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Blacks: Arthur Hu's Index of Diversity

(c) Arthur Hu's Index of Diversity, please cite when using data from here arthurhu @ hufamily.com (no space) on how to get more complete data or complete text of these references

For most comparative data, check out the Asian American index page, but I've got additional articles on just Black / African Americans here. It is my position that discrimination is a symptom, not the underlying cause of inequality, and that inequality is caused by real differences not only in economic, but also educational and skills capital as well.

I am in general agreement with those who observe a trend putting blacks at one end, whites in the middle, and Asians at the other end with repect to academic and cognitive ability / skills, sexual activity, crime and athletic ability. Blacks DO score unfavorably in most areas of health, education, and econonomics.

If you look at all of the comparisons I have, they don't always come out at the bottom. Blacks, for example, don't have the highest rate of smoking while pregnant, or highest rates of drinking. Besides dominance of professional sports, and over-representation in entertainment, Blacks are far ahead of Asians and Hispanics with respect to education staffing, politics and public safety jobs, and sometimes their per-capita incomes are no worse or even better than the other minorities, depending on the city. Hispanics, not Blacks have the highest high school drop out rate, and with Asians have the highest rate of adults with almost no formal education at all.

However, while there might be something to be said about a genetic predisposition which may have influenced the respective cultures, there is much data that with appropriate culture and training, all of the races are capable of high academic performance, and low rates of sexual activity, and problems associated with it.

The solution is not to seek racial redress, or parity in mere numbers or proportionality, but parity in grades, test scores, skills, and demonstrable ability. When statistical gaps disappear, stereotypes will follow accordingly. Lawrence Steinberg noted that the biggest difference between the successful and the lagging ethnic groups in school was that the Asians stressed individual achievement and hard work, while the Blacks were more likely to blame racism and ask for redress-based remedies like busing and affirmative action.

Contents



@@abandonment

\clip\97\26\aubtot.txt
http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/jump_111997.html The
Seattle Times Company Wednesday, Nov. 19, 1997 Auburn tot deserted;
mother charged " According to charging papers, Jump explained she had
been leaving the baby alone in the apartment because she had moved in
with a boyfriend who didn't have enough room for the baby."  by Susan
Gilmore Seattle Times staff reporter 


@@Accent

Yes, there is a "black" accent

zip54\clip\2002\01\babel.txt 1/08/02
http://www.africana.com/Utilities/Content.html?&../cgi-bin/banner.pl?banner=
Education&../DailyArticles/index_20020108.htm
One on One with John McWhorter
By Lee Hubbard
African.com
There are no official estimates, but in my experience, 49 out of 50
African Americans are identifiable as African American by their 
speech after literally three words.. Black people who do not have a
trace of the black accent are very, very rare.



  @@adopt 

%%failure

"Caseworker gets much of blame in review of girls death" Seattle Post
Intelligencer Aug 18, 1995 p. 1 - Caseworker felt that daycare center
was not "racially or culturally" sensitive to an African American
child, so warning about dangerous mother who eventually killed her
were not heeded. She was afraid that they were trying to inculcate
"middle class" values into the child.

%%role model

Wall Street Journal June 28, 1996 Don't Wait for Role Models By HOSEA
L. MARTIN. " I'm troubled by the report's downplaying of personal
responsibility and by its emphasis on "role models" for young black
males."There would be no black progress if Colin Powell waited for a
black general before him. Whites make fine role models, don't limit
yourself to black. file:C:\priv\96B\05\WAITROLE.HTM


%%support  

doc939\blakadop.txt 
    - no evidence to support opposition to transracial adoption


@@abstinence

  doc934\watson1.txt Diane Watson of LA says "I don't think there's
such a thing as abstinence"

@@Africa

%%Socialism

There is a long obituary of former
Tanzanian President Julius Nyerere in today's 10/15/99 New York
Times.  The headline reads, "Julius Nyerere of Tanzania Dies;
Preached African Socialism to the World", and the obituary is notable
for describing the failure of third-world socialism in some detail.
http://search.nytimes.com/search/daily/bin/fastweb?getdoc+site+iib-site+
25+0+wAAA+Tanzania

@@Astronaut

FIRST BLACK ASTRONAUT WAS PICKED IN 1967
\clip\97\29\blakastr.txt
http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/astr_120897.html
Seattle Times Company Monday, Dec. 8, 1997 Now his name blazes across
more than just the sky by Marcia Dunn Associated Press CAPE
CANAVERAL, Fla. - Thirty years to the day after his death in an Air
Force plane crash, Maj. Robert Lawrence Jr. is being recognized as a
full-fledged astronaut _ the first black astronaut, in fact.

@@Best City

In US News analysis:
1. Seattle 10% tied with Washington 10% for best 1990 unemployment rate
1. Seattle 81% 2. Denver 79% 1990 High School Grad

  @@biography
  %%attucks doc935\attucks.txt
  %%DOWDY
  DOC922\DOWDY.TXT HIGH IQ SAT BLACK
  %%Malcom X 
  doc922\integ.doc

@@Biotech

\clip\99\06\goffe.txt
\clipim\99\05\goffe\goffe.htm
http://www.seattletimes.com/news/business/html98/goff_021499.html
February 14, 1999 Biotech pioneer finally has his chance to call the
shots by Tyrone Beason Seattle Times business reporter Randall "Tony"
[Image] Goffe is an inventor, a biotechnology executive and a
47-year-old man possessed by a childhood dream.  

@@birth 

doc939\blakviol.txt why don't blacks have fewer unwed children?

  
@@blackface

A Summit's Organizers Sue Club Med Over a Blackface Skit By DON VAN
NATTA JR. New York Times May 8, 1996 \priv\96\15\blakface.htm NEW
YORK -- A federal lawsuit filed on Monday accuses a Club Med resort
in Senegal of staging a "minstrel show" with two white performers in
blackface at an African summit last May whose participants included
several prominent African-American leaders .

@@books

\clip\97\09\blakmig.txt
H-NET BOOK REVIEW
Published by H-Urban@h-net.msu.edu  (December, 1996)

Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo. _Abiding Courage: African American
Migrant Women and the East Bay Community_.  Chapel Hill: University
of North Carolina Press, 1996.  xi + 217 pp.  Tables, notes,
bibliography, and index. $29.95 (cloth), ISBN 0-8078-2256-6; $14.95
(paper), ISBN 0-8078-4563-9.
Reviewed for H-Urban by Victoria W. Wolcott, University of Rochester
 (book about migrants to Oakland CA)


@@boycott

\doc\95\06\pepper.txt - boycott of Dr. Pepper unless it hires more
black vice presidents


@@Britain

FEW BLACKS AT TOP VS US, BUT MORE INTERMARRIAGE
\clip\99\09\briteq.txt Race relations: Integrated but unequal The
Economist; ; 02-08-1997 
Sailer responds
another response

Black and brown people find it harder to get top jobs in Britain than
in America. But in other ways Britain's races are better integrated
Figures on marriage and cohabitation in the 1991 census show that 40%
of Afro-Caribbean men aged between 16 and 34 had a white partner.
The corresponding figure for women was 21%. For those aged between 35
and 59 the figures were 22% and 15%, respectively. In the younger age
group, among those who were married, 31% of men and 21% of women had
a white partner. Asians marry other ethnic groups much less often,
though more than they used to. America's censuses do not cover
cohabitation, or marriage rates by age group, but overall just 4% of
black men and 2% of black women have a white spouse.  


@@business

>>\doc\96\01\blakfirm.txt - Black owned firms by up 46% in 5
years

d:\priv\95\19\blakbus.txt AP Dec 12 1995: Overall, the number of
black-owned businesses increased 46 percent, from 424,165 in 1987 to
620,192 in 1992, the bureau said. That was well ahead of the 26
percent increase in all businesses in the country.


  @@census

  doc934\blackam.txt black education income family

@@Civil War


SOME BLACKS WERE ON THE UNION SIDE (WERE NOT!) "Shades of Gray: Did
Blacks Fight Freely For the Confederacy?" Wall Street Journal May 8,
1997 F050997-3. Nelson Winbush says his slave grandfather fought on
the rebel side.

@@Class

BLACK MID-UPPER CLASS OUTRAGED BY UNION SCANDAL
z63\clip\2003\02\dcgold.txt
Along D.C.'s Gold and Platinum Coasts, a Wave of Outrage 
By Lonnae O'Neal Parker
Washington Post Staff Writer
Friday, February 7, 2003; Page C01 
[teachers union scandal...]  "part of the scandal is that "these are
the black folks who've made it," the Gold Coast and Platinum Coast
crowd.  That's local shorthand for those neighborhoods that stretch
along the northwestern portion of 16th Street and became fashionable
addresses for Washington's black middle class after restrictive
residential laws were abolished in the 1950s. ..homes in the area
sell .. up to nearly a million dollars... older, college-educated
set, approaching retirement age with money in the bank and luxury
cars in the driveway."

@@clothes

\clip\96\01\harlem.txt Date: Thu, 25 Jul 1996 16:33:21 -0400 Shunned
No More, New York's Harlem Entices Big Retail Chains Seeking Fresh
Turf Via AP By LAURA BIRD.  Nationally, Grid says black households'
average spending on clothes is $1,803 a year, compared with $1,726
for white households. 1990 household income was only $16,000 in
Harlem, about half the national average.


@@college - 

Blacks graduate high school and enter the first two year colleges at
nearly the same rate as whites, but only half as many get 4 year
degrees.

%%favorable 


BOOKS SAYS THE US HAS BEEN RELATIVELY GOOD TO BLACKS The Myths that
Divide Us -- http://www.atlasbooks.com/marktplc/00548.htm "Because of
affirmative action, black applicants are much more likely than white
applicants to be admitted to the college of their choice, even though
whites score about 200 points higher on the Scholastic Aptitude Test.

%%graduates

ABOUT 2X WHITES 29-29 HAVE BACH DEGREE
\clip\98\18\earngap.txt Education Producing Wider Earnings Gap
Non-College Graduates Fall Further Behind; Women Making Strides in
Earnings By Edward Walsh Washington Post Staff Writer Thursday,
December 10, 1998; Page A24
* more than 28 percent of white Americans 25 to 29 years old have at
least a bachelor's degree, compared to less than 16 percent for blacks

* In 1975, the report said, the average black college graduate made
75 percent of what a white college graduate earned. By 1997, earnings
of black college graduates had grown to only 77 percent of their
white counterparts."

BLACKS DO BEST WITHOUT PREFERENCE AT GEORGIA TECH, XAVIER, FAMU
\clip\98\15\oppor.txt
http://www.policyreview.com/nov98/opportunity.html
Policyreview.com, November-December 1998 issue, No. 92
OPPORTUNITY WITHOUT PREFERENCE
By D.W. Miller
Colleges that set the standard for fostering black achievement

- Philip Uri Treisman has class for blacks in calculus.  the six-year
graduation rate for blacks and Hispanics in the program equals the 64
percent rate for UT students overall, far higher than for UT blacks
overall (40 percent) and for UT Hispanics overall (45 percent). 

- Georgia Tech The performance gap between minorities and whites in
engineering has been eliminated. For minority engineers at Georgia
Tech, the odds of graduating have risen to 70 percent, nearly double
the national average for minority students in engineering departments
and about the same as Georgia Tech students overall.

- Xavier University, a small liberal-arts college in New Orleans, has
a unique pedigree as the only private, Catholic, historically black
school in the country. It has emerged in recent years as the leading
supplier of black undergraduates to the nation's medical schools. In
addition, it also produces more black graduates in biology, physical
sciences, and chemistry and places more blacks in pharmacy schools
than any other college. More than 70 of the 1,100 blacks who entered
medical school in the fall of 1997 were Xavier alumni

- Every year a foundation affiliated with the College Board designates
about 800 of the nation's top black high school students "National
Achievement Scholars," based on SAT scores and high school records.
But for the last seven years, Florida A&M University, a once-obscure,
historically black public university in Tallahassee, has vied with
Harvard for the number-one spot. Last year, 59 of them came to FAMU.

\clip\98\15\mostblak.txt
MOST BLACKS GRADS FROM PUBLIC AND HIST BLACK COLLEGES, NOT HARVARD
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/WPlate/1998-10/25/279l-102598-idx.html
Schools for Scholars By Karin Chenoweth Sunday, October 25, 1998;
Page R06 The institutions that produce the most African-American
baccalaureates are -- unsurprisingly enough -- those that enroll the
most. They tend to fall into two categories, large, public
institutions, such as City University of New York, and historically
black colleges and universities, which tend to be in the South.  

%%jail

   doc90\prolet.doc Blacks > Japanese in college, more than in jail

   doc\94\11\blcoljal.txt black college to jail 99 to 1, white 6 to 1

%%predominantly black

[[desegregation

d:\priv\95\03\missseg.txt - can keep black colleges,
but must upgrade and have uniform standards instead of
lower standards at black universities.

[[proclamation

\doc\web\97\07\hbcu.txt President Clinton makes a proclamation NOW,
THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution
and laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim September 21
through September 27, 1997, as National Historically Black Colleges
and Universities Week.


[[standards 

NPR 12/26/94 Some whites like the nursing and law schools at the
predominantly black campuses becase the admission standards are lower.
On the other hand, many whites don't like the black campuses precisely
because they know the academic standards are lower

   %%rate:

\doc\95\14\hiblack.txt - I recall being surprised the learn that we
has a higher percentage and real number of African Americans enrolled
in colleges -- mainly segregate admittedly -- prior to the civil
rights era than the British university enrollment.  This was as much
a comment on the British class system as upon our own situation. Ed
Kent ekent@brooklyn.cuny.edu


   DOC911\MYTH2 Continuing myth of the disappeaing Black stuodent
   doc936\blkedin.txt black men and women up 50% 80-92!

   doc911\uclies

   phd:DOC922\BLAKPHD - BLACK SCIENCE PHD'S


@@confederacy

The confederate flag and any memory of the confederacy is being
equated with hate speech and naziism, to be banned and not tolerated
in any context.

\priv\95\11\blakconf.txt - H-BET review on blacks in the confederacy,
claims 25% of negros supported the confederacy.

BANNING ANY MEMORY OF CONFEDERACY & WHITE CULTURE
\clip\98\11\confed.txt http://www.concentric.net/~Issues/beatconf.sht
BEATING UP ON THE CONFEDERACY Do Only the Feelings of Blacks Count?
by Elizabeth Wright [Reprinted from Issues & Views, Spring 1998]
"That goal is to eradicate all symbols of the Confederate past once
honored by most southern white Americans.  "

Also: Black Southern Heritage Video If you are unfamiliar with the history
of blacks who fought for the Confederacy, here is an informative
video.

@@confederate flag

  d:\doc\94\17\priv\confflag.txt - US News Summary
  69% see it as southern pride, 22% as symbol racism
  31% of blacks offended, 68% not offended
  USNews 8/15/94

@@conservative

ONLY HALF OF YOUNG BLACKS CALL THEMSELVES DEMOCRATS
\clip\98\07\blakcons.txt Investor's Business Daily April 1, 1998 N a
t i o n a l I s s u e : Are Black Leaders Out Of Touch?  Their Agenda
Is Moving Away From Constituents' By Matthew Robinson Blacks 65 and
over are strong Democrats. In fact, 86% identify themselves as
Democrats. A scant 21% call themselves independents.  But among
blacks 26 to 35 years old, only 48% say they're Democrats.  Forty-one
percent call themselves independents.


\clip\97\20\blakcons.txt MAJORITY OF BLACKS ARE CONSERVATIVE Don't
confuse black attitudes with political affiliation, which is shaped
by painful history, not true preferences by Clark Kent Ervin,
Assistant Secretary of State, Texas
(http://www.msnbc.com/news/104872.asp)


\doc\web\97\04\blakcons.txt Black and
Right: The Bold New Voice of Black Conservatives in America
(Praeger Publishers, edited by Stan Faryna, Brad Stetson, and Joseph
G.  Conti) presents the opinions of both prominent national figures
and little-known, black conservative community activists.  


\priv\95\03\blakditt.txt - black student threatened
because of conservative views.

@@crime

%%denial

\priv\95\14\richcrim.txt - rich communities don't have
less crime

%%favorable

BOOKS SAYS THE US HAS BEEN RELATIVELY GOOD TO BLACKS
z48\doc\web\2001\03\mythdiv.txt
The Myths that Divide Us --
http://www.atlasbooks.com/marktplc/00548.htm
"Black defendants are slightly less likely to be prosecuted and convicted of
felonies than white defendants charged with similar crimes.
"Though blacks commit more than half of our nation's murders, nearly 60 % of
all Death Row inmates are white.

%%myth
black.crime.myth

\priv\95\17\racemyth.txt Racial Myths Reinforce White Fears Crime: The
President, calling on blacks' 'understanding,' should know the facts.
Los Angeles Times (LT) - SUNDAY October 22, 1995

The 1991 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse by the University of
Michigan revealed that 8.7 million whites used drugs in a given month
versus 1.6 million blacks. And white high school seniors were far
more likely to use drugs than black high school seniors. (comment:
but every report other than those two show black rates of drug abuse
and health problems to be far higher than for whites)

When blacks do commit violent crime, whites are seldom the victims.
In 1994, the FBI reports, blacks committed nearly half of the murders
and robberies in America; 94% of their victims were other blacks.
Blacks were mostly a menace not to society but to themselves. (but
report on youth violence shows that inter-race robberies are
overwhelmingly black against whites or Asians.)

%%reality

\priv\95\03\blakcrim.txt - black stereotypes don't kill like black
thugs do. Cynthia Tucker

%%murder

-------------------------
"Short Lives, Bloody Deaths: Black murder rates soar" Newsweek Dec 17, 1990 p. 
33

the murder rate for black men 15 to 24 increased by 68 percent from 84 to 88.
black youths 15 to 19 doubled.

One out of 1,000 young black men is doomed to death each year, 10 times the rate 
of whites. (it's much worse in bad black neighborhoods, AHU)

robert Froehlke, author of the CDC study said that it is now more likely for a black 
male between 15 and 24 to die from homicide than was a UC soldier to be killed on 
a tour of duty in Vietnam.

chart shows rates for whites and black females were about the same from 84 to 88 
at about 10 per 100,000, but blacks went from 40 to nearly 80 15-19
----------------

"Panel studies tragic plight of black males" San Jose mercury News
march 20, 1991. Senate hearing:  Annual homicides of black men in 70s
and 80s were in the 700s, but had increased to 1,200 by 1989

--------------------------

Homicide, Boston Globe, Jan 9, 1989 p. 17 - Councilor blames high murder rate on 
government tolerance of crime confined to black neighborhoods.

-------------------------

"Councilor Charles C. Ynacey (Mattapan-Dorchester) said the homice rate is a 
"very clear indictment of the city's past practices of tolerating violence in certain 
neighborhoods so long as it is contained" (Note, cops don't keep people from killing 
each other, looks like the community, not leaders who are tolerating the violence)

per 100,000 homicide rate for blacks in 1988 in boston vs. most recent in
14.7 Buffalo
36.9 Seattle
35.9 Baltimore
45.4 Washington
52.3 New York
51.1 San Francisco
---------------------------
59.1 Boston
79.6 Los Angeles
77  Detroit

Close to total increase (drugs)

The 1988 increase of 20 drug related slayings was almost equal to the overall 
increase of 20 in black homicide victims. Geographically, more than half of the 
slayings occurred in Roxbury and Mattapan, both in predominantly black 
neighborhoods. Black homicides went up, whites down in past 10 years.

-----------------------------

%%Victim

z58\clip\2002\09\blakgirl.txt
http://www.msnbc.com/news/797288.asp
More black girls are crime victims 
12-18 year-olds are twice as likely to be targets of violence 
 ‘I think the most important thing here, is that the image of
teenagers is as the offender. In fact, these kids are more victims
than offenders.’ National Council on Crime
and Delinquency, black girls ages 12-18 are twice as likely to be the
victims of violence as any other group of young people.

@@CUBA

\PRIV\95\15\BLAKCUBA.TXT

 But he said that Cuba continues to record the lowest
infant mortality rate of any Latin American country and has
an average life expectancy of 76 years.

-> US black life expectancy =  70, US white = 76, US asian = 83

   Witnessing media coverage of the Million-Man March on Washington,
Codina said blacks in communist Cuba receive more educational
opportunities and face less racial polarization than in the United
States.

Percent 18-24 high school graduates enrolled in college 1993:
black - 33%
white - 42%

   Although blacks were originally taken to the island as
slaves on sugar plantations, they have reached an equal
social standing in the years since the Cuban revolution
brought Castro to power, Codina said.


@@Culture

Some say that culture, not genes is responsible for underachievement.
Others say there's nothing wrong with black culture, it's white
culture and racism.


%%Acting white

z49\clip\2001\05\saloafac.txt
http://www.salon.com/news/feature/2001/05/03/affirmative_action/index4.html
Secrets and lies In McWhorter's view, the real problem is that
African-American culture is infected by a "virus" of hostility toward
learning and academic excellence A smart, bookish black kid risks
being taunted for "acting white."

ltiger@prodigy.net: A study of Baltimore school kids showed that
girls who did well were accused by peers of acting white while boys
were accused of acting female. 



@@Decline

HACKER BLAMES INCOME INEQUALITY ON SEXISM, RACISM
\clip\97\18\money.txt Business Week 7/28/97 THEM THAT'S GOT SHALL GET
MONEY Who Has How Much and Why By Andrew Hacker Scribner 254pp $25
"As a result, black families on the whole have lost ground, despite
affirmative action. Today, black families make $577 for every $1,000
that white families earn, vs. $605 two decades ago. Only half of the
gap can be attributed to differences in education, marriage rates,
and other demographic factors. The rest presumably lies with
prejudice and discrimination. ''Something like this should not
happen,'' Hacker asserts.  " (He does NOT check correlation with
skills measured by test scores, which ARE about even)


@@discrimination

%%FBI

\priv\96b\07\atfdisc.txt Date: Wed, 10 Jul 1996 12:01:50 -0400 From:
NewsHound@sjmercury.com (NewsHound) ATF settles suit by black agents
WASHINGTON (AP) -- The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms
settled a discrimination case brought by black agents, agreeing to
pay $5.9 million in damages and fees. But one agent complains if anything
ATF bent over backwards with special preferences for minorities and women.

%%Federal Government

Blacks claim discrimination in Federal Government
\doc\web\97\07\big.txt Blacks In Government Statement by Oscar Eason,
Jr., President And CEO To The House Subcommittee on Civil Service
Reform http://www.bignet.org/summit/cover.htm

%%job

Black job seekers shy away from the suburbs --for a reason Seattle PI
4/21/98 p.C1 Sherwood Ross. Stdy by Harry Holzer of Michigan State
Univ finds blacks believe suburbs are prejudiced against them chance
of getting job is only half white in suburbs. Study of 3,200
businesses in metro LA Boston, Detroit, Atlanta. Blacks were 27% of
job applicants, 17% of job offers B women 12.5/9, B men 15/8.5, in
suburbs, bw 9/6, bm 11.5/5.5 low income blacks cite transportation,
prefer inner city which crowds down wages


%%law school

3 Black Law School Students Transfer, 1 Graduates at Spokane's
Gonzaga Law After Racial Harassment from "Law Students For a Pure
America" (Hey man, this really sucks, knock it off, this is the kind
of crap that people use to justify reverse discrimination)

\clip\94\13\blaklaw.htm Seattle Times May 12, 1997 p. B4 Student gets
law degree despite harassment Associated PRESS Spokane - Uri Clinton
got his law degree over the weekend, despite efforts by someone to
chase African-American students from the Gonzaga School of Law.

%%Law

LAW PRESUMES WHITE SUPREMACY \doc\web\clip\97\20\legdisc.txt H-NET
BOOK REVIEW Published by H-PCAACA@msu.edu (July, 1997) A. Leon
Higginbotham.  _Shades of Freedom: Racial Politics and Presumptions
of the American Legal Process_.  New York: Oxford University Press,
1996.  Introduction. $30.00 (cloth), ISBN 0-19-503822-3.
Reviewed for H-PCAACA by Rayvon Fouche, Washington University


%%hiring
\priv\95\08\storrace.txt - stores record race on checks

\doc\95\03\empldisc.txt - Study finds anti-black hiring discrimination
whites got jobs over equally qualified blacks 3:1

\priv\95\03\hirebias.doc
"Employers Prefer Whites, Study Says" (Los Angeles Times) San
Francisco Chronicle May 15, 1991 p. 1

"Hiring bias still around, study finds", San Francisco Examiner May
15, 1991 p. 1 William M. Welch

black.discrimination.hiring
d:\priv\95\01\solectrn.txt - judge found company guilty of discrimintion
against blacks in company with whites and asians.

%%Voice

APARTMENT SUED FOR NOT CALLING BACK RENTERS WHO TALK BLACK
z55\clip\2002\02\aadp08.txt The Color of Voice
http://abcnews.go.com/sections/Downtown/2020/downtown_linguisticprofiling_020205.html
Rosa Rice finds apartments won't call back anybody who sounds black, sues
landlords

%%President 

Blacks left out of Hillary Clinton Press


@@Disrespect

There's Machismo, but the African Americans have a thing about
disrespect and manhood.  Any ideas as to what this is really all
about? 

http://newsweek.com/nw-srv/printed/us/so/sp0225_1.htm
\clip\98\19\nbalock.txt
Newsweek 12/15/98
SPORTS Race, Respect and the NBA Conflicts over money and control
have kept the lockout going. But there's been another X-factor: the
divide between white owners and black players.  By Allison Samuels 

The current labor battle, they say, is not just for money and control
of their craft, but for their manhood.  "At this point, it's about
power and respect,"

A lot of young players obsess about being dissed

As an example of this lack of respect
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
In a society where more young black men are housed in prisons than in
boardrooms or college campuses, respect is essential for those
fortunate enough to forge a different type of life, says Harvard
clinical psychiatrist Alvin Pouissant. "Many of these young men are
coming from backgrounds where they were taught they weren't deserving
or equal. When they think they've proved otherwise, any slight is
considered a major disapproval of them and what they've
accomplished." 


@@DNA

THE TIMES April 26 2000 UNITED STATES DNA to unlock the past of black
American slaves FROM BEN MACINTYRE IN WASHINGTON This summer
geneticists at Howard University in Washington will begin matching
blood tests to a database of DNA sequences taken from native African
populations. The tests could enable millions of Americans to trace
their original African homelands for the first time.  The survey has
also revealed the extent of their European ancestry - principally a
product of the rape and sexual exploitation of women slaves.
Scientists on the project have already established that 30 per cent
of African-American men are descended from Europeans on the father's
side.
http://www.the-times.co.uk/news/pages/tim/2000/04/26/timfgnusa01007.html
z41\clipim\2000\04\26\dna\dna.htm

 @@dominican

\doc\95\04\domincan.txt - dominicans have the lowest status of major
ethnic groups in new york city


  @@drugs

  doc921\drugblak.txt - Journal of Am Medical Association

  @@econ
  %%income
  doc937\sclarapa.xls - pay in santa clara valley
  Santa Clara County 
  womens wages BL -10% CH+9% JP+3% FL-11% IN-23% KR-21% VT-27%
  men          JP+4% CH-10% IN-11% KR -35% BL -51% FL-1.7 VT-1.8 MX-2


@@education


%%Acting White
One theory of what holds back blacks is that high achievement is
associated with the oppressing race, one famous paper was 1986 by
Fordham and Ogbu.


BLACK BOYS HAVE HIGHER SELF ESTEEM WITH B THAN A GRADES
\clip\2005\10\blgrade.txt
Sat, 29 Oct 2005 06:36:30 -0000
Subject: Ferguson on the Racial Achievement Gap
http://www.journalnow.com/servlet/Satellite?pagename=WSJ%2FMGArticle%2FWSJ_BasicArticle&c=MGArticle&cid=1128767821350&path=!localnews!economy!sub!article&s=1037645509109
..said Ron Ferguson, an economist and lecturer in public policy at
Harvard's John F. Kennedy School of Government...This year's
conference focuses on a 1986 paper titled "Black Students School
Success: Coping With the Burden of 'Acting White.'"  The paper,
written by Signithia Fordham and John Ogbu, concluded that black
students turn against academic success out of fear that they will be
accused of "acting white."
...But Ferguson said that his surveys of students have found no
differences in time spent on homework among those in the same classes.
He did find some differences among the races in areas such as homework
completion rates and in behaviors such as leisure reading.
..
Ferguson said that one survey shows that for all races, boys and girls
feel better about themselves if they get higher grades, with one
exception. Black boys have a higher self-esteem if they get a B rather
than an A, which he described as an area of "murkiness" in his
studies.


%%Affluent

Black students do worse than whites even in affluent suburbs, contrary
to the notion that simply putting blacks in good schools or good
districts would solve the "gap".

[[General

BLACKS IN HIGH ACHIEVMENT PRINCETON SCORE LOW, SHAKER HEIGHTS
z91\clip\2005\09\princeton.txt
http://www.nytimes.com/2005/09/28/nyregion/28education.html?ei=5088&en=e0521b4d710cae9e&ex=1285560000&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss&pagewanted=print   The Achievement Gap in Elite Schools
By SAMUEL G. FREEDMAN   PRINCETON, N.J.   AN uneasy amalgam of pride and discontent, Caroline Mitchell sat amid the balloons and beach chairs on the front lawn of Princeton High School, watching the Class of 2004 graduate. Her pride was for the seniors' average SAT score of 1237, third-highest in the state, and their admission to elite universities like Harvard, Yale and Duke. As president of the high school alumni association and community liaison for the school district, Ms. Mitchell deserved to bask in the tradition of public-education excellence.   Discontent, though, was what she felt about Blake, her own son. He was receiving his diploma on this June afternoon only after years of struggle - the failed English class in ninth grade, the science teacher who said he was capable only of C's, the assignment to a remedial "basic skills" class. Even at that, Ms. Mitchell realized, Blake had fared better than several friends who were nowhere to be seen in the procession of gowns and mortarboards. They were headed instead for summer school.   "I said to myself: 'Oh, no. Please, no,' " Ms. Mitchell recalled. "I was so hurt. These were bright kids. This shouldn't have been happening."   It did not escape Ms. Mitchell's perception that her son and most of those faltering classmates were black. They were the evidence of a prosperous, accomplished school district's dirty little secret, a racial achievement gap that has been observed, acknowledged and left uncorrected for decades. Now that pattern just may have to change under the pressure of the federal No Child Left Behind law.   Several months after Blake graduated, Princeton High School (and thus the district as a whole) ran afoul of the statute for the first time, based on the lagging scores of African-American students on a standardized English test given to 11th graders. Last month, the school was cited for the second year in a row, this time because 37 percent of black students failed to meet standards in English, and 55 percent of blacks and 40 percent of Hispanics failed in math.   One of the standard complaints about No Child Left Behind by its critics in public education is that it punishes urban schools that are chronically underfinanced and already contending with a concentration of poor, nonwhite, bilingual and special-education pupils. Princeton could hardly be more different. It is an Ivy League town with a minority population of slightly more than 10 percent and per-student spending well above the state average. The high school sends 94 percent of its graduates to four-year colleges and offers 29 different Advanced Placement courses. Over all, 98 percent of Princeton High School students exceed the math and English standards required by No Child Left Behind.   So is the problem with the district, or is the problem with the law?   The answer seems clear to those parents - mostly black, but some white and Hispanic - who have been raising the issue of the achievement gap for years. While the Princeton community includes a slice of black bourgeoisie attached to the university or nearby corporations, most of the African-American population came here a century or more ago to serve as the butlers, maids, cooks and chauffeurs of a university and town with a nearly Southern fondness for segregation. The high school, for instance, did not integrate for nearly 20 years after its founding in 1898, and the elementary schools waited until they were compelled by state law in 1947.   As far back as the 1960's, according to the local historical society, black students suffered from "low expectations from teachers" and a high dropout rate. In the early 1990's, an interracial body calling itself the Robeson Group - in homage to Paul Robeson, the most famous product of black Princeton - mobilized to recruit more black teachers and help elect the first black member to the school board.   Despite such efforts, the achievement gap remained. A tracking system for math separates students in middle school. The high school, while not formally tracked, has such a demand for seats in Advanced Placement classes and honors sections that a rigid hierarchy exists in effect. Guidance counselors find their time consumed by writing recommendation letters for seniors who routinely apply to 10 or more high-end schools.   And until the No Child Left Behind law was enacted there were no concrete consequences for failing to address the resulting disparity. Which may be why a number of black parents here credit the federal law with forcing attention on the underside of public education in Princeton. It requires all districts to reveal test results and meet performance standards by various subgroups, including race.   "If you scratch the surface of this town, a lot of contradictions are going to emerge," said Ron Plummer, a project manager for a technology company and a co-chairman of the school district's minority education committee. "I do have some suspicions when measurements come from standardized tests alone. But if it's going to shine a bright light on the inadequacies of the system, especially as it regards children of color, then I'm all in favor."   In any case, there can be a tone of defensiveness, even smugness, among certain school leaders in Princeton. "We're proud of our F," said Lewis Goldstein, the assistant superintendent, referring to the contradiction between the district's overall success and its standing under No Child Left Behind. "It's as if you handed in your homework and the teacher handed it back and you got a 98 on it and an F. That's the situation we're in."   TO be fair to Princeton, it is hardly the only community to include both a large number of superachieving students and a smaller but persistent number of low-income, nonwhite stragglers. Princeton, in fact, belongs to an organization of 25 similar school districts, the Minority Student Achievement Network, which includes Evanston, Ill.; Shaker Heights, Ohio; and Eugene, Ore., among others, that are working to find techniques to address the issue.   Princeton's superintendent, Judith Wilson, has accepted the challenge of reducing the achievement gap. As a newcomer to the district - she arrived last February from the working-class, half-minority district in Woodbury, N.J., near Camden - she sounds less beholden than some of her colleagues to Princeton's exalted sense of itself.   "If the gap can't be narrowed in Princeton," she said in an interview in her office last week, "then where can it be narrowed? There can't be a question here of resources, or of community support, or of quality of staff. So if we can't impact the students who are not born into privilege, then where can it happen?"   
Princeton High School (and thus
the district as a whole) ran afoul of the statute for the first time,
based on the lagging scores of African-American students on a
standardized English test given to 11th graders. Last month, the
school was cited for the second year in a row, this time because 37
percent of black students failed to meet standards in English, and 55
percent of blacks and 40 percent of Hispanics failed in math.  
organization of 25
similar school districts, the Minority Student Achievement Network,
which includes Evanston, Ill.; Shaker Heights, Ohio; and Eugene, Ore.,
among others, that are working to find techniques to address the
issue.

z75\clip\2004\03\testgap.txt
http://www.buffalonews.com/editorial/20040315/1052757.asp
Thursday, March 18, 2004
'Performance gap' tough to close
By SUSAN SCHULMAN and DEIDRE WILLIAMS
News Staff Reporter
3/15/2004
"Test scores for two recent years show white students outscoring black
students in suburban schools in almost all cases - just as in city
schools. The difference is apparent in more affluent districts like
Williamsville as well as working-class districts like Cheektowaga
Central."

Suburban test gap
Proportion of black and white student competent on state 
achievement tests in suburban Erie and Niagra county schools:
8th grade english  26% 59%
8th grade math     30% 68%
Source: Buffalo news analysis of all suburban schools based on 
2001-02 state report cards

[[Ogbu 

BLACKS DON'T BELIEVE IN [WHITE] AMERICAN EDUCATION SYSTEM
z63\clip\2003\02\ogbu2.txt
Ogbu, J. U. (1994). Racial stratification and education in the United
States: Why inequality persists. Teachers College Record, 96,
264-298. Retrieved August 2, 2002, from www.tcrecord.org. 
Blacks have developed a folk theory that states that education does
not pay. The belief is that a black student can work hard, make good
grades, go as far as he or she can in school and still be excluded
from successful jobs
Becoming academically successful means that a black student would
need to reject black culture and identity for white culture.
Blacks deeply distrust white institutions—and their black
representatives. So, because public school is a white institution, it
cannot be trusted to really help black students.

z63\clip\2003\02\shaker.txt]
Cincinatti Enquirer Thursday, February 13, 2003 
[OGBU STUDY] In upscale suburb, parents of black students less involved 
The Associated Press
SHAKER HEIGHTS, Ohio - Less parent involvement got a lot of the blame
for the failure of black students to perform as well as whites in
this upscale Cleveland suburb, a new study said.
In his new book, Black American Students in an Affluent Suburb: A
Study of Academic Disengagement, researcher John Ogbu concluded that,
unlike many white parents, many black parents do not stress homework,
attend teacher conferences or encourage advanced-placement classes.

OGBU STUDIES BLACK MEDIOCRITY IN SHAKER HEIGHTS
z62\clip\2002\12\whylag.txt
http://www.nytimes.com/2002/11/30/arts/30RACE.html?pagewanted=3
Why Are Black Students Lagging?
By FELICIA R. LEE
NYT: 11/30/02
"a book that argues minority communities themselves 
contribute to student failure.
The book, "Black American Students in an Affluent Suburb: A Study of 
Academic Disengagement" (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates), is by John U. 
Ogbu, an anthropology professor at the University of California at 
Berkeley and a well-known figure in the field of student achievement 
for more than three decades. Indeed, it was Mr. Ogbu's research that 
popularized the phrase "acting white" in the mid-1980's to help 
explain why black students might disdain behaviors associated with 
high achievement, like speaking standard grammatical English.
"

[[Suburbs

z75\clip\2004\02\blaksub.txt
http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-na-suburbs27feb27,1,6778124.story?coll=la-headlines-nation
Atlanta Suburbs Bloom for Blacks
Affluent new arrivals are finding the good life -- and issues that whites in
similar communities have to confront, such as weak public schools.

By Ellen Barry, Times Staff Writer
"Prince George's has the highest African American median income in the
country; DeKalb has the second highest... Prince George's offers a
story of wasted potential, Harrison said.  Once a white, rural county,
it became more wealthy and more educated as black families moved in.
But ...  more importantly - the county's public school students
routinely rank near the bottom of Maryland's school systems on
standardized tests.  "

%%Catholic

1968: BUILD BLACK SCHOOLS LIKE THE 1ST CATHOLIC ALTERNATIVE SCHOOLS
z62\CLIP\2002\11\blakparo.txt
Catholic Herald
12/28/1968
Christopher Jencks, executive director of the center for educational
policy re-search at Harvard, said he saw a strong similarity between
today's school crisis, with Negro communities fighting for control of
neighborhood public schools, and the crisis that arose a century ago
"when Catholic immigrants confronted a public school system run by and
for Protestants." ...help Black nationalists set up the same kind of
private school system that American Catholics built when they were a
minority.

%%Chinese

z60\CLIP\2002\11\blakmand.txt
November 2, 2002 www.nytimes.com
School Teaching in Chinese Is a Lure for Black Children
By YILU ZHAO


z60\CLIP\2002\11\blakmand.txt
November 2, 2002
School Teaching in Chinese Is a Lure for Black Children
By YILU ZHAO
while most are children of Chinese immigrants, almost 10 percent of
the students are black Shuang Wen gradually gained a reputation among
some of the city's black middle-class parents for being nurturing yet
rigorous. In last spring's citywide third-grade math and English
tests, Shuang Wen ranked third in math and 23rd in English among the
city's almost 1,000 elementary schools.


%%city

[[Ravenswood/East Palo Alto

Mostly black/Hispanic contrast to Stanford suburb on the
other side of 101.

doc934\Ravenw.txt

%%Class size


The Debate: Minding the Gap
http://www.pbs.org/closingtheachievementgap/debate_minding.html
The results from a Tennessee class size experiment indicate, for
example, that cutting class size in the early grades raises both black
and white children's test scores but raises black children's scores
more. Historical evidence also seems to support the hypothesis that
lowering class size helps narrow the black-white test score gap. When
low birth rates reduced school enrollment in the 1970s, the
teacher-pupil ratio rose and classes shrank. Independent analyses by
Ron Ferguson and David Grissmer suggest that this class size reduction
was followed by a marked decline in the black-white test score gap.

%%Cram school

BLACK STUDENTS FIND ROLE MODELS AT KOREAN CRAM SCHOOL
z75\clip\2003\11\cram.txt
st petersburg times fla
http://www.sptimes.com/2003/10/22/news_pf/Columns/Black_families_open_u.shtml
Black families open up, cram education in
By BILL MAXWELL, Times Staff Writer
Published October 22, 2003
Shirley's sons are attending a Korean cram school in Queens. Each
afternoon, she and the boys ride the subway to a storefront.  There,
the boys, along with 45 other students, study for three hours with
certified math, English and science teachers. On Saturday mornings,
they make the trip again. The boys study for four more hours.  ..the
boys' grades... went from earning C's and the occasional B to making
all A's and B's.... cares more about the boys' new love of learning:

%%gap

Gap vs. when whites had equal statistics
----------------------------------------------
literacy 14-24                   1 yrs (1969)
high school graduation 14-24  -  0 yrs (1998)
high school 25+                 11 yrs (1996)
college 25+                     20 yrs (1996)
SAT scores                   25-40 yrs (A Hu estimate)
college 28% vs. 16% 4yr degree (1998)
IQ -                            50 yrs behind (Rushton)

Test score gap by age
NAEP Reading 12th grade 1971   5.9
NAEP Reading 12th grade 2003   4.7
NAEP Reading 12th grade 1988   2.5

AVERAGE IS BELOW 25% PERCENTILE ON EVERY TEST The Debate: Minding the
Gap http://www.pbs.org/closingtheachievementgap/debate_minding.html
The gap appears before children enter kindergarten and it persists
into adulthood. It has narrowed since 1970, but the typical American
black still scores below 75 percent of American whites on almost every
standardized test.1 1The Black-White Test Score Gap, Christopher
Jencks, editor, Meredith Phillips, editor

HULL HOUSE REPORT: CLOSING BLACK WHITE GAP ONLY 200 YRS AWAY
z75\clip\2003\11\gap200.txt
Debra Pickett (Chicago): City's racial gap detailed in black and white
http://www.suntimes.com/output/pickett/cst-nws-pickett14.html/
This week, Hull House released "Minding the Gap: An Assessment
of Racial Disparity in Metropolitan Chicago."
[gaps] are narrowing. At this rate, it will
take just 200 more years for the gap to close entirely.

BLACKS WERE 6 YRS BEHIND 1971, 2.5 IN 1988, -5YR BY 2003
z68\clip\2003\07\blgap.txt
http://nationaljournal.com/taylor.htm#
Getting Serious About Race: The Next 25 Years
By Stuart Taylor Jr., National Journal
© National Journal Group Inc.
Monday, June 30, 2003
  mean [NAEP] differential between blacks and whites in reading skills
shrank from 5.9 years in 1971 to 2.5 years in 1988, according to a
1997 book by Stephan and Abigail Thernstrom, America in Black and
White. ..2002 reading assessment show that black 12th-graders scored 5
points below white 8th-graders, which put them 4.7 years behind
  The black-white [SAT] gap, which had declined substantially (from
about 240 to 189 points) between 1976 and 1988, has inched back up
since then, to 201 points in 2001 and 203 points in 2002,

BLACKS ON SLOW TRACK IN INTEGRATED MIDDLE CLASS CHENTENHAM
z51\clip\2001\09\chelt.txt
Facing an issue few want to touch
Cheltenham seeks gains in black pupils success rates. First of three parts.
 Schools' numbers will be laid bare
 By Dale Mezzacappa
 INQUIRER STAFF WRITER
 Between classes, Cedarbrook Middle School in Cheltenham, Montgomery County,
One-third black, nearly two-thirds white, the
 children blend into a playful stream that surges through the halls and
 dissolves as abruptly as it appeared at the sound of a bell.

\doc\web\99\02\edatt.wk1
From 1996 US Statistical Abstract							
http://www.census.gov/prod/2/gen/96statab/96statab.html							
No. 241. Educational Attainment, by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1960 to 1995							

for all over 25, 
high school grad gap = 11 yrs
college gap = 20 yrs

z52\clip\2001\09\denver.txt
Test score probe sought 
Rights panel asked to determine why whites seem to outperform blacks at 4
Denver high schools 
By Holly Kurtz
Denver Rocky Mountain News Staff Writer 
Colorado civil rights commissioners are being asked to quiz school
officials about why whites seem to get better test scores and grades than
do blacks at four Denver high schools. 

CAR WINDOWS SMASHED IN NYACK NY OVER MIDDLE CLASS RACE GAP IN GRADES
z52\clip\2001\09\nyack.txt August 4, 2000 Racial Gap in Schools
Splits a Town Proud of Diversity
Nyack would seem to have exactly the kind of schools parents expect to find
in the suburbs. With about 3,000 students, the district spends about
$13,000 per student -- some $4,000 more than the state average.
[Jonathan Kozol wonders what would happen if black students went to 
schools that spent $13,000 per student - the answer is that there still 
is a gap]
By KATE ZERNIKE

http://www2.nando.net/noframes/story/0,2107,16712-27691-191032-0,00.html
\clip\99\06\nogap.txt
Closing a racial gap in education 

The gap in high-school completion between African Americans and
whites has closed over the past decade, narrowing in the
25-to-29-year-old age group to the point where there was no
statistical difference between the two racial groups in 1998. In
1998, 87.6 percent of 25-to-29-year-old blacks completed high school. 

African Americans also have made progress at the college level, but
there a gap still exists. In 1998, 28.4 percent of whites ages 25 to
29 held a bachelor's degree or more, compared with 15.8 percent of
blacks, census data shows. 

BLACK CHILDREN LEARN DIFFERENTLY, IT IS A HANDICAP
\CLIP\98\07\steam.txt
http://www.chron.com:80/cgi-bin/auth/story.mpl/content/chronicle/editorial/9
8/03/20/jacoby.0-1.html 3/19/1998 Houston Chronicle Diversity
steamroller won't stop with books, history By JEFF JACOBY "Black
children learn differently from other children," he said.  "It's an
environmental impact from where they come from. It's some type of
handicap." [spoken by black school board member]

%%Girls

IN 1960S NEGRO GIRLS HIGHER ACHIEVERS THAN BOYS
The Moynihan Report is online; it starts here:
http://www.dol.gov/asp/programs/history/moynchapter1.htm
There is much evidence that Negro females are better students than
their male counterparts.
  Daniel Thompson of Dillard University, in a private communication on
January 9, 1965, writes:
  "As low as is the aspirational level among lower class Negro girls, it
is considerably higher than among the boys. For example, I have
examined the honor rolls in Negro high schools for about 10 years. As
a rule, from 75 to 90 percent of all Negro honor students are girls."
  Dr. Thompson reports that 70 percent of all applications for the
National Achievement Scholarship Program financed by the Ford
Foundation for outstanding Negro high school graduates are girls,
  "Negro males represent 1.1 percent of all male professionals,
whereas Negro females represent roughly 6 percent of all female
professionals.  ...there are proportionately 4 times as many Negro
females in significant white collar jobs than Negro males."

%%income

See Income vs. Education and Skills

[[education (equal)

Most reports of income discrimation is based on unequal pay for equal
education, but studies show that when lower grades and test scores
are accounted for, blacks earn equal or more than whites.

BLACKS EARN 19% LESS FOR = EDUCATION, BUT 9% MORE FOR EQUAL SKILLS

\doc\web\97\07\blakprog.txt (summary) \clip\97\20\blakprog.htm Wall
Street Journal Ed. Sept 3, 1997 The Real Story of Black Progress BY
ABIGAIL THERNSTROM And STEPHAN THERNSTRON - 1991 study of 26-33 yr
old men found blacks earned 19% less for equal education, but when
tested for equal skills in verbal and math skills, black men earned
9% more for equal skills.

  doc936\blkedin.txt - income vs ed men less, women same!


  doc934\edrate.txt

%%predominantly black
  doc\94\9\priv\blakspok.txt - Blacks demand hiring more black principals and
    teachers even though 4% principals vs. 3% students, all-black schools

%%progress

goodocs: A Harvest of Good News on African Americans in Higher Education
http://www.jbhe.com/news_views/64_goodnews.html
Here is a summary of recent positive developments in the progress of
blacks in higher education. The data is based on JBHE research and
reports from the U.S. Department of Education and the U.S. Census
Bureau.

HIGHEST LEVEL OF COLLEGE ENROLLMENT
A new report from the U.S. Department of Education states that in
2007, the latest year for which complete data is available, there were
2.2 million black students enrolled in higher education in the United
States. This is the highest level of enrollments for African Americans
in history.

COLLEGE BLACKS AT PARITY POPULATION
• Blacks now make up 13.1 percent of all students enrolled in higher
education in the United States. Measured by percentage of population,
blacks have now reached parity with whites.

3 TIMES AS MANY BLACKS IN GRAD SCHOOL AS IN 1990
• In 2007, the latest year for which statistics are available, there
were more than 230,000 African Americans enrolled in degree-granting
graduate schools. This is an all-time high. In 1990 there were 84,000
African Americans enrolled in graduate school, barely more than a
third of black enrollments today

AP UP FROM 3.8 TO 6.1 PERCENT IN LAST 10 YEARS
• In 2008 blacks made up 6.1 percent of all students enrolled in
Advanced Placement courses in high school. These courses are
equivalent to introductory courses at the college level. A decade ago
blacks made up 3.8 percent of the students in these courses.

ONE THIRD 18-24 IN HIGHER ED VS 20% IN 1981
• Today almost one third of all African Americans ages 18 to 24 are
enrolled in higher education. A generation ago in 1981 less than 20
percent of all blacks in this age group were enrolled.


\doc\94\18\blakprog.txt - blacks taking academic subjects
nearly tripled, droput down by one-third, and SAT scores
rose by 21 and 34 points. NR 9/12/94 p. 13

%%South Africa

BLACKS IN SOUTH AFRICA LAG BY FAR MORE THAN IN AMERICA
AVERAGE BLACK AT 1ST PERCENTILE COMPARED TO WHITE
http://www.economist.com/node/17913496
E for education
Desegregation and investment have yet to boost black schoolchildren
South African schools Jan 13th 2011 | JOHANNESBURG | from PRINT EDITION

the pass rate for the 2010 school-leaving “matric” examination, (now) 68%.
half of all pupils
dropping out of school before taking the exam and a required pass mark
of just 30-40%

Barely one in ten South African pupils qualifies for university, and
only 5% end up with a degree.

South Africa does last in maths and science (out of 48 countries) in a
report published in 2003 by a Dutch institute called “Trends in
International Maths and Science”, a study of Grade 9 pupils (aged 15).

In 2009 just over half of black matric candidates passed, compared
with 99% of whites, 92% of Indians and 76% of coloureds (people of
mixed race). [Average black is at 1st percentile compared to whites]

blacks account for nearly half of all university students (and 80% of
the whole population), less than one in 20 of the relevant black age
group ends up with a degree, compared with almost half of all whites.

%%success

\doc\95\11\geortech.txt - 18 out of 25 engineering
  students at Georgia Tech are black

@@egypt

\priv\95\05\afregypt.txt - Most Egyptians were dark-skinned
  caucasians, though some were Black Africans.


@@Environment

ENVIRONMENTALISTS BLOCK JOBS FOR BLACKS UNDER "ENV-RACISM" THEORY
\clip\97\21\envjob.txt From: "Muad'Dib"  Found on
the Junk Science Homepage.  "Environmental Justice" Kills Jobs for
the Poor By Henry Payne Wall Street Journal (September 16, 1997)

@@Farm

\clip\99\01\blfarm.txt [The New York Times Business] January 5, 1999
U.S. Agrees to Settle Discrimination Case With Black Farmers By DAVID
FIRESTONE he United States Department of Agriculture has agreed to
pay hundreds of millions of dollars to settle a lawsuit brought by
thousands of black farmers who say the department discriminated
against them by denying loans and other subsidies


@@Genocide

25-100 MILLION SLAVES CLAIMED KILLED DURING "MIDDLE PASSAGE" "As to
the losses of slavery, estimates of fatalities of Africans during the
Middle Passage alone range from 25 million to 100 million" Loris S.
Robinson (Washington D.C. / Emerge Magazine) "Righting a Wrong"
Seattle Post-Intelligencer June 29, 1997 p. E1 F070197 - Comment, if
true, the high estimate would equal all 20th century war deaths, and
even the low estimate is exceeded only by Mao's famines, Asian and
total World War II deaths.

@@Hate (against other groups)

\clip\97\25\somali.txt "Rocks fly a 2nd day at Crawford; students
pelt each other, police" The San Diego Union-Tribune, October 30,
1997 By Joe Hughes STAFF WRITER For the second straight afternoon,
Crawford High School students, mostly African-Americans and Somali
immigrants, were involved in a rock-and stick-throwing disturbance
after classes ended yesterday.

BLACK PARENT WANTS WHITE/JEWISH TEACHERS TO GO BACK WHERE THEY CAME
FROM
\clip\98\18\whitjew.txt The Philadelphia Inquirer, December 3, 1998
Parent rips `white/Jewish' faculty ``Racist'' teachers shortchanged
black students at a Phila. school, he wrote. He now heads a parent
group.  By Susan Snyder INQUIRER STAFF WRITER "If Smith were an
employee, the district would have clear direction because policy
prohibits discrimination and harassment, but it has no jurisdiction
over parent officers."

%%vocabulary

http://www.pbs.org/closingtheachievementgap/debate_minding.html
The typical black four-year-old's vocabulary score falls below the
twentieth percentile of the national distribution.


@@health
also see Asian American Health

%%sleep

 
@@High School Graduation Rate

PERCENT BLACKS/WHITES WITH HIGH SCHOOL EDUCATION 1950 - 1990 FOR 10
LARGE METROPOLITAN AREAS
                     1950                     1990
           White          Black     White          Black
SEATTLE      .52           .25        .88           .81
DENVER       .50           .33        .88           .79
LOSANGELES   .51           .33        .79           .75
BUFFALO      .32           .16        .78           .73
BOSTON       .48           .31        .84           .70
CHICAGO      .38           .22        .81           .66
DETROIT      .37           .19        .79           .65
NYC          .37           .22        .79           .65
WASHINGTON   .60           .25        .93           .64
PHILADELPHIA .34           .15        .79           .62

Basic Numbers: US World Report / Census
Ranking Arthur Hu


@@High Tech

%%Fortune, Ron
Was CEO of Computer Curriculum in Silicon Valley

%%Henderson, Paul

Microsoft mouse developer manager, he wrote much of the mouse 
driver found in nearly every desktop today.

z41\clipim\2000\05\04\hendersen\hendersen.htm
Microsoft Page


%%Millines Trish

Microsoft manager and developer who retired to found a technical
school for minority high school students. She shows up a lot in the
news on TV and in the newspapers. I worked with her on the Easyball
project. Really.

http://www.techaccess.org/
Technology Access Foundation 3803 S Edmunds St # A Seattle, WA (206)
725-9095 

Trish Millenes Dziko: Microsoft's First Generation Cheryl Tsang
started as consultant in testing, founded Technology Foundation to
give children of color access to tech.

http://womenswire.com/goodnews/families/d0624feature.html
RAINBOW ON THE WEB, PART ONE 
-- by Diana Estigarribia -- 
After 15 years as a software developer, Trish Millines quit her job at Microsoft. " 
z41\clipim\2000\05\04\trish\trish.htm

z41\clipim\2000\05\04\longway\longway.htm
http://abcnews.go.com/sections/tech/DailyNews/millines980827.html
Minority Net Access Foundation Co-founder Trish Millines Still a Long
Way to Go By Richard Martin ABCNEWS.com Until recently, the Internet
has been seen as a privileged realm dominated by the young, the
well-off and the white-bread.  

z41\clipim\2000\05\04\cybrich\cybrich.htm
http://www.giving.org/web/press/philanthropy.htm
CYBER-RICH PHILANTHROPISTS
December 30, 1997
NewsHour Transcript
Millines donated $150,000 to fund the first year of the program.
She’s relying on other private grants to continue it Millines grew up
poor and says she believes in sharing.

z41\clipim\2000\05\04\cybrich\millines.htm
http://archives.seattletimes.com/cgi-bin/texis/web/vortex/display?slug=ptris&date=20000123&query=millines
Taking tech to the street: The quest of Trish Millines Dziko The
Puget Sound region, thanks mainly to high-tech wealth, is
experiencing unprecedented levels of philanthropy, with
multimillion-dollar gifts for education, arts and social services.
Trish Millines Dziko's approach is her own: grass-roots, hands-on and
personal. 
In 1996, at 39, Millines Dziko retired from Microsoft a millionaire.
She founded and directs the nonprofit Technology Access Foundation


%%Sentel

http://www.sentel.com/sentelsearch.cfm
Black Enterprise Magazine's Top 100 Companies 

1999 press release July 12, 1999: SENTEL CEO WINS TECHNOLOGY
ENTREPRENEUR OF YEAR AWARD ALEXANDRIA, VA - James F. Garrett,
president and CEO of SENTEL Corporation, one of Virginia's largest
African-American owned businesses, Garrett co-founded the company in
1987, in the midst of the region's burgeoning information technology
industry. The 

%%Walker, Dwayne

CEO of Shopnow.com


@@Homosexuality

\doc\web\99\07\brand.txt left handed
and homosexuality less common among africans

@@Huckleberry Finn

NAACP EXPELLING ANTI-SLAVERY BOOK IN BANNING HUCK FINN Expelling
'Huck Finn' By Nat Hentoff Saturday, November 27, 1999; Page A25
Washington Post Russell Baker wrote in the New York Times in 1982 --
"are drunkards, murderers, bullies, swindlers, lynchers, thieves,
liars, frauds, child abusers, numskulls, hypocrites, windbags and
traders in human flesh..  All are white.  The one man of honor in
this phantasmagoria is 'Nigger Jim,' as Twain called him to emphasize
the irony of a society in which the only true gentleman was held
beneath contempt."
\clip\99\20\huckfinn.txt


@@Immigrant

African immigrants tend to have higher education and income than the 
American born, and it sometimes causes tension

IMMIGRANTS MAKE MORE, BETTER EDUCATED, DOMINATE HARVARD BLACKS
African Americans: divided over semantics Rachell L Swans New York
Times Seattle Times Aug 29, 2004 A9 SUNY Albany study of 2000 census
data by John Logan, Glen Deane finds African immigrants more educated
with higher incomes. Harvard notes half to two-thirds of black
students are African or Caribbean immigrants, their children, or
biracial.

z67\clip\2003\05\afimm.txt
AFRICAN IMMIGRANTS START AHEAD OF AFRICAN AMERICANS
http://www.msnbc.com/news/911186.asp?0cv=CB20
Cultural divide seen in black groups
American-born have little knowledge of immigrants	 
Rep. Kendrick B. Meek, D-Fla., addresses the National Coalition on 
Black Civic Participation in Washington.	 
By Genaro C. Armas
ASSOCIATED PRESS
The median household income for blacks from the Caribbean or Africa 
is about $40,000, nearly $7,000 more than for African-Americans. 
Those with African descent tend to have more education, an average 
of more than 14 years in school compared with less than 13 for 
Afro-Caribbeans and African-Americans.
The unemployment rate of 10 percent for African-Americans in 2000 was 
about 3 percentage points higher than for Afro-Caribbeans and 5 
percentage points higher for those of African descent.


AFRICAN IMMIGRANTS HAVE MOST EDUCATION, ASIANS HIGHEST INCOME
z63\priv\2003\03\afimm.txt
washingtonpost.com
Disparity Marks Black Ethnic Groups, Report Says
African Americans Trail Immigrants in Income, Education
By Darryl Fears
Washington Post Staff Writer
Sunday, March 9, 2003; Page A07
From the report, "Black Diversity in Metropolitan America"
researchers at the State University of New York at Albany.

"African immigrants, most of whom live in the Washington area, stay
in school an average of 14.5 years, a level that is "higher than [the
level for] whites and Asians,"" ... black families with incomes of
more than $60,000 tended to live in communities with higher poverty
rates than white families with incomes of less than $30,000.

Median household income school years
$33,500 12.5 9.9  African Americans had a median household income of $33,500 and
$40,000 12.8 7.3  Afro-Caribbeans
        14.5 5.1  African immigrant
$64,000 13.9      Asian
$37,600 10.7      Hispanic
$52,000 13.5      White

Black people who immigrate to the United States from the Caribbean
and sub-Saharan Africa tend to earn more money and have a slightly
higher level of education than native-born black Americans, according
to a report by researchers at the State University of New York at
Albany.


HARD WORKING BLACK IMMIGRANTS RANKLE AFR AMS
\clip\2001\08\blimm.txt
Immigrants reshaping black experience
http://www.boston.com/dailyglobe2/227/nation/Immigrants_reshaping_black_experience+.shtml

 the black population of Massachusetts is now more than a third
foreign born Some of them view American blacks as lacking a strong
work ethic. On the flip side, some African-Americans believe the
immigrants are so work-hungry, they are taking away their jobs. Barry
Bluestone, a labor economist at Northeastern University found that on
average foreign-born blacks earn $2,000 a year more than native-born
blacks.  The mean hourly wage of foreign-born blacks who don't have a
college degree is $10.52, vs. $9.56 for native-born blacks. They also
tend to work longer hours and are more likely to have a second job,
Bluestone said. Bluestone found that 42 percent of American blacks
surveyed believed immigration in general would have a negative impact
on their economic opportunity. 

IMMIGRANT AFRICANS FAR LESS DISADVANTAGED BECAUSE OF RACE
zip33\clipim\99\06\09\african.gif
The Economist May 11, 1996 p. 28 "Coming to America" African
immigrants make more money, have higher family income, fewer
households headed by women, and more workers per household compared
to American blacks.

@@identity

THANK GOD I'M AN AMERICAN AND NOT AN AFRICAN

\doc\web\97\02\outamer.txt
Ad copy: Out of America: A Black Man Confronts Africa
Keith B. Richburg BasicBooks, divisionof HarperCollins Publishers
http://www.harpercollins.com A New Republic Book
ARE THESE REALLY MY PEOPLE?
AM I TRULY AN AFRICAN-AMERICAN?
"Thank God my nameless ancestor, brought across the ocean in chains
and leg irons, made it out alive. Thank God I am an American" So
speaks award winning jouralist Keith Richburg, a black American who
spent three years in Africa seeking ansers to the chaos now sweeping
the continent of his ancestors. 


@@Income

%%Favorable

BLACKS EARN MORE THAN SWEDES
\doc\web\2004\06\swedpov.txt
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/678536/posts
If Sweden were a US State, it would be the poorest state in the union
5/4/02 | reuters wire
Posted on 05/05/2002 11:50:18 PM PDT by bourbon
Reuters Market News Swedes less well off than poorest Americans -study
"The median income of African American households was about 70 percent
of the median for all U.S. households while Swedish households earned
68 percent of the overall U.S. median level. "
STOCKHOLM, May 4 (Reuters) - Swedes, usually perceived in Europe as a
comfortable, middle class lot, are poorer than African Americans, the
most economically deprived group in the United States, a Swedish study
showed on Saturday. 

BOOKS SAYS THE US HAS BEEN RELATIVELY GOOD TO BLACKS
z48\doc\web\2001\03\mythdiv.txt
The Myths that Divide Us --
http://www.atlasbooks.com/marktplc/00548.htm
"Ever since 1981, black families with two college-educated, working adults
have earned more than similar white families in every age group and in every
region of the United States. As early as 1970, black two-parent families
outside of the South were already earning more than comparable white
families.
"Black full-time workers today earn slightly more than white workers of the
same age, sex, and I.Q.



@@insult

Niggardly means stingy, not
insult to africans



@@integration

There has always been some tension within the black community about
integration vs. being separate but equal, but the politically correct
set will always say integration must be done for its own sake, not
any academic or economic outcome, only racial balance.


  doc922\integ.doc - Integrated yet unequal

  DOC922\POLLY - Polly Williams against busing

http://www.onenation.org/article.cfm?ID=4018 Ron Unz Voucher Veto Ron
Unz Nation Monday, May 3, 1999 Polly Williams of Milwaukee, hero of
the conservative voucher movement, until recently served as a
"colonel" in a local black militia that around the time of the Gulf
War threatened to become a violent fifth column on behalf of Saddam
Hussein. 

doc922\usinteg.txt - US News says busing works

@@Internet

http://www.internetblackpages.com
Site dedicated to providing quality content for black web users.
Listing of businesses, churches, schools, events, organizations, events,
books, film, music and more.


@@inventor

DID BLACKS INVENT MODERN TECHNOLOGY?
\clip\99\19\blakinv.txt
from http://members.theglobe.com/Unyque/world9.htm:
A World Without Our People
This is a story of a little boy named Theo who woke up one morning and asked
his mother, ' Mom, what if there were no Black people in the world?' 
Also see http://indigo.lib.lsu.edu/lib/chem/display/inventor_list.html for a
cataloging of inventions by blacks.
from National Review, 1999-Mar-8:

From: lemurama@mindspring.com (Lemurama) This is a re-write of a list
of "Black Inventions" that was circulating on Usenet a year or two
ago blacks DID have patents and/or worked on the design, but the
patents were for improvements on existing designs, but not for the
original itemWhen challenged (in alt.mensa), nobody could supply any
documentation that blacks had actually invented *any* of the items in
the list - most are things that had been developed over many years by
many people.  The presentation in the story is misleading if not
totally dishonest.



\clip\96\03\blakinvt.txt Date: Tue, 27 Aug 1996 11:25:06 -0400
African American Inventors a Powerful Force at Invention Convention
in Pasadena PASADENA, Calif.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Aug. 27, 1996--Light
switches, refrigerators, egg beaters and typewriters are just a few
of the ingenious items we use everyday that can be credited to
talented African American inventors. At this year's 10th Annual
Invention Convention, the African American community will be
represented by an exhibition from The Black Inventions Museum and
four African-American inventors displaying their wares.

@@justice system

 \priv\95\14\justblak.txt The New Republic 10/23/95 THE JUSTICE SYSTEM
AND BLACK AMERICA. AFTER THE CHEERS By Randall Kennedy Thinks outcome
was wrong, reflects problems with history

@@Kwanzaa

HANDS OFF KWANZAA!  \clip\97\30\kwanzaa.txt As Kwanzaa spreads,
commercialism worries some black retailers By DeNeen L. Brown The
Washington Post 12/27/97 WASHINGTON -- The seven-day African American
holiday known as Kwanzaa, which began yesterday, has captured the
mercantile attention of national retailers and corporations,
prompting a backlash from some black businesspeople who say only
black firms should profit from the celebration. 
http://www.kentuckyconnect.com/heraldleader/news/122797/ff3kwan.html


  @@language

"EBONICS" IS TAKING OVER LOCAL BLACK DIALECTS
z55\clip\2002\04\ebon.txt Raleigh News Observer Ebonics wins its spurs
in academe
http://www.news-observer.com/front/News/story/1322774p-1359943c.html
"Rural African-Americans increasingly speak the urban-sounding dialect
called ebonics, even when their grandparents sound like their white
neighbors. That helps explain how the distinctive tongue is spreading
nationwide, two N.C. State University linguists say


  \priv\95\05\afrlang.txt - black speech patterns derived from
  West African Languages
  Many words used by all Ameericans have WA orgins

"be with it" (derived from the Mandingo phrase--be a la-- which means to be 
in fashion)

"bogus"  (derived from the Hausa word--boko-- meaning fake)

"bug"  (derived from the  Wolof word--bugal--which means to annoy)

"dig"   (another Wolof word--dega--  meaning to understand)

okay  (Dogon word--o-ke-- meaning alright)

For more info see Geneva Smitherman's book Talkin' and Testifyin', 
Lorenzo Taylor's work Africanism in the Gullah Dialect, and J.L. 
Dillard's Black English.


  doc940\blackeng.mcw black dialect


@@Leaders


z49\clip\2001\01\blaklead.txt
Scholars pick top five black leaders 
January 28, 2001
http://www.suntimes.com/output/news/natl28.html
BY SCOTT FORNEK AND CURTIS LAWRENCE STAFF REPORTERS 
1. Jesse Jackson
2. Kweisi Mfume
3. Maxine Waters
4. Louis Farrahkan
5. Al Sharpton
Secretary Powell came in 6th, edged out by Sharpton.


@@Left Handed

\doc\web\99\07\brand.txt left handed
and homosexuality less common among africans

@@math

Mathematicians of
the African Diaspora Nice summary of notable black American math
guys without much Afrocentrism.  The Mathematics Department of The
State University of New York at Buffalo created and maintained by Dr.
Scott W. Williams Professor of Mathematics sww@acsu.buffalo.edu


@@migration

\CLIP\96\02\newsout.txt Date: Thu, 15 Aug 1996 22:32:16 -0400 A new
South lures blacks from North to community-oriented hometowns By Jan
Crawford Greenburg. A reversal of the black migration.
Chicago Tribune

\doc\95\02\blakalie.txt The Black Alienation Peter Skerry the New
Republic Jan 30, 1995 William Frey at the University of MIchigan
found that between 1985 and 1990 12% of poor blacks and 5% of poor
whites moved out of Los Angeles


@@military

%%General

Great black military history site
LIVING RED-BROWN IN EL NORTE 
BLACK AMERICAN WEST MUSEUM 
SEMINOLE-NEGRO INDIAN SCOUTS 
BOOK - BLACK COWBOYS IN TEXAS 
BRACKETTVILLE - FORT CLARK, TEXAS 
AFRICAN AMERICANS IN EARLY RADIO 
BLACK MARITIME HISTORY RUNS DEEP 
AFRICAN AMERICANS IN WORLD WAR II 
AFRICAN-AMERICANS AND THE U.S. NAVY  
THE "OL' AUCTION BLOCK" IN LURAY, VIRGINIA 
JUNETEENTH.COM - WORLD WIDE CELEBRATION 
LETTER FROM A FREEDMAN TO HIS OLD MASTER 
CAMP WILLIAM PENN'S BLACK SOLDIERS IN BLUE 
SERGEANT JOHN WARD'S MEXICAN CAVALRY SABER 
THE MARGARET GARNER ARCHEOLOGICAL PROJECT 
UNITED STATES COLORED TROOPS IN THE CIVIL WAR 
AFRICAN-AMERICAN WOMEN TO BE FOCUS OF LECTURE  
THE WILD WEST OF THE SEMINOLE NEGRO INDIAN SCOUTS 
NEW HOPE EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN CHURCH, DAYTON, OHIO 
AFRICAN AMERICAN GENEALOGICAL SOCIETY - CLEVELAND, OHIO 
ANTHONY POWELL'S PORTRAITS IN BLACK - THE BUFFALO SOLDIERS 
AFRICAN AMERICAN GENEALOGY GROUP OF THE MIAMI VALLEY (OHIO)
http://www.coax.net/people/lwf/default.htm

%%World War I

There was a cable program about a decorated WWI unit as well.

HARLEM HELL FIGHTERS
http://www.coax.net/people/lwf/ww1.htm
World War I

COMPLETE BOOK: 
SCOTT'S OFFICIAL HISTORY
OF 
THE AMERICAN NEGRO 
IN THE WORLD WAR
BY 
EMMETT J. SCOTT, AM., LL.D.
Special Adjutant to Secretary of War
http://raven.cc.ukans.edu/~libsite/wwi-www/Scott/ScottTC.htm#contents

About european colonial colored troops:
""Recruited among the warrior tribes of Senegal and the Soudan these
troops have great combatant qualities. They are particularly apt for
attack and counter-attack, but they are primitive men without
civilization---men who cannot be compared from this point of view
with colored Americans. The black French soldiers are excellent
grenadiers, but they are less prepared in the use of the machine gun
and the automatic rifle, which demand a certain mechanical aptitude"

A Tribute from France to "These Sunburned Americans"

Chicago's Colored Fighters Called "Black Devils" by the Germans and
"Partridges" by the French Because of Their Proud Bearing

http://raven.cc.ukans.edu/~libsite/wwi-www/Scott/SCh14.htm
Black national guard unit assigned to French Army
Hell Fighters of Harlem: The men of the 369th came to be known among
the French and the Germans as "Hell Fighters." 

%%Buffalo Soldiers

Former freed slaves won the respect and fear of Native Americans as
mounted Calvalry in the American West. TNT movie with Danny Glover in
1997. US Postage Stamp. Formative Figures horse and 12" figure.

Website:
http://www.buffalosoldiers.net/

%%Civil War

All black unit was organized by the Union Army to demonstrate black
soldiers could fight in the army.

1989 A. Hu Movie review Glory Black
Civil War unit

54th Massachusetts Infantry
http://extlab1.entnem.ufl.edu/olustee/54th_MS_inf.html The
Fifty-fourth Massachusetts was organized in March, 1863 at Camp
Meigs, Readville, Massachusetts by Robert Gould Shaw, twenty-six year
old member of a prominent Boston abolitionist family

%%Mason, USS (WWII Destroyer)

Only black-crew combat ship in WWII, saved convoy from storm
Monday, November 11, 2002
Sailor's crew helped break racial barriers 
By Jack Broom
Merwin Peters, 79, of Kent, served during World War II aboard the
destroyer escort USS Mason, the first U.S. Navy ship with a nearly
all-black crew in an era of segregation in the military.  
http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/localnews/134573804_vet11.html

Also see web site:
http://www.ussmason.org/index.htm

%%Spanish American Civil War

Jeff Ewing miniatures
http://www.library.csi.cuny.edu/ewing/leads/10th.htm The 10th was a
segregated cavalry unit whose white officers included John Pershing,
later U.S. commander in WWI. Pershing's nickname "Black Jack" comes
from his service with the 10th. The 10th was brigaded with the 1st
Cavalry and the 1st Volunteer Cavalry, b.k.a. "The Rough Riders." The
10th fought in the battle of Las Guasimas alongside these units and
again at San Juan. 

%%Vietnam War

\priv\95\07\warlegac.txt - Vietnam war was good for blacks,
gained educational and organizational skills.

%%Tuskeegee Airmen (World War II)

Special segregated outfit produced outstanding fighter and bomber
pilots in WWII beyond expectations. 99th Fighter Squadron. 

Hasbro GI Joe produced , bomber and fighter pilots in 1997, there was a HBO cable
TV movie "Tuskegee Airmen, and Tony Brown documentary.

Bob Lawrence says 8 were from Washington state


REJECTED AS PHYSICS MAJOR, JOINS ARMY AIR FORCE AND BOEING.
z42\clipim\2000\06\09\tuskee.efx http://archives.seattletimes.com
Obituaries : Wednesday, May 10, 2000 Tuskegee Airman James Wiley flew
101 missions by Joshua Robin Seattle Times staff reporter Mr. Wiley
earned a scholarship to the University of Pittsburgh, where he earned
a degree in physics. After graduation, he was rejected by several
firms because of the color of his skin. Working as a chauffeur to pay
the bills, Mr. Wiley heard about a government program to train
pilots. 


HBO Home Video release


Russ Nakatsu's Tuskegee Airmen Page (Kent WA)

The
Tuskegee Airmen The Sky Was Their Limit Afro American Newspaper:
Excellent detailed account with photgraphs, maps.  

The Tuskegee
Airmen: The Men Who Changed a NationBrandon Publishing Charles
Francis and Adolph Caso 
Facts and History



99th 
Flying Training Squadron History



USAF Tuskegee Airmen Fact Sheet



Hasbro GI Joe Fighter Pilot 1997 Nice bio!



Hasbro GI Joe Bomber Pilot 1997 Nice bio!
\clip\98\02\tuskbo\tuskbo.htm


New dolls fly high as famous Tuskegee Pilots Detroit News
\clip\98\02\tuskjoe\tuskjoe.htm

 The
Tuskegee Airmen A Tribute to my Father
\clip\98\02\tusk\tusk.htm

\clip\98\02\tuskair.txt
http://www.seattletimes.com
Seattle Times Company Sunday, May 25, 1997 Decades later, Tuskegee
Airmen still taste victory by Leyla Kokmen Seattle Times staff
reporter

Sunday, January 18, 1998 Tuskegee Airman's memoir salutes comrades'
heroism by Warren King Seattle Times staff reporter
image: \images\98\01\011998\p05.tif

992 pilots flew some 1,578 missions over Europe and North Africa. 66
were killed in action and 32 were taken prisoner. The squadron was
credited with taking 409 German aircraft out of action. No bombers
were lost

The Seattle Times Company National News : Sunday, Nov. 30, 1997
Coleman Young of Detroit dies by A.J. Dickerson Associated Press
DETROIT - Coleman Young, a tailor's son who became Detroit's first
black mayor and presided over his adopted city for an unprecedented
five terms, died yesterday.  He served in World War II as a
bombardier-navigator with the Tuskegee airmen. 


%%WWII

[[555th Parachute Infantry Battalion

Black battalion fought on two fronts Don Thompson AP Spokesman-Review
Spokane All black all-volunteer 555th Parachute Infantry Battalion
fought forest fires as smoke jumpers against baloon bomb threat.
Dubbed Triple Nickles with symbol of 3 buffalo head nickels soldered
together signifying buffalo soldiers who served in the us cavalry
after the Civil War.  Served 1,00 jumps in 36 fires. Some bet they
would not jump out of airplanes. Was originally all-black unit
assigned to guard paratroopers at Ft Bragg.  1920s, Army War College
study concluded blacks could not fight at same level as whites
http://www.spokane.net/
z43\clip\2000\07\555.htm 5552.htm


@@Mix Race


SLATE 20% OF WHITES HAD SOME BLACK BY 1950S The Real American Love
Story Why America is a lot less white than it looks.  By Brent
Staples Brent Staples is on the editorial board of the New York
Times. Posted Monday, sLATE Oct. 4, 1999statistical study called
"African Ancestry of the White American Population" by Robert
Stuckert, a sociologist and anthropologist from Ohio State
University.  examined census and fertility data to arrive at
estimates of how many white Americans had African blood lines and how
many fair-skinned blacks had crossed over the line to live as white.
Stuckert estimates that by 1950 about 21 percent of the whites--or
about 28 million of the 135 million persons classified as "white" in
the census--had black ancestry within the last four generations.

GENE SURVEY SHOWS LESS THAN 2% BLACK IN WHITE POPULATIONS study taken
link from _American
Renaissance_(1999).  the authors "also determined the extent of the
African contribution to three European American populations from
several areas in the United States: Detroit, Pittsburgh, and
Louisiana (Cajuns)." All three populations show evidence of
introgression of African genes, but to a very limited extent,
estimated at about 1% or less (Detroit 0.5%; Pittsburgh 1.2%; and
Cajuns 0.7%).  [Parra, E.J., et. al. (1998), Estimating African
American admixture proportions by use of population-specific alleles.
American Journal of Human Genetics (Dec.), vol. 63, #6, Pp.
1839-1851.]

AMJHUMGENET: BLACK POPULATIONS FOUND 7-23% WHITE
\doc\web\99\07\genemix.txt
http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/AJHG/journal/issues/v63n6/980409/brief/980409.abstract.html
Estimating African American Admixture Proportions by Use of
Population-Specific Alleles Esteban J. Parra,1, Amy Marcini...
electronically published November 25, 1998.  Am. J. Hum. Genet.,
63:1839-1851, 1998 0002-9297/98/6306-0030$02.00 © 1998 by The
American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved.  We analyzed
the European genetic contribution to 10 populations of African
descent in the United States using nine autosomal DNA markers.
"ancestry ranged from 6.8% (Jamaica) to 22.5% (New Orleans)."

AVERAGE US BLACK IS ABOUT 20% WHITE, US WHITE IS < 1% BLACK Gregory
M. Cochran: The average amount of African ancestry among U.S. blacks
is known.  It's about 80%, with significant regional variaiton -
higher percentages of African ancestry in some parts of the rural
South, lower in some Northern industrial cities. You can also tell
which genes came from males, most mexican eurpean genes came from men.

@@Movie Violence

BLACK MOVIES OPEN ON WEDNESDAY TO AVOID GANG VIOLENCE "Midweek
openings continue for blck films" Seattle Times May 11, 1997 p. M5
John Hartl F051497 (Seattle Times movie reviewer) Few black movies
run at first run theaters in Seattle. 33 people were injured and one
was shot to death across the nation after a Friday opening for Boyz N
the Hood.  The new movie "Sprung" is regarded as a potentional
problem because it appeals to urban contemporary youth. Even
Wednesday openings sometimes result in violence. Blacks are 20% of
movie audiences. Magic Johnson runs a chain that caters to black
youth.  (What is it about black youth that makes them kill each other
at movies? Asians and Hispanics have gangs too. But it's a myth that
blacks commit more crimes, or infractions that result in suspensions,
it's all just bias, right?)

@@Music

%%Segregation

z63\clip\2003\03\rockrace.txt Why are rock bands so racially
segregated?  Analysis: Black-white mix marks Dave Matthews Band By
STEVE SAILER UPI National Correspondent LOS ANGELES, March 13, 2001
(UPI) -- The Dave Matthews Band's new album, "Everyday," debuted at
number one on the Billboard 200 album chart this week. For all their
mainstream success, however, there's something unusual about this
group.  Namely, they are racially integrated, with three blacks and
two whites. 

@@myth 

doc913\portal2.b20 Stanford S. Guillory sguillor@pcocd2.intel.com


@@Name

EMILY AND BRAD WIN OUT OVER LAKISA AND LEROY
z69\clip\2003\08\namehire.txt
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A14097-2003Aug2.html
Hire That Name By Richard Morin Sunday, August 3, 2003 Marianne
Bertrand of the University of Chicago School of Business and Sendhil
Mullainathan of MIT sent 5,000 fake résumés in response to 1,300
help-wanted ads that ran in newspapers in Boston and Chicago.  Emily
and Brad were 50 percent more likely to get a callback than Lakisa and
Leroy 


@@parity
 c:\doc\95\02\blakcomp.txt - Bahamas is a black
 country comparable to a white nation (Iceland)
 internet article.

@@physicist

\clip\97\07\physic.txt AP 2-Mar-1997 21:25 EST REF5615 Copyright
1997. The Associated Press. All Rights Reserved.  Black Physicists
Meet At MIT "There are about 300 blacks with doctorates in physics,
20 women"

@@Poet

z60\priv\2002\10\baraka.txt
JOHN H. MCWHORTER: N.J.'S INSULT TO BLACKS
http://www.nypost.com/postopinion/opedcolumnists/59100.htm
October 7, 2002 -- 
New Jersey's
State Council of the Arts and Council for the Humanities has admitted
that it decided it would be Doing the Right Thing to make the laureate
a person of color this time around. Very noble - but Baraka? 

POET LAUREATE OF NEW JERSEY HAS SOME RADICAL VIEWS
z60\clip\2002\10\blewup.txt
http://206.183.2.199/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=3596
Somebody Blew Up America
By Amiri Baraka
BET.com | October 4, 2002
They say its some terrorist,
some barbaric
A Rab,
in Afghanistan
....
Who do Tom Ass Clarence Work for
Who doo doo come out the Colon's mouth
Who know what kind of Skeeza is a Condoleeza
Who pay Connelly to be a wooden negro


@@population

%%Seattle

[[Central District

MOST SEATTLE BLACKS WERE IN CENTRAL DISTRICT IN 60S, 70S
Quintard Taylor prof history U. Wash. 1994 "the Forging of a Black
Community: Seattle's Central District from 1870 through the Civil
Rights Era" 1965: 8/10 blacks in CD, 1980 38%. Grew by 4 times between
1940 and 1950. Change is Inevitable... Jerry Large Seattle Times Nov
6, 2002 G1.

[[harrison-denny

45 W 45 B 10 other Madison Pk Times 7/93

%%Washington DC

z60\clip\2002\10\washblk.txt
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A53684-2002Oct19.html
Area Tops in Nation for Black Prosperity 
By D'Vera Cohn and Dan Keating
Washington Post Staff Writers
Sunday, October 20, 2002; Page C01 
One in four black adults in the region holds a college degree,
according to the census figures. Roughly one in eight black households
has an income of $100,000 or more, and half of black households here
are homeowners.

@@Politics


%%Compton CA

Like the ML King Hospital, Blacks are just as protective of their
power as whites once were. But remember, only Whites can be racist.

COMPTON BLACKS VERGE ON XENOPHOBIC OPPOSITION TO HISPANIC POWER
\clip\98\08\compton.txt
http://www.latimes.com/HOME/NEWS/FRONT/t000035983.1.html Thursday,
April 16, 1998 Compton Latinos Still on Outside Looking In Politics:
Despite growing numbers, black-run government remains largely closed
to them. 

@@poll

doc936\ebonpoll.txt ebony opinion poll - abortion, adoption, 


@@prejudice against others

"A Fire in Harlem" f121895 Wall Street Journal 12/18/95. Black
business in Harlem thrives, and people buy from all races.

\doc\95\15\index.new "Gunman Tied To Racial Protest At Store" Seattle Times Dec 9, 1995 p.
A3 A protester threatened to "loot and burn the Jew". A gunman who is
probably not, but could be the same man fired on workers, then burned
down the building. Although the building owner was a black church,
the store owner, who was Jewish was told to evict a black record
store. The Rev. Al Sharpton, who was involved in protests said that
there was no connection, and no racial bias in the protest. It is
also reported that the gunman only shot at white employees, and only
allowed blacks to escape.



@@progress

Few pay attention to the remarkable progress of blacks. This is my
collection of statistics showing how far this group has come and
where it is going. 

Gap in yrs behind white
hs diploma        0  1990
college diploma  20  1999
life expectancy  30? 1999 (white=47 in 1900)

The number of black owned businesess increased 173
percent from 1982 to 1997 in WA state


%%Board

BLACK BOARD UP BY 60% IN 5 YEARS
Directorship Study Shows Corporate Boards Have Gained Greater Ethnic
Diversity http://nt.excite.com/news/bw/990302/ct-directorship
GREENWICH, Conn. (BUSINESS WIRE) "The number of minorities serving on
corporate boards of America's largest companies has increased 79% in
five years, according to a new study just released by Directorship, a
leading consulting, research and information services firm which
specializes in corporate governance.  the number of Black directors
grew by 60%. By contrast, the number of Caucasian directors decreased
by 5%. Non-U.S. nationals increased by only 1%."


%%book

\clip\97\20\blakwhit.txt BOOK REVIEW: A NEW GROUND ZERO IN THE RACE
DEBATE?  AMERICA IN BLACK AND WHITE One Nation, Indivisible By
Stephan Thernstrom and Abigail Thernstrom BY PAUL MAGNUSSON 

"Half of U.S. blacks in a 1991 Gallup poll said they believed that
three-fourths of their number were both poor and living in inner
cities. The reality: Only one-fifth are"

%%business

The number of African American-owned businesses shot up almost 50
percent between 1987 and 1992, and a Census Bureau study now under
way is expected to show continued strong growth.

z39\clipim\2000\01\25\blakbus.efx Report: Black businees prosper but
income lags The number of black owned businesess increased 173
percent from 1982 to 1997, forestry and mining up 546 percent over 10
years, average revenue is one-third of state average. Employee
average up from 5 in 1982 to 6 in 1992. Dwayne Walker head of
shopnow.com

\clip\98\13\blkprog.txt
http://www.sacbee.com:80/news/beetoday/newsroom/cap/100498/cap02.html
Blacks thrive in robust economy: Incomes show 16.8% surge in 6-year
period By David Westphal Bee Washington Bureau Chief (Published Oct.
4, 1998) 


\doc\96\01\blakfirm.txt - Black owned firms by up 46% in 5
years

d:\priv\95\19\blakbus.txt AP Dec 12 1995: Overall, the number of
black-owned businesses increased 46 percent, from 424,165 in 1987 to
620,192 in 1992, the bureau said. That was well ahead of the 26
percent increase in all businesses in the country.


%%college

Blacks are making huge gains in college
- All degrees up 30% in 5 years
- Masters/ First professional up 8.7% / yr vs 7.5% for Asians
- Women 1st professional degrees up 219% in 10 years
- Women bachelor degrees up 55% over past 20 years
- Black men bachelor degrees up 20% 1976-1994
- Blacks taking ACT up 18% in 4 years
- Minority faculty up 31% in 5 years at U Michigan
- Black adults with 4 yr degree up from 11% in 80 to 15% in 1990 (1.36)
- Bachelor degrees up 55% from 1975 to 1995 compared to 12% for whites
- GRE up +127% 1984-1995
- LSAT doubled to nearly 10,000 in 1984-1995
- MCAT up 58% 1984-1995 (Michael Nettles)
- 40% of NAEP 17 yr-old reading gap closed since 1971
- 20% of NAEP 9 yr-old gap closed since 1971

---------------------------------------------------------------------

COLLEGE BLACKS UP 32%, LATINOS UP 68% DURING 90S
z58\clip\2002\09\collenr.txt
Report Finds Minority Ranks Rise Sharply on Campuses
New York Times 9/23/2002
http://www.nytimes.com/2002/09/23/education/23COLL.html
"The number of minority students attending American colleges and
universities jumped 48 percent in the 1990's, with all minorities
posting double-digit gains in college enrollment, according to a study
by the American Council on Education."  .. 68.3 percent among Latinos,
31.6 percent among blacks and 58.9 percent among Asian-Americans.

BLACKS ONLY 20 YRS BEHIND WHITE FOR 4 YR COLLEGE, HS GAP ZERO
IN 1990!
USNews March 5, 2001 p.8 1999 Census
Blacks completed 4 yrs college 1980=7.9% 1999=15.4% 1.95X
That's equal to 1980 for whites = 17.1%!!

\clip\98\15\blakgain.txt
BLACK GRAD GAINS AS FAST AS IMMIGRATION DRIVEN ASIANS
DEGREES UP 30% IN 5 YEARS, MASTER/PROF +8.7% PER YEAR VS 7.5 ASIAN
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/WPlate/1998-10/25/280l-102598-idx.html
The New Face of Higher Education By Karin Chenoweth Sunday, October
25, 1998; Page R06 By Karin Chenoweth, an education writer and a
contributing editor of Black Issues In Higher Education.  
                                                                                                                                                                      
Over the five years ending in 1996, the number of African Americans
earning some kind of higher education degree has grown by 6.1 percent
per year. In the 1991-92 school year, 132,270 earned a higher
education degree. In 1995-96 that number was 167,931. That's about a
30 percent increase in just five years.  
                                                                                                                                                                      
African Americans earning master's and first professional degrees --
such as law and medicine -- has increased at faster rates than that
of Asian Americans. From 1991-1996 African Americans went from 17,381
master's degrees earned to 24,304 -- an 8.7 percent annual increase.
That compares favorably with Asian Americans, who increased the
number of master's degrees earned by 7.5 percent a year, going from
12,290 earned in 1991-1992 to 16,395 in 1995-96. 

Source: THE AFRICAN AMERICAN EDUCATION DATA BOOK, VOLUME 1: HIGHER
AND ADULT EDUCATION (United Negro College Fund 1997)

Black First Professional Degrees
1976 3.9 ****
1980 4.1 ****
1984 4.0 ****
1990 4.8 *****
1994 5.7 ******
Integrated Post Secondary Data System 

\clip\97\06\websum.pdf

-------------------------------------------------------------------------
http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/educ_022797.html
\clip\97\06\afamcoll.txt Copyright © 1997 The Seattle Times Company
Thursday, Feb. 27, 1997 More black women going to college; black
enrollment overall lags whites 

219%  AfAm women 1st professional degrees past 10 years
 55%  AfAm women bachelor degrees past 20 years
----------------------------------------------------------------------

\clip\97\05\moreblak.txt AP 26-Feb-1997 10:00 EST REF5273 Study: More
Black Women College Students By ROBERT GREENE AP Education Writer
Blacks were 10% of undergraduates in 1994, up from 8.8% in 1984, and
compared to 14.3% of the college-age population (70% of parity).
Whites are 73% of undergrads vs. 68.2% of the population (107% of
parity, or 1.52 times the ratio of blacks)

Rise in undergrad degrees 1976-1994
-------------------------------------
55% black women
35% white women
20% black men
-4% white men
40% blacks
14% whites

Source: Frederick D. Patterson Research
Institute, the research arm of the College Fund-United Negro College
Fund 

-------------------------------------------------
BLACKS TAKING ACT UP 18% IN 4 YEARS
SCORES UP TOO

Increasing ACT scores			
	1987	1991	Change
All	20.8	20.6	-0.2
AfroAm	16.5	17.0	0.5
AmIndian	17.5	18.2	0.7
Caucasian	21.4	21.3	-0.1
MexicanAm	18.1	18.4	0.3
Asian/PI	21.7	21.6	-0.1
Puerto/Latino	19.2	19.3	0.1

Black / White difference = 4.3, if progress continues, parity in 8*4
= 32 years

ACT Public Affairs 1991			

Percentage Increase in Number of			
ACT-tested seniors 1987-1991 (4 yrs)			
All	2.5		
AfroAm	18		
AmIndian	27		
Caucasian	-4		
MexicanAm	37		
Asian/PI	50		
Puerto/Latino	47		
ACT Public Affairs 1991			

MINORITY FACULTY UP 31% IN 5 YEARS AT U MICHIGAN ANN ARBOR -
IMMIGRATION DOES NOT = BLACK SETBACKS

http://www.chicago.tribune.com/print/news/9701/08/news/9701080209.html
\clip\97\01\facup.txt Chicago Tribune MINORITY FACULTY NUMBERS UP
Dateline: ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN The number of minority faculty at the
University of Michigan has risen 31.3 percent during the past five
years, according to 1996-97 figures released Tuesday (12.3% in 1996
vs. 12.3 in 1991).

boston globe magazine 4-19-87
College graduates over 24

      1980   1985    1990 * (90 census)
Black 9      15      14
White 24     32      36.7

\priv\94\20\calfcen3.txt  Up 36% during Reagan decade In California
about  15 percent  of black adults held college degrees in 1990, up
from 11  percent a decade earlier.

\doc\94\20\mineng.wk1 - Increase in minority engineer enrollment
 Survey: Minority enrollment on rise
 Electronic Engineering Times June 10, 1991 p. 107
 Figures from National Action Council For Minorities in Engineering
 Freshman enrollment increases since 1986-87 academic year (4 yrs)
 Minority = Black, Hispanic, Native American
              Minority* Black     Hisp      NatAm
 4 Yr increas       49%       43%       60%       49%
 Annualized        110%      109%      113%      110%
 Decade            2.71      2.42      3.25      2.71


%%education
black.progress.education

HUGE BLACK PROGRESS IN EDUCATION SINCE 1960
z56\clip\2002\05\edgap.txt
THE WALL STREET JOURNAL May 29, 2002
http://online.wsj.com/article/0,,SB1022633298540042320,00.html?mod=opinion%5Fmain%5Freview%5Fand%5Foutlooks
80% HIGH SCHOOL GRAD, FROM 50% 1980 37% 1960
Today nearly 80% of blacks over the age of 25 hold high school
degrees, up from 50% in 1980 and just 37% in 1960. What is more, 87%
of blacks between ages 25 and 29 are high school graduates, the same
as whites.
17% COLLEGE GRAD, FROM 8% 1980 3% 1960
At the college level, achievement is also impressive. Forty years ago,
just 3% of blacks held a college degree. By 2000, 17% did, a record
number that has more than doubled since 1980
TEST SCORES STILL LAG
As
William Howell and Paul Peterson note in their new book, "The
Education Gap": "A half- century after Brown v.  Board of Education,
the test scores of blacks and whites remain, on average, strikingly
dissimilar." The average white student, they write, "scores as high as
an African American student who ranks among the top third of his or
her racial group."

z37\clip\2001\01\monmatt.txt Does Money Not Matter? The Data Suggest
It Does http://www.nytimes.com/2001/01/17/national/17LESS.html
January 17, 2001 LESSONS By RICHARD ROTHSTEIN
National Assessment of Educational Progress shows greater gains for
minority students. In reading, 40 percent of the black-white score
gap, for instance, has been eliminated among 17-year-olds since 1971;
among 9- year-olds, 20 percent of the gap has been closed.


SUBSTANTIAL MINORITY PROGRESS 1970-1988
Education Week "Quality Counts" study c:\clip\97\01\racegap.txt url:
http://www.edweek.org/qc/intros/race.htm Jan 17, 1997 " Between 1970
and 1988, minority students made striking gains in academic
performance, while the achievement of white students remained flat.  "

BLACK "REPORT CARD" PROGRESS BETWEEN 1980-88 REVERSED BY 1992
\clip\96\11\acadprog.txt Wednesday December 05, 1996 MINORITY
ACADEMIC PROGRESS FALTERS By Tamara Henry USA TODAY NEWSPAPER

0-500 Nation's Report Card White-Black Gap 17yr old
year   reading  math    
1980   30       38 (1978)
1988   18       31 (1986)
1992   30       38 (1992)

Researcher points blame on inequality based on affluence, however he
does not note that the black achievement gap exists even in the most
affluent school districts such as Palo Alto, Bellevue, and Fairfax
County. Race matters more than income. Also fails to note that
progress continues on the SAT, more blacks take the test and get
better scores than ever.

--------------------------------


More African Americans Are Earning Diplomas priv\96B\03\AFRIDI~1.HTM
Associated Press Tuesday, June 11 1996; Page A03 The Washington Post 

US Census report:
black educational attainment:
                    1990  1995  Increase
high school         63.1  73.8  1.16
bachelors' degree   11.3  13.0  1.15

>>\priv\95\18\blakprog.txt Business Week: November 6, 1995
Department: Economics: RACE IS BLACK PROGRESS SET TO STALL? Keeping
up momentum requires robust economic growth gains in jobs, education,
government, etc.

\priv\95\07\blakgain.txt Business Week: May 29, 1995 WHAT HELD BLACKS
BACK? Gains in education haven't paid off - Black education is up,
but pay still lags whites.

d:\priv\94\20\educok.txt - black test scores up

%%General

BLACKS MADE MOST PROGRESS DURING 1990S
z55\clip\2002\02\blackmir.txt
Shining a light on America's 'Black Miracle'
http://www.townhall.com/columnists/marktapscott/printmt20020225.shtml
Mark Tapscott
February 25, 2002
Shining a light on America's 'Black Miracle'

Black White  Increase 
32    14     Median Income
26     7     Small Business

Steve Miller isn't one of journalism's household names - yet - but he has
uncovered the facts behind a miracle that has thus far escaped notice of
most of his colleagues in America's newsrooms.

%%Health

Life expectancy is up

Infant mortality is down

"Advances haven't cut low-birth-weight rate" Seattle Times June 10,
1997 Gannet News Services Reichard Whitmire teen births are down,
especially blacks (8% between 1994 and 1995) F061797

Black Life Expectancy Gap Shrinks in 20th Century
Year Gap in Years % Difference* 
1900 14.6 31% 
1910 14.7 29% 
1920  9.6 17% 
1930 13.3 22% 
1940 11.1 17% 
1950  8.3 12% 
*Percent shorter than whites
Source: National Vital Statistics Reports, 12/24/98
From table in Wall Street Journal Dec 26, 2000


%%income

BLACK INCOME UP 28% IN 20 YRS BY 1999
US NEWS Mar 5, 2001 p8 Median household income for blacks from
21,790/1980 to 27,910/1999 in 1999 dollars, up 28% in 20 years.

In 1939, African American workers made barely more than 40 percent of
white workers' pay. Now the ratio has moved to 65 percent. In other
words, it's taken more than a half-century to eliminate a piece of
the income gap. earnings by African American women have moved to
within a few percentage points of white women's;
\clip\98\13\blkprog.txt
http://www.sacbee.com:80/news/beetoday/newsroom/cap/100498/cap02.html
Blacks thrive in robust economy: Incomes show 16.8% surge in 6-year
period By David Westphal Bee Washington Bureau Chief (Published Oct.
4, 1998)

%%job

Blacks have shown dramatic growth in desireable jobs, big declines
in undesirable jobs such as housecleaning and farm workers


BLACKS DOUBLE 80-95 IN BEST, HALF IN WORST OCCUPATIONS
z49\doc\web\2001\04\blacoccup.wk1
Blacks increase in public safety, exec, professions
Decline in farm, private household occupations 1980-95
                                      thousands       percent
                                      total    black  black black
Occupation                   Change   t104     t125    1980  1995
                                      1980 tot black  pct   95 pct
police fire                     202.8%     598     46   7.7% 15.6%
engineers                       191.0%    1382     34   2.5%  4.7%
physicians                      185.3%     643     17   2.6%  4.9%
Executive admin                 149.8%   10133    487   4.8%  7.2%
comp eq op                      134.6%     408     47  11.5% 15.5%
Professional Specialty          113.1%   12018    829   6.9%  7.8%
Service                         106.9%   12040   1915  15.9% 17.0%
teachers k12                     92.7%    3311    332  10.0%  9.3%
Farm, fish, forestry             64.9%    2811    182   6.5%  4.2%
Private Household workers        40.8%     589    241  40.9% 16.7%

Black Americans : A Statistical Sourcebook p. 211 1997 edition US
Dept Labor 1995 figures
1980 Census Gen Social Economic Characteristics pc80-1-c1 United States
Analysis by Arthur Hu April 2001 Kirkland WA
Affirmative action probably has effect on police and fire, but dubious
in other fields.

\clip\98\11\morejob.txt Minorities make dramatic job gains in
Milwaukee-area work force
http://www.jsonline.com:80/news/0817jobs.stm Minorities' job gains in
area market 'dramatic' Gains include higher-skilled posts By Geeta
Sharma-Jensen of the Journal Sentinel staff August 17, 1998
"Researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee have found that
minorities filled 54% of the 24,327 jobs added at larger
non-government firms in the four-county area during that time." "Most
were entry level.. But an almost equal number -- roughly 6,000 --
found jobs in professional, managerial, technical and factory areas.
"

\doc\95\08\jobprog.txt
Job Progress 1980-1990 - USA Today May 15, 1995 p. 2B
Black Increase:
650% Airplane pilots / navigators
311% Dentists
188% Radio, TV Applicance sales
173% Civil Engineers
155% Authors


%%job
\priv\95\18\blakprog.txt Business Week: November 6, 1995
Department: Economics: RACE IS BLACK PROGRESS SET TO STALL? Keeping up
momentum requires robust economic growth

\doc\95\08\jobprog.txt - progress in black jobs

%%lawyer

MINORITY LAWYERS DOUBLE SINCE 1985
Minorities make up larger portion of U.S. lawyers
http://www.foxnews.com/js_index.sml?content=/news/wires2/0804/n_ap_0804_23
7. sml August 4, 1998 By Laurie Asseo Associated Press "More of the United
States' lawyers are racial and ethnic minorities these days, but few have
reached the highest-level jobs, an American Bar Association panel said
Tuesday. Minorities made up 10 percent of the associate
members of large law firms in 1996, double the 5.1 percent share in 1985,
said the report by the ABA's Commission on Opportunities for Minorities in
the Legal Profession. Among the nation's law students, almost 20 percent
were minorities in 1996, up from 10.6 percent a decade earlier."


%%management

http://www.pathfinder.com:80/fortune/1998/980706/pol.html What Blacks
Think Of Corporate America June 1998 By Shelly Branch Fortune
Magazine According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the percentage
of executive, administrative, and managerial positions held by blacks
increased only slightly over the past four years, from 6.2% in 1993
to 6.9% in 1997. (.7 amounts to 10% increase in just 4 years!)

%%survey

PRESIDENT CLINTON MARKS BLACK PROGRESS \doc\web\97\07\blakpres.txt
Subject: REMARKS BY THE PRESIDENT AT THE CONGRESSIONAL BLACK CAUCUS
FOUNDATION GALA Date sent: Tue, 16 Sep 1997 05:32:34 +0100 REMARKS BY
THE PRESIDENT AT THE CONGRESSIONAL BLACK CAUCUS FOUNDATION GALA
"Today we see the results: unemployment below 5 percent, lowest
African American unemployment in 24 years; 13 million new jobs,
family incomes up, African American family income is up $3,000 in
three years; the lowest poverty rate among African Americans ever
recorded; violent crime down five years in a row, record drops in
welfare."


\doc\web\97\07\blakprog.txt (summary) \clip\97\20\blakprog.htm Wall
Street Journal Ed. Sept 3, 1997 The Real Story of Black Progress BY
ABIGAIL THERNSTROM And STEPHAN THERNSTRON

Highlights: - Black progress was faster from 1940-1970 than 1970-1990 - Fraction of families with middle class incomes up 40% 1940 to 1970, up only 10% since then. - Before WWII, only 5% black men in white collar, 22% by 1970, now 30% 6% black women, 36% in 1970, now 60% Before WWII, 60% of black women were household servants Black college increased from 3% prewar to 7% after war. - Black NAEP gap was 1971 reading 6.0 yr 1988 2.5 1994 2.5 1973 math 4.3 yr 1990 2.5 1994 3.4 1970 science 4.7 yr Narrowing 1970-1990, widening 1990-1994 \priv\95\18\blakprog.txt Business Week: November 6, 1995 Department: Economics: RACE IS BLACK PROGRESS SET TO STALL? Keeping up momentum requires robust economic growth gains in jobs, education, government, etc. %%wealth BLACK WHITE WEALTH GAP RATIO DOWN BY FACTOR OF 3 IN 12 YEARS "Rich Got Richer, Study Say, But So Did Those At Bottom" Investor's Business Daily July 28, 2003 A16. Black wealth grew faster than whites between 1989 and 2001 with the ratio of white to black wealth falling from 18.5 to 6.4. Forty percnet of blacks have middle class levels of wealth between $25,000 and $250,000, very close to 43% for whites. Bruce Bartlett National Center For Policy Analysis. "Getting Richer" John C. Weicher, Wall Street Journal June 14, 1995 ed. Wealth in 1989 Dollars 1983 1989 %Change All $150,000 $180,700 20% White, non-Hispanic $175,100 $216,400 24% Black, non-Hispanic $35,900 $48,600 35% Hispanic (1) $31,900 $49,200 54% (1) used different methods to determine Hispanic status Source: Federal Reserve Board surveys %%golf keywords: Asian.Sports.Golf \doc\95\01\blakgolf.txt - Blacks 2.8% of golfers, up 1.8X from 1986 to 89 USA today page 1C - August 13, 1990 Black golfers on the rise black.migration @@migration d:\doc\95\01\blakleav.txt - Blacks leave Los Angeles, resent immigrant success. @@race black.racism @@racism by blacks \priv\95\14\blracsm.txt - rom: S. Leigh "Million Man March"(MMM):black racism may be real, but serves a constructive purpose, unlike white racism. @@racism against "Blacks Cannot Blame Racism For All The Ills of Economic Failure, Says National Urban League Head" The Seattle Medium March 22, 1995 p. 1 Hugh Price, President and CEO of the National Urban League says "while he supports affirmative action, he feels African Americans cannot blame racism for all the ills of economic failure for the community, and that we as a community need to focus on our children and economic independence." @@Reparations / Apology %%General BLACK REPARATIONS INSPIRED BY JAPANESE INTERNMENT PAYMENTS z60\clip\2002\10\repar.txt Disparate in Background and Tactics, Two Men Push Reparations to Forefront BY JONATHAN TILOVE Newhouse News Service In 1969, a black Harvard MBA by the name of Richard America... A year earlier, in Detroit, Richard Henry, a technical writer with the Army's Tank-automotive and Armaments Command, changed his name to Imari Obadele and helped found the Republic of New Afrika.. "the movement was spurred to new seriousness when in 1988 Congress passed legislation apologizing to Japanese-Americans interned during World War II, paying each of them $20,000 in restitution. In 1998, Obadele and two other RNA officials filed their own claims with the office " FROM 40 ACRES AND A MULE TO 1.4 TRILLION zip38\clipim\99\23\blackrep.htm Slavery: America's Unattended Wound By Kevin Merida Washington Post Staff Writer Tuesday, November 23, 1999; Page C1 with the War Department's blessing, Sherman set aside land along the Georgia and South Carolina coasts for black settlement. Each family was to receive 40 acres, and Sherman later offered the loan of army mules..Various groups of Eskimos, Native Americans, Aleuts and survivors of a 1923 massacre in a predominantly black Florida town have also received restitution – combined, more than $1 billion...calculates that unpaid net wages to blacks before emancipation amount to $1.4 trillion today. \priv\94\19\blakclam.txt - IRS won't accept claims ANDREW JOHNSON OPPOSED WELFARE FOR FREED SLAVES President Andrew Johnson from his veto of the second Freedmen's Bureau Act of 27 March 1866: The Congress of the United States has... never founded schools for any class of our own people, .. never deemed itself authorized to expend the public money for the rent or purchase of homes for the thousands, not to say millions, of the white race.. The idea on which the slaves were assisted to freedom was that, on becoming free, they would be a self-sustaining population. @@resent immigrants \doc\95\01\blakleav.txt - Blacks leave Los Angeles, resent immigrant success. @@Protest writing PROTEST SEEKS TO DEHUMANIZE BLACKS THEN BLAME WHITES FOR DIFFERENCE \doc\web\99\05\steele.txt March 1, 1999 New Republic Shelby Steele Protest writing negatively differentiates blacks from normal non-oppressed humanity, and then asserts that racial oppression is responsible for the difference. . . . . In protest fiction, this differentiation of blacks from humanity, this auto-dehumanization, is all-important, because it is what stirs white obligation, which is the ultimate objective of all black protest writing. . . . @@poverty %%city Jonestown, Missisippi \doc\96\01\govtplan.txt "The Government's plantations" The Economist July 11, 1992 p. 26. Poverty in the Missisippi Delta among rural blacks in Jonestown, Missisippi. Nearly all black, half under 14, 3/4 of adults are women, nearly every household receives some form of government assistance. Fewer than 40% of students graduate high school. Most men have left town. Only 5% employed full time %%single mothers DOC922\SMHOUSE - single mothers and housing @@rape doc921\blakrape.txt- why don't whites rape blacks DOC922\RACERAPE.TXT - whites do not rape blacks? DOC922\RACERAP2.TXT - Asian Al Sharpton? @@riot %%Seattle http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/jdl_092597.html \clip\97\21\riot.htm Jerry Large objects to unruly gathering of African Americans in Seattle characterized as a "riot". But no news acccounts mentioned race. %%Washington DC \clip\99\07\raceriot.txt http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/WPlate/1999-03/01/133l-030199-idx.htm In the Race Riot of 1919, a Glimpse of Struggles to Come By Peter Perl Washington Post Staff Writer.Monday, March 1, 1999; Page A01 The rampage by about 400 whites initially drew only scattered resistance in the black community, and the police were nowhere to be seen. The white mob -- whose actions were triggered in large part by weeks of sensational newspaper accounts of alleged sex crimes by a "negro fiend" -- unleashed a wave of violence that swept over the city for four days. Nine people were killed in brutal street fighting, and an estimated 30 more would die eventually from their wounds. More than 150 men, women and children were clubbed, beaten and shot by mobs of both races. @@Roots z55\clip\2002\02\aadp08.txt Stanley Crouch: I Will Not Call Shots Based on Skin Color http://www.nydailynews.com/2002-02-04/News_and_Views/Opinion/a-140220.asp "I feel I have to give a response after receiving a good deal of red-hot mail on the column I wrote about Alex Haley and the hoax that made him whatever he turned out to be. ALEX HALEY ROOTS WAS MORE FICTION THAN FACT z54\clip\2002\01\rootslie.txt Eric Fettmann New York Post http://www.nypost.com/postopinion/opedcolumnists/39097.htm THE CELEBRATED 'ROOTS' OF A LIE "while the miniseries was a remarkable - and important - piece of television, the book on which it was based has now been widely exposed as a historical hoax. " DVD review http://dvdmg.com/roots.shtml zip56\clipim\2002\05\15\roots25\roots25.htm Reviewed by Colin Jacobson The show took the country by storm and remains the mini-series against which all others must be compared. After 25 years, it continues to provide a rich and winning program that communicates the pain suffered by slaves but that never resorts to the cheap theatrics of weaker pieces like Amistad. @@rumour \doc\95\14\blaksupr.txt - whites and Asians have superstitions too. @@Ruth, Babe Steve Sailer and I both believe Babe Ruth looks like he has african features such as the wide nose, but blacks din't claim he is black though they often claim Jesus and Beethoven were black. @@segregation \doc\96\01\upfromse.txt "Up from separatism" f012396 The Economist Oct 21, 1995 p. 30 From 1980 to 1990, Reynolds Farley of the University of Michigan found segregation fell in 194 of 232 areas where Blacks were over 3% of the population U. Michigan study found 50% blacks, 60% of Asians, 15% of whites reported studying frequently with members of another ethnic group In 1968 over half of blacks in primary and secondary school went to nearly all-black schools. 28% 1970 22% in 1978 19% in 1988 1991 = 1980 Slightly higher since then 242,000 black-white marriage, 4x 1970 Readers Digest 82% of whites 74% of blacks believe America is best place to live in the world. doc936\selfseg.txt Blacks prefer 50% black, but 50% black is not integrated @@slavery See genocide/slavery %%amistad Date sent: Fri, 30 Jan 1998 16:22:34 -0600 From: "F. Leon Wilson" Web: AMISTAD: about the AMISTAD and the AMISTAD incident. URL: http://www.amistad.org/ Description: At this Web site you'll find a selective listing of hyperlinks to pages and sites about the AMISTAD and the AMISTAD story. SpectraLinks quick Links: AMISTAD the film http://www.amistad-thefilm.com/ Exploring Amistad: Race and the Boundaries of Freedom in Antebellum Maritime America http://amistad.mysticseaport.org/ U.S. Supreme Court THE AMISTAD, 40 U.S. 518 (1841) http://caselaw.findlaw.com/amistad.html _____________________________________________________________________ Web: AMISTAD: Full Text of the Decision URL: http://caselaw.findlaw.com/amistad_case.html Web: The Amistad Research Center URL: http://www.arc.tulane.edu/ Description: At this Web site you'll find one of the nation's premier minority repositories; The Amistad Research Center. Named after a famed revolt by Africans on La Amistad in 1839 and landmark U.S. Supreme Court case, the Amistad was organized by the Race Relations Department of Fisk University and the American Missionary Association in 1966. The Center emerged as the first institution created to document the civil rights movement. Withmore than 10,000,000 documents, the Amistad today is acknowledged as the nation's largest independent African American archives, as well as a leader in automation and advanced techniques. The Center also features extensive collection on Africa, other minorities, and the gay rights movement. It has oral history and video collections along with a specialized library, traveling exhibits, publications, and significant African and African American art holdings. Now, conveniently housed on the campus of Tulane University, the Amistad Research Center is free and open to scholars, the public, and tours. "Mapping cyberspace in full colour" E-mail: Archives: \clip\97\29\cinque.txt Spielberg's 'Amistad' fails to zoom in on lives of Africans By Julie Hinds San Jose Mercury News Published: Wednesday, December 10, 1997 http://www.pathfinder.com/time/magazine/1997/dom/971215/acult.amistad_a_pae.html \clip\97\29\amistad.txt TIME THE ARTS/CULTURE DECEMBER 15, 1997 VOL. 150 NO. 25 AMISTAD: A PAEAN TO PAST AGONY BY RICHARD SCHICKEL [review of spielberg movie] %%black traders FIRST AFRICAN FILM ON SLAVERY FOCUSES ON BLACK-ON-BLACK TRADING z48\clip\2001\03\afrslave.txt First African Look at Slave Trading Stirs Controversy and Sadness By Brahima Ouadraego Tampa Bay Online Network http://ap.tbo.com/ap/breaking/MGASJWC3QJC.html February 27, 2001 The newly enslaved in Ivory Coast director Roger Gnoan M'bala's film "Adanggaman," are African. But so are the slavers. And that, in Gnoan M'bala's eyes, is what makes his film long overdue. %%computer z75\clip\2003\11\master.txt Los Angeles, CA: County deletes 'master-slave' PC term http://www.dailynews.com/Stories/0,1413,200~20954~1791069,00.html "Los Angeles County officials have gone PC (politically correct) on PCs (personal computers) -- banning as potentially "offensive or defamatory" the words master and slave from computer hard drives and video equipment where they are used to describe primary and secondary circuits. Under orders from the affirmative action office, county departments have surveyed about 1,000 pieces of equipment and taped over "master/slave" and put "primary/secondary" on the equipment, %%general 25-100 MILLION SLAVES CLAIMED KILLED DURING "MIDDLE PASSAGE" "As to the losses of slavery, estimates of fatalities of Africans during the Middle Passage alone range from 25 million to 100 million" Loris S. Robinson (Washington D.C. / Emerge Magazine) "Righting a Wrong" Seattle Post-Intelligencer June 29, 1997 p. E1 F070197 - Comment, if true, the high estimate would equal all 20th century war deaths, and even the low estimate is exceeded only by Mao's famines, Asian and total World War II deaths. GRAVES SHOW HARD LIFE / DEATHS FOR SLAVES \clip\97\19\slave\slave.txt US News 7/28/97 http://www.usnews.com/usnews/issue/970728/28slav.htm Only remember us Skeletons of slaves from a New York grave bear witness BY MICHAEL SATCHELL "He was malnourished and anemic from birth, and he suffered serious infections throughout his short life. Enlarged anchor points on the bones of his arms show his muscles were unusually developed from heavy lifting. Fractures of his first and second cervical vertebrae--the neck bones--attest to major trauma from carrying large loads on his head. No. 39, an African-American child, was killed by slavery." "National slavery apology shows ignorance of history" Thomas Sowell Seattle Times June 18, 1997. Whites enslaved whites, blacks enslaved blacks, and the Slavs are where the word "slave" comes from. f061997 \priv\96b\07\marslav.txt Congressional Group Says Mauritania Holds Thousands of Slaves file:C:\priv\96B\01\COALSLAV.HTM Text of anti-slavery activists home page file:C:\priv\96B\01\SUDAN.HTM federal report on Sudan, 1.5 million dead from civil war so far. file:C:\priv\96B\01\BOYFREED.HTM Seattle Times Company June 18, 1996 Close-up: Reporters buy slaves' freedom Baltimore reports go to the Sudan to prove to Farrakhan that there is slavery in Africa today. The minister could not be reached for comment. SLAVERY IS ALIVE TODAY - IN THE SUDAN \priv\96b\01\afrislav.txt Date: Tue, 18 Jun 1996 01:24:32 -0400 From: NewsHound@sjmercury.com (NewsHound) American Reporters Buy Freedom for Two Child Slaves in Sudan BALTIMORE (AP) -- Two reporters for The Sun said they paid $1,000 for two brothers who were abducted from their home in southern Sudan and forced to work in the fields as slaves for six years. File d:\priv\94\19\blakclam.txt: - black slave descendents can't get a mule tax break. \priv\95\14\polsav.txt - review of political economy of slavery @@Stereotype CLINTON TRIP PAINTS BACKWARD AFRICA The Covenant Syndicate March 30, 1998, vol. 2, no. 99 (Back Issues posted at: http://capo.org/opeds/opeds.html) @@Suburb 30% of blacks lived in the suburbs in 1996, they were 5% of Boston Suburbs. BLACKS FLEE TO BOSTON SUBURBS TOO Boston Globe Online July 24, 1997 \clip\97\18\blaksub.txt Blacks answering suburbia's call Blacks answering suburbia's call The black population in Boston's suburbs within Route 128 went up by 63.5 percent between 1980 and 1990, while the white population fell 9.2 percent over the same period, according to the Center for Labor Market Studies at Northeastern University. In 1980, 18,215 blacks lived in the inner suburbs. By 1990, that number had climbed to 29,776, or roughly 5 percent of the suburbs' overall population of 574,857. Abigail Thernstrom has an upcoming book ``America in Black and White: One Nation, Indivisible,'' cowritten with her husband, Stephan, says blacks want to move up too, but liberals feel the city loses middle class role models. (Funny nobody accuses whites of being traitors or role models when THEY leave) \clip\96\03\innrcity.txt The Wall Street Journal Interactive Edition -- August 28, 1996 Inner City Is a Strong Magnet For Suburban Black Teenagers By JONATHAN KAUFMAN Staff Reporter of THE WALL STREET JOURNAL. Parents worry about children returning to culture of the inner city after escaping to the suburbs. Nearly 30% of all black Americans live in suburbia today, up markedly from 16% in 1970, according to a study of census data by Bart Landry, a sociology professor at the University of Maryland. @@success \clip\96\02\omegaboy.txt SF Examiner 8/5/96 Small Miracle: Omega Boys Club Saves Lives Once Lost To The Streets An AP Newspaper Enterprise Report By LISA M. KRIEGER San Francisco Examiner Omega boys club sends black boys to college and they stay there. @@superior Black aren't worse at everything, there are some fields where Blacks are better than whites, and many fields where they are better than Asians %%book Black Voyage: Eyewitness Accounts of the Atlantic Slave Trade Edited by Thomas Howard 1971 Little, Brown and Co. Says 10 to 20 million were transported, as many as one-third, from 3.3 to 7 million may have died on the voyage. Maps, chronology, accounts of several mutinies, and even one account that slaves ended up in better shape than British troops, among other horror stories. %%white drinking drunk driving violations teen smoking some drugs military professional sports television parts big city mayor %%Asian teaching education adminstration fire police politics voting rate %%Hispanic drop out college enrollment politics voting rate @@Swim Wall Street Journal March 20, 2007 D1 Minorities and the Swimming Gap. Health Journal by Kevein Helliker. "spurious research, some as recent as the 1960s describe blacks as being inherently less buoyant and disadvantaged in water". Black parents in disproportionate numbers have never learned to swim. Black children between 10 and 14 drown at 4.5 times the rate of white children. Swimming is a school requirement in the United Kingdom, and some (mostly Ivy League) colleges, though it has been criticized as unfair to minorities. Cullen Jones is the world's fastest sprinter swimmer. "Pride" is a new movie about a parks and recreation coach who salvaged a pool and created athletic stars. @@Technology \clip\99\02\aftech\aftech.htm http://www.theatlantic.com/atlantic/issues/current/aftech.htm @@Television z48\clip\2001\02\blacksit.txt New York Times, 1.2.25 The Shrinking Life Span of the Black Sitcom By ROBERT F. MOSS A RECENT episode of "The P.J.'s," the foam-animated WB series set in the projects, ended with two boys reflecting on the duplicitous Many black commentators have pilloried the show as a nest of stereotypes, while perversely ignoring its obvious sympathy for its characters, classic underdogs who nearly always prevail over their oppressors. @@test scores sat\doc922\dowdy - good SAT scores, bad grades at UCLA %%failure \priv\95\10\acadigno.txt ACADEMIC IGNORANCE AND BLACK INTELLIGENCE by William Labov Atlantic June, 1972 %%income BLACK MEN INCOME GAP VANISHES WHEN TEST SCORES ARE EQUAL "Free to succeed or fail" The Economist Aug 6, 2005 p. 22 "a study by George Farkas and Keven Vicknair found that if one compares black men with whites with similar test scores on standardized tests, the blacks earned slightly more.. another study found the gap was reduced by three-quarters" @@Tip STUDY SAYS BLACKS TIP LESS THAN WHITES z68\clip\2003\07\tip.txt http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/columnists/chi-0307210187jul21,1,2992694.column Chicago Tribune | Race-based tipping study serves no one Race-based tipping study serves no one July 21, 2003 .. an upcoming study on African-Americans and restaurant tipping by Cornell University's The Center for Hospitality Research. blacks tipped on average about 20 percent less than whites no matter how good the service. The average tip left by a black person was 13 percent of the bill, compared with 16.5 percent by a white customer. @@Unemployment PERCENT BLACKS/WHITES UNEMPLOYED 1950 - 1990 FOR 10 LARGE METROPOLITAN AREAS 1950 1990 White Black White Black DETROIT .05 .12 .06 .20 BUFFALO .05 .16 .06 .18 CHICAGO .03 .12 .04 .17 PHILADELPHIA .05 .11 .04 .14 BOSTON .06 .08 .06 .12 NYC .06 .10 .05 .12 DENVER .04 .06 .05 .11 LOSANGELES .08 .13 .06 .11 SEATTLE .07 .19 .04 .10 <- Seattle Best WASHINGTON .02 .06 .03 .10 ---------------------------------------------------------------- Basic numbers - US News and World Report Ranking - Arthur Hu @@value - %%achievement doc93b\hallfigt.mcw Wiley Hall says fight racism with achiement, not victimhood doc\94\16\clarence.txt - Clarence Thomas on anti-crime values and punishing bad actions %%Hip Hop THE BAD-N IS THE HEART OF HIP HOP CULTURE The Wall Street Journal March 30, 2001 Commentary Notes From The Hip-Hop Underground By Shelby Steele. Mr. Steele is a research fellow at the Hoover Institution and author, most recently, of "A Dream Deferred: The Second Betrayal of Black Freedom in America" (HarperCollins, 1998). "If you were a slave, what sort of legend or myth would most warm your soul? One of the great legends in black American culture has always been that of the Bad Nigger. This figure flaunts the constraints, laws and taboos that bind a person in slavery. " @@welfare MOST BLACKS SUPPORT WELFARE CAP, NAACP DOES NOT \doc\97\02\naacp.txt "NAACP chief defends his record" Seattle Times Feb 16, 1997 p. A10. The National Black Election Study at Ohio State found 64% of blacks support a 5 year lifetime cap on welfare benefits, the NAACP does not. In 1972-76, 68% of African Americans supported generous welfare benefits, but by 1989 to 1992, this had dropped to only 43% @@west indians \priv\95\17\cultcaut.txt The Culture of Caution by Orlando Patterson. The New Republic Nov 27, 1995. West Indians are the black "model minority" filed under black.west-indians. Colin Powell's background. @@women Common wisdom: Black women bear the double burden of discrimination against blacks and women Different view: Black women are more successful by some measures than black men DOUBLE BURDEN? AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN AHEAD OF THEIR BROTHERS z63\clip\2003\01\afwom.txt http://www.amazon.com Excerpt from Rituals of Blood : Consequences of Slavery in Two American Centuries Chapter One When current trends are projected, there is every reason to believe that Afro-American women will soon surpass Afro-American men in median income. ..in desirable occupations, it is already the case that they have outperformed Afro-American men in absolute terms and Euro-American women in relative terms. * In all other ethnic groups, women have been catching up with, and surpassing, men in the acquisition of bachelor's degrees since about the early eighties. Afro-American women had passed this milestone years earlier * Afro-Americans are the only ethnic group in which women outperform men in most of the hard sciences, especially physics, math, and computer science; engineering is an exception, but Afro-American women are fast catching up. * 1987 they became the first women to outperform the men of their group in achieving doctorates. * Latinos were never enslaved here...many European ancestry.. some descended from slaveholders--.. yet their poverty levels are higher than Afro-Americans [This is completely inconsistent with the traditional race / gener discrimination model where male -> female white -> black] @@work HISPANICS MORE LIKELY TO WORK, HAVE FRIENDS WHO WORK, LIVE WITH RELATIVES WHO CAN WATCH KIDS, HAVE BANK ACCOUNTS, PERSONAL NETWORKS TO JOBS, TAKE ENTRY LEVEL LOW SKILL JOBS VS POOR BLACKS: "A Hidden Advantage for Some Job Seekers" Los Angeles Times, Friday, November 28, 1997 Social networks help immigrant Latinos get a foot in the employment door -- a little-noticed boon that low-income blacks don't share, social researchers say. By ABIGAIL GOLDMAN, Times Staff Writer doc936\blkedin.txt - 40% men 30% women black poor work vs. 56/34 white SFC 9-17-93 Racial Bias Alleged in Meno Park 14%B vs. 12 8%L vs. 10 @@Zimbabwe @@Rhodesia http://www.success-and-culture.net/articles/tube.shtml Zimbabwe: The World's Largest Test Tube Meritocrist claims thats white colonialism helped the economy despite theft of black rights and property, and expelling whites as and will continue to damage the economy and economic output.