However some immigration critics have attacked the few elderly Asians who take advantage of SSI (which isn't normally called "welfare", but the term has stuck) when their grown children are relatively affluent. The flip side is that immigrant workers are funding the retirement of disproportionately white elderly with the social security system. To get a fair return, I believe that as long as their sponsors pay into social security, their elderly parents should be able to collect as long as they naturalize as citizens. link
Lester Thurow, and many other economists say that Social Security is effectively welfare since funds paid in are paid out plus interest in only 4 years for most retirees today.
If you count social security along with public assistance, Asians and Hispanics have the lowest amount of "welfare" payments per household, only $1,500 compared to $2,500 for nonhispanic white households.
Social Security and Public Assistance Race Payments Index ss per Total / household pop Index NHWhite $2,486 1.00 NHWhite $890 1.00 White $2,452 -1.00 White $857 -1.04 total $2,353 -1.04 total $757 -1.18 Black $2,037 -1.20 Black $435 -2.04 AmInd $1,899 -1.29 AmInd $351 -2.54 Hisp $1,550 -1.58 Hisp $243 -3.66 AsianPI $1,477 -1.66 AsianPI $224 -3.97
@@Budget Making Ends Meet: How Single Mothers Survive Welfare and Low-Wage Work Kathryn Edin and Laura Lein Book announcement "Debunking Welfare Myths" Seattle Post Intelligencer June 8, 1997 Book by Edin and Lein says that welfare checks don't pay enough and real welfare mothers have to cheat to survive. F061997 @@Cause Activists say Welfare is caused by lack of jobs, but in fact, largest cause is creation of a fatherless family by birth or separation. Largest cause for leaving is marriage, and work, but affordable day care is not the major problem. >>\PRIV\95\18\OFFWELF.HTM - sjm 12/11/95 Work is the most common way for women to get off welfare Having a child or becoming pregnant was the main reason women went on welfare (one third), while 21 percent cited job loss or low wages, and 17 percent said they divorced or separated. (That's half due to family reasons, only 21% due to a lack of jobs)Lack of affordable child care was cited by only 18 percent of women in the Washington study. Most welfare mothers have informal child-care arrangements with friends, family or neighbors. Asian.Welfare.Cause \doc\95\04\welfoff.wk1 - Reasons for going on and off welfare The most common occurences that result in going ON welfare 45% Divorce / Separation 30% Child born to unmarried woman 12% Earnings of mother fall 10% Other reasons 3% Earnings of others in family fall 75% Divorce, Separation, or Unmarried Birth The most common occurences that result in going OFF welfare 35% Marriage 11% Children leave home 21% Earnings of mother increase 5% Earnings of others in family increase 14% Other benefits increase 14% Other reasons 46% Marriage or children leave home Source: House Ways and Means Commitee From table in "Forces Behind Welfare Cycle" Wall Street Journal June 12, 1992 p. A18 @@Characteristics of Welfare Mothers \doc\95\07\cendata.txt AFDC not Ratio age 30 34 Under 25 28% 10% 2.8 First Birth 20 23 1st Under 18 29% 15% 2.0 Children 2.6 2.1 On welfare White 7% Black 25% Hispanic 20% Foreign Born 9% US Born 11% 3/4 of foreign born AFDC recipients are not citizens, but the foreign born have welfare rates almost as low as Whites. Married, husband present 13% Married, husband absent (includes separated) 17% Widowed or divorced 23% Never Married 48% ~50% of AFDC did not complete high school 38% completed but no college 19% had some college Hispanic AFDC immigrants = 30% @@chronic Asian.Welfare.Chronic d:\priv\95\01\welf1.txt USN&WR Jan 16, 1995 p. 32 Long-Term Recipients of AFDC 67% never married 39% White 43% Black 18% Hispanic <1% Other USN&WR / US Dept Health and Human Services @@Child Cap \clip\97\05\famcap.txt Subtraction fails to stop multiplication: Massachusetts finds its welfare 'family cap' ineffective birth control By Michael Grunwald, Globe Staff, 02/25/97 @@Clothes CLOTHES #1 WORRY FOR WELFARE RECIPIENTS Doctor Bills are Top Concern of Nation's Poor New York Times Jan 4, 1993 A10 survey of families under $20,000 per year by Henry S. Kaiser and Family Foundation funded. For AFDC, buying clothes is #1 problem, paying doctors and hospitals is last, but rent, food and health care are paid for. @@Cost Amount spent on welfare in 1991 per benefits recepient Harpers index Sept 1992 $1,620 Ratio of federal dollars spent last year on S&L and bank bailouts to federal dollars spent on welfare 6:1 Harpers Index 1992 Asian.Welfare.County @@County \images\98\01\011997\p04.tif (image) F052297 Fax of San Diego County Welfare cases for 4/30/97 Number Total % Black 21,541 Chinese 663 Vietnamese 4,829 White 52,898 Hispanic 60,119 Asian Indian 244 Totals 153790 "Welfare rate by county in Washington State" Seattle Post Intelligencer April 19, 1995 p. 1 map shows counties with highest rates are rual counties with mostly white or native American populations. @@Cumulative Asian.Welfare.Cumulative doc\94\15\welfdep.txt 22.2% white, 82.9% black children on welfare before 18 @@Decline WELFARE ROLLS FINALLY DECLINING AFTER DECADES OF GROWTH \clip\97\13\convsyn.txt The Covenant Syndicate May 19, 1997, vol. 1, no. 14 (http://capo.org/opeds/opeds.html) Work is Working: Why Welfare Rolls are Dropping David W. Hall (email@example.com) According to a well-orchestrated report by the Council of Economic Advisers (May 9th), welfare recipients declined 20 percent from 1993-1997. Over a decade ago, the leading prophet of Welfare, Charles Murray, reported that spending on social programs increased twenty-fold from 1950-1980. Simultaneously, the number of citizens receiving welfare payments rose from six million (1967) to eighteen million (1974) to over thirty million (1984). Proving that welfare spending is non-partisan, social spending increased 10 percent during the Reagan years and 20 percent in the Bush years. Murray and others have @@elderly See articles in immigration section on how immigrant workers are getting shafted by social security to benefit mostly white retirees, while their own population has very few elderly to support. \doc\96\03\bettecon.txt "Building a Better Economy" Interview with Lester Thurow. Technology Review May/June 1996 p. 42. Thurow argues that health care of 20 yr olds is an investment in the economy, but for 70 yr olds is pure consumption. He says the social welfare state is mostly the elderly in Medicare and Social Security which is being allowed to crowd out everything else in the budget. Computed by Arthur Hu Urban Social Security + Public Assistance income per household White $2312 Black $2016 NatAm $1785 Hispanic $1557 Asian $1457 Whites have the highest, Asians lowest amount of SS+PA per household. Data from 1990 CP-2-1 1990 Census of Population Social and Economic Characteristics United States US Census Bureau \priv\96\02\immssi.txt - Asians are only 6.2% of SSI recipients. Matloff testifies that Taiwan Chinese are the highest rate \doc\96\01\welfuse.htm - Long Matloff congressional testimony on welfare use. Welfare in the Form of Cash Payments The table below presents the percentages of welfare use by immigrants over the age of 65, both overall and from some of the larger immigrant groups, in 1990. group % on welfare all immigrants 45% Chinese 55% Filipino 39% Iranian 26% Korean 50% Mexican 21% Soviet Union 66% Vietnamese 74% all native-born 9% As can be seen, 45% of elderly immigrants were on welfare. For the elderly immigrant Chinese (I am using the word Chinese in terms of ancestry, and thus including people from not only China but also Taiwan and Hong Kong), the group on which I am focussing here, the figure was 55%. The Chinese figure was the highest among all major nonrefugee immigrant groups. (Later I did similar some analyses for the full U.S., i.e. all immigrants who entered the U.S. during 1980-1987 and who were at least 65 years old in 1990. The figures were similar to, though slightly lower than, the above numbers for California: 37% overall, 34% for all sponsored immigrants, and 47% for the Chinese.) As mentioned earlier, welfare usage by senior immigrants has been increasing over the years. This general trend also holds for the Chinese: year of imm. % on welfare 1980-1987 55% 1975-1979 47% 1970-1974 41% 1965-1969 39% >>\priv\96\01\asinsenr.doc Asian Week Nov 11, 1994 p. 7 Activists respond that Asians are only taking advantage of loopholes in a poorly designed aid program. \priv\96\01\easymony.doc Easy Money, Lost Traditions Norm Matloff National Review Feb 23, 1994 p. 46 55% of Asian elderly on welfare compared to 9% of natives, 21% of Mexican \doc\95\06\immwelf.txt - Matloff says that immigrants even under new rules will qualify for elderly welfare in 5 instead of 3 years. \doc\95\05\eldrwelf.txt NY Times 4/16/96 "WELFARE AID INTENDED FOR RETIREES INCREASINGLY APPEALS TO IMMIGRANTS" By ASHLEY DUNN Now, more than a quarter of immigrants over 65 - in some immigrant populations, almost half - receive SSI, at an annual cost of $2 billion. By comparison, less than 10 percent of elderly United States citizens are in the program. @@Eligibility San Francisco Chronicle 12/16/1991 Who receives 80% families 8% foster care 11% recently unemployed - less than 75% of federal poverty level - $694/mo for mother and two children - less than $1,000 in liquid assets - no car worth over $1,500 - eligible for medi-cal and food stamps SJM 5/25/92 Under current rules, woman who maries loses health care. @@fertility index asian.welfare.fertility \doc\95\04\lowfert.txt - welfare mothers have lower fertility, and highest benefits has lowest fertility rates @@food stamps \doc938\sipp.xls - government programs including index white=1.00 food stamps 1.13 for Asians vs. white \priv\95\10\foodstam.txt The San Francisco Chronicle Wednesday, August 23, 1995 · Page A8 "40% of Food Stamp Mothers Unmarried, Census Bureau Says " Ramon G. McLeod, also: \doc\95\11\foodstam.txt - census press release % on food stamps (US Census August 95) Millions 1 in X Index W 3.2 9 1.0 B 1.9 3 3.0 H 1.1 4 2.2 A (not available) (1.1 from SIPP) The study found that women who use food stamps tend to have their children at younger ages than women not in the program. The average age at first birth for mothers on food stamps was 20 years old compared with an average age of 23 for mothers not receiving food stamps. @@Hispanic Hispanics, mostly Mexican in CA have the lowest welfare rates in CA, but mostly PR and Dominican in NY have some of the highest rates, there are more NYC cases than in all of Texas NYC PR AND DOMINICAN STUCK ON WELFARE AS B/W LEAVE \clip\98\12\nywelf.txt Hispanic Mothers Lagging as Others Escape Welfare By RACHEL L. SWARNS The New York Times, September 15, 1998 4/2/96 \doc\96\03\taletwo.txt Hispanics have lowest rate of welfare among poor in CA H17 W50 B65 "A Tale of Two Migrations, One White, One Brown" Los Angeles Times 3/17/96 p. M6 David Hayes Bautista and Gergory RodriguezHispanics have the lowest rate of welfare use of any poverty group in the state [but doesn't include Asians] 17% under poverty immigrant Latinos 50% poor Anglos 65% poor blacks @@Hmong \priv\95\15\wasau2.txt - Atlantic 4/94 THE ORDEAL OF IMMIGRATION IN WAUSAU (part 2) Total public assistance (AFDC, food stamps, Medicaid, and housing and energy subsidies) for a Hmong family can be worth more than $20,000 a year, according to local officials. (The Hmong are not unusual in this regard. A 1991 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services study indicated that nationwide about two thirds of all Southeast Asian refugees who have arrived since 1986 remain on public assistance.) In June of 1980 the paper reported that 80 percent of the city's refugees became self-supporting within about three years: @@Immigrant WELFARE MISMATCHED TO TWO-PARENT WORKING POOR IMMIGRANTS Study Finds Welfare Initiatives Do Not Address Needs of Immigrant Families New York Times November 26, 2002 By LYNETTE CLEMETSON Urban Institute study showed that low-income immigrant families were more likely than their native counterparts to have two parents in the household and that poverty often persisted in these families despite the fact that both parents worked. z62\clip\2001\11\immwelf.txt @@Israel YESHIVA STUDENTS IN ISRAEL GET WELFARE TO STUDY from h-bd "What the Israeli government does here is exempt yeshiva students [up to age 40] from the draft, and pays them welfare while they're studying. Where it becomes a problem is the _large number_ of yeshiva students" @@lower Asian.welfare.lower d:\doc\95\01\immindx.txt Only 2% of non-refugee immigrants arriving between 80 and 90 recieve welfare vs. 3.7 on native born "Fact and Friction",Rick Henderson Reason Feb 1995 p. 16 @@Medicaid MEDICAID PAYS FOR HEALTH CARE FOR WELFARE AFDC/SSI AND POOR CHILDREN full text http://www.arthurhu.com/97/06/smokmed.txt \doc\web\97\06\smokmed.txt From: Eagle Forum
June 1997 Phyllis Schlafly Report The Smoking Gun in Medicaid. Medicaid was set up to cover only people on some form of welfare: either Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) or Supplemental Security Income (SSI). Medicaid is a federal-state matching program, at a ratio of about 60-40. In 1986, Congress inserted into the law permission for the states to expand Medicaid to cover children in families whose incomes were below the poverty line, whether their parents took welfare or not. in 1990 Congress required states to provide Medicaid coverage to all poor children by the year 2002 In 1986, Medicaid cost about $27 billion. This year, Medicaid will cost about $105 billion. @@participation Asian.Welfare.Programs Asians use several welfare programs at higher rates than whites, except for WIC (free canned food) and SSI. doc938\sipp.xls - government programs including index white=1.00 food stamps 1.13 government housing 1.37 school lunch 1.63 wic -1.52 (dislike of American food?) medicaid, 1.34 ssi -1.11 (few elderly?) afdc 1.55 (but Asians have more poor than whites) doc934\aswelfar.xls - Welfare by race and immigrant status doc\94\6\seaswelf.wk1 - welfare se asians and other SE Asian highest, non SE Asian next lowest before whites w 1.0(.51) b6.4 H3.73 A2.96 SE As 8.97 NSE As 2.22 doc\94\6\seaspov2.txt.txt UCLA study on Asian success and poverty 30% of all southeast asians on welfare vs. 8% national 7% of Cambodians and Laotians in CA doc\94\8\asself.txt 22% of Wash state SE Asians are on AFDC \doc\95\02\washwelf.wk1 Welfare in Washington State Summary: W1.00(.81) B4.30 H2.11 A1.68 N3.55 Welfare Recipients by Race Aid to Families with Dependent Children Washington State Source: Department of Social and Health Services Seattle Times Feb 3, 1995 p. B1 White Black Hisp Asian NatAm Other/Unk Population 85.7% 3.1% 4.9% 4.7% 1.6% 0.1% AFDC 69.5% 10.8% 8.4% 6.4% 4.6% 0.3% Rate 0.811 3.484 1.714 1.362 2.875 3.000 Index $ 1.00 4.30 2.11 1.68 3.55 3.70 doc\94\12\welfbirt.wk1 - younger mothers more likely to be on AFDC, fewer Asians give birth as teens doc\94\14\welfaddi.txt - 25% of welfare mothers, 37% youngest are alchohol abusers or addicts doc\94\14\welfdrug.txt - text of article @@pay "Why Welfare Pays" Wall Street Journal Sept 28, 1995 Michael Tanner. Welare pays equal to an hourly wage of $17.50 in Hawaii to 5.53 in Missisippi. filed under asian.welfare.pay
@@Public Housing\clip\97\18\pubhouse.txt Should Door to Public Housing Ever Be Closed? Should Door to Public Housing Ever Be Closed? Los Angeles Times Thursday, July 17, 1997 By JUDY PASTERNAK, Times Staff Writer 3 million live in public housing 7 million use rent vouchers Annual turnover is 15%, most leave in 5 years 25% stay 10 years or more. Reformers are debating whether new welfare limits should also include deadlines for residents of subsidized projects. @@Race Common wisdom - there are more whites than blacks on welfare (conservative Debra Saunders, SF Chronicle) Actually - that hasn't been true for a long time. MORE BLACKS THAN WHITES ON WELFARE THROUGHOUT 1990S z48\clipim\2001\03\20\tanf\tanf.htm http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/opre/characteristics/fy99/analysis.htm Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Program U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES EXHIBIT I TREND OF AFDC/TANF RECIPIENTS CHARACTERISTICS FY 1990 - FY 1999 FY 1990 FY 1992 FY 1994 FY 1996 FY 1998 FY 1999 FAMILIES TOTAL 3,976,000 4,769,000 5,046,000 4,553,000 3,176,000 2,648,000 CHILD-ONLY 459,000 707,000 869,000 978,000 743,000 770,000 PERCENT 11.6 14.8 17.2 21.5 23.4 29.1 RACE (PERCENT OF ALL FAMILIES) WHITE 38.1 38.9 37.4 35.9 32.7 30.5 BLACK 39.7 37.2 36.4 36.9 39.0 38.3 HISPANIC 16.6 17.8 19.9 20.8 22.2 24.5 ASIAN 2.8 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.4 3.6 AMERICAN 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.5 NATIVE OTHER - - - - 0.6 0.6 UNKNOWN 1.5 2.0 2.1 2.0 0.7 1.0 ADULTS AGE DISTRIBUTION (PERCENT OF ALL ADULTS) UNDER 20 7.7 7.1 5.9 5.8 6.1 6.2 20-29 46.3 45.9 44.1 42.3 41.4 39.7 30-39 32.5 33.3 34.8 35.2 33.8 33.8 OVER 39 13.4 13.6 15.2 16.5 18.6 20.2 AVERAGE 29.7 29.9 30.5 30.8 31.4 31.8 AGE EMPLOYMENT 7.0 6.6 8.3 11.3 22.8 27.6 RATE \clip\98\10\racewelf.txt More blacks than whites on welfare in 1998 http://www.nytimes.com/yr/mo/day/news/washpol/welfare-race.html July 27, 1998 Welfare Rolls Show Growing Racial and Urban Imbalance By JASON DePARLE WASHINGTON -- As the welfare rolls continue to plunge, white recipients are leaving the system much faster than black and Hispanic recipients, pushing the minority share of the caseload to the highest level on record. usa percent decline 1998 since 1994 25 white 17 black 9 hispanic 64H 40b vs only 33% of white welfare recip no hs degree 40h 61b 31w women never married 38h 38b 20w have over 2 children 55h 64b 21w live in centract where over 20% are poor 72h 74b 63w poor all year @@rate >>\doc\96\03\caimwelf.wk1 Welfare rates ages 16-64 in California W1.00 B3.72 H1.03 A-1.61 citizen W1.00 B3.72 H2.07 A1.93 immigrant - Asian citizens have the lowest rate of welfare, Blacks the highest - Asians immigrants high due to refugees caiwelf.txt \doc\96\02\aswelf.wk1 Legal Permanent Residents Receiving Public Assistance Income Ethnicity Receiving Public Assistance Number Percent Japanese 1,778 0.9 Tongan 86 1.2 Other Pacific Islander 199 1.8 Thai 1,016 2.2 Asian Indian 9,018 2.3 Other Asian 2,249 2.5 Filipino 17,970 4.3 Korean . 14,915 4.3 Samoan 295 4.8 Chinese 37,443 5.8 Guamanian 346 8.5 Vietnamese 38,610 14.2 Laotian 16,236 16.2 Cambodian 21,535 22.0 Hmong 14,425 25.5 1990 U.S. Census-based public-assistancefigures_defined as the number of legal permanent residents receiving AFDC, SSI, or state general assistance_indicate that Asian and Pacific Islander populations, in large part, receive federal benefits at rates lower than the national average. The seemingly high percentages for Vietnamese, Cambodian, and lfmong populations reflect the recently arrived or refugee status of these groups. Table as presented in Asian Week Aug 11,1995 p. 9 "Welfare Reform Targets Immigrants" \doc\96\02\pubass.txt - Public Assistance by Race / Ethnicity Asian households in general, with the exception of Japanese, Thai, and Koreans, are about twice as likely as non-Hispanic whites to have public assistance income. However, Asians also have a higher rate of poverty, and a higher percentage of households with dependent children. Only Southeast Asian refugee groups have higher rates of public assistance than blacks. Ranked by Households with Public Assistance Income Source: 1990 Census Analysis Ethnic Percent Index Japanese 2.9% 1.83 Thai 3.4% 1.56 Korean 4.6% 1.15 NHwhite 5.3% 1.00 OtherAs 5.5% -1.04 White 5.6% -1.06 US 7.5% -1.42 AsIndian 7.8% -1.47 Chinese 8.3% -1.57 Guamanian 9.6% -1.81 Asian 9.8% -1.85 AsPI 9.9% -1.87 Filipino 10.0% -1.89 Hawaiian 11.7% -2.21 PacIs 11.8% -2.23 Hispanic 14.3% -2.70 Samoan 17.7% -3.34 Black 19.7% -3.72 Vietnam 24.5% -4.62 Hmong 35.4% -6.68 NatAm 35.7% -6.74 Cambodian 51.1% -9.64 Laotian 67.1% -12.66 Defined as SSI, AFDC, or general assistance @@single mothers - see unwed
@@Social SecurityPeople criticize immigrants for taking advantage of welfare, but Social Security is largely welfare system. You're not getting money back that you paid, that only establishes eligibility. Most are collecting much more than they put in because it is funded by current workers. SS Pays Out More than Put In, Gives From Rich to Poor A Gambler's Version of Old Age Benefits? R A Zaldivar Seattle Times 4/4/98 p. A2 Knight Ridder Newspapers Most Americans do not realize that Social Security takes from the rich and gives to the poor, its formulas give low earners a bigger proportion of their income. Born 1876 1900 1925 1950 1975 2000 Retire 1941 1965 1990 2016 2042 2067 Payback 36.5 11.9 4.8 2.2 1.9 1.7 Percent by which lifetime benefits exceeds lifetime contributions, inflation adjusted. Source: Social Security Office of Research and Statistics \clip\97\13\chilss.txt EMPOWERING WORKERS: THE PRIVATIZATION OF SOCIAL SECURITY IN CHILE By Josi Piqera Cato Institute Web site: http://www.cato.org. Chile uses a system where you pay into your own pension fund. SOCIAL SECURITY IS AN INCOME TRANSFER PROGRAM, NOT INVESTMENT OR INSURANCE "Social Security's Bad Returns: Today's Workers Will Get Less Than They Gave" Investors Business Daily March 14, 1997 p. 1 Anna J. Bray F031797 [It is wrong to think of a 'return' on their Social Security dollar because the way it works is not putting money into an account where it earns interest and can be withdrawn, but an income transfer program. It taxes current workers to fund benefits for current retirees, transferring income from young to the old, and between rich and poor] "Right now, the law promises average earners that thier benefits will be about 42% of their pre-retirment income, but it is only funded to pay 29%" "In a bond fund offering a 3% real rate of return, the worker would only need to save 85 of salary compared with the 10.6% put into Social Security now" [Only 2% of income needed with 7% return after inflation, which is average stock market return] @@stay MOST ON WELFARE WILL STAY 8 OR MORE YEARS San Jose Mercury 10-15-1992 According to a Harvard Study: people who go onto welfare will be on it this many years, not neccesarily consecutively: 65% 8 or more 7% 1-2 years 11% 3-4 years 17% 5-7 years @@survey \doc\95\06\whogets.txt - big survey of welfare statistics @@Teen Mothers Is it only a stereotype that welfare is only for teen mothers? Well, most aren't but that's how most get started. Half of welfare mothers get started as teens, 3/4 of teen mothers will find their way onto welfare in 5 years. http://search.boston.com/globe/cgi-bin/waisgate.cgi?WAISdocID=8237519011+11+0+0&WAISaction=retrieve \clip\97\12\united.txt A united coalition sets its sights on preventing teenage pregnancy By Thomas Oliphant, Globe Columnist, 05/04/97 From the current caseload nationally, one of two welfare recipients were or are teenage mothers. Of the nearly 500,000 teenage girls who become mothers every year, three-fourths of them will drift onto the basic cash welfare program within five years. 1/3/96 National Public Radio - In Virginia, only 16% of welfare mothers were teens. But... over half had their 1st births as teens. @@United Kingdom \clip\97\03\UKWELF.TXT http://www.telegraph.co.uk:80/et?ac=000208632407947&rtmo=32f13059&atmo=32f13059&pg=/et/97/1/28/nmean28.html UK News Electronic Telegraph Tuesday 28 January 1997 Means test 'inequality' attacked By Joy Copley, Political Staff Welfare rates, UK 46% 1.70 Black 56% 2.07 Pakistani or Banladeshi 27% 1.00 White @@unwed mothers Activists say that the problem isn't single motherhood, but it really is. It's the biggest reason for getting on welfare, and the biggest reason for getting off. HALF OF WELFARE MOTHERS GOT START AS TEENS National Public Radio Jan 3, 1996. In Virginia, only 10% of welfare mothers are teens, but half of mothers were teen at their first birth @@Value \priv\95\15\wasau2.txt - Atlantic 4/94 THE ORDEAL OF IMMIGRATION IN WAUSAU (part 2) Total public assistance (AFDC, food stamps, Medicaid, and housing and energy subsidies) for a Hmong family can be worth more than $20,000 a year, according to local officials. @@WIC This program concentrates of food and nutrition to women having children. In Chinese and other ethnic communities, nobody knows what to do with a lot of the canned goods they give out. "Protecting Infant Nutrition" New York Times editorial 4/24/97 \clip\97\11\savewic.txt From: Edward Kent
" according to Government estimates, which show that future savings on Medicaid and disability for WIC participants are more than three times higher than the cost of providing nutrition when it counts the most -- before birth. " @@Wisconsin Reform \clip\97\12\wisc\wisconsin-welfare.html New York Times May 7, 1997 Wisconsin Welfare Rolls Crumble as Workfare Settles In. Cases are down by 25% in one year, but where are they going? Working, leaving, moving in with family, some even homeless. @@Work POOR BLACKS LOSE JOBS BECAUSE THEY DON'T SHOW UP OR PERFORM \clip\97\18\strive.txt ABOUT FACE by Hanna Rosin New Repulic August 4, 1997 http://www.enews.com/magazines/tnr/ Experts hail an in-your-face program called STRIVE that molds welfare recipients into upstanding workers. And STRIVE deserves the praise. But there's a secret to its success: it weeds out the likely failures. "Of the 319 clients who have graduated over the past two years from the Boston program where Sykes teaches, 259 found jobs and 170 are still working-- a phenomenal 81 percent placement rate. The average salary of graduates is $7.45 an hour, and they're not all sweeping floors. "