Welfare | Arthur's Anydex: The Index of Anything

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Welfare Facts: Anydex

There's not much coverage of how welfare benefits affect Asians. Well, Asians are overall MORE likely to take welfare for most programs, but equal to whites per poor person. Immigrants are about half as likely to receive welfare if you leave out refugees.

However some immigration critics have attacked the few elderly Asians who take advantage of SSI (which isn't normally called "welfare", but the term has stuck) when their grown children are relatively affluent. The flip side is that immigrant workers are funding the retirement of disproportionately white elderly with the social security system. To get a fair return, I believe that as long as their sponsors pay into social security, their elderly parents should be able to collect as long as they naturalize as citizens. link

Lester Thurow, and many other economists say that Social Security is effectively welfare since funds paid in are paid out plus interest in only 4 years for most retirees today.

If you count social security along with public assistance, Asians and Hispanics have the lowest amount of "welfare" payments per household, only $1,500 compared to $2,500 for nonhispanic white households.

               Social Security and Public Assistance
Race           Payments Index           ss per
               Total / household        pop    Index
NHWhite           $2,486    1.00 NHWhite   $890   1.00
White             $2,452   -1.00 White     $857  -1.04
total             $2,353   -1.04 total     $757  -1.18
Black             $2,037   -1.20 Black     $435  -2.04
AmInd             $1,899   -1.29 AmInd     $351  -2.54
Hisp              $1,550   -1.58 Hisp      $243  -3.66
AsianPI           $1,477   -1.66 AsianPI   $224  -3.97



Making Ends Meet: How Single
Mothers Survive Welfare and Low-Wage Work Kathryn Edin and Laura Lein
 Book announcement

"Debunking Welfare Myths" Seattle Post Intelligencer June 8, 1997
Book by Edin and Lein says that welfare checks don't pay enough and
real welfare mothers have to cheat to survive. F061997


Activists say Welfare is caused by lack of jobs, but in
fact, largest cause is creation of a fatherless family by birth or
separation.  Largest cause for leaving is marriage, and work, but
affordable day care is not the major problem.

>>\PRIV\95\18\OFFWELF.HTM - sjm 12/11/95 Work is the most common way
for women to get off welfare Having a child or becoming pregnant was
the main reason women went on welfare (one third), while 21 percent
cited job loss or low wages, and 17 percent said they divorced or
separated. (That's half due to family reasons, only 21% due to a lack
of jobs)Lack of affordable child care was cited by only 18 percent of
women in the Washington study. Most welfare mothers have informal
child-care arrangements with friends, family or neighbors.

    \doc\95\04\welfoff.wk1 - Reasons for going on and off welfare
    The most common occurences that result in going ON welfare

          45% Divorce / Separation
          30% Child born to unmarried woman
          12% Earnings of mother fall
          10% Other reasons
           3% Earnings of others in family fall

          75% Divorce, Separation, or Unmarried Birth

    The most common occurences that result in going OFF welfare
          35% Marriage
          11% Children leave home
          21% Earnings of mother increase
           5% Earnings of others in family increase
          14% Other benefits increase
          14% Other reasons

          46% Marriage or children leave home

    Source: House Ways and Means Commitee
    From table in "Forces Behind Welfare Cycle" Wall Street
    Journal June 12, 1992 p. A18

@@Characteristics of Welfare Mothers

              AFDC   not  Ratio
age           30     34
Under 25      28%    10%   2.8
First Birth   20     23
1st Under 18  29%    15%   2.0
Children      2.6    2.1

On welfare
White          7%
Black         25%
Hispanic      20%
Foreign Born   9%
US Born       11%

3/4 of foreign born AFDC recipients are not citizens, but the foreign
born have welfare rates almost as low as Whites.

Married, husband present      13%
Married, husband absent
 (includes separated)         17%
Widowed or divorced           23%
Never Married                 48%

~50% of AFDC did not complete high school
38% completed but no college
19% had some college

Hispanic AFDC immigrants = 30%


d:\priv\95\01\welf1.txt USN&WR Jan 16, 1995 p. 32
Long-Term Recipients of AFDC
67% never married
39% White 43% Black 18% Hispanic <1% Other
USN&WR / US Dept Health and Human Services

@@Child Cap

\clip\97\05\famcap.txt Subtraction fails to stop multiplication:
Massachusetts finds its welfare 'family cap' ineffective birth
control By Michael Grunwald, Globe Staff, 02/25/97 


Doctor Bills are Top Concern of Nation's Poor New York Times
Jan 4, 1993 A10 survey of families under $20,000 per year by
Henry S. Kaiser and Family Foundation funded. For AFDC,
buying clothes is #1 problem, paying doctors and hospitals
is last, but rent, food and health care are paid for.


Amount spent on welfare in 1991 per benefits recepient
Harpers index Sept 1992 $1,620

Ratio of federal dollars spent last year on S&L and
bank bailouts to federal dollars spent on welfare
6:1 Harpers Index 1992


\images\98\01\011997\p04.tif (image)
F052297 Fax of San Diego County Welfare cases
for 4/30/97

Number            Total %
Black             21,541
Chinese              663
Vietnamese         4,829
White             52,898
Hispanic          60,119
Asian Indian         244
Totals            153790

"Welfare rate by county in Washington State" Seattle Post
Intelligencer April 19, 1995 p. 1 map shows counties with highest
rates are rual counties with mostly white or native American

doc\94\15\welfdep.txt 22.2% white, 82.9% black children on welfare before 18


\clip\97\13\convsyn.txt The Covenant Syndicate May 19, 1997, vol. 1,
no. 14 (http://capo.org/opeds/opeds.html) Work is Working: Why
Welfare Rolls are Dropping David W. Hall (dhall@capo.org)

According to a well-orchestrated report by the Council of Economic
Advisers (May 9th), welfare recipients declined 20 percent from
1993-1997.  Over a decade ago, the leading prophet of Welfare,
Charles Murray, reported that spending on social programs increased
twenty-fold from 1950-1980. Simultaneously, the number of citizens
receiving welfare payments rose from six million (1967) to eighteen
million (1974) to over thirty million (1984).  Proving that welfare
spending is non-partisan, social spending increased 10 percent during
the Reagan years and 20 percent in the Bush years.  Murray and others


See articles in immigration section
on how immigrant workers are getting shafted by social security to
benefit mostly white retirees, while their own population has very
few elderly to support.

\doc\96\03\bettecon.txt "Building a Better Economy" Interview with
Lester Thurow. Technology Review May/June 1996 p. 42. 

Thurow argues that health care of 20 yr olds is an investment in the
economy, but for 70 yr olds is pure consumption. He says the social
welfare state is mostly the elderly in Medicare and Social Security
which is being allowed to crowd out everything else in the budget.

Computed by Arthur Hu 
Urban Social Security + Public Assistance income per household

White    $2312
Black    $2016
NatAm    $1785
Hispanic $1557
Asian    $1457

Whites have the highest, Asians lowest amount of SS+PA per 

Data from 1990 CP-2-1 1990 Census of Population
Social and Economic Characteristics United States
US Census Bureau

\priv\96\02\immssi.txt - Asians are only 6.2% of SSI recipients.
Matloff testifies that Taiwan Chinese are the highest rate

\doc\96\01\welfuse.htm - Long Matloff congressional testimony on welfare

Welfare in the Form of Cash Payments
The table below presents the percentages of welfare use by immigrants
over the age of 65, both overall and from some of the larger
immigrant groups, in 1990. 

    group             % on welfare 
    all immigrants    45% 
    Chinese           55%
    Filipino          39% 
    Iranian           26% 
    Korean            50% 
    Mexican           21% 
    Soviet Union      66% 
    Vietnamese        74% 
    all native-born    9%

As can be seen, 45% of elderly immigrants were on welfare.
For the elderly immigrant Chinese (I am using the word Chinese in
terms of ancestry, and thus including people from not only China but
also Taiwan and Hong Kong), the group on which I am focussing here,
the figure was 55%. The Chinese figure was the highest among all
major nonrefugee immigrant groups. 

(Later I did similar some analyses for the full U.S., i.e. all
immigrants who entered the U.S. during 1980-1987 and who were at
least 65 years old in 1990. The figures were similar to, though
slightly lower than, the above numbers for California: 37% overall,
34% for all sponsored immigrants, and 47% for the Chinese.) 

As mentioned earlier, welfare usage by senior immigrants has been
increasing over the years. This general trend also holds for the

    year of imm.     % on welfare 
    1980-1987        55%
    1975-1979        47%
    1970-1974        41%
    1965-1969        39%

>>\priv\96\01\asinsenr.doc Asian Week Nov 11, 1994 p. 7 Activists
respond that Asians are only taking advantage of loopholes in a
poorly designed aid program.

\priv\96\01\easymony.doc Easy Money, Lost Traditions Norm Matloff
National Review Feb 23, 1994 p. 46 55% of Asian elderly on welfare
compared to 9% of natives, 21% of Mexican

\doc\95\06\immwelf.txt - Matloff says that immigrants even under new
rules will qualify for elderly welfare in 5 instead of 3 years.

\doc\95\05\eldrwelf.txt  NY Times 4/16/96 "WELFARE AID INTENDED FOR
than a quarter of immigrants over 65 - in some immigrant populations,
almost half - receive SSI, at an annual cost of $2 billion. By
comparison, less than 10 percent of elderly United States citizens are
in the program.


San Francisco Chronicle 12/16/1991
Who receives
80% families
 8% foster care
11% recently unemployed
- less than 75% of federal poverty level
- $694/mo for mother and two children
- less than $1,000 in liquid assets
- no car worth over $1,500
- eligible for medi-cal and food stamps

SJM 5/25/92 Under current rules, woman who maries loses health care.

index asian.welfare.fertility
\doc\95\04\lowfert.txt - welfare mothers have lower fertility, and
highest benefits has lowest fertility rates

@@food stamps

\doc938\sipp.xls - government programs including  index white=1.00
  food stamps        1.13 for Asians vs. white

\priv\95\10\foodstam.txt The San Francisco Chronicle Wednesday,
August 23, 1995  Page A8 "40% of Food Stamp Mothers Unmarried, Census
Bureau Says " Ramon G. McLeod, also: \doc\95\11\foodstam.txt - census
press release

% on food stamps (US Census August 95)
  Millions   1 in X  Index
W 3.2         9       1.0
B 1.9         3       3.0
H 1.1         4       2.2
A (not available)    (1.1 from SIPP)

The study found that women who use food stamps tend to have their
children at younger ages than women not in the program. The average
age at first birth for mothers on food stamps was 20 years old
compared with an average age of 23 for mothers not receiving food


Hispanics, mostly Mexican in CA have the lowest welfare rates in
CA, but mostly PR and Dominican in NY have some of the highest 
rates, there are more NYC cases than in all of Texas

Hispanic Mothers Lagging as Others Escape
Welfare By RACHEL L. SWARNS The New York Times, September 15, 1998

\doc\96\03\taletwo.txt Hispanics have lowest rate of welfare among
poor in CA H17 W50 B65

"A Tale of Two Migrations, One White, One Brown" Los Angeles Times
3/17/96 p. M6 David Hayes Bautista and Gergory RodriguezHispanics have
the lowest rate of welfare use of any poverty group in the state [but
doesn't include Asians]

17% under poverty immigrant Latinos
50% poor Anglos
65% poor blacks


\priv\95\15\wasau2.txt - Atlantic 4/94 THE ORDEAL OF IMMIGRATION IN
WAUSAU (part 2) Total public assistance (AFDC, food stamps, Medicaid,
and housing and energy subsidies) for a Hmong family can be worth
more than $20,000 a year, according to local officials. (The Hmong
are not unusual in this regard. A 1991 U.S. Department of Health and
Human Services study indicated that nationwide about two thirds of
all Southeast Asian refugees who have arrived since 1986 remain on
public assistance.) In June of 1980 the paper reported that 80 percent
of the city's refugees became self-supporting within about three


Study Finds Welfare Initiatives Do Not Address Needs of Immigrant Families
New York Times November 26, 2002
Urban Institute study showed that low-income immigrant families were
more likely than their native counterparts to have two parents in the
household and that poverty often persisted in these families despite
the fact that both parents worked. 


from h-bd "What the Israeli government does here is exempt yeshiva
students [up to age 40] from the draft, and pays them welfare while
they're studying.  Where it becomes a problem is the _large number_ of
yeshiva students"

Only 2% of non-refugee immigrants arriving between 80 and 90
recieve welfare vs. 3.7 on native born
"Fact and Friction",Rick Henderson Reason Feb 1995 p. 16



full text http://www.arthurhu.com/97/06/smokmed.txt
\doc\web\97\06\smokmed.txt From: Eagle Forum 
June 1997 Phyllis Schlafly Report The Smoking Gun in Medicaid.
Medicaid was set up to cover only people on some form of welfare:
either Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) or Supplemental
Security Income (SSI). Medicaid is a federal-state matching program,
at a ratio of about 60-40.  In 1986, Congress inserted into the law
permission for the states to expand Medicaid to cover children in
families whose incomes were below the poverty line, whether their
parents took welfare or not.  in 1990 Congress required states to
provide Medicaid coverage to all poor children by the year 2002 In
1986, Medicaid cost about $27 billion. This year, Medicaid will cost
about $105 billion.


Asians use several welfare programs at higher rates than whites,
except for WIC (free canned food) and SSI.

  doc938\sipp.xls - government programs including  index white=1.00
  food stamps        1.13
  government housing 1.37 
  school lunch       1.63
  wic               -1.52 (dislike of American food?)
  medicaid,          1.34
  ssi               -1.11 (few elderly?)
  afdc               1.55 (but Asians have more poor than whites)

  doc934\aswelfar.xls - Welfare by race and immigrant status

  doc\94\6\seaswelf.wk1 - welfare se asians and other
  SE Asian highest, non SE Asian next lowest before whites
  w 1.0(.51) b6.4 H3.73 A2.96 SE As 8.97 NSE As 2.22

   doc\94\6\seaspov2.txt.txt UCLA study on Asian success and poverty                              
   30% of all southeast asians on welfare vs. 8% national
   7% of Cambodians and Laotians in CA                                                 

   22% of Wash state SE Asians are on AFDC

    \doc\95\02\washwelf.wk1 Welfare in Washington State
    Summary: W1.00(.81) B4.30 H2.11 A1.68 N3.55
    Welfare Recipients by Race
    Aid to Families with Dependent Children
    Washington State
    Source: Department of Social and Health Services
    Seattle Times Feb 3, 1995 p. B1

              White     Black     Hisp      Asian     NatAm     Other/Unk
    Population     85.7%      3.1%      4.9%      4.7%      1.6%      0.1%
    AFDC           69.5%     10.8%      8.4%      6.4%      4.6%      0.3%
    Rate          0.811     3.484     1.714     1.362     2.875     3.000
    Index       $  1.00      4.30      2.11      1.68      3.55      3.70

   doc\94\12\welfbirt.wk1 - younger mothers more likely to be on AFDC, fewer
    Asians give birth as teens

   doc\94\14\welfaddi.txt - 25% of welfare mothers, 37% youngest are
   alchohol abusers or addicts

   doc\94\14\welfdrug.txt - text of article

"Why Welfare Pays" Wall Street Journal Sept 28, 1995 Michael Tanner.
Welare pays equal to an hourly wage of $17.50 in Hawaii to 5.53 in
Missisippi.	filed under asian.welfare.pay

@@Public Housing

\clip\97\18\pubhouse.txt Should Door to Public Housing Ever Be Closed? Should Door to Public Housing Ever Be Closed? Los Angeles Times Thursday, July 17, 1997 By JUDY PASTERNAK, Times Staff Writer 3 million live in public housing 7 million use rent vouchers Annual turnover is 15%, most leave in 5 years 25% stay 10 years or more. Reformers are debating whether new welfare limits should also include deadlines for residents of subsidized projects.
@@Race Common wisdom - there are more whites than blacks on welfare (conservative Debra Saunders, SF Chronicle) Actually - that hasn't been true for a long time. MORE BLACKS THAN WHITES ON WELFARE THROUGHOUT 1990S z48\clipim\2001\03\20\tanf\tanf.htm http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/opre/characteristics/fy99/analysis.htm Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Program U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES EXHIBIT I TREND OF AFDC/TANF RECIPIENTS CHARACTERISTICS FY 1990 - FY 1999 FY 1990 FY 1992 FY 1994 FY 1996 FY 1998 FY 1999 FAMILIES TOTAL 3,976,000 4,769,000 5,046,000 4,553,000 3,176,000 2,648,000 CHILD-ONLY 459,000 707,000 869,000 978,000 743,000 770,000 PERCENT 11.6 14.8 17.2 21.5 23.4 29.1 RACE (PERCENT OF ALL FAMILIES) WHITE 38.1 38.9 37.4 35.9 32.7 30.5 BLACK 39.7 37.2 36.4 36.9 39.0 38.3 HISPANIC 16.6 17.8 19.9 20.8 22.2 24.5 ASIAN 2.8 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.4 3.6 AMERICAN 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.5 NATIVE OTHER - - - - 0.6 0.6 UNKNOWN 1.5 2.0 2.1 2.0 0.7 1.0 ADULTS AGE DISTRIBUTION (PERCENT OF ALL ADULTS) UNDER 20 7.7 7.1 5.9 5.8 6.1 6.2 20-29 46.3 45.9 44.1 42.3 41.4 39.7 30-39 32.5 33.3 34.8 35.2 33.8 33.8 OVER 39 13.4 13.6 15.2 16.5 18.6 20.2 AVERAGE 29.7 29.9 30.5 30.8 31.4 31.8 AGE EMPLOYMENT 7.0 6.6 8.3 11.3 22.8 27.6 RATE \clip\98\10\racewelf.txt More blacks than whites on welfare in 1998 http://www.nytimes.com/yr/mo/day/news/washpol/welfare-race.html July 27, 1998 Welfare Rolls Show Growing Racial and Urban Imbalance By JASON DePARLE WASHINGTON -- As the welfare rolls continue to plunge, white recipients are leaving the system much faster than black and Hispanic recipients, pushing the minority share of the caseload to the highest level on record. usa percent decline 1998 since 1994 25 white 17 black 9 hispanic 64H 40b vs only 33% of white welfare recip no hs degree 40h 61b 31w women never married 38h 38b 20w have over 2 children 55h 64b 21w live in centract where over 20% are poor 72h 74b 63w poor all year @@rate >>\doc\96\03\caimwelf.wk1 Welfare rates ages 16-64 in California W1.00 B3.72 H1.03 A-1.61 citizen W1.00 B3.72 H2.07 A1.93 immigrant - Asian citizens have the lowest rate of welfare, Blacks the highest - Asians immigrants high due to refugees caiwelf.txt \doc\96\02\aswelf.wk1 Legal Permanent Residents Receiving Public Assistance Income Ethnicity Receiving Public Assistance Number Percent Japanese 1,778 0.9 Tongan 86 1.2 Other Pacific Islander 199 1.8 Thai 1,016 2.2 Asian Indian 9,018 2.3 Other Asian 2,249 2.5 Filipino 17,970 4.3 Korean . 14,915 4.3 Samoan 295 4.8 Chinese 37,443 5.8 Guamanian 346 8.5 Vietnamese 38,610 14.2 Laotian 16,236 16.2 Cambodian 21,535 22.0 Hmong 14,425 25.5 1990 U.S. Census-based public-assistancefigures_defined as the number of legal permanent residents receiving AFDC, SSI, or state general assistance_indicate that Asian and Pacific Islander populations, in large part, receive federal benefits at rates lower than the national average. The seemingly high percentages for Vietnamese, Cambodian, and lfmong populations reflect the recently arrived or refugee status of these groups. Table as presented in Asian Week Aug 11,1995 p. 9 "Welfare Reform Targets Immigrants" \doc\96\02\pubass.txt - Public Assistance by Race / Ethnicity Asian households in general, with the exception of Japanese, Thai, and Koreans, are about twice as likely as non-Hispanic whites to have public assistance income. However, Asians also have a higher rate of poverty, and a higher percentage of households with dependent children. Only Southeast Asian refugee groups have higher rates of public assistance than blacks. Ranked by Households with Public Assistance Income Source: 1990 Census Analysis Ethnic Percent Index Japanese 2.9% 1.83 Thai 3.4% 1.56 Korean 4.6% 1.15 NHwhite 5.3% 1.00 OtherAs 5.5% -1.04 White 5.6% -1.06 US 7.5% -1.42 AsIndian 7.8% -1.47 Chinese 8.3% -1.57 Guamanian 9.6% -1.81 Asian 9.8% -1.85 AsPI 9.9% -1.87 Filipino 10.0% -1.89 Hawaiian 11.7% -2.21 PacIs 11.8% -2.23 Hispanic 14.3% -2.70 Samoan 17.7% -3.34 Black 19.7% -3.72 Vietnam 24.5% -4.62 Hmong 35.4% -6.68 NatAm 35.7% -6.74 Cambodian 51.1% -9.64 Laotian 67.1% -12.66 Defined as SSI, AFDC, or general assistance @@single mothers - see unwed

@@Social Security

People criticize immigrants for taking advantage of welfare, but Social Security is largely welfare system. You're not getting money back that you paid, that only establishes eligibility. Most are collecting much more than they put in because it is funded by current workers. SS Pays Out More than Put In, Gives From Rich to Poor A Gambler's Version of Old Age Benefits? R A Zaldivar Seattle Times 4/4/98 p. A2 Knight Ridder Newspapers Most Americans do not realize that Social Security takes from the rich and gives to the poor, its formulas give low earners a bigger proportion of their income. Born 1876 1900 1925 1950 1975 2000 Retire 1941 1965 1990 2016 2042 2067 Payback 36.5 11.9 4.8 2.2 1.9 1.7 Percent by which lifetime benefits exceeds lifetime contributions, inflation adjusted. Source: Social Security Office of Research and Statistics \clip\97\13\chilss.txt EMPOWERING WORKERS: THE PRIVATIZATION OF SOCIAL SECURITY IN CHILE By Josi Piqera Cato Institute Web site: http://www.cato.org. Chile uses a system where you pay into your own pension fund. SOCIAL SECURITY IS AN INCOME TRANSFER PROGRAM, NOT INVESTMENT OR INSURANCE "Social Security's Bad Returns: Today's Workers Will Get Less Than They Gave" Investors Business Daily March 14, 1997 p. 1 Anna J. Bray F031797 [It is wrong to think of a 'return' on their Social Security dollar because the way it works is not putting money into an account where it earns interest and can be withdrawn, but an income transfer program. It taxes current workers to fund benefits for current retirees, transferring income from young to the old, and between rich and poor] "Right now, the law promises average earners that thier benefits will be about 42% of their pre-retirment income, but it is only funded to pay 29%" "In a bond fund offering a 3% real rate of return, the worker would only need to save 85 of salary compared with the 10.6% put into Social Security now" [Only 2% of income needed with 7% return after inflation, which is average stock market return] @@stay MOST ON WELFARE WILL STAY 8 OR MORE YEARS San Jose Mercury 10-15-1992 According to a Harvard Study: people who go onto welfare will be on it this many years, not neccesarily consecutively: 65% 8 or more 7% 1-2 years 11% 3-4 years 17% 5-7 years
@@survey \doc\95\06\whogets.txt - big survey of welfare statistics @@Teen Mothers Is it only a stereotype that welfare is only for teen mothers? Well, most aren't but that's how most get started. Half of welfare mothers get started as teens, 3/4 of teen mothers will find their way onto welfare in 5 years. http://search.boston.com/globe/cgi-bin/waisgate.cgi?WAISdocID=8237519011+11+0+0&WAISaction=retrieve \clip\97\12\united.txt A united coalition sets its sights on preventing teenage pregnancy By Thomas Oliphant, Globe Columnist, 05/04/97 From the current caseload nationally, one of two welfare recipients were or are teenage mothers. Of the nearly 500,000 teenage girls who become mothers every year, three-fourths of them will drift onto the basic cash welfare program within five years. 1/3/96 National Public Radio - In Virginia, only 16% of welfare mothers were teens. But... over half had their 1st births as teens. @@United Kingdom \clip\97\03\UKWELF.TXT http://www.telegraph.co.uk:80/et?ac=000208632407947&rtmo=32f13059&atmo=32f13059&pg=/et/97/1/28/nmean28.html UK News Electronic Telegraph Tuesday 28 January 1997 Means test 'inequality' attacked By Joy Copley, Political Staff Welfare rates, UK 46% 1.70 Black 56% 2.07 Pakistani or Banladeshi 27% 1.00 White @@unwed mothers Activists say that the problem isn't single motherhood, but it really is. It's the biggest reason for getting on welfare, and the biggest reason for getting off. HALF OF WELFARE MOTHERS GOT START AS TEENS National Public Radio Jan 3, 1996. In Virginia, only 10% of welfare mothers are teens, but half of mothers were teen at their first birth @@Value \priv\95\15\wasau2.txt - Atlantic 4/94 THE ORDEAL OF IMMIGRATION IN WAUSAU (part 2) Total public assistance (AFDC, food stamps, Medicaid, and housing and energy subsidies) for a Hmong family can be worth more than $20,000 a year, according to local officials. @@WIC This program concentrates of food and nutrition to women having children. In Chinese and other ethnic communities, nobody knows what to do with a lot of the canned goods they give out. "Protecting Infant Nutrition" New York Times editorial 4/24/97 \clip\97\11\savewic.txt From: Edward Kent " according to Government estimates, which show that future savings on Medicaid and disability for WIC participants are more than three times higher than the cost of providing nutrition when it counts the most -- before birth. " @@Wisconsin Reform \clip\97\12\wisc\wisconsin-welfare.html New York Times May 7, 1997 Wisconsin Welfare Rolls Crumble as Workfare Settles In. Cases are down by 25% in one year, but where are they going? Working, leaving, moving in with family, some even homeless. @@Work POOR BLACKS LOSE JOBS BECAUSE THEY DON'T SHOW UP OR PERFORM \clip\97\18\strive.txt ABOUT FACE by Hanna Rosin New Repulic August 4, 1997 http://www.enews.com/magazines/tnr/ Experts hail an in-your-face program called STRIVE that molds welfare recipients into upstanding workers. And STRIVE deserves the praise. But there's a secret to its success: it weeds out the likely failures. "Of the 319 clients who have graduated over the past two years from the Boston program where Sykes teaches, 259 found jobs and 170 are still working-- a phenomenal 81 percent placement rate. The average salary of graduates is $7.45 an hour, and they're not all sweeping floors. "