996 Volume 148, No. 5
make $50 an hour including fringe benefits.

@@job growth

Common wisdom - good family wage jobs are going offshore or to
immigrants. The new jobs are all in low paying service jobs.

Facts - most new jobs are managerial or professional / high tech with
relatively good pay and working conditions. The good old days of
"smokestack" jobs weren't good at all.

'New economy can't do job' Trumka says Lance Gay Seattle Post Intell.
Sep 2, 2002 "When I got out of school [in western Pennsylvania] it was
the mills, mines or auto factories"

Employment Policy Foudation:
Of 23M new jobs projected 2002-2012:
29% Management
9% Teachers
11% Computer Professionals
12% Other Professionals
9% Skilled Trades
30% All Other
Seattle Post Intelligencer Sept 2, 2002 Sec C
head of National Association of Manufacturers: 71% of new lost jobs
were manufacturing employees, most technologically sophisticated and
best-paid of America's workers"

GOP Ingores Income Inequality Wall Street Journal May 23, 1995 ed. page
From 1980-1990 professionals and managers up from 36.6 to 42% of jobs
From Nov 89-94 6.7 million new jobs
59% were professional, technical or managerial
From 25.9% to 20.7% 1980-1990 Crafts, operative, blue collar
In 1976, 78% of auto and steel workers were high school dropouts.

Sun, 23 Jun 1996 12:21:08 -0400 Chicago Tribune New Jobs Column By
Carol Kleiman, Chicago Tribune. Hottest new jobs are in computers,
require college or advanced degrees, better paying jobs.

\doc\96\03\travjob.txt "Landing Jobs In Travel" Seattle Times May
13, 1996 p. E1 The World Travel and Tourism Council says that there
are 200 million travel industry workers worldwide, or 1 of every 9
workers in the world. Some predict jobs could double or triple within
15 years.  The International Air Transport Association projects
international airline passenger to more than double from 318 million
in 1993 to 789 in 2010. Comment - here's another growth industry that
will probably make good use of immigrants, and an example of what
will happen to people downsized from industries which don't need as
many workers. (such as the railroad industry, which is hauling more
freight than ever with fewer people)

\doc\96\03\econtrad.txt Jane Bryant Quinn Seattle Post
Intelligencer April 4, 1996 p. b5 Trade doesn't cost jobs, or add
jobs. Barry Bosworth of the Brookings institution says it shifts them
from lower-wage sectors into higher ones. Most workers displaced are
not losing out to cheap foreign labor [or immigrants, a.hu note], but
to made-in-America mergers, changing technologies, and tough
competition form other US firms.

\priv\96\05\hipay.doc Seattle Times March 14, 1996 p. A2 High-paying
jobs being created - low ones too BY JONATHAN PETERSON AND STUART
SLVERSTEIN Los Angeles Times Since the start of 1994, more than
three-fourths of the 5.6 million new jobs were managerial and
professional, according to a new U.S. Labor Department report. [A. Hu
note - immigrants contributed to this job growth by making labor
available rather than crowding out natives]

From: Ken Hirsch kahirsch##bellsouth.net
October 13, 2002
The absolute number of manufacturing jobs has held remarkably steady
at around 20 million for decades. [Total jobs increased from 1950=60k
to 2000=140k] It's only in percentage that the
number is falling. 
Looking at the 2001 Statistical Abstract of the U.S., table 593
compares the number of people working at various jobs in 1983 and
Of the 34 million new jobs between those years, fully half are
"Managerial and profession specialty", 24% are "Technical, sales, and
administrative support".  Only 13% of new jobs were service jobs
overall, and only a small part of those were health service (2.4% of
all new jobs).

@@job changing

Free-agent mentality boosts job hopping Seattle Times Jan 9, 1999 J2
Gregory Weaver Indianapolis Star 17m will quit to find new jobs to
14.7% in oct 1999 vs 11.8 in 1997. Cites 5th job in 7 years, some
wont hire frequent job hoppers

@@labor cost

\doc\96\03\labcost.txt According to The Economist Dec 9, 1995, using
US Labor Dept figures, the ranking is, reading from the chart, $/hour
in 1994:

27 Germany
25 Switzerland
23 Belgium
22 Austria
21 Japan
20 Holland
20 Denmark
18 Sweden
17 United States
17 France
16 Italy
15 Canada
14 Australia
14 Britain
12 Spain
9 Israel
9 New Zealand
7 Greece
6 Singapore
6 South Korea
5 Taiwan
4 Hong Kong
4 Portugal
2 Mexico

@@Labor Shortage

\clip\97\15\whatlab.txt \clip\97\15\whatlab\whatlab.htm
http://www.pathfinder.com/@@zzGKXwUAwtKVUjPi/fortune/1997/ 970623/fea.html
Fortune June 23, 1997 What Labor Shortage?  It's certainly not easy
to find skilled workers right now. But the evidence shows that this
scarcity is probably a short-lived phenomenon. (More workers are getting
more education and retiring later)


Economic Census Shows Lawyers Are Top Earners 
By Marianne Lavelle
The National Law Journal (p.A1, col.1)
August 28, 1995 

on the web: http://www.lawjobs.com/lawemploylibrary/top.html
personal file: \clip\97\08\lawpay.txt

"when revenue per employee is calculated, legal services top the list
of 12 service industries, averaging $109,476 in money brought in for
every secretary, paralegal and lawyer listed on law firm payrolls.  "

"Many parts of the motion picture industry pull in more than $500,000
in revenue per employee.  And professional sports teams average
$122,458 per worker."

"But a close look at the law alongside other professional services
shows that legal services' revenue per employee is second only to the
$114,105 generated annually by the computer services industry"

"lawyers, by some estimates, are the nation's highest-paid

"the largest plurality of law firm offices -- 35 percent -- make
between $100,000 and $249,999 per year.  Fewer than 1 percent of
for-profit law offices makes more than $10 million or less than
$10,000 in revenue per year.  "



c:\clip\97\04\aerounem.txt DOCNO: MR-688-OSD TITLE: Life After
Cutbacks: Tracking California's Aerospace Workers.  AUTH: R.F.
Schoeni, M. Dardia, K.F. McCarthy, G. Vernez ABST: Researchers tested
the assumption that aerospace workers had suffered greater employment
hardships than workers in comparable nonaerospace industries. Using
wage files and unemployment income files from California's Employment
Development Department, they studied a very large sample of aerospace
workers and a similar sample of nonaerospace durable goods workers.
Although 25 percent of the aerospace sample experienced a 15-percent
wage reduction between 1989 and 1994, aerospace workers experienced,
overall, less hardship than did their nonaerospace counterparts. 

\CLIP\97\02\exdefence.txt Fortune 1994 (pathfinder) EX-DEFENSE
dropped 40% since 1987, many who have lost their jobs "may have to
lower their salary expectations"

GO " financial services workers who were laid off from positions they
had held for three or more years took an average pay cut of 8% once
they found new jobs, compares favorably with average salary declines
experienced by job shifters in construction (16%) and manufacturing
(11%). " Total workforce reduced by 9% in 5 years.

\clip\96\04\chinjob.txt AP 15-Sep-1996 11:56 EDT REF5138 Copyright
1996. The Associated Press. All Rights Reserved.  Jobs In China Not
Guaranteed By RENEE SCHOOF Associated Press Writer state industries
are laying off millions of workers. China now has 12.5 million people
who are laid off or registered as unemployed, partly due to low cost
of competing goods in the USA.

Poll: most discharged execs land on their feet Electrial Engineering
Times June 10, 1996 9 out of 10 laid-off managers and executives
survyed by Challenger, Gray & Christmas reported getting the same or
better salaries than their old positions, compared to 88% in 4Q 95
and 86% in 3Q 95. f061396

\priv\96\03\layoff.doc "Who's to blame for all the layoffs?" WSJ
1/22/96 Michael Hammer blames smart consumers who demand low prices
and best selection, regardless of who is hurt.


Checking Out a Librarian's Career Seattle Times March 9, 1997
Minorities are now 10% of enrollments in library science, with 3 to 1
women to men according to the American Library Association Employment
will increase 6% by 2000 according to Washington Occupational
Information Services's 1996-97 Occupational Information book 3,540
librarians employed in Washington state. Average salary is $36,000
per year, $30,000 national average.  Patrick Grace started as a
lawyer, then quit and took library science.

@@living standard

\priv\96b\08\humdev2.txt Date: Tue, 16 Jul 1996 04:39:09 -0400 From:
NewsHound@sjmercury.com (NewsHound) Canada, U.S., Japan have world's
top living standards NEW YORK, July 15 (Kyodo) -- Canada, the United
States and Japan have the world's top three living standards in
health, education and purchasing power,

@@Living Wage

Activists claim that a living wage is $17 an hour for a single parent
with 2 children (therefore it is wrong to offer jobs that make less
than that???)

http://philanthropy.com/free/articles/v14/i14/14002201.htm Chronicle
of Philanthropy From the issue dated May 2, 2002 Paying a High Price
Living-wage laws threaten stability of some charities By Michael Anft
To cover the increase, Mr. Van
Dorpe says, he may have to cut up to one-fourth of his staff or close
one of the charity's four centers. Deeper cuts could come if
Massachusetts, which also provides money to Neighborhood House, pares
its budget this year.

\clip\99\01\livwage.txt January 6, 1999 Report: Job openings lack
'living wage' by Tyrone Beason Seattle Times business reporter 
"a living wage, as defined in the report, is $10.25 an hour for a
single adult and $16.86 for an adult with two children - considerably
higher than the minimum wage, which rose Jan.  1 in Washington state
to $5.70 an hour from $4.90.  in the Puget Sound region, the per-hour
living wage was estimated to be slightly higher, $10.43 and $17.59
respectively." study by Seattle-based Northwest Federation of
Community Organizations and University of Washington's Northwest
Policy Center. 


In comparison, in 2005, the unmodified difference in incidence between
blacks and non-Hispanic whites was 28.3 percentage points, and the
borrower-plus-lender-related difference was 6.2 percentage points. As
in 2006, most of the reduction in 2005 came from the addition of the
control for lender. Relationships are similar when comparisons are
made between Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic whites.  However, the
unmodified difference in the incidence of higher-priced lending
between these two groups (12 percentage points in 2006) is notably
smaller than between blacks and non- Hispanic whites, and much of the
difference is accounted for once borrower-related factors and lender
are taken into account

The situation for Asians differs greatly from that for blacks or Hispanic whites:
Compared with non-Hispanic whites, Asians had a lower unmodified mean incidence of
higher-priced lending in 2006 for home-purchase and refinance loans. Borrower-related
factors plus lender do not alter the gap in incidence but narrow it for refinancings

@@Low Pay

City Journal Spring 2002 Victor Davis Hanson "many live hard and toil
at menial jobs, perhaps earning $8 an hour, usually in cash. Without
[taxes or benefits] the worker earns the equivalent of a gross $10 an
hour rate, while the employer saves 30% in payroll contributions
[forcing others to pay more]"...  [but use benefits when they get


Technical degrees are in highest demand among job majors

"Why Parents of College Kids Can Rest Easy: 1997 Grads Faced Jobs
Galore, And So Will Future Grads" Investor's Business Daily June 25,
1997 Top professions embracing new college graduates include
electrical engineering, software manufacturing, financial consulting
and accounting accorind to Coopers & Lybrand.

@@manufacturing sector

Manufacturing is supposed to be the key to prosperity, but we've
passed the industrial age, the new jobs are in the information age
based on services. We can produce more goods with fewer people, so
only a few people need to build things just as only 2% of the
population grows our food today.

Weekly Standard (conservative) Feb 9, 2011	
The world's largest manufacturer is neither China nor Germany. It's
the United States.
America still makes plenty of stuff, including aircraft, drugs,
semiconductors, construction equipment, cars, and food. What we don't
make are the cheap, labor-intensive goods with which American
consumers fill their homes.
Jeff Jacoby noted that America accounted for a fifth of global
manufacturing output in 2009. "In fact," he continued, "Americans
manufactured more goods in 2009 than the Japanese, Germans, British,
and Italians—combined." And this was despite the fact that for part of
2009 the economy was in recession.


\doc\96\06\tradus.txt Trade: What's In It For Us? Mobil Ad Time
9/23/96 Services, which is transportation, wholesale and retail
trade, finance and government employ nearly 80% of all workers in
1996, up from 62% in 1960, many of them skilled high tech workers

Ken Hirsh, h-bd says:

The United States is the largest exporter of manufactured goods in the worldl
The U.S accounts for 13.7% of world manufactured exports.
Second is Germany with 11%,  Japan third with 9.3%.  (Table 985 of Stat Abs).

While the _percentage_ of people working in manufacturing has been declining for
decades, the actual _number_ of manufacturing jobs has remained relatively stable:
Manufacturing payrolls
1965 18.1 Million
1970 19.4 Million
1975 18.3 Million
1980 20.3 Million
1985 19.2 Million
1990 19.1 Million
1995 18.5 Million
2000 18.5 Million

To get some idea of American manufacturing might, you can check out the auto
Total Motor Vechicle production in U.S. (Factory Sales)
1970  8.2 Million
1975  9.0 Million
1980  8.1 Million
1985 11.5 Million
1990  9.8 Million
1995 12.0 Million

Most of the manufacturing imports into the U.S. come from HIGH WAGE countries--61%,
in fact.  For low wage counties, Mexico and China together account for 18% of
manufacturing imports, the rest divided between mid-income countries (Korea, Taiwan,
Israel, Spain, etc.) and low-income countries (Malaysia, Brazil, Thailand,
Phillipines, etc.).


"UW's business grads" Shirleen Holt Seattle Times Oct 24, 2002
Business Week reports national average $75,000 in 2002, but U Wash
graduates 88% placed, $60,000 to $69,000

Report Questions M.B.A. Degree's Value, but Students Seem Unconcerned
Chronicle of Higher Education, 2.6.2
little evidence exists that they enhance a person's career or earnings
potential, a Stanford University business professor contends in a
controversial new report.
second-year M.B.A. students this spring found that they expected to
earn an average base starting salary of $75,000, compared with their
average pre-M.B.A. salary of $48,000. The council also surveyed
corporate recruiters, who confirmed the $75,000 starting-salary


\clip\97\19\mech.txt Fixing Cars Is Still a Good Job For Those
Willing to Compute By GABRIELLA STERN Staff Reporter of THE WALL
STREET JOURNAL August 13, 1997 "Last year, working plenty of
overtime, Mr. Figurski made $60,000, well above the $35,284 median
family income in Michigan and on a par with some accountants,
attorneys and engineers. He lives in a three-bedroom house he built
on five acres, has a wife, a young son and two vehicles "


MEDIA MORE IMPORTANT THAN FOOD IN US BY 2003 U.S. will spend more on
media than food by 2003 Kim Chipman Seattle Times Dec 5, 1999 p. E5.
US will spend 663B on media by 2003, 44% more than last year, 6th
largest industry, surpassing food. Time spent on media approaching 10
hours a day (compare with kids spending 40 hrs a week on media) Time
spent on books up 9 hrs per perso from 97 to 98, by 2003, extra 43
hours a year 


Pushing the Envelope Business Week March 8, 1999 p. 94 RAND compared
military pay levels, found that pay for most tropps was higher than
70% to 80% of private-sector work.  Army corporal with four years
gerts $2,017 / month, 78th pctile fro civilian males 22 to 26 with
high school ed. Army major with 12 years $4,949 month, 70th
percentile for civilian males 32 to 36 with 4+ college.

@@minimum wage

\priv\96\13\minwage.htm New York Times April 30, 1996 "Analysis:
Minimum Wage Debate -- Much Bluster Over 90 Cents" · By DAVID E.

\priv\96\13\whowin.htm http://epn.org/epi/epminw.html Who Wins With a
Higher Minimum Wage An Economic Policy Institute Briefing Paper
Lawrence Mishel, Jared Bernstein, and Edith Rasell Summary: supports
minimum wage citing Card study. Minimum-wage earners are primarily
women (57.9%), have full-time jobs (47.2%) or work between 20 and 35
hours weekly (33.3%), are disproportionately black (15%) or Hispanic
(13.8%), and are concentrated in the low-wage retail sector (44.3%).
Minimum-wage earners are frequently the only earner in their family
(38.8%) and, on average, contribute half of their family's earnings.

priv\96\13\minwdest.htm National Center for Policy Analysis National
Center for Policy Analysis, "Destructive Impact of Minimum Wage"
http://www.reagan.com/cgi-bin/main/hottopics/1996/4/ ht041619960.html
POLICY DIGEST Tuesday, April 16, 1996 Virtually every respected study
on the impact of minimum wage laws has found that they significantly
reduce employment. A 1983 study of research in this area found
"virtually total agreement that employment is lower than it would
have been if no minimum wage existed."

>>\doc\96\03\minwage.txt "Mininum Wage vs. Supply and Demand" Wall
Street Journal April 24, 1996 p. A14. Several economists agree that
raising the minimum wage will put anyone whose productivity falls
below the wage out of work, with the greatest impact being on the
minority poor, and greatest benefit to middle class teenagers.

>>\doc\96\03\washmin.txt "Popeye's Chain Mulls Minimum Wage" Wall
Street Journal April 24, 1996 p. A8. A University of Washington study
of raising the minimum wage in Wash state in 1989 and 1990 found
10,000 jobs were cut state-wide, and employers spent more time and
effort recruiting and training employees.

"Crying out for reform" Economist Nov 25, 1995 p. France /6 Chart
shows that unemployment has increased with the minimum wage F120695

\priv\95\13\wagestud.doc economics.minimum wage "Of magic, myth and
the minimum wage" Economist Sept 30, 1995 p. 94 Famous wage study by
Card is plain wrong, the best study now says that a 19% rise in fast
food wages resulted  in decreased employment by 4.6%

\doc\95\05\wagehurt.txt New Jersey fast food study flawed, 10%
increase in min wage causes 2.7% decrease in employment

\doc\95\02\minwage.txt Mininum wage raise cost 10% of 
teen black unemployment

Voodoo Economics, Minimum Wage Dept Daniel Seligman
Fortune March 6, 1995 p. 217


Here  is a comment 
worth considering from the Dallas Fed:
/Some 80 percent of outstanding U.S. mortgages are prime, while 14 
percent are subprime and 6 percent fall into the near-prime category. 
These numbers, however, mask the explosive growth of nonprime mortgages. 
Subprime and near-prime loans shot up from 9 percent of newly originated 
securitized mortgages in 2001 to 40 percent in 2006./


Under the latest agreement, musicians at the Philadelphia Orchestra
will make $1,500 per week the 1st year ($78,000), those with 25 years
of seniority will make $90,640 by 1999. Of course, most musicians
don't make this much. \doc\96\08\philorch.txt "Philadelphia Orchestra
Returns, Reluctantly" Seattle Times Nov 20, 1990"

Maestros of Money Kiplinger's March 2003 p. 26 Sean O'Neill
Last year only 159 full time salaried orchestra positions
opened up to new players, compared to 3,900 students who graduate
with music degrees specializing in instruments. 


Occupational Outlook Handbook

%%Catholic Priest

http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos063.htm#earnings US Dept of Labor
According to a biennial survey of the National Federation of Priests’
Council, low-end salaries averaged $12,936 per year in 1999; high-end
salaries averaged $15,483 per year. In addition to a salary, diocesan
priests receive a package of benefits that may include a car
allowance, room and board in the parish rectory, health insurance, and
a retirement plan.


Median hourly earnings of retail salespersons, including commission,
were $8.02 in 2000. 
New and used car dealers             $17.81  
Lumber and other building materials   10.38  
Department stores                      7.63 
Miscellaneous shopping goods stores    7.50  
Family clothing stores                 7.39  


Norfolk 911 operators: the pay ranges from $19,625 to $34,394 a year.
\clip\97\11\911.txt http://www.usatoday.com/news/nds26.htm USA Today
04/30/97 '311' could be the answer to overtaxed `911'


\clip\99\09\overwork.txt Myths That Make Managers Push Staff Close to
Burnout By SUE SHELLENBARGER Wall Street Journal March 17, 1999
REPORTING THIS column over the years, I've heard nearly every excuse
from managers for employee overwork and burnout. [More ed reform =
Dilbert management from hell. These sound like exactly the same
excuse I hear from teachers and principals assigning homework from
hell to meet the new world class standard for the 21st century, and
not learning the same way as their parents did, they shouldn't be
working so hard, or they should be better prepared]

"If somebody is working too hard, he needs to get some help,"

Myth One: When a client says jump, the only answer is "How high?"  

Myth Two: Reining in employees' workloads will turn them into slackers

Myth Three: If an employee is working himself into the ground, it's
his own fault.  


     Copyright © 1996 The Seattle Times Company Dec. 19, 1996 Study:
`Near-zero' jobs created by NAFTA by Sara Silver Associated Press NEW
YORK - The trade pact with Mexico and Canada has not stolen many jobs
from Americans, but it hasn't created too many news ones either,
according to a report released today. " On balance, NAFTA has
generated only 11,000 jobs in the United States since it became law
Jan. 1, 1994 - an insignificant fraction of the country's 125 million
jobs. "

\clip\96\12\naftajob.htm NAFTA didn't take jobs away, but didn't
create very many either (but if prices are lower, it's still a net
win for everybody!)



Seattle PI 8/26/2002
average net worth of gen x-er born 1967-1981 $117,000
New York Life survey of 530


\doc\96\06\netweal.txt (US Census)
Asset Ownership of Households: 1993 
total    $37,587
white    $45,740
hispanic  $4,656
black     $4,418

--------------------------------------------------------------- ---------

Table F.  Median Net Worth by Race and Hispanic Origin of Householder and Monthly Household Income Quintile:  1993 and 1991
(Excludes group quarters)
_______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ ______________
                                                  Total                    White                    Black             Hispanic origin\1
                                        _______________________________________________________________ _____________________________________
                                               1993         1991        1993         1991        1993         1991        1993         1991
Monthly household income quintile                       (in 1993                 (in 1993                 (in 1993                 (in 1993
                                                        dollars)                 dollars)                 dollars)                 dollars)
_______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ ______________

  All households (thousands)............     96,468       94,692      82,190       81,409      11,248       10,768       7,403        6,407
Median net worth (dollars)..............     37,587       38,500      45,740       47,075       4,418        4,844       4,656        5,557

Net Worth by Income Quintile\2

Lowest quintile: 
  Households (thousands)................     19,327       18,977      14,662       14,480       4,066        4,041       2,272        1,835
  Median net worth (dollars)............      4,249        5,406       7,605       10,743         250            0         499          529

Second quintile:
  Households (thousands)................     19,306       18,912      16,162       16,006       2,663        2,436       1,760        1,557
  Median net worth (dollars)............     20,230       20,315      27,057       26,665       3,406        3,446       2,900        3,214

Third quintile:
  Households (thousands)................     19,279       18,969      16,591       16,388       2,126        2,124       1,437        1,312
  Median net worth (dollars)............     30,788       30,263      36,341       35,510       8,480        8,302       6,313        7,501

Fourth quintile:
  Households (thousands)................     19,304       18,928      17,218       17,043       1,454        1,353       1,115        1,009
  Median net worth (dollars)............     50,000       51,779      54,040       55,950      20,745       21,852      20,100       20,564

Highest quintile:
  Households (thousands)................     19,252       18,905      17,558       17,492         937          814         819          694
  Median net worth (dollars)............    118,996      121,423     123,350      128,298      45,023       56,922      55,923       72,168
_______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _____________
1/Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
2/Quintile upper limits for 1993 were: lowest quintile -$1,071; second quintile - $1,963; third quintile - $2,995; fourth quintile -
$4,635.  Upper limits for 1991 were: lowest quintile - $1,135; second quintile - $2,027; third quintile - $3,089; fourth quintile - $4,721.

Black wealth

Business Week Nov 6, 1993 p. 72
Median Net worth, 1993  white, black

All      $45,740  $4,418
Lowest    $7,605    $250
Second   $27,057  $3,406
Third    $36,341  $8,480
Fourth   $54,040 $20,745
Highest $123,350 $45,023

DOC941\CAWEAL.TXT Big drop in CA net wealth

DOC941\CAWORTH.XLS Net worth in CA 88 and 92


Care for a job? Seattle PI 5/11/2004 p. b3
Wash State U WSU officials says starting salaries for nurses run from $45,000 to $60,000
plus bonus

@@part-time jobs

\clip\96\02\parttime.txt Many who work part times jobs
do so because they want to, no increasing trend of multiple


Business Week The Great American Ponzi Scheme In San Diego firefighters and police can retire at age 50 after 20 years of service, other vested at age 55. After 25 years, firefighter collects 3/4 salary.

It costs 11c for every salary dollar to fund pension, but costs 41c because it is behind

Social Security is acutally pay-as-you-go, funded from current contributions

"the opportunity to issue a far-off obligation can sire a powerful temptation to promise more than one ought"

Studebaker raised pensions four times, both sides knew the money was not there

ERISA in 1970s regulated pensions, requires that pensions that are offered must be funded. May have brought end to pensions to 401k which imposes no future commitment. Did not apply to government

New york in 60s lavished beneifits on unions. Illinois rewarded unions without funding them.

San Diego gave into union demands to defer higher contributions in exchange for more benefits. "Shamefully, the city council agreed" .. both higher obligations and lower funding. "The deal, when exposed left san Diego scandalized and impoverished"

... will discover that their pensions are worthless... checks stopped coming forcing some to go back to work..

"pensions are a long festering corrosion in the body politic"

the average public pensioner in the US receives $27,000 per year

in 2008 pension expenditures took up 4% of local budgets

New York City is 15% of budget

kick in at 60 turn into support systems lasting 2, 3, 4 decades

abuse - working overtime in last year, change to high salary in last year

In 2007 average 401k for nearing retirement was only $78,000 Only Alaska has abolished pensions

Public employees need equivalent of ERISA... suggests combining pension with 401k

@@Pharmacist A Prescription for a Successful Career. Seattle Times Jan 24, 1999 There are only two college progams and 75 openings for pharmacists per year. Starting salary is $55,000, average is $65,000-$75,000 (that's a lot higher than most programmers) @@Philanthropist \CLIP\96\12\PHILAN.TXT Seattle Times Company Dec. 23, 1996 Bill Gates among top tycoon philanthropists with $135 million in gifts (No. 3) by Associated Press NEW YORK - They know how to make money but they're not necessarily good at giving it away, according to a survey of the nation's tycoons by Fortune magazine. Fortune's ranking of top 25 US philanthropists by 1996 donations 1. George Soros, $350 million. 2. L.S. Skaggs, retired chairman of American Stores, $155 million. 3. Bill Gates, chairman of Microsoft, $135 million. 4. Walter Annenberg, former chairman of Triangle Publications, $128 million. 5. William Hewlett, co-founder of Hewlett-Packard, $100 million. 6. Leslie Gonda, chairman of International Lease Finance Corp., $73 million. 7. Jay A. and Robert A. Pritzker, Hyatt Corp., Marmon Group, $70 million. 8. Ted Arison, retired founder of Carnival Cruise Lines, $60 million. 9. Robert Galvin, retired chairman of Motorola, $60 million. 10. William Davidson, chairman of Guardian Industries, $35 million. 11. Joan Kroc, widow of McDonald's former chairman, $33 million. 12. Robert Bass, president of Keystone, $30 million. 13. Michael Bloomberg, founder of Bloomberg LP, $30 million. 14. John Kluge, chairman of Metromedia, $30 million. 15. Thomas Lee, president of Thomas H. Lee Co., $30 million. 16. Ted Turner, vice chairman of Time Warner, $28 million. 17. Alfred Lerner, president of MBNA, $27 million. 18. Jon Huntsman, president of Huntsman Chemical, $25 million. 19. Phil Knight, co-founder and chairman of Nike, $25 million. 20. Fred Rose, president of Rose Associates, $25 million. 21. James Michener, novelist, $24 million. 22. Peter Nicholas, chairman of Boston Scientific, $23 million. 23. Ross Perot, founder of Perot Systems, $23 million. 24. Joseph Jamail, owner, Jamail & Kolius, $20 million. 25. Betty Brown Casey, president of Casey Management, $18 million. @@Pilot Chopper pilots in high demand Northwest Job Market Dec 7, 1999 Alex Goff. Logging helicopter pilots can earn $150,000 a year. Starting pilots (instructors) $15,000, $60,000 commercial government $100,000 corporate. @@Professor Full times faculty members of private research universities earned $69,290 on average in 1996, nearly double $36,730 in 1984 according to the American Association of University Professors. (That's even with the best high tech professionals) In general, full time professors were paid $50,980. Many get free tuition for their children, costing Stanford $4.5 million last year. "Teacher's Perk" Wall Street Journal April 15, 1997 p. 1 @@Programmer PROGRAMMERS PEAKED IN 2000, DOWN BELOW 1994 LEVELS IN 2003 \zip75\clipim\2003\11\20\The Programmer's Future.htm INFORMATIONWEEK.COM NOV 17, 2003 Programmers peaked in 2000, have fallen below 1994 level. People calling themselves programmers down 12%, employed down 16% 1.6% unemployment in 2001, now 7.1%. Software engineers 5% @@protectionism HIGH-TECH JOBS FOR SALE BOEING BUYS PARTS FROM CHINA TO GET ACCESS TO A HUGE MARKET. IS THE U.S. SACRIFICING TOO MANY WORKERS? c:\clip\97\02\chinplan.txt TIME Magazine July 22, 1996 Volume 148, No. 5 \priv\96\05\protno.txt U.S.NEWS & WORLD REPORT, APRIL 8, 1996 PROTECTIONISM? JUST SAY NO The future lies in competition and more trade, big threat is from high-wage nations. @@railroad \doc\96\04\trainlab.txt - Railroad labor has been steadily shrinking, but not neccesarily carrying less freight, cut in half between 1980 and 1990. @@reagan \doc\95\07\raceweal.txt - wealth of all races increased from 1983 to 1989. Rich got richer, and so did most of the poor. Wall Street Journal April 24, 1995 graph source WFEA group, conference board per capita after-tax income (1985 dollars) increased from $10 to about $18, or nearly doubled from 1980 to 1989, about the same as from $4 to $10 from 1970 to 1980. \doc\95\06\incmineq.txt In 1990 60% of high school graduates went on to college compared to 49% in 1980 \doc\95\06\incmineq.txt - From 1980 to 1990, professionals and managers increased from 36.6 to 42 percent of all jobs. Between 1989 and 1994, 6.7 million new jobs were created, and contrary to the notion that most were Mac-jobs, well over half, 59 percent were managerial, professional or technical, while relatively low paying crafts and operative blue collar jobs declined from 25 percent to 20.7 percent during the 1980s. \doc\95\06\incchang.txt - All groups gained by Reagan, most poor move up, most rich move down 1989-1988 "Tax cuts off target" Tony Snow, USA Today March 27, 1995 d:\priv\95\04\whcollar.txt - burger flippers my eye, Most new jobs in Reagan years were white collar professional jobs, female executive were up 95%, blacks up 23%, Asians up 106%, American Indians up 45%, women in production, crafts and repair were up 20% San Jose Mercury Jan 29, 1993 p. 1f @@quality \doc\96\04\toyota.txt Seattle Times May 18, 1996 "Toyta's U.S. Suppliers Strain to Meet It's High Standards" Toyota CEO Hiroshi Okuda complains that US built Toyotas slightly lag Japanese built cars in quality afer disparities in ratings for J.D Powers with the Avalon and Camry, which are built in Georgetown, Kentucky. @@Real Estate The cell phone is always on. Seattle Times May 8, 1999 Top agents make $1 million per day on 61 milllion in sales, but work 7 long days a week on the cell phone. 1994 average earnings in WA $38,400 Wa Center for Real Estate Research. @@RECESSION [[NET WORTH DOC941\CAWEAL.TXT Big drop in CA net wealth DOC941\CAWORTH.XLS Net worth in CA 88 and 92 @@retail %%scale NO DUH - SUPERSTORES SAVE CONSUMERS MONEY \clip\96\09\bigsupr.txt November 25, 1996 Big Supermarkets Have Lower Prices, Mayor Says New York Times By LYNETTE HOLLOWAY [N] EW YORK -- The Giuliani administration released the results of a survey Sunday that it said showed large supermarkets had better prices than smaller grocers, as it tried to demonstrate the benefits of its push to allow superstores of all types to open around New York City. Comment - protectionism of the few is harmful to the consumer, and why the US economy is much more efficient than Japan which still tries to keep out Toys R Us to protect the little guy. %%wages Median earnings of retail salespersons in 1997 p. 275 Occupational Outlook Handbook 2000-01 US Dept of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics January 2000 Bulletin 2520 $15.10 New used car dealers $6.90 Department store $6.70 Misc shopping goods store $6.40 Family clothing store $6.20 Women's clothing store @@retire %%age RETIREMENT AT 60 UP FROM 33% IN 1900 TO 73% \doc\96\01\retire.txt Fortune July 24, 1995 US Bureau of Labor Statistics (read from chart) Percent of men over 60 in the labor force 1900 67% 1930 65% 1960 45% 1990 27% Percent of age group in labor force in 1994 45-54 M80% W72% 55-64 M62% W45% 65+ M16% W10% %%average John Greany's retire early home pafe rehphone.tripod.com/re60.html Hope to retire rich? Scott Burns Seattle Times Dec 1, 2002 255,119 threshold of poverty nest egg for couple - 10,715/yr Vanguard groups - avg 47,980, median 15,360 65 and over - 117,643 median 41980 Average social security 882/month Couple needs 418, single 252 to match ss @@Rich %%increase NUMBER OF $1M RICH UP 16%/YR, $5M UP 46% Reason Decmber 2000 p. 10 Spectrum Group says US millionaires grows at 16% per year. In 1999 7.2M exceeded 1M in liauid assets, up from 3.4M in 1996.

@@Salary by Career

Salary Spectrum mid-late 1990s -------------------------------------------- $154M Top 10 CEO earnings 2000 $63M Tiger Woods Golf 2001 $59M Michael Schumacher Motorsport 2001 $48M Mike Tyson 2001 Boxing $24M Shaquille O'Neal LA Lakers 2001-02 $11M top Major League Baseball 1999 $10.5M 2001 Average top executive pay NYT 6/24/02 $2.6M average NBA 1998 $2.0M Michelle Kwan skater 2001 $1.5M average Major League Baseball 1998 $1.3M median NBA 1998 $1.0M top 1,200 Seattle software workers 1998 (11) $900,000 average National Football League 1998 $287,000 Seattle average software worker 1998 (11) $360,000 Dallas school superintendent, highest in US $300,000 Kansas City Head Start CEO 2001 $200,000 Surgeon 1997 (3) $200,000 Airline Pilot 1997 (3) $156,000 Physician 1997 (3) $144,700 Harvard full professor 2002 (16) $137,000 US school dist superintendent over 25,000 $130,000 WA governor 1998 $118,000 GS-14 Customs P-3 Pilot 2001 (want ad) $129,030 General Dentist US 2000 $115,900 U Cal Berkeley full professor 2002 (16) $59-$109,000 Car sales want ad 2001 $100,000 Top auto mechanics Seattle 2000 (15) $90,000 5th yr Farmers Ins Agent 1998 $90,000 Silicon Valley Software 1998 (7) $85,000 Univ Chicago MBA median 2001 Business 2.0 $80,000 Halibut boat crew avg 2002 Fishing Vessel Owners Assoc $77,000 GS-13 Customs P-3 Pilot 2001 under 40 $75,000 MBA degree (18) $71,460 Private University Professor 2002 (16) $70,000 Computer Engineer 1997 (3) $65-70,000 Pharmacist Average 1997 (8) $65,000 start 2001 U Wash comp sci grad 10-15k bonus (12) $65,000 median seattle software worker 1998 (11) $62,024 Public Univ Professor 2002 (16) $60,000 Retired engineering professor 2004 (I met) $61,403 computer game developer 2001 (15) $60,000 U Washington MBA grad 2002 $60,000 Commercial helicopter 1999 $60,000 Management Consultant 1997 (3) $45,000-$60,000 2004 Wash State Univ Nursing Grads starting $59,280 Physicians 1998 (4) $58,500 Lawyer 1998 (4) $58,000 Lawyer 1997 (3) $56,160 CompSci Grad 1996 Census (14) Highest UG major $55,000 Pharmacist 1997 (8) $55,000 U Wash Comp Sci grad 1998 (12) $54,169 2003 Marysville teacher, 2nd highest in WA $54,149 Boeing worker 1998 (10) $55,172 Chemical engineer (4) $53,443 2001 Computer eng grad Natl Assoc Colleges Employers (13) $52,999 median engineering degree men over 30 1996(1) $52,316 median math degree men over 30 1996(1) $52,000 Financial Advisor 2000 USDOL $51,844 Aerospace engineer (4) $51,480 Pharmacist (4) $50,460 Flight Attendent 2002 WSJ 2/3/04 BLS $50,000 KingCo WA Librarian 2002 $50,805 median pharmacy degree men over 30 1996(1) $50,000 15 yrs teacher Seattle, masters 90 credits $49,016 Average FT nurse in WA $49,608 Electrial Engineer (4) $49,000 average WA aerospace wage 1995 (2) $48,000 MBA before starting degree (18) $45,000 start Los Angeles Police 1996 $43,000 median men with bachelor degree 1996(1) $42,330 Sonographer 1999 US Bur Labor $42,000 mech eng major 1996 $39,000 electrical eng / mech eng major 1996 $34,000 Seattle area workers 1998 (10) $38,400 Real Estate Agent WA 1994 $37,642 US average teacher 1995 (9) $36,367 Houston Teacher 2002 (17) $36,000 computer sci major 1996 $34,000 "living wage" for parent plus 2 kids (6) $36,000 Palm Harbor Homes factory worker 2001 $33,000 Farmers Ins Agent 1st year 1999 $32,000 18-24 with bachelors 2000 census $30,000 US new/used car salesmen 1997 US Dept Labor $32,000 nursing major 1996 $30,000 accounting major 1996 $30,000 starting auto tech 2000 (15) $25,000 education major 1996 $25,507 US starting teacher 1995 (9) $24,000 Gray Line Tour Bus driver start -$32k $23,000 start Seattle teacher 1998 $22,000 journalism major 1996 $20,000 value of public assistance 1995 (5) $16,240 1998 med guard, 12-26k $15,770 2002 Waiter/ess WSJ 2/3/04 BLS $15,000 starting helicopter pilot $13,200 start Pan Am Flight Attendent 1996 $12,000 federal minimum wage 1997 Low paid jobs - us bureau labor statistics 2002 6.94 bartender 7.55 garden nursery worker 7.60 shoe sales 7.65 cashier 8.02 maid 9.65 messenger 9.69 bank teller 9.85 janitor national seatimes 1/26/2003 %%Auto Mechanic AUTO MECHANIC $30 TO $100K z49\clip\2001\06\autotech.txt Copyright © 2001 The Seattle Times Company Business & Technology : Sunday, June 10, 2001 By Terry Box Dallas Morning News A starting tech is usually paid about $30,000 a year and, "with modest ambition," can earn $50,000 annually in a few years. Those willing to work hard can make more than $100,000 a year %%Computer Science (12) SeaTimes 5/13/2001 "Tougher Market for Tech Students" (13) SeaTimes 5/20/2001 "Research pays off for tech grads" computer engineering rise 14.3% to $53,443 avg, elect eng $50,850 National Association of Colleges and Employers Design News survey June 2008 Software engineers are the highest paid engineering field http://www.designnews.com/file/1022-2008_Salary_Survey.pdf Software engineering $92,500 Electrical / Electronics engineering $90,000 Mechanical engineering $80,000 Median $81,650 Age under 34 $65,000 35-44 $80,000 45-54 $87,000 55-64 $90,000 (peak) 64+ $85,000 $101,200 Southwest (California) $87,000 Mountain states $85,000 Pacific Northwest $71,000 Canada $86,500 New England $86,000 South $85,000 Mid-Atlantic $81,000 Southeast $79,000 Midwest PhD $98,000 MA Engineer $92,000 BS Engineer $84,000 2 yr Associate $68,000 In field 17 years, 11 with present company 8 years in job, average age 48. Median has been engineer 21 years COMPUTER SCIENCE IS HIGHEST PAYING UNDERGRAD DEGREE, ED WORST z49\clip\2001\05\compsci.txt Computer Science Degree Pays Off 10 Apr 2001 WASHINGTON (AP) -- College graduates with engineering and computer science diplomas get the best-paying jobs, while an education degree yields the lowest monthly income, the Census Bureau concludes. Full-time workers age 18 and older who graduated from college with engineering diplomas made an average $4,680 a month in 1996, Education majors averaged $2,802 a month in 1996. The figures were the latest available, and were based on a survey separate from the 2000 Census. %%flight attendant \priv\96\20\fligattn.txt Pan Am pays $13,200 starting in 1996 %%police starting varies from $35k in northern cities to $45k average in LAPD. %%Professor (16) Survey finds rise in college faculty pay Seattle P-I 4/15/2002 Arlene Levinson AP American Association of University Professors 2-4 yr colleges 3.8% raise over 2000-01, slightly higher than 1971-72 $71,460 private university $62,024 public university $55,346 religious affliated university $144,700 full professors at Harvard $115,900 U Cal Berkeley %%sports \clip\99\01\basket.txt NBA Labor Dispute Ends After 6 Months Short Season to Start in February By Richard Justice and Mark Asher Washington Post Staff Writers Thursday, January 7, 1999; Page A01 "NBA players have the highest average salary in professional sports at around $2.6 million per player, far above the $1.45 million average in Major League Baseball and the $900,000 average in the National Football League. " \clip\99\01\bask2.txt http://www.nytimes.com/library/sports/basketball/010799bkn-labor.html January 7, 1999 With Little Time on Clock, NBA and Players Settle By MIKE WISE " provided its players the highest average salary in pro sports, $2.6 million. It also achieved its stated priority of significantly bettering the economic position of its middle-class players, those making around the median salary of $1.3 million." %%teacher @@Skills MOST NEW JOBS DON'T REQUIRE HIGH TECH DEGREES. "Don't Blame Technology This Time" Bennet Harrison (benh@tiac.net) Technology Review July 1997 p. 62 F062697. US Census Bureau survey of 3,000 companies nationwide finds that to fill new vacancies, companies don't put priority on years of schooling, test scores or teacher recommendations, but attitude, communication skills, recommendations from employers. Michigan State U economist Harry Holzer found in four metro areas, in jobs requiring math, reading, writing and computer use, jobs didn't need more than high school diploma, some experience or prior training and reference. @@Slavery z49\clip\2001\06\newslave.txt Subject: [Upstream] Year: 2001 A.D. Slaves: 27 Million http://www.smh.com.au/news/0106/04/pageone/pageone2.html June 4, 2001 27 million slaves, and we look away It is the dark underbelly of globalisation, a trade in human misery and despair that has gone largely unnoticed. Beginning a major Herald series, Mark Riley reports on 21st century slavery. As many as 10 million children are believed to be working in bondage in India, including about 300,000 in rug factories. @@Software Jobs %%Jobs \clip\99\02\silvall.txt San Jose Mercury News January 9, 1999 Internet, software redefining Silicon Valley BY JONATHAN RABINOVITZ Mercury News Staff Writer "software increased its total share of jobs to 14 percent from 7.5 percent. And software employees continue to be the most highly paid, with average annual wages of $90,380." "Revenge of the Nerds" Business week June 16, 1997 p. 8 There are an estimated 190,000 vacant jobs at large and midsize companies in software. Many skip college now. 100 teenagers trained in computer animation work at Hollywood studies. EDS in Herndon Va is interviewing students with vocational training in network adminstration. Trent Eisenberg 15 has a consulting firm in software installation and setup. F061997 %%Profile Guru's Gamble Business 2.0 July 2002 Guru has assessed character traits of workers in 95 different jobs. From chart: ---------------------------------------------- Corporate Executive vs. Software Engineer Not at all - Average - Highly Accomodating ---- ++ Creative ++ -- Independent +++++ -- Risk-taking ++++ -- Tactful -- -- Trusting + - Versatile +++++ --- Corporate executives are creative? @@Spending (Household spending) %%household doc\96\01\housspnd.wk1 Source: Investor's Business Daily Jan 2, 1996 p. 1 Percentage of estimated average spending, by category, for households in metropolitan areas, 1993 %%race Wall Street Journal Sept 3, 1997 p. b1 Blacks and Hispanics Gain Spending Clout Source: Selig Center for Economic Growth University of Georgia Disposable income 1990-1997 Race increase % share B dollars total 41 100 5.7T black 54 7.5-8.2 469B hisp 66 5.2-6.1 348B @@Stock Sales z57\clip\2002\08\insale.txt FROM http://online.wsj.com/article/0,,SB1029102020679872395,00.html?mod=Page%20One Before Telecom Bubble Burst, Some Insiders Sold Out Stakes IN Wall Street Journal, 12 August, 2002 BY DENNIS K. BERMAN QwestCommunications International Inc. founder Philip Anschutz sold nearly $2 billion of shares, and former chief executive Joseph Nacchio sold about $250 million. Global Crossing Ltd. founder Gary Winnick sold $734 million in shares on a $20 million investment. @@Stock Valuation US Leads Top 5 Largest companies, and 6 out of the next 10 in stock market valuation Economist Nov 15, 1997 p. 109 Top 15 companies by market capitalisation Oct 28th 1997 $bn (approx) ------------------------------ 1. General Electric (US) $220 2. Microsoft (US) $160 3. Exxon (US) $150 4. Coca Cola (US) $140 5. Intel (US) $140 6. NTT (Japan) $138 7. Toyota Motor (Japan) $115 8. Royal Dutch Pet (Neth)$110 9. Merch (US) $110 10. Novartis (Swiss) $100 11. IBM (US) $100 12. Philip Morris $100 13. Proctor Gamble $100 14. Pfizer $90 15. Bristol Myers Squibb $90 Source: Morgan Stanley Capital International Database @@Sports Seattle Times Wednesday, June 12, 2002 WNBA players might strike in '03; Union seeks better salaries, marketing rights By The Associated Press and Bloomberg The WNBA rookie minimum salary is $30,000 for the three-month season, and the veteran minimum is $40,000. RODMAN SALARY WORTH UP TO 10.45M Jet online: Rodman brings home $4.5 million base salary, could earn another $5.95 million in incentives. Feb 2, 1998 Chicago Bulls forward Dennis "The Worm" Rodman is guaranteed a salary of $4.5 million, but he could wiggle another $5.95 million into his pocket due in part to signing the most incentive-laden contract in NBA history. According to the Chicago Dennis Sun-Times, Rodman's base salary is $4.5 million, but it could be worth $10.45 million with incentives. Michelle Kwan - worth $2M / year see LA lesson on sports salaries http://www.challenge.state.la.us/edres/lessons/HighSchool/lesson13.htm mchesson@@allen.k12.la.us Sports Salary Links ---------------------- Follow the link at the top of the page for National League salaries Baseball http://www.usatoday.com/sports/baseball/mlbfs15.htm z56\clip\2002\06\baseball.htm, baseam.htm 1999 top for each team $8-11M average $1-2M 2001-02 salaries http://www.usatoday.com/sports/nba/stories/2001-02-salaries.htm NFL 1997 salaries http://www.usatoday.com/sports/football/sfn/afceast.htm NA Hockey http://www.hockeynut.com/9899/salary1098.html 50 Top World's Athlete http://www.robmagazine.com/sports1.html 1. Tiger Woods 63.1M 2. Michael Chumacher Motorsports 59M @@Superpower www.seattletimes.com \clip\98\08\suppow.txt The Seattle Times Company Wednesday, April 15, 1998 800-pound gorilla? Like it or not, U.S. is THE top power by R.C. Longworth Chicago Tribune The word is hegemon. Get used to it. It means numero uno, Mr. Big, the 800-pound gorilla. @@Taxes %%Income INCOME TAX WON'T FIX BUDGET SHORTFALL z62\clip\2002\12\salestax.htm Seattle Times Dec 5 2002 With or without income tax, most states mired in money woes "the Tax Structure Study Committee, headed by Bill Gates Sr., recommended an income tax for Washington, its main focus was easing the burden on lower-income people, not raising more money for state government." %%Payroll PAYROLL TAXES BIGGER THAN INCOME TAXES, BUT WON'T BE CUT Matthew Miller Seattle Times July 30, 1997 p. B6 Now payroll taxes are 12.9% Social Security, 2.9% Medicare, they were only 3% in 1950, now 15.3%. SS is capped at $65,000 of income, medicare applies to all of income. Payroll taxes brought in 535 billion in income, nearly equal to 670 billion in income taxes, and more when employer contributions are taken into account. Only workers pay, the elderly don't pay at all. %%Rich TOP 50% PAYS 95.8% OF TAXES Progressive Plunder How America's tax system abuses the rich. Tuesday, February 6, 2001 2/6/01 WSJ http://opinionjournal.com/editorial/feature.html "In 1998, the latest year available from the IRS, the top 1% of taxpayers (with an adjusted gross income of $269,496) paid 34.8% of federal income tax revenue and the top 5% (with an AGI of $114,729) paid 54%; that is, 5% paid over half of all income tax revenues. Put another way, the bottom 50%--fully half of taxpayers--paid only 4.2% of the tax take while the top half accounted for 95.8%. Indeed, taxes on a typical middle-income family have fallen to their lowest level in more than 20 years." @@technology \doc\96\01\multimed.txt "Multimedia access" Economist Nov 18, 1995 p. 114 f012396 US is #1 in telephones, televisions and personal computers per person in the world. Japan is #2 in TV, but #7 in computers. 2 - Australia 3-6 France, Germany, Britain, Singapore @@Top paying jobs z75\clip\2003\10\topjob.txt http://www.fastweb.com/fastweb/content/focus/story/3770.ptml The 20 Highest Paying Jobs in the U.S. -- by Ben Murray, Monster staff writer According to the 2001 Occupational Employment Statistics Survey conducted by the Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the top 11 to 20 highest-paying professions in the US are: 1. Surgeons - $137,050/year 2. Obstetricians and gynecologists - $133,430/year 3. Anesthesiologists - $131,680/year 4. Internists, general - $126,940/year 5. Pediatricians, general - $116,550/year 6. Psychiatrists - $113,570/year 7. Family and general practitioners - $110,020/year 8. Dentists - $110,820/year 9. Chief executives - $107,670/year 10. Airline pilots, co-pilots, flight engineers - $99,400/year 11. Podiatrists - $95,500/year 12. Lawyers - $91,920/year 13. Optometrists - $88,100/year 14. Computer and information systems managers - $83,890/year 15. Physicists - $83,750/year 16. Air traffic controllers - $83,350/year 17. Petroleum engineers - $81,800/year 18. Nuclear engineers - $80,200/year 19. Judges, magistrate judges, magistrates - $79,540/year 20. Marketing managers - $78,410/year @@trade, @@free trade %%China \doc\96\03\taiwtrad.txt "Power Politics: Battle of Taiwan Begins" Seattle Times Feb 19, 1996 p. B5. In 1995, Taiwan bought 19 billion from the US and sold 24 for a net deficit of $5 billion. China bought 12 billion and sold 47 for a net deficit of 35 @@Traffic 2003 DOWNTURN: PARKING OCCUPANCY RATE DOWN 20% z63\clip\2003\01\park.txt http://seattletimes.nwsource.com By Susan Gilmore Seattle Times staff reporter Fewer cars, more parking around town We know that vacancies in downtown Seattle office buildings are high and that traffic volume has dropped, but there's one more indicator of how the region is reeling from the economic free fall: parking. • In downtown Seattle, the 2002 parking occupancy rate was 63 percent, nearly a 20 percent drop from 1999. @@training \clipim\98\03\wha01.tif "What works?" The Economist Ap 6th 1996 p19 training is often ineffective. On the job training, eve, minimum wage appears to be very effective. After 3 yrs of work, only 15% of minimum wage workers were still at it, many as 2nd jobs only. German apprenticeship mdel called "a broken model"More 199m going to university than dual ed system. over half of uynemployed grads of dual ed system, benefit is not skills but cheap half wage labor, but they are laid off at full pay as germans stay home while immigrants build roads and houses. OECD study of german training and retraining - no type of training had any effext on unemployment. http://www.arthurhu.com/index/economy.htm# unemployment @@Unemployment %%aid http://workforcesecurity.doleta.gov/employ/wotcdata.asp WHAT IS THE WORK OPPORTUNITY TAX CREDIT? The Work Opportunity Tax Credit (WOTC), authorized by the Small Business Job Protection Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-188), is a federal tax credit that encourages employers to hire eight targeted groups of job seekers The new employee must belong to one of eight target groups: A member of a family that is receiving or recently received Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) or Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), An 18-24 year old member of a family that is receiving or recently received Food Stamps, An 18-24 year old resident of one of the Federally designated Empowerment Zones (EZs) or Enterprise Communities (ECs), A 16-17 year old EZ or EC resident hired between May 1 and September 15 as a Summer Youth Employee, A veteran who is a member of a family that is receiving or recently received Food Stamps, A disabled person who completed or is completing rehabilitative services from a State or the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, An ex-felon who is a member of a low income family, and/or A recipient of Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefits. %%asian ASIANS LOWEST UNEMPLOYMENT BUT HIGHER FOR EQUAL EDUCATION “Model Minority” Faces Reality of Unemployment http://www.asianweek.com/2010/10/01/model-minority-faces-reality-of-unemployment/ \yr\10\clip\2010\10\model-minority-faces-reality-of-unemployment.txt By Linda Ong Asian Week October 1, 2010 A new study by the Economic Policy Institute (EPI) released in July reveals that despite having the lowest unemployment compared to other ethnic groups, Asian American youth ages 16-24 are facing difficulty finding jobs, compared to whites with the same level of education. According to the EPI study, Asian Americans with bachelor’s degrees have a greater likelihood of being unemployed (7.2%) than whites with bachelor’s degrees (4.7%), while Asian Americans with advanced degrees also have a greater likelihood of being unemployed (4.8%) than whites with advanced degrees (3.2%). The study concludes that Asian Americans are ultimately “disadvantaged,” if both ethnic groups were to have the same unemployment rates by education level. ASIANS LOWEST US UNEMPLOYMENT IN 2009 filed: \doc\web\2009\10\usemploy.xls Employment Sept 2009 Asians 22% lower unemployment than white, Blacks 71%, Hispanic 41% worse Ranked by relative unemployment rate white =1.00 percent relative v. white asian 7.4 0.82 1.22 white 9.0 1.00 1.00 hispanic 12.7 1.41 -1.41 black 15.4 1.71 -1.71 http://www.bls.gov/news.release/empsit.nr0.htm THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- SEPTEMBER 2009 Unemployment rates for the major worker groups--adult men (10.3 percent), adult women (7.8 percent), teenagers (25.9 percent), whites (9.0 percent), blacks (15.4 percent), and Hispanics (12.7 percent)--showed little change in September. The unemployment rate for Asians was 7.4 percent, not season- ally adjusted. The rates for all major worker groups are much higher than at the start of the recession. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.) Note: Asians included in text, but not table, even though Asians outnumber blacks in many states. _______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Quarterly | | | averages | Monthly data | Aug.- Category |_________________|__________________________| Sept. | | | | | | change | II | III | July | Aug. | Sept. | | 2009 | 2009 | 2009 | 2009 | 2009 | _________________________|________|________|________|________|________|________ | Unemployment rates |_____________________________________________________ | | | | | | All workers .............| 9.2| 9.6| 9.4| 9.7| 9.8| 0.1 Adult men .............| 9.7| 10.1| 9.8| 10.1| 10.3| .2 Adult women ...........| 7.4| 7.7| 7.5| 7.6| 7.8| .2 Teenagers .............| 22.7| 25.1| 23.8| 25.5| 25.9| .4 White .................| 8.4| 8.8| 8.6| 8.9| 9.0| .1 Asian ................. not in table ...................... 7.4 Black or African | | | | | | American ............| 14.9| 15.0| 14.5| 15.1| 15.4| .3 Hispanic or Latino | | | | | | ethnicity ...........| 12.0| 12.7| 12.3| 13.0| 12.7| -.3 |________|________|________|________|________|________ %%general UN SAYS WORLD UNEMPLOYMENT AT WORST CRISIS LEVEL SINCE DEPRESSION? \clip\96\09\worlunem.txt AP Nov 25 1996 One Billion Global Unemployed UN Labor organization says it has reached "crisis level not seen since the great depression",and rebukes nations for dropping full employment as a goal e:\clip\96\03\job20.txt Date: Mon, 2 Sep 1996 Poll Says Most Californians Happy With Jobs, But Jobless Rate Not Realistic SAN FRANCISCO (AP) Official jobless rate is 7.1 % in CA in july, but adding people who "would like to work", it would be 20%. \clip\96\02\unem20.txt 7/29/96 Despite job-creation statistics, many in their 20s can't find suitable work By Kara Blond Knight-Ridder Newspapers (KRT). Unemployment is low, but young and minorities still seek better jobs. Higher unemployment of minorities blamed on bias rather than lower skills. \doc\96\03\selfpity.txt "The Politics of Self-Pity" Newsweek Feb 26, 1996 p. 50 Robert J. Samuelson Robert G Valletta of the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco estimates firings account for 40% of unemployment compared with 35% in early 1970s. Early 1980s, typical male worker changed jobs 8 times in a lifetime, 5 times before 34, now affecting higher income and older workers Margaret McCarthy of the University of Maryland estimates imports cost 11.4 million jobs, exports create 10, gap of 1.4 million is only 1% of 125 million total jobs. Export jobs pay 13% above average wages. In 1995, profits averaged 10% of sales, > 8.2 in 80s, but less than 15% in 60's US created 46 million jobs since 19770, 7 million since 1990 Neal rosentahal of Labor Department found well-paying jobs grew slightly faster than low paying jobs \doc\96\01\outone.txt "Out One Door And In Another" Business Week Jan 22, 1996 p. 41 f011596. Overall employment is up despite massive layoffs. \priv\96\01\worktake.txt US News and World Report 1/16/96 Cover Story Median household income has been flat for 20 years, and workers' real weekly wages have dropped $23 or almost 5 percent since 1979. Stories of workers laid off who make less, blame NAFTA. >>Moving on but not neccesarily up US News and World Report Oct 16, 1995. Census Bureau study: Dynamics of Economic Well-Being" There were 7.5 million new workers or job changers, with more at low and high ends and fewer in the middle (doesn't that match the profile of immigrants?) Of those 25-69 who changed full time jobs in 91-93, health insurance status Men old 49 new 32 Women old 46 new 30 - on average job changers lost health insurance. "Schools Brief: One Lump or Two" Economist Nov 25, 1995 p. 67. Argues that it is wrong to try to spread around a fixed number of jobs instead of keeping everyone employed in an expanding economy, such as shorter workweeks. Unemployment has dropped from nearly 10 to just over 5 percent since the 70's despite immigration. "In the past, demand- generating effects of new technology have always outweighed the labour displacing effects" Another table shows shorter working hours is linked with higher unemployment rates. F120695 \priv\95\17\unemsurv.txt UNEMPLOYMENT SURVEY Electronic Engineering Times: Date: Oct 16, 1995 Issue 870, page 85 "electronics engineers spent 84 weeks between jobs. About half the EEs were still out of work at the time of the survey, this summer. Only one in five respondents had become re-employed as an engineer, while 11 percent found positions outside the profession. Another 8 percent became self-employed, 5 percent retired and 8 percent found part-time work" \doc\94\15\econunem.txt - Us more employed, but higher unemployment and more inequality for those at the bottom %%Japan Japan historically has had miniscule unemployment rates compared to the US, but matched US rate of 4.4% in 1998. Wall Street Journal Dec 28, 1998 Sign of Changed Times: Japan's Jobless Rate Rises to U.S. Level At record 4.4% US Japan 1975 9 2.5 1980 7.5 2.8 1985 7.0 3.0 1990 5.5 2.5 1995 5.0 3.1 1998 4.4 4.4 %%Mid-Career Mid career job seeking challenged Boston Globe June 1, 2003 Bureau of Labor Statistics Average time out of work Q1 2003 18.4 weeks overall 22.4 45-54 25.1 55-64 %%Race Most US labor figures don't include Asians, even though in many states Asians outnumber blacks. In the UK, Chinese rates are very close to white, but muslim South Asian rate are even higher than most black groups. BLACK UNEMPLOYMENT RATE GENERALLY TWICE THE WHITE RATE http://www.imdiversity.com/villages/african/Article_Detail.asp?Article_ID=8835 In December 2001 the unemployment rate for black workers was 10.2 percent; up from 7.5 percent one year ago. However, for the white population, unemployment was only 5.2 percent compared to 3.5 percent one year ago.. Clearly, there is a problem if the unemployment rate for blacks remains almost double that of the white population. Note - no data published on Asian Americans! ftp://ftp.bls.gov/pub/special.requests/lf/aat24.txt HOUSEHOLD DATA ANNUAL AVERAGES 24. Unemployed persons by marital status, race, age, and sex Men Women Marital status, race, and age Thousands of Unemployment Thousands of Unemployment persons rates persons rates 2000 2001 2000 2001 2000 2001 2000 2001 Total, 16 years and over................ 2,954 3,663 3.9 4.8 2,701 3,079 4.1 4.7 Married, spouse present....................... 891 1,213 2.0 2.7 923 1,058 2.7 3.1 Widowed, divorced, or separated............... 400 472 4.4 5.1 553 628 4.2 4.7 Single (never married)........................ 1,663 1,979 7.6 9.0 1,224 1,393 6.9 7.7 White, 16 years and over................ 2,165 2,730 3.4 4.3 1,934 2,193 3.6 4.1 Married, spouse present....................... 706 969 1.8 2.5 755 846 2.5 2.8 Widowed, divorced, or separated............... 304 361 4.0 4.7 412 466 4.0 4.4 Single (never married)........................ 1,154 1,400 6.6 7.9 767 881 5.8 6.6 Black, 16 years and over................ 636 731 8.1 9.3 633 719 7.2 8.1 Married, spouse present....................... 127 161 3.7 4.5 114 126 4.0 4.4 Widowed, divorced, or separated............... 82 91 6.7 7.5 123 136 5.5 6.1 Single (never married)........................ 426 480 13.7 15.6 395 456 10.7 12.2 Total, 25 years and over................ 1,800 2,323 2.8 3.6 1,736 2,028 3.2 3.7 Married, spouse present....................... 841 1,145 2.0 2.6 817 957 2.5 2.9 Widowed, divorced, or separated............... 383 450 4.3 5.0 518 586 4.1 4.5 Single (never married)........................ 576 728 5.0 6.3 401 485 4.5 5.4 White, 25 years and over................ 1,343 1,753 2.5 3.2 1,266 1,477 2.8 3.3 Married, spouse present....................... 669 913 1.8 2.4 667 762 2.3 2.7 Widowed, divorced, or separated............... 289 344 3.9 4.6 383 432 3.8 4.2 Single (never married)........................ 386 496 4.3 5.4 217 283 3.6 4.6 Black, 25 years and over................ 360 438 5.6 6.7 380 430 5.2 5.9 Married, spouse present....................... 119 152 3.5 4.4 101 117 3.7 4.2 Widowed, divorced, or separated............... 81 87 6.7 7.3 118 130 5.3 5.9 Single (never married)........................ 160 198 8.5 10.7 161 183 7.0 7.7 WHITES AND CHINESE HAVE LOWEST UK JOBLESS RATES Thanks to "John Taylor" http://www.statistics.gov.uk/ http://www.statistics.gov.uk/STATBASE/ssdataset.asp?vlnk=6282 All working age 16-24 White 4.7 10.9 Chinese 6.0 .. Indian 7.3 18.4 Other 10.0 23.4 Other Asian 10.7 .. Black Caribbean 11.6 23.7 Mixed 12.4 19.7 Black African 14.1 24.1 Pakistani 16.1 24.9 Black Other3 16.4 .. Bangladeshi 21.3 36.9 %%Recession UNEMPLOYED DOUBLE FROM 01-02 IN SEATTLE 57\clipim\2002\08\08\unem\unem.htm http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/businesstechnology/134508986_benefits08.html Money, time running out for many local jobless By Shirleen Holt Seattle duration June 2001 15.4 wks June 2002 18.5 Collecting 102,522 6-01 202,167 6-02 One in four people on unemployment have exhausted the 30 weeks of regular benefits and are now drawing on emergency extensions, which themselves can last up to 35 weeks, %%Statistics Unemployment vs. Education by race/ethnicity 7. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 to 24 years of age by school enrollment, educational attainment, sex, race, and Hispanic origin --------------------------------------------------- Education Percent Less than a high school diploma....| 22. 1 High school graduates, no college..| 12.1 Less than a bachelor's degree......| 6.9 College graduates..................| 5.4 Black White Hisp Less than a high school diploma....| 43.0 18.5 17.7 High school graduates, no college..| 23.0 9.9 13.4 Less than a bachelor's degree......| 13.3 5.9 9.7 College graduates..................| 5.3 5.3 8.0 Note that hispanic dropout employment rate is better than white, but black is much worse than white, but black college graduate rate is as good as white, but hispanic rate is worse. ------------------------------ Gap---- 5.3 Black College Grad 0 yrs 5.3 White College Grad 5.9 White < Bach Degree 9.9 White H.S. Grad No Coll 13.3 Black < Bach Degree 2-3 yrs 18.5 White < HS Diploma 23.0 Black H.S. Grad No Coll 2-3 yrs 43.0 Black < HS Diploma UNEMPLOYMENT IS HIGHER FOR LESS EDUCATED 2/98 Not seasonally adjusted(1) Seasonally adjusted(1) Educational attainment Jan. Dec. Jan. Jan. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. 1997 1997 1998 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1998 Less than a high school diploma Unemployment rate.................. 10.4 7.7 8.4 8.9 8.0 7.7 7.5 7.6 7.2 High school graduates, no college(2) Unemployment rate.................. 5.3 3.9 4.7 4.4 4.2 4.2 3.8 4.1 3.9 Less than a bachelor's degree(3) Unemployment rate.................. 3.9 3.1 3.5 3.5 3.2 2.9 3.1 3.2 3.2 College graduates Unemployment rate.................. 2.2 1.6 2.0 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.9 1 The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation, therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns. 2 Includes high school diploma or equivalent. 3 Includes the categories, some college, no degree; and associate degree. WA cycle from 4% to 8% \doc\web\98\04\waunem.wk1 Mild weather spurs growth Seattle Post Intelligencer Mar 18, 1998 D1 Yearly Average Wa Unemployment Rates 1990 4.9 ++++ 1991 6.3 ++++++ 1992 7.5 +++++++ <--Peak 1992 1993 7.5 +++++++ 1994 6.4 ++++++ 1995 6.4 ++++++ 1996 6.5 ++++++ 1997 4.8 ++++ February 1997 6.0% 1998 5.1% %%outcomes ONLY 21% STILL COMPLETELY UNEMPLOYED AFTER ONE YEAR Business Week Sept 17, 2002 Status in early 2000 of full time who lost jobs in 1997-98 21% umemployed or left labor force 41% working full time at equal or higher pay 26% working full-time at lower pay 11% working part time or self-employed U.S.Labor department @@Venture Capital Top states by investment dollars Seattle Post Intelligencer 4/26/04 @@wages %%world Labour costs The Economist April 27th 1996 Germany top $32 per hour 1995 US only about $20. \clipim\99\05\labor.tif US $20 %%high tech Earnings gap Seattle Post Intell Dec 6, 2001 Washtech study says average wage info tech 237,749 in 1999, but 90% made less. Median Wash worker $15.19/hr computer service $31.16/hr top 10% 79, bottom 10% 14.44 %%living \priv\96\20\famwage.htm Seattle Times June 9, 1996 The living wage gets more scarce by Mary Ann Gwinn Seattle Times business reporter Claims jobs in Washington have gone mostly to lower paying jobs, only few high quality jobs with little inbetween Change in real income in Wa State by education 1980-1990 18% Grad or professional degree 4% Masters degree -4% Bachelors's degree -5% Some College -12% High School graduate -27% Less than HSG Change by age -3% 55-64 -1% 45-54 -6% 35-44 -9% 25-34 -19% 20-24 Source: Washington state office of Financial Management Note - depends on faulty inflation guage and does not take into account quality of goods or technology that did not exist in 1980. \doc\96\03\usbetter.txt "Group Says U.S. Workers Are Better Off Than Thought" New York Times April 19, 1996 p. C1 The National Association of Manufacturers says that when problems with government reporting of inflation are corrected for, wages have not stagnated, but risen 15% since 1979. The economy has created 8.4 million jobs since 1992. The real problem is that a typical family paid only 20% of wages for state and federal taxes in 1955 compared to 37% today. >>\priv\96\05\hipay.doc - high paying jobs are growing the fastest \doc\96\02\boeing.txt "Boeing Engineers To Vote On New Pact" Aviation Week Jan 15, 1996 p. 37 Engineer current average salary = $53,915, $64,000 in 4 yrs Technician current average salary = $40,080, 47,575 in 4 yrs Time July 22, 1996: Machinists make $50 an hour including fringe. \priv\96\02\wagecost.htm - Germany, Japn and other European nations have higher manufacturing wage costs than the US @@Wal-Mart Stores The Wal-Mart Effect SeaTimes oct 21, 2003 A3 Average wm shopper is $1,000 under median $42,000 US income. #1 retailer, as much as next 4. "without Wal-Mart, the US would be in a deep recession". By using computers, increased US labor productivity gains. US Employees 1990=250,000+, 1996 over 700,000 Average hourly wage $7.50, $10 with benefits WAL-MART UBER ALLES Prices and clout push Wal-Mart to the top Seattle Times Leslie Kaufman (NY Time) Oct 22, 2000 front Wal Mart will soon exceed General Motors as #1 sales in US, passing Gen Motors. It drives suppliers to lower costs, sometimes creating or promoting new brands to leadership. Slammed for labor, competitive tactics, but they say they've raised living standards for working people. Put pressure on not just mom and pop downtown, but large businesses like K-Mart. @@Wealth %%Age WEALTH PEAKS AT 55-60 Marketers Mine for gold in the old peter Petre Fortune March 31, 1986 Median wealth peaks at around $65,000 when head is between 55 and 65. Per capita income peaks ar 55-60 at $11,650. They outnumber yuppies 4 to 1 and control half of discretionary dollars. Over 50 control $7 trillion in wealth, 70% of net wealth. %%Definition Millionaires Need Not Apply Wall Street Journal March 16, 2007 W2 Net worth required for top 1% of US households (approx from chart) 1995 3 million 1998 4 2001 6 2004 6 Minimum income to be in to 1% of tax filers 1995 $252,071 2004: $314,408 Federal Reserve surveys of Consumer Finance: households worth more than $1 million are more than 8% of US households in 2004 %%Millionaire http://www.economist.com/node/18867901 Economist June 25, 2011 "An annual survey estimated that the combined wealth of the world’s 10.9m rich people (27% of whom are women) stood at $42.7 trillion in 2010, more than in 2007, the year the financial crisis was brewing. More than half of the monied classes live in the United States, Japan and Germany, though Asia has more in total than Europe for the first time" High net-worth indivicuals with over $1m to invest in assets 2010 North America 0011223 3.3 Asia 0011223 3.2 Europe 0011223 3.1 Rest of world 001 1.0 Note: 3 most developed continents are about even between N America, Europe, Asia @@Wealth of Nations \clipim\98\01\gap1.tif, gap2.tif The Wealth and Poverty of Nations Why Some are So Rich, And Some So Poor David S. Landes, WW Norton and Co. $30. New York Times Book Review: March 15, 1998. The Gap by Andrew Porter. Author says that industrial revolutions, and cultures that support it are the main reason industrialized nations are so rich, and the ones that aren't are so poor. It's not racism, exploitation, disease, or colonization (though those things happened, and were very bad). It's not natural endowments. "In the pursuit of wealth, failure or success is ultimately determined from within, not imposed from the outside. "Readers cannot be but provoked and stimulated by this splendidly iconoclastic and refreshing book" [Can this also be applied to achievement in education as to why achieve at such high levels and some don't, in rough proportion to degree of industrial development of cultures?] @@Work, Amount \clip\97\17\work.txt Business Week July 14, 1997 IF EUROPEANS WORKED MORE... They'd reach U.S. living standards The Europeans make less because they have higher unemployment and work fewer hours. The Japanese do well because they work more hours and have less unemployment. A G7 Economic Scorecard PERCENT OF U.S LEVEL 1995 GDP PER: HOUR CAPITA Britain 84 71 Canada 85 79 France 102 78 Germany* 101 82 Italy 90 72 Japan 68 82 U.S. 100 100 *West Germany DATA: CONFERENCE BOARD @@World The United States no longer has the highest per capita income, but no major power has a higher standard of living measured by equal purchasing power and overall standard of living. %%government "Reasons for worry" The Economist March 1st 1997 p. 56 (Estimated from chart) Primary government spending %of GDP 1996 58% Sweden 50% France 47% Belgiuim 47% Germany 41% Italy 39% Britain 39% Spain 31% Japan 30% USA General government outlays less debt interest payments %%Income If you take purchasing power into account, the United States is #1 major power, or #2, ahead of Japan US is #2 by purchasing power \doc\97\03\gdpasia.txt chart \clip\97\09\gdpasia.gif "The Asian Miracle" The Economist March 1st 1997 p. 23 "Going around the bend" 1995 GDP per head at purchasing power parity $26,000 United States $23,900 Hong Kong $22,600 Singapore $19,400 Rich Industrial Nations $13,200 Taiwan $10,400 Malaysia $8,000 Thailand $3,800 Indonesia $3,100 China $2,800 Philipines Sources: IMG; ING Barings; national statistics "Reasons for Pride" Economist March 1st 1997 p. 55 Source: IMF GDP, 1950=100 France 500 United States 400 Britain 300 %%Opinion POLL SHOWS AMERICANS THINK FREE TRADE COSTS JOBS AND WAGES Business Week online Sept. 11, 1997 BW/HARRIS POLL: FREER TRADE GETS AN UNFRIENDLY RECEPTION 40%/17% believe it lowers/raises wages, 54% oppose extending NAFTA, 87% say trade deals should protect the environment, 73% should raise labor standards, 56/37 decrease/increase jobs Survey of 1,010 adults conducted Sept. 3-7, 1997, for BUSINESS WEEK by Louis Harris & Associates Inc. %%Respect z48\clip\2001\03\britresp.txt See figures in chart in original: http://www.telegraph.co.uk:80/et?ac=004635013224328&rtmo=Vk1PxPlx&atmo=rrrrrrrq&pg=/et/01/3/26/npoll26.html filed:z48\clipim\2001\03\26\respect\respect.htm The Electronic Telegraph ISSUE 2131 Monday 26 March 2001 Hostility deepens to our EU neighbours By Philip Johnston, Home Affairs Editor z48\DOC\WEB\2001\03\respect.wk1worksheet European Respect Survey: World class is -- American! The study, by Young and Rubicam, the advertising agency, compared the changing attitudes of 40,000 citizens in a dozen European countries between 1994 and 2000. based on table as appeared in Electronic Telegraph ISSUE 2131 Monday 26 March 2001 Hostility deepens to our EU neighbours By Philip Johnston, Home Affairs Editor Analysis by Arthur Hu Kirkland WA 2001 Summary: Overall, the US is the winner, with britain winning highest average marks between the 3 most prominent nations. Germany, Russia and South Africa scored at the bottom Japan scored below average, despite or perhaps because of its economic competitiveness. The world says that world class is American. So when you have a commission come to town saying that we have to restructure society to meet new world class standards, Americans already lead the world as most respected nation. And note that Marc Tucker's workforce training model which is driving standards based testing and reform is based heavily on Germany, which was the bottom ranked nation on this survey. Attitudes of European citizens in 1994 and 2000 Average of UK, Germany, France in 2000 for: 1USA 96.67 USA! WE'RE NUMBER 1 YOU CAN KEEP "WORLD CLASS" 2UK 95.00 BRITS STILL #2 EVEN IF THEY DON'T CONTROL THE WORLD 3Australi 93.00 G'DAY MATE CROC HUNTER & HOGAN RATE #3 4France 90.33 FRENCH ONLY AT 4 FOR SUCH A SNOBBY BUNCH 5Italy 87.00 FIATS AND FERRARIS AT 5 6Canada 86.67 NICE GUY SOCIALISTS AND SHUTTLE ARM RATES 6 7Spain 83.33 SPAIN AVERAGE AS "HISPANIC" MEANS "DISADVANTAGED" IN US 8Holland 82.67 WOODEN SHOES AND CLEANSER AT 8 9Japan 81.33 JAPAN BELOW AVERAGE, HONDA AND SONY GO HOME! 10China 78.00 POOR, BUT WE'VE GOT 4 OSCARS, TRAIL JAPAN BY JUST 1 11S Africa 73.33 AT LEAST WE'RE IN A GOOD LIST 12Russia 68.00 DOWN AND OUT BUT AT LEAST WE'RE AHEAD OF THE GERMANS 13Germany 60.67 WHAT DID WE EVER DO BESIDES NEARLY DESTROY THE WEST? %%unemployment "Reasons for Shame" Economist March 1st 1997 p. 55 Unemployment, standardized rates France 12.4 Britain 7.5 United States 5.3 %%wealth \doc\96\02\worlweal.wk1 - World countries ranked by wealth including natural resources. Jeffrey Sachs of Harvard U notes from 71 to 89 of the top 18 developing nations measured by growth rate, only 2 were rich in natural resources.