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Index of Computers


@@computers - see education/computers


The Two Percent Solution By Jim Turley Embedded Systems Design
(12/18/02, 10:10:56 AM EST) Processors make up only a small percentage
of semiconductor volume, yet they generate most of the revenue.  At
the opposite end of the scale are-big surprise-32-bit microprocessors.
This category includes PC processors like Pentium 4 and Athlon, of
course, but also dozens of embedded processors such as PowerPC, 68k,
MIPS, and ARM chips. In fact, most (98% or so) 32-bit processors are
used in embedded systems, not PCs. Embedded 32-bit chips have outsold
PC processors every year by a wide margin. ARM-based chips alone do
about triple the volume that Intel and AMD peddle to PC makers. 

@@ATX ATX motherboard spec 


AP 09/09/1997 Study: Blacks' Income on the Rise By CLIFF EDWARDS AP
Business Writer \clip\97\20\blakspen.txt Summary: The U.S. Commerce
Department's 1996 annual consumer spending survey and found that
blacks represent 25 percent of spending on online services, and
spending on computer hardware and software doubled every year from
1993-95, totaling $741 million last year.

>>\doc\96\02\onlnblak.txt "Survey of Online Blacks" Wall Street Journal
march 6, 1996 p. B1According to BOBC news ( black
newslist readers are

45% household income over $50,000
10% household income over $100,000
77% bachelors degree or higher vs 12% general population
35% advanced degree

\doc\95\06\minmodem.txt "Minorities Expand Cyberspace's Universe"
Wall Street Journal May 10, 1995 p. b1 5% of modems are owned by
African Americans


PC-Active edition: 3 out of 31 recordable CD brands tested in the
Netherlands had serious errors less than two years after they were
recorded. Manufacturers typically claim they will last 10 years under
normal conditions. Seattle Times Sep 8, 2003

@@College Use

An SWR Worldwide 
study, commissioned by Best Buy, found that more than 50 percent 
of college freshmen brought a desktop or laptop computer to 
college in 2000, compared to just 13 percent in 1990. The study 
also found that 24 percent of today's students plan to bring a 
laptop to class regularly, compared to 4 percent of students 10 
years ago. Meanwhile, 20 percent of today's students use cell 
phones, 11 percent use pagers, 44 percent use CD players, and 11 
percent use personal digital assistants. The study revealed 
that 17 percent of students used the Web or e-mail to register 
for classes. (Knight-Ridder, 22 February 2001) 

@@computer sales

In 1997, there are well over 200 million PC's in use worldwide, over
1/3 are in the United States. That's about 75 million in the USA, or
about 1 for every 3 people in the USA. Japan is about 1/2 the
population of the USA but 1/4 as many computers.

PC's By Region Sept 2, 1997 Investor's Business Daily

Worldwide Pc's millions
1995  190
1996  210
1997e 270
2001e 510,000

PC's Retired
1995 22 million
1996 30 million

37% US
20% Western Europe
13% Asia-Pacific
10% Japan
4%  Canada
2%  Latin America
14% Rest of World

Source: Dataquest

Global PC Sales
as cited in Investors Business Daily March 2, 2000
1995 60
1998 90
1999 110
2000 125
2002 160
2005 210

1999   2005e                   1999 2005e
37%    32%   North America     40   70
23%    26%   Asia Pacific      30   50
27%    25%   Western Europe    25   58
 3%     5%   Eastern Europe    5    15
10%    12%   Other

Business Week July 28, 1997 p. 31
worldwide shipments of PC's per year
94 ~50
95 ~60
96 ~70
--- est ----
97 ~76
93 ~87

\clip\97\02\compsale.txt 71 million personal computers were sold
world wide in 1996, up 18%

\priv\96b\05\asinpc.txt Sales of personal computers grew 44 percent
to over 7 million units last year in Japan. The United States remains
by far the largest market for personal computers. Last year, over 27
million units were sold, 35 percent of the world's total, IDC said.

Wall Street Journal April 29, 1996 - International Data Corp
estimates 5.7 million PCs were shipped per quarter (24 million per
year) compared to 5.0 million in 1995. San Jose Mercury News 5/6/96
"INTEL: 100 MILLION PC SALES BY 1998" Intel predicts 100 million
total sales by 1997-98, with .5 million per year in India alone.


Newspaper Chain’s New Business Plan: Copyright Suits
By David Kravets   July 22, 201
Gibson’s vision is to monetize news content on the backend, by
scouring the internet for infringing copies of his client’s articles,
then suing and relying on the harsh penalties in the Copyright Act —
up to $150,000 for a single infringement — to compel quick settlement


From:             H-Net Exec Director Richard Jensen 
Subject:               Re: QUERY:  Ethnic and Migration Research Resources
To:               Multiple recipients of list H-ETHNIC 

all books published in usa before 1922 are free of copyright
and can be scanned or copies or reprinted at will.
Richard Jensen

@@Data General

Nova Eclipse MV - historial bits


Highway To Hell 
EVEN BY THE LOW STANDARDS for service and credibility set by many firms 
riding the Internet bubble, the Digital Subscriber Line industry is a mess.

@@dvd standard

Philips, Europe's largest maker of consumer electronics and lighting,
said Friday that its new dual-layer technology raised the capacity of
recordable DVDs (DVD+R) to 8.5GB from 4.7GB for single-layer DVD
discs. 1.3MB/sec 10.4Mbits/sec 


>\doc\95\14\email.wk1 E-Mail Access by Race and Income: Whites Most,
But Asians Are Least Likely to Have Email, Despite Technical /
Professional Concentration. 
Summary: W12.0%(1.00) B9.4%(-1.28) H8.4%(-1.43) A7.3%(-1.64)		
Source: RAND study (1993) 

Does it Compute? The Relationship Between Educational Technology and
Student Achievement in Mathematics 

source: 1996 NAEP mathematics assessment

Percentage of fourth-graders who report using computers a school at 
least once a week

8/4 grade
28  33 US
33  42 black
30  33 asian
26  32 hispanic
28  32 white
31  34 male
26  33 female
29  35 school lunch
26  32 not eligible school lunch
29  37 southeast
29  35 northeast
28  34 west 
28  28 central
34  34 public
28  28 private
31  35 urban
28  33 rural
25  32 suburban

Low income, public, urban, and blacks are the most likely to use
computers, which explains the negative correlation with achievement.

4th graders with access to home computers

58 us
68 asian
64 white
45 black
44 hispanic

58 male
58 female

65 school lunch ineligible
41 eligible

65 northeast
61 central
57 west 
50 southeast

74 private
56 public

63 suburban
53 urban
52 rural

8th grade shows same pattern

fourth graders using computer at home

33 us
53 black
36 asian
33 hispanic
29 white

33 male
32 female
41 eligible school lunch
29 ineligible school lunch
38 southeast 
35 west 
33 northeast
26 central

33 public
27 private

35 urban
32 suburban
31 rural

8th graders using computers
47 us
49 asian
47 white
43 black
43 hispanic

47 male
46 female

46 ineligible
42 eligible

50 west
47 central
46 northeast
43 southeast

51 private
46 public

47 urban
47 suburban
43 rural

Learning games vs. drill (NAEP survey)

learning games / drill type
57 35 Asian
57 35 Hispanic
56 35 White
48 42 Black
56 35 ineligible
55 38 eligible

8th graders, teachers report simulations/applications vs
drill/practice as primary computer use

43 27 Asian
31 30 White
25 34 Hispanic
14 52 Black
33 31 Ineligible
22 34 Eligible

The 10 biggest failures in IT history
Date: October 30th, 2009
Author: Jack Wallen

1: Windows VistaWhat a disaster! Could Microsoft have assembled a
bigger failure if it tried? Well, possibly. But Microsoft wasn’t
trying to make a failure — it was trying to make the best of the best.
The result was the worst of the best.

2: NeXTI have to qualify this entry, because NeXT did inspire a lot of
software for the Linux desktop (such as AfterStep), and the NeXTSTEP
did eventually become the foundation of OS X. So NeXT wasn’t a
complete flop.

3: BeOSWhat is it with the capiTalIzaTion? Although BeOS has been
resurrected as Haiku, the BeOS (and all the cool hardware it promised)
never really got off the ground. The PC that promised to be the dream
machine for the media crowd fizzled out before its fuse could really
be lit.

4: Cobalt QubeThe Cobalt Qube looked cool. If you’re lucky, you can
still find one on eBay going cheap. Underneath that tiny blue exterior
lay a beefy 64 MB of RAM and an 8.4 Gig HD that was ready and willing
to serve up your Web site, your mail, your DNS, or anything else you
needed. Ah, but those were the glory days — and short-lived at that.
The serious IT crowed quickly realized that function held sway over
form, and the cool blue Qubes went nowhere. Even after Sun bought the
Cobalt company, these devices did nothing.

5: Y2KI can’t resist including this one. The entire world was supposed
to cave under the pressure this little bug promised, wasn’t it? I even
read plenty of sci-fi books based on that premise. But nothing
happened. Banks didn’t lose all of your money, the world’s security
didn’t fall to pieces, and all IT professionals woke up the next
morning collectively saying, “Was that it?”

6: MP3I know, I know — it isn’t a flop, exactly, but the MP3 format is
on this list because of all the licensing issues it has caused. On the
Linux operating system alone, MP3 isn’t installed on most
distributions, by default, because of licensing issues. As a result,
users scramble to get MP3 support built into their various tools. This
causes as much hair loss as MP3 causes audio quality loss. There are
much better formats out there without the licensing issues, people!

7: Richard StallmanThis man was supposed to be the champion of open
source — but he endangers open source at every turn. Instead of making
ridiculous claims, RMS should stand down and let someone with a
modicum of tact and sense to take over as the voice of open source

8: WordPerfectWhat I should actually place here is Corel, the maker of
WordPerfect, instead of the software itself. WordPerfect was an
outstanding word processing tool. Corel, however, was not outstanding
in its ability to market and sell something as good as WordPerfect. So
instead of a piece of software that should have single-handedly
toppled the Microsoft juggernaut, WordPerfect died. This should never
have happened. Any other company could have pulled off this win.

9: IPv6Should this already be in place? Should something so simple
really be that hard? The ‘net could run out of IP addresses and there
is no solution in place yet. Why? Because we don’t have the problem
yet. But didn’t everyone panic with claims that the “IP sky is
falling”? Wouldn’t it be smart to go ahead and put this in place?
Maybe the powers-that-be are waiting until that very last IPv4 address
is issued and we have to say, “We have no more!” At that point, no one
will really know how to implement the solution and it will be Y2K all
over again.

10: Mesh networksAt one point, wireless was going to cover the entire
planet and everyone was going to have free wireless networking, thanks
to wireless mesh networks. It didn’t happen. It sounded like a great
idea, and sites popped up all over the place trying to get users to
set up their own mesh networks to further expand the “net.” It was a
grand idea, based on a grand ideal, but it just never got off the
ground. That’s a shame, since a “mesh Wifi” would have enabled anyone
to be online anywhere. Of course, I am sure the telecoms had NOTHING
to do with the fall of mesh networking


Computer & Net Game Player: Online Game Reviews
\priv\97\02\pyst.txt newsgroup review - mostly bad
Pyst review

@@Hewlett Packard

%%HP Journal

HP Oldies - German site, lists desktop computers hp9830 1972
Konventionell aufgebauter Prozessor auf 4 Boards.
Basic Programmierbar mit 4-16 KByte (32KB 9830B). 
 Standard Schreibmaschinen Tastatur Layout 
 Display 32 Zeichen, LED

HP 2100   
HP: The Accidentally, On-Purpose Computer Company
Detailed PDF with instruction set: HP2100 manuals
ax accum 1
bx accum 2

AX has a few more instructions than BX, most
load, store, add work with AX or BX

compare to intel 8080
The Structure of the CPU
8 (or 12) General Purpose 16 bit Registers 
Four 16-bit registers can be divided into two 8-bit registers 
AX = AH|AL - Accumulator (Accumulator High|Accumulator Low) 
BX = BH|BL - Base (High|Low)- can be used as "pointer" 
CX = CH|CL - Count (High|Low) - used for counting loops 
DX = DH|DL - Data (High|Low) - paired with AX for "combined" 32-bit register. DX is high word, AX is low word. 
Four 16-bit registers used for Indexing and Stack 
SI - Source Index - used for indirect addressing 
DI - Destination Index - used for indirect addressing 
SP - Stack Pointer - accesses Stack Segment 
BP - Base Pointer (stack frame pointer) 
6 Special Purpose Registers 
CS (Code); DS (Data); ES (Extra); (SS) Stack segment registers 
IP - Instruction Pointer holds address of next instruction (i.e. a program counter) 
Flag Register - OF|DF|IF|TF|SF|ZF|AF|PF|CF "flag" bits 
Overflow Flag set if last operation caused "signed overflowed" 
Sign Flag set if last operation was negative 
Zero Flag set if last operation resulted in 0 
Carry Flag set if last operation had carry out

\clip\2005\01\Twenty Five Years of Real-Time Computing
1984 CS command stack introduced

HP2100 was also the basis for HP9800 basic computers
like HP9830, which ran about as fast as an original
HP250 Desktop computer expanded into entire desk
workstation with 2 8" floppy drives, screen with
softkeys built into bottom of screen. Popular in

HP300 "Amigo" Very little data on the internet.
This was a "baby" HP3000 with a built in console.
Featured a fixed 12MB drive, and softkeys mounted on
the right hand side of the screen. I belive it also
featured independent windows on the console. It was
a commercial flop but incorporated many ideas now
standard in pcs and servers.

|    \
|    ====*
|    |
|    |
HP Journal June 1979 (8M)

Small, user-friendly OS for the Hewlett-Packard 300. Late 1970s [Carpenter 1979].

HP3000 16 bit stack computer 1967-2001
code segment (16bit offset, 16bit segments)
data segment (static 16bit)
stack segment 16bit
Instead of load AX - 1, load BX - 2, add ax to bx, you
would push 1, push 2, add.
You couldn't access 64k of code, but you could
effectively access as many as 64,000 routines, since
the address was based on code segment, and routine
number within the segment, so
were limited so much in code.
Call pointers were restricted in that they knew
how many arguments were called - this would make it
difficult to implment variable arguments in C.

This guy has pictures
\images\2005\09\12\HP250 HP300.jpg
The Rise, Fall and Rise of the HP 3000

stack computers

cancels 3000 in 2001

Kitchen computer $10,000 in 1969

@@IBM 360

Classic 1960s giant business computer

IBM System / 360 Principles of Operation
Maximum 24 bit address or 16,777,216 bytes 16M
8 bit byte plus extra parity 9th bit
16 general fixed point registers
 4 floating point

@@Internet explorer

Tired of the annoying popups while you are browsing the Microsoft
website and other trusted websites?  You probably will open control
panel and go to programs and features, then click on the "turn windows
features on or off".  That just takes you to the Server manager, and
you won't see the familiar add/remove screen with the IE security
listed in the feature list.  The screen still takes you to the correct
place.  Look in the sidebar under the security information section.
Notice the link "configure IE ESC".  That is not how to configure the
escape key behavior in IE, but a link to configure the Internet
Explorer Enhanced Security Configuration.  Click the link.

There is a difference in Windows 2003 and Windows 2008 on the behavior
of the enhanced security module for IE.  In Windows 2003, it was
either on or off, but in Windows 2008, they made it configurable to be
on or off for Administrators or Users.  The default is on for both

@@internet use

People who surft the web daily
45% Asian Am
38% Other
35% Major City
32% Suburb
31% White
26% Smaller City
22% Hispanic
20% Rural
17% African American
Survey of 1,008 adult US residents June 2002 by
Scripps Howard News Service.
Seattle PI Aug 13, 2002

"Study finds Asian Americans using internet most often" Northwest
Asian Weekly Jan 5, 2002 Anick Jesdanun AP
Study by Pew Internet and American Life Project of english speaking
persons in USA. 
Online on a typical day: A70 W58 H58 B39
2 hours  40A
4 hours  15A
% male A58 W50 H50 B43
Asians younger %18-34 A66 All 41
June 1998 Noelson Media Research and CommerceNet

Internet use
58% Asian men (highest)
38% Asian women
24% AfrAm 
24% American Indians

Communications of ACM Oct 1998 p. 9

in four adults in the United States and Canada now use the Internet,
and they are spending an increasing amount of time and money there,
according to a survey from Nielsen Media Research. More than 58
million people are on the Internet, up about 14 percent from a survey
in the spring.  Leslie Miller, "1 in 4 now using the Net" USA Today,
December 11, 1997, A1

\doc\96\04\apanet.txt "Virtual APA Community" Asian Week may 31, 1996
p. 18 Phoenix Tea House is a division
of Pandasoft Corp in Mountain view. Their surveys of net users
estimates that 3% of internet users, 300,000 are Asian / Pacific
Islanders. They offer a place to discuss Asian issue (so do the
various soc.culture.asian newsgroups)

\priv\96\04\webuse.htm 1 in 11 adults used the Web by 1996

\priv\96\04\scholnet.txt New York Times February 17, 1996 "Survey
Finds Disparities In Public Schools' Internet Access" By RANDOLPH E.

Percentage of schools with internet connections
Northeast   59%
Central     52%
South*      44%
Min>50%*    40%
Min 6-20    58%
Surburban   59%
Rural       48%
Cities*     47%

Minorities the lowest, but even 40% is nearly half and within
striking distance of 58% in suburban and low-minority schools

\doc\96\15\webmark.txt "Marketers Get Some Needed Ammunition" Web
Week Dec 1995 p. 21 Nielsen finds 17% have internet access, 11% have
used internet in past 3 months, 8% have used the web (75% of internet


in spite of years of advocacy and government mandates, IPv6 traffic
remains a small percentage of overall traffic, according to a
recent study by Arbor Networks. They looked at six large service
providers in North America and Europe over six months. All IPv6
traffic typically ran in the neighborhood of 0.15 percent with brief
peaks as high as 0.3 percent. The large majority of this traffic is
tunneled traffic, using transition protocols like 6to4 or Teredo, yet
tunneled traffic never exceeded 0.05 percent of overall traffic and
usually constituted much less.

iPV6 traffic Image courtesy of Arbor Networks

So IPv6 is a failure so far @@Mapping %%Building Map places, people, and relationships inside a building with open source software Map / directory kiosk Touchscreen Suppliers Mass Multimedia Colorado Springs, CO FastPoint Stanton, CA Very sophisticated - map with zoom The Carlson School information kiosk is located on the first floor atrium and skyway level. The kiosk displays upcoming events, a directory to search for faculty and staff, plus a building map for room locations. The kiosk information is also accessible online: Tabs: Directory Room Locator click on room number bring up zoom-able map Unit Or area - Academic Dean - Simple - create map for each room Northern illinois University Barsema Hall Virtual Information Desk Each room has its own picture 128.gif Kiosk software Kiosk Easy to search directories for: Building Mall Product information Meeting room schedule display; Can be displayed on main or secondary screen Map support JPEG images supported Locate directory entries on map Define paths Zoom and Pan map view “You are here” location Airport map Toronto %%Building Directory Interactive building map Ronald Regan building Click on room name highlights floor and area Caltech MIT directory (lists phone and address,but no map) They make lobby directories, but all manual. No electronics. This is a digital flat panel building directory Touch screen PC kiosk Quality Attributes Software Contract for energy monitor system about $100,000 flicker page King County kiosk Montcalm community college About Quality Attributes Software Quality Attributes Software is an industry leader in Intelligent Building software for the green building, renewable energyRenewable energy utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. Renewable energy technologies range from solar power, wind power, and hydroelectricity to biomass and biofuels for transportation. ..... Click the link for more information. and energy monitoring market. Quality Attributes develops web based Coming from a Web server. See Web application. iBPortal applications that acquire, trend, display and report live building performance data pertaining to energy usage and costs. The complexity made simple through Quality Attributes applications helps building owners and managers understand how their hidden systems are behaving and enables them to make better decisions and understand their ROI. Quality Attributes rounds out their software offering to the intelligent building market with their GreenTouchscreen, iBDirectory and iBDonor products. @@Microprocessor Great Microprocessors of the Past and Present


Which type of WAN connection can provide the MOST bandwidth? 39,813: c. OC-x Transmission rates are defined by rate of the bitstream of the digital signal and are designated by hyphenation of the acronym OC and an integer value of the multiple of the basic unit of rate, e.g., OC-48. The base unit is 51.84 Mbit/s.[2] Thus, the speed of optical-carrier-classified lines labeled as OC-n is n × 51.84 Mbit/s. source: OC-768 / STM-256 OC-768 is a network line with transmission speeds of up to 39,813.12 Mbit/s (payload: 38,486.016 Mbit/s (38.486016 Gbit/s); overhead: 1,327.104 Mbit/s (1.327104 Gbit/s)). 1.544 a. T1 The standard speed of a T1 line is 1.544 Mbps T1's are business connections. Cable/DSL services are usually residential. T1's normally have: * unlimited throughput * a guaranteed uptime per month * no port blocking, allowing servers * upload 2-5x as high as cable/DSL * a dedicated line T1 is a point-to-point link. T1 was developed in the late early 1960's to carry 24 digitized phone calls between telephone switching offices. Think of T1 as a simple pipe, between you and the service provider Article Source: 1.472M PRI d. ISDN Basic Rate Interface consists of two B channels, each with bandwidth of 64 kb and one D Channel with a bandwidth of 16 kbps. Together these three channels are known as 2B D. Available data bandwidth is 128Kb and the available voice lines is 2. Two B Channels are most commonly bonded together using MLPPP. Primary Rate Interface Contains 23 B channels and a D channel with a bandwidth of 64 kbps. Since the signaling has a dedicated channel the bandwidth is higher than the typical analog line's 56kb. Available data bandwidth is 1,472Kb (1.472Mb) and the available voice lines is 23 64k b. X.25 Traditionally, the maximum bandwidth of X.25 has been 64 kbit/s, @@Phone Windows Phone 10% of iphone: only 2.5 million phones in the first quarter of 2011 (Apple shipped 18.65 iPhones, and 35.7 million Android phones were sold), I source: @@QMS 410 LX Parts catalog z48\clipim\2001\03\22\lxprint\lxprint.htm All Canon LX-based printers from HP, Canon and others (except Apple) can have the HP and LX OEM versions of an optional lower cassette feeder attached interchangeably to add a second input source of 250 sheet capacity. \clipim\2001\03\22\qmspart\qmspart.htm Optional Lower Paper Feeder Tray Tray attaches to the bottom of the -PS 410 or 420 to accommodate letter, legal, A4, executive and envelope trays. (Comes with letter-size tray) $195

@@Rogue Wireless Access Point

A Rogue Access Point is a Wi-Fi Access Point which is setup by an attacker for the purpose of sniffing wireless network traffic. source:

@@Security Baseline Report

Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer or MBSA is a freeware application that can be downloaded from the Microsoft’s official website q MBSA can be used to generate a baseline report of the state of a computer just after a fresh operating system is installed the bare metal machine source: Vivek Nayyar 16 Apr 2011
@@Service Survey PC Magazine July 2000 Service & Reliablity Notebooks 1. Dell 2. IBM last Compaq Desktop Best Dell Gateway HP Micron Worst Acer, AST, Compusa, Pack Bell Printers Best HP, Epson, Panasonic Worst Canon, Okidata, Xerox @@SPARC Sun processor design Originally introduced in 1987 Versions up to 8 are 32 bit document from 1994 Version 9 is 64 bit @@Terminal %%HP HP2647 programmable terminal 2MHz 8080A zip87\clipim\2005\04\hp2647 Also see HP2645A fixed_pages/HP1000.html HP Journal /1978-01.pdf Jan 1978 HP 2648 graphics terminal HP700 terminals latest version z87\clipim\2005\04\hp2621\hp2621 The 2700 was the most advanced terminal built by HP in its first 25 years in the computer industry. The top-of-the-range models included dual 5.25 inch floppy disc drives as well as PAINTBRUSH/2700 AND AUTOPLOT/2700 software. A graphics tablet came standard with all but the entry-level model. The 2700 could produce up to 4096 colors, up to 16 of which could be displayed at any time. Graphics resolution was 512 x 390 dots. The 2700 was on the market for less than a year. It failed because it was far too expensive relative to the 9836C which could perform the same functions for about a third the price. Product Number: 2703A Introduced: 1982 Price: Unknown 2700 Catalogue Reference: 1984, page 615 (I worked nearby this project in winter, 1981) @@usage z48\CLIP\2001\03\digdiv.txt What Digital Divide? Another of the Left’s myths goes bust. By Neil Seeman, NRO associate editor March 16, 2001 9:20 a.m. The "digital divide" is dead. "People with low incomes using the World Wide Web at home accounted for the fastest-growing online group over the last," quoth the Times, referring to a new report by Nielsen/NetRatings. Minorities have also jumped onto the web in record numbers. Nearly nine million African Americans surfed the net in the past year; that compares to 87 million whites, 6 million Hispanics, 2 million Asian Americans, and almost 1 million American Indians. Going by the new 2001 census figures, this means that nearly the same proportion of blacks (26%) is cruising the Net as whites (32%). American Indians, it turns out, are more net-literate than whites. BLACKS TRAIL WHITES AGAIN - BUT ASIANS ARE ON TOP! \clip\99\13\racecomp.txt U.S. Cites Race Gap in Use of Internet By John Schwartz Washington Post Friday, July 9, 1999; Page A1 The full report and underlying statistics can be found online at Report: 'racial ravine' exists Seattle Times 7/8/99 55% of Asians vs 47% Whites, < 25% blacks, 25.5 % Hispanics have home computers. 36% of Asians (the most) have internet access. With low incomes, blacks are 1/3 Hispanics 1/4 as likely to to have computeers. The college educated are 8 times more likely to have computers, 16 times more likely to have internet connection. IGNORING ASIAN COMPUTER SUPERIORITY \clip\99\15\digdiv.txt A Snapshot View of a Complex World by David Boaz Thursday, July 15, 1999 Once again, front-page headlines are trumpeting a "digital divide." "Internet revolution bypassing poor, minorities," USA Today says; "Report Finds Net Users Increasingly White, Well Off," The Washington Post says. The headlines are based on Falling through the Net: Defining the Digital Divide, a 108-page report from the Commerce Department's National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA). The NTIA plays down the fact that Asian households at every income level are more likely than whites to have a computer, and The Washington Post and USA Today ignored Asians in their front-page stories on the racial divide. ASIANS MOST LIKELY TO HAVE COMPUTERS AND MODEMS IN INNER CITY \clip\96\10\compuse.gif Computer Access Among Inner City Residents By Race Source: US Dept of Commerce 1995 As cited by Channel A Dec, 1996 A H B W No Computer 62 90 90 70 Computer Only 20 8 5 15 Computer / Modem 18 5 4 15 \doc\96\06\asintrav.txt "Study shows Asian American travelers are a unique and growing market" International Examiner (Seattle) Oct 2, 1996 p. 11 Source: Travel Industry Association of America Asian Black Hispanic % own PC 59% 28% 42% (computer) \clip\96\04\singcens.txt AP 20-Sep-1996 14:56 EDT REF5487 Copyright 1996. The Associated Press. All Rights Reserved. Singapore Censors Internet Websites: Singapore has one of the highest rates of Net users in the world -- about 20 percent of its 750,000 households are connected. \doc\95\10\comprace - computer use by race, census Summary - Asians as "other" either 1nd or 1st place in most categories after White. Blacks and Hispanics both equally low in general access, but equal to whites in school use. Table A. LEVEL OF ACCESS AND USE OF COMPUTERS: 1984, 1989, and 1993 (Numbers in thousands) *******Number******* *****Percent***** Access, use, and age 1984 1989 1993 1984 1989 1993 3 to 17 W Access to a computer 7,048 10,773 15,821 17.1 26.7 35.8 B Access to a computer 461 806 1,152 6.1 10.6 13.0 H Access to a computer 191 514 795 4.6 9.6 12.1 Over 18 W Access to a computer 13,782 26,902 42,814 9.6 18.3 26.9 B Access to a computer 780 1,573 2,949 4.4 8.4 13.8 H Access to a computer 372 1,005 1,954 4.1 8.0 12.9 Table B. USE OF COMPUTERS AT HOME, SCHOOL, AND WORK BY PERSONS 18 YEARS AND OLDER: OCTOBER 1993 (Numbers in thousands. Civilian noninstitutional population.) *Percent* ************Uses Computer************ at home at school at work Uses With comp- comp- % of % of uter uter with % of with All any- at comp- enrol- a Characteristics Persons where home Number uter Number led Number job RACE White 158,927 37.5< 26.9 27,417 66.7< 5,980 53.1 45,326 47.1< Black 21,361 25.0 13.8 1,582 56.8 909 54.8 4,072 36.1 Hispanic 15,103 22.0 12.9 1,090 61.3 534 50.0 2,492 29.3 Other 7,117 35.6 31.3< 1,166 55.8 549 60.3< 1,708 42.3 Note - "Other" includes Asian, highest at home, and students enrolled GENDER Male 89,484 36.2 27.1 16,301 70.0< 3,626 55.9 24,414 40.3 Female 97,921 35.8 24.3 13,864 61.1 3,812 51.9 26,692 52.4< Women more likely to work with computers, probably due to pink-collar work vs. outdoors and factory blue collar jobs. asian.computers \doc\95\02\homeelec.txt Investor's Business Daily Feb 28, 1995 Households with Electronic Items: 80% VCR 58% Answering Machines 50% Cordless Phone 42% Stereo TV 40% CD Players 38% Video Game software 33% Personal Computer 20% Camcorder 8% Cellular Phones 5% TV/VCR combo Households (millions) with 35 computers 15 modems 10 cd-roms 5 on-line subscriptions Source: Veronis, Suhler & Associates, Electronic Industries Association @@wap z47\clip\2000\12\wapbad.txt Following a UK field study, 70% of users decided not to continue using Wireless Application Protocol. Currently, its services are poorly designed, have insufficient task analysis, and abuse existing non-mobile design guidelines. it would have been cheaper for her to buy a newspaper and throw away everything but the TV listings than to look up that evening's BBC programs on her WAP phone. @@web z50\clip\2001\07\webgap.txt Analysis: The Web's true digital divide By STEVE SAILER, UPI National Correspondent Internet marketing researcher comScore automatically collects complete Internet usage data leaving aside domains specifically aimed at immigrants or Asians, the most Asian-oriented general interest site is Its visitors are 25.1 percent Asian-Americans, even though Asians make up only 4.6 percent of online Americans. Other hot-rod Web sites with audiences that are highly Asian include, and highly black-skewed domains include,, and child rappers' sites and blacks make up the smallest share of the audience include: (clothes for the Puritans' descendants, whether genealogical or psychological); (the blue-blooded United States Golf Association); and the people with the least education seem to have the most fun on the Web.,,,, and vs. most educated:,, and, a textbook publisher (, the Chronicle of Higher Education trade journal (, and a Chinese business portal ( Another 50% "Ethnic Group": 51% of Web Users Bachelors Or More (That's equal to the highest ethnic groups, Indians, Chinese, Jews and Gays) May 5, 1997 Business Week "A Census in Cyberspace" Education 27% High school or less, 32% Some College 23% College Grad 18% Post Grad Age: 18-24 18% 25-29 14% 30-39 23% 40-49 26% 56-64 14$ 65+ 5% Female 41% Male 59% Fri, 25 Apr 1997 15:45:25 PST \clip\97\11\webcens.txt BUSINESS WEEK/HARRIS POLL: A CENSUS IN CYBERSPACE In 1997, 21% of adults use the web, 50% of computer users. population is race. The Internet remains a medium dominated by whites, who make up 85% of Internet and Web users, according to the Harris Poll. Blacks and Hispanics each account for 6% of Net users--up just slightly from a year ago. (Asians + Natam = 3%?) @@Video watching WSJ 1/29/2007 Harris Interactive Poll says 3/4 of online respondents have watched online videos., 2,309 adults 85% 18-25 87% 25-29 over 50% older ages Youtube 67% visited only once or a few times 24% frequently but less than 1 hour a week 9% 1 hour or more per week Ever watched 42% Youtube 41% TV network 35% news site 25% Yahoo 24% Google 19% Myspace 7% ITunes 19% somewhere else 26% never watched an online video complete reports @@Video Games Sony will be more than half of 44M units sold this year, 1/3 more than game cube, 4 times Xbox according to analysts. Sea PI Sep 4, 2002 @@Window 32 bit “4GB” maximum memory limit of 32-bit Windows is purely theoretical. In practice, the max memory is something significantly less, equal to 4GB minus your video card memory and the address space allocated to a couple other hardware resourcse. Typically, the realistic maximum memory is somewhere betwee 2.5GB and 3.5GB. ... However, 64-bit has it’s own problems because it lacks the full backwards compatibility provided by 32-bit. You do have a choice, but most people are still better off dealing with the limits of 32-bit than using 64-bit–which is still “bleeding edge”, despite the fact that it has been around for years now. ...on the upside, the 750MB of RAM you’re missing really wouldn’t have made that much difference anyway. @@VAX-11 VAX had 4G memory space, but user process was limited to 1G. By 2009, common to buy high end PCs with 4G of memory, more than could be addressed by win32. The VAX virtual memory is divided into four sections, each of which is one gigabyte[9] in size: For VMS, P0 was used for user process space, P1 for process stack, S0 for the operating system, and S1 was reserved. The VAX 7000/10000 (introduced 1992) supported a maximum of 3.5 GB of memory. This was a limitation of the VAX architecture, which had 32-bit addressing. @@Wrist computer z40\clipim\2000\04\19\swatch.efx Swatch leaps through time Home | arthurhu @ (no space)