Arthur Hu's Index Of Diversity Top of Index

Contents

Sports is a very race-sterotypical field. If all races are equal in all abilities, it sure doesn't show up in sports. Blacks do well, Asians poorly in the most "athletic" sports requiring size, except Pacific Islanders are over-represented in football, and the Japanese are starting to provide the US with very good pitchers. Blacks are 21 times their population in NBA basketball, and 14 times in NFL football, and 1.5 times in Major League baseball compared to whites, where most Asians are nearly nonexistent

Of Asians, if you break out the Japanese separately, they are well represented in school sports in Santa Clara County schools.

Interestingly, fields where African Americans dominate like sports seem to be the ONLY area of society where the politically correct believe that "diversity" is not a valid selection criterion, and only "merit" counts. If diversity were truly important, then San Franciso teams would be 30% Asian.

US Asians concentrate in racket sports and skating. Santa Clara county badminton teams are over-run with Asians. Asian women have done quite well in US figure skating, Kristi Yamaguchi winning a gold medal, and one was on the winning US Olympic gymnastics team. Tiger Woods looks black but he's 50% Asian but only 1/4 Black.

Sports Spectrum
SC=Santa Clara CA J=Japanese HS=High School

Ranked by Black Parity Index White=1.00
------------------------------------------------------
NFL Running Back 92   W1.00 B82.1
NBA Basketball 92-23  W1.00 B20.8 H 0.0 A 0.0
NCAA Bask scholar(1)  W1.00 B16.1 H-2.50 A-41.6 N-7.8
NFL Football          W1.00 B14.1 H-3.7 A -1.2
SC HS Quarterback     W1.00 B 4.0 H-2.5 A-11.6  J-1.2
NFL Mangement         W1.00 B 1.8 H-5.5 A -7.3
MLB Baseball 1993     W1.00 B 1.5 H 2.0 A<-3.0
NBA Mangement         W1.00 B 1.8 H-5.5 A -7.1
SC Football Coach     W1.00 B 1.7 H-1.1 A -8.6  J 1.1
SC Athletic Director  W1.00 B-2.1 H 1.1 A -5.1  J 1.8
NFL Quarterback 1992  W1.00 B-2.5 
US Golf players       W1.00 B-4.2
US Womans SoccerTea99 W1.0  B-5.1 H0.0 A0.0
NFL Quarterback 1983  W1.00 B-15.8
Indy Car Racing       W1.00 B 0.0       A  2.0
Stock Car Racing      W1.00 B 0.0       A  0.0
--------------------------------------------------------
Mens golf                               A -8.0
Womens golf                             A -3.0
PGA Tour money leaders                  A -1.3
(1) est black @75%

SC=Santa Clara County schools
J=Japanese American

Ranked by Percentage Black
Professional Sports 1996 % Black
80% Basketball
67% Football
17% Baseball


Ranked by Asian Parity Index White=1.00
------------------------------------------------------
Indy Car Racing       W1.00 B 0.0       A  2.0
SC Athletic Dir Japn  W1.00 B-2.1 H 1.1 J  1.8
SC Football Coach Jpn W1.00 B 1.7 H-1.1 J  1.1
Womens golf                             A -3.0
NFL Football          W1.00 B14.1 H-3.7 A -1.2
SC HS QB Japanese     W1.00 B 4.0 H-2.5 J-1.2
PGA Tour money leaders                  A -1.3
Womens golf                             A -3.0
MLB Baseball 1993     W1.00 B 1.5 H 2.0 A<-3.0
SC Athletic Director  W1.00 B-2.1 H 1.1 A -5.1  J 1.8
NBA Mangement         W1.00 B 1.8 H-5.5 A -7.1
NFL Mangement         W1.00 B 1.8 H-5.5 A -7.3
Mens golf                               A -8.0
NCAA Bask scholar(1)  W1.00 B16.1 H-2.50 A-41.6 N-7.8
NBA Basketball 92-23  W1.00 B20.8 H 0.0 A 0.0
NFL Running Back 92   W1.00 B82.1
NFL Quarterback 1992  W1.00 B-2.5 
US Golf players       W1.00 B-4.2
NFL Quarterback 1983  W1.00 B-15.8
Stock Car Racing      W1.00 B 0.0       A  0.0

sports

@@Asian Games \doc\94\19\asgame2,3.txt medal breakdowns 1994 @@Baseball %%cards U.S. News: Racial disparities in baseball-card prices (4/30/01) Martin Luther King would be proud http://www.usnews.com/usnews/biz/e_friend.php3? goto=%2Fusnews%2Fissue%2F010430%2Fbaseball.htm %%general JAPANESE PITCHERS A HIT IN THE US \clip\97\15\baseball.txt JAPAN'S SURGE IN EXPORTED (BASEBALL) ARMS BALLPLAYERS ARE BECOMING Japan's newest export to the U.S. And so far, pitchers have a lock on the market. (thanks to david chiang for the tip) Business Week Online June 12, 1997 \clip\96\04\sporrace.txt Date: Wed, 4 Sep 1996 23:31:50 -0400 From: NewsHound@sjmercury.com (NewsHound) Women Finding Greater Role In Pro Sports By Source. By JIMMY GOLEN AP Sports Writer In baseball, only 7 percent of the pitchers and 1 percent of the catchers were black. Blacks made up 54 percent of the outfielders, Hispanics 18 percent and whites just 28 percent. doc942\priv\korbase.txt - korean born major leage baseball san jose mercury 4/18/94 NE Univ Survey of minorities in professional sports @@Basketball NCAA Baseketball scholarship W1.00 B16.1 H-2.50 A-41.6 N-7.8 Spectrum: 0=3% API Basketball scholarship %%Affluent RICH GIRLS CAN BUY BASKETBALL TRAINING OVER POOR KIDS z48\clip\2001\02\newbask.txt http://archives.seattletimes.nwsource.com/cgi-bin/texis/web/vortex/display?slug=locwealth260&date=20001125&query=new+money+basketball Seattle Times Company Saturday, November 25, 2000 New Money series: It's not just a game anymore "In the past decade, the power in Puget Sound-area girls high-school basketball has shifted from inner-city schools like Garfield to more affluent suburban and private schools. .. Her parents, Kerry and Jan Richards of Ballard, estimate they spent $5,000 to cover the costs. " %%General \clip\99\15\latbask.txt http://www.seattletimes.com/news/sports/html98/lati_19990706.html Latinos find inroads towards basketball NCAA Div I and II mens college basketball "A breakdown of minorities playing NCAA Division I and II men's college basketball shows that 78 Latinos out of a total of 5,175 student-athletes on basketball scholarships played in 1996-97, the last season statistics were available. That's 1.5 percent. The numbers were even smaller for Native Americans (22, or .04 percent) and Asian/Pacific Islanders (14, or .03 percent)." 78/5,175 latinos = 1.5% NAm 22/.04% API 14/.03% Seattle Times p. f1 July 6, 1999 (guess black = 75%?) pop % rate white 69 21.4 -3.22 1.00 black 15 75.0 5.00 16.10 hisp 12 1.5 -8.00 -2.5 natam 1 .04 -25.00 -7.8 asian 4 .03 -133.0 -41.6 MICHAEL JORDAN SHOWS HOW BLACKS RE-INVENTED BASKETBALL FROM WHITES \clip\99\02\mjord.txt Thursday, January 14, 1999 Hoop dreams Steve Sailer National Post (Canada) http://www.nationalpost.com/commentary.asp?f=990114/2180464 "Since Jackie Robinson, blacks have excelled in baseball; but they have revolutionized basketball. Blacks transformed a stodgy sport of set-piece plays into today's free-flowing, above-the-rim celebration of black manhood that's on track to overtake soccer within the next few decades as the world's most popular sport...It took Jordan's longevity to get even a few whites to notice that much of black basketball success originates above the neck. " NE Univ Survey of minorities in professional sports \doc\95\02\baskball.txt - 2 Israel Asians on #1 basketball college team \clip\96\04\chinhoop.txt Date: Wed, 4 Sep 1996 23:31:50 -0400 From: NewsHound@sjmercury.com (NewsHound) Chinese American Hoopsters Dazzled Fans By DARA AKIKO TOM Associated Press Writer. Story about a depression era all-Chinese American basketball team. "Though the team didn't last long, the Kues are proud of their place in history." %%Immigrant EURO/CANADIAN IMMIGRANTS MAKE IT INTO NBA z48\clip\2001\02\worlnba.txt Christian Science Monitor http://www.csmonitor.com/durable/2001/02/16/fp1s3-csm.shtml The world shows it can play in the NBA By Bill Charland Special to The Christian Science Monitor DENVER This year, NBA rosters include 46 foreign players from 28 countries. That's up from 36 players and 26 countries just a year ago. Canada Steve Nash Dirk Nowitzki from Germany who's already being compared to some of the all-time NBA greats. %%White z48\clip\2001\02\whitebas.txt An Extinct Breed White NBA Superstars Have Gone the Way of the Two-Handed Set Shot By RICK TELANDER SportsWritersDirect/AOL Exclusive Where are the white guys? "[as blacks advance] the reciprocal development: The superior white player has almost vanished from the game. To put an even more precise spin on this fact, the superior, white American player has nearly disappeared." "There were no black Americans on the 1952 NBA All-Star Game roster, and now 49 years later, there are no white Americans on the roster." @@auto racing doc\94\8\indy.txt 1994 Asians 2X in Indy 500 (2 out of 33) 6% vs. 3% population 0 of 42 in stock cars @@billiards - see pool @@Black Dominance (bad) US News and World Report March 20, 1997 c:\clip\97\08\blakspor.txt "African-Americans are a dominant presence in professional sports. Do blacks suffer as a result?" STORY BY JOHN SIMONS According to a recent survey conducted by Northeastern University's Center for the Study of Sport in Society, 66 percent of all African-American males between the ages of 13 and 18 believe they can earn a living playing professional sports. "This year, 80 percent of the National Basketball Association's 361 players are black, a 5 percent increase over the 1991-92 season. Of the National Football League's 1,815 players, 67 percent are African-American. That, too, is a 5 percent increase over the 1991-92 season. In Major League Baseball, 17 percent of the league's 1,100 players are black." Professional Sports 1996 % Black 80% Basketball 67% Football 17% Baseball @@coach If blacks are over-represented as athletes, they should be equally over-represented as coaches?? But whites cannot ever be over-represented? Seattle Times Jan 15, 199. The Newsletter Stephen H. Dunphy Northeastern University's Center for the Study of Sports in Society found only 4.2% of 7,101 head coaching jobs in men's sports were held by African Americans, 11.3% for basketball, 0.8% baseball. Seattle Times Jan 7, 1998 African Americans still looking for a chance 112 Division, I-A college football programs only 4 are coached by African Americans vs 52% of players. Only 14 have been coaches (if its quotas we want, why not restrict blacks to 11% of players???) doc938\sport*.txt - minorities in high school sports \doc\web\98\05\prosport.wk1 Race and pro sports Source: Northeastern University Center for the study of Sport in Society Chart appeared in Seattle Times April 13, 1998 Head Coaches 91-92 NBA NFL MLB White 78% 96% 93% 76% 90% 86% Black 22% 4% 4% 78% 10% 11% Latino 0% 0% 4% 0% 0% 3% @@education doc938\sport*.txt - minorities in high school sports @@Entine, John Writer of "Taboo: Why Black Athletes Dominate Sports and Why We Are Afraid to Talk About It" says there may be genetic reasons why some ethnic and racial groups dominate some sports, and so far has lived to tell about it. z50\clip\2001\08\entrun.txt Jon Entine August 1, 2001 Genetics and Race: Why Kenyans Win Marathons and Jews Get Tay-Sachs By Jon Entine Bouchard and other research scientists are helping us understand why Kenyans dominate distance running, blacks of West African ancestry are the worldąs top sprinters and jumpers, Asians are premier gymnasts, and the worldąs strongest athletes trace their ancestry to Eurasia. (unpublished) GOOD ATHLETE DOES NOT = LOW IQ z47\clip\2001\01\blakedge.txt http://www.salon.com/books/feature/2000/01/28/taboo/index.html The black edge Are athletes of African descent genetically superior? By Gary Kamiya it has become increasingly hard to assert that environmental factors alone can explain black superiority in sports. Jon Entine's "Taboo: Why Black Athletes Dominate Sports and Why We Are Afraid to Talk About It" will make it even harder. @@Football (American) Blacks are over-represented in most football positions. Asian American / Pacific Islanders are about even mostly because of Samoans who are up to 40 times more likely than most Americans to be football players. FOOTBALL SPECTRUM ---------------------------- Percent 100% NFL Cornerbacks Black 91% NFL Quarterbacks White 91% NFL Black Running Backs, Wide Receivers 84% NFL Centers White 28% NFL Assistant Coaches 5% NFL Coaches Black ---------------------------- Index 40.0 Samoans NFL- Steve Sailer 14.1 Black HS NFL 1.7 Japan HS San Jose Athletic Director 1.0 White Average -1.1 Asian/PacIs NFL -2.0 Black HS San Jose Athletic Director -3.7 Hispanic NFL -11.6 Asian HS San Jose Quarterback TOO MANY BLACK NFL PLAYERS BUT NOT ENOUGH BLACK COACHES? z60\clip\2002\10\nflcoach.txt NFL defends minority hiring record League has been threatened with lawsuit by Cochran http://www.msnbc.com/news/815620.asp?0dm=s20Gs ASSOCIATED PRESS "There currently are two black head coaches in the NFL: Tony Dungy of Indianapolis and Herman Edwards of the New York Jets. But Aiello pointed out that in the last five years, 23 blacks have been interviewed for coaching positions and three were hired:" [out of 38 teams = 5%] Now, 154 of the 547 assistant coaches (28 percent) are black. \clip\96\04\sporrace.txt Date: Wed, 4 Sep 1996 23:31:50 -0400 From: NewsHound@sjmercury.com (NewsHound) Women Finding Greater Role In Pro Sports By Source. By JIMMY GOLEN AP Sports Writer In the NFL 100 percent of the cornerbacks in the NFL are black, as well as 91 percent of the running backs and wide receivers. 91 percent of the quarterbacks and 84 percent of the centers were white. \priv\96\02\prfootbl.txt "Meet Parade's All-America Football Team" Parade Magazine Jan 28, 1996 p. 6 1 Asian, 0 Hispanic out of 58 names. There are very few East Asians, but Pacific Islanders (mostly Samoans) are well represented. ESPN SAYS SAMOANS ARE BUILT FOR FOOTBALL z56\clip\2002\05\samfoot.txt They might be giants http://espn.go.com/gen/s/2002/0527/1387627.html By Greg Garber ESPN.com [Steve Sailer says Samoans are said to be 40 times more likely to make it to the NFL than Americans who aren't Samoans. ] "Parcells would offer insights on topics ranging from John Madden's football knowledge, Bill Walsh's intuitive offenses and, on several occasions, the virtues of the Samoan football player. Samoans were built, Parcells generalized in his politically incorrect way, along the lines of his favorite football build -- big and boxy. In a word: squat." Steve Sailer: There are about 500,000 Samoans in the world. Half are in cultures such as independent Western Samoa where they only play rugby. So, there are a quarter million football-exposed Samoans (of all sexes and ages). There about 28 Samoans in the NFL. There are, what, 32? NFL teams and how many players per team: 45? 53? NE Univ Survey of minorities in professional sports doc93A\ussport.xls - NE Univ Survey of minorities in professional sports NFL 1993 W1.00 B14.1 H-3.69 A-1.16 doc938\sport*.txt - minorities in high school sports \doc\96\01\sport.xls - High School Athletics in Santa Clara County Asians overall are underrepresented, but not Japanese Americans. Indexed rate 1.0 = White per population rate. -X means 1/x, so -2 is 0.5 White 1.15 means white test / white population percent Percent Total White Minority Black Hispanic Asian Japan Athletic Dire 55 1.15 -1.51 -2.09 1.11 -5.06 1.79 Football Coac 46 1.16 -1.58 1.70 -1.10 -8.56 1.06 Quarterback 46 1.30 1.07 3.98 -2.48 -11.61 -1.16 @@Genetic "Human biodiversity" advocates such as Steve Sailer believe there _are_ biological differences between races that lead to different outcomes in sports. In modern times, many sports have come to be dominated by race and ethnic groups. \doc\web\99\05\raceath.txt SPEED DEMONS The Domination of Sport by Blacks By Jose Antonio, Ph.D. and Chris Street, M.S. from Testosterone Magazine (a magazine, I believe, for weightlifters and bodybuilders) JUNE 12, 1998 http://www.testosterone.net/html/body_sf3.html RACISM IS DOWN BUT RACE MATTERS IN FOOTBALL z47\clip\2001\01\entfoot.txt http://www.salon.com/news/sports/2001/01/06/quarterbacks/index.html Young, gifted and under center The current bumper crop of black quarterbacks leading their teams to the playoffs doesn't mean racism is dead in the NFL. By Jon Entine The NFL is dominated by African-Americans, who make up 75 percent of the league's players (and most of its stars), though only about 13 percent of the American population is black. ..evolution has conferred athletes of primarily West African ancestry with more explosiveness and speed, on average than other population groups... the quarterback position in today's NFL requires that kind of elusive quickness far more than it did in the past... We don't care if a player is white, black or striped. The pressure to win is immense. If we don't, we will be out on our ass." GOOD ATHLETE DOES NOT = LOW IQ z47\clip\2001\01\blakedge.txt http://www.salon.com/books/feature/2000/01/28/taboo/index.html The black edge Are athletes of African descent genetically superior? By Gary Kamiya it has become increasingly hard to assert that environmental factors alone can explain black superiority in sports. Jon Entine's "Taboo: Why Black Athletes Dominate Sports and Why We Are Afraid to Talk About It" will make it even harder. "In the familiar if erroneous calculus, I.Q. and athleticism are inversely proportional." Entine points out that there is no scientific support for this idea and dismisses it out of hand. In in a 1987 study, he compared the careers of 54 white rookies against those of 54 black rookies with comparable statistics. the black rookies went on to have better major league careers than the whites; the black players hit 66 percent more home runs, stole 400 percent more bases, etc. He repeated the study with 49 more pairs and got similar results. Race, it turned out, was the single best predictor of stardom -- and this in a sport in which blacks dominate less than in football or basketball... the number of black quarterbacks might never reach that of halfbacks or defensive backs, simply because speed and strength, though advantageous and more sought after at the position now than before, don't confer as great an advantage as they do at other positions. His findings: "Blacks with a West African ancestry generally have: relatively less subcutaneous fat on arms and legs and proportionally more lean body and muscle mass, broader shoulders, larger quadriceps, and bigger, more developed musculature in general; smaller chest cavities; a higher center of gravity ... faster patellar tendon reflex; greater body density ... modest. but significantly higher, levels of plasma testosterone ... which is anabolic, theoretically contributing to greater muscle mass, lower fat, and the ability to perform at a higher level of intensity with quicker recovery; a higher percentage of fast-twitch muscles and more anaerobic enzymes, which can translate into more explosive energy." entine: 1/11/2001 I never say that being good at sports doesn’t mean one is bad in Algrebra; it might be true to one degree or another. I’ve just said it is not necessarily true, nothing more. A Feckless Quest for the Basketball Gene NY Times April 8, 2000 a27 Jonathan Marks rejects genetic explanation for blacks being good at sport since logically being bad at algebra follows z40\clip\2000\04\marks.txt WIMP GENE FOUND? http://www.smh.com.au/news/9906/24/text/pageone7.html a gene that controls production of a protein involved with muscle strength. 20% of Europeans and Asians lack it, 3% of Zulu. @@golf - Asians are either non-existent or up to 100% of parity. \clip\96\08\blakgolf.txt Tiger Woods, the 20-year-old "now-former amateur golfer extraordinaire" is more Asian than black, but is called a "black" golfer. \doc\95\01\blakgolf.txt - Blacks 2.8% of golfers, up 1.8X from 1986 to 89 USA today page 1C - August 13, 1990 Black golfers on the rise W1.00 B-4.2 doc\94\8\asgolf.txt Few Asians in golf men -8 women -3 doc\94\12\asgolf2.txt Asian men 3% of PGA Tour money leaders -1.25 @@general doc923\newsjul.txt - baseball, football and managers doc922\killer.doc SJM letter about sports DOC921\HSSPORT.DOC,ASSPORT.DOC san jose merc article on hs sports, no minorities really menans no Asians! doc933\scsport.txt - 3 out of 8 Athletes of the Year San Jose Mercury bio-rick quan also - news, sportscaster doc938\sport*.txt - minorities in high school sports NE Univ Survey of minorities in professional sports @@hockey \priv\96b\07\hockey.txt Date: Fri, 12 Jul 1996 17:20:53 -0400 From: NewsHound@sjmercury.com (NewsHound) NHL, Cities Trying to Diversify Hockey By JIMMY GOLEN d:\doc\94\17\blakhock.txt - Black NHL players At least 8 black NHL players in 93-94 season @@ice skating Asian and Asian American women have dominated international championships in late 90s. Asians and Figure skating Sat, 06 Mar 1999 20:38:54 -0800 "Takeuchi, Kaz & Diep" soc.culture.asian.american in the last 10 world figure skating championships, 7 were won by asian women!... they still havent got the big contract like the "other" skaters... %%Chen, Lu China ice skater %%Chin, Tiffany Early 80s outstanding Asian American skater %% Ng, Joanna [Pocahontas on Ice Review snipped] > The lead is a Chinese girl from Taiwan who grew up here inspired by > Tiffany Chin, it says "everybody told her she looked like > Pocahontas", We skating fans know her as Joanna Ng. A very talented young skater at one time, looked like she was going to be another one of the all-time greats. She was more artistically mature at age 11 than some skaters are in a lifetime. But she couldn't keep up the jumps enough to stay competitive, and turned professional. Trudi wwwords@spamdagger.frontiernet.net %%Yamaguchi, Kristi Olympic Gold Medalist Japanese American @@income doc93b\sport40.xls - Top 40 athletes in money 1 Asian @@military doc93b\usmcrace.xls - usmc test results by race doc937\fitness.xls US Army fitness of candidates @@Multiracial If some races are better at some things, perhaps multiracial athlete can do the best of both. z48\clip\2001\04\intrace.txt Commentary: Multiracial Tiger Woods By STEVE SAILER, UPI National Correspondent Thursday, 5 April 2001 18:04 (ET), http://www.vny.com/cf/news/upidetail.cfm?QID=174674 Tiger Woods combines the explosive muscularity and masculine charisma of black superstars with the precision and emotional control of the finest Asian-American athletes. @@NASCAR NASCAR LAST BASTION OF RACIST SEXIST HOMOPHOBIC CROWD? z56\clip\2002\06\deconst.txt The NASCAR Phenomenon Chronice of Higher Education, 2.6.5 http://chronicle.com/weekly/v48/i43/43b00401.htm DECONSTRUCT THIS: STOCK-CAR RACING The NASCAR Phenomenon With nearly 75 million fans, NASCAR has become the nation's second-most popular spectator sport, behind professional football. How did stock-car racing become such a fan favorite? there was a very distinct talk change at the track. It seemed more acceptable to be racist, sexist, homophobic -- where there wouldn't be social sanctions. Racing was a place that they could go to where you didn't have the gay movement or the women's movement or civil rights yet. The track is an outlet for them. ...NASCAR is virtually alone among professional sports in allowing women to compete at the top level. @@News Coverage http://www.aafla.com/pubs/racetv.htm#asians THE PORTRAYAL OF RACE, ETHNICITY AND NATIONALITY IN TELEVISED INTERNATIONAL ATHLETIC EVENTS* Don Sabo, D'Youville College Sue Curry Jansen, Muhlenberg College Danny Tate, Muhlenberg College Margaret Carlisle Duncan, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee Susan Leggett, University of Massachusetts, Amherst Edited by Edward Derse, Amateur Athletic Foundation of Los Angeles. * Research funded by the Amateur Athletic Foundation of Los Angeles. Copyright: Amateur Athletic Foundation of Los Angeles, November 1995. "4. Asian Athletes Often Were Depicted by Cultural Stereotypes. Several findings suggest that Asian athletes were depicted in ways that drew upon stereotypical descriptions of Asians as stoic conformists and excessively hard workers who are fanatically concerned with success. " @@Olympics z45\doc\web\2000\10\olym2000.wk1 Medals by nation 2000 http://www.vdare.com/olympics_&_race.htm z45\clip\2000\10\olmp.txt Olympics and Race: the results By Steve Sailer Oct 2, 2000 The Olympics are the world's festival of human biodiversity. And the medallists in Sydney largely followed established racial patterns. In men's track, the most universally-contested, most equal opportunity sport in the world, East Africans dominated the distance races. In the national medal totals, the U.S. came in first. Russia, despite all the chaos at home, was an impressive second. For third place, the Chinese edged out the Australians The Chinese do extremely well in sports of agility and grace .. don't appear competitive with blacks, or even whites, in events demanding size and strength. Once again, however, the biggest loser in the Olympics was India. For the second straight Games, its one billion people brought home - a single bronze medal. US WINS THE MOST MEDALS WITH BREAKUP OF USSR, BUT TONGA AND BAHAMAS ARE BEST PER CAPITA. \doc\96\06\olymmed.wk1 Olympic Medals By Nation Source: CNN Ranking by Arthur Hu Population: Economist Book of Vital World Statistics (1988), CIA World Factbook (1993) (former Soviet states) Ranked by Total Medals Medals COUNTRY GOLD SILVERBRONZETOTAL Pop, Millipercap ======= ==== ================= United States 44 32 25 101 246.33 410.02 Germany 20 18 27 65 77.90 834.40 Russia 26 21 16 63 149.30 421.97 China 16 22 12 50 1104.00 45.29 ------ #1 Asian -------------------------------------------- Australia 9 9 23 41 16.50 2484.85 France 15 7 15 37 55.87 662.25 Italy 13 10 12 35 57.44 609.33 Korea 7 15 5 27 41.97 643.32 Cuba 9 8 8 25 10.40 2403.85 Ukraine 9 2 12 23 51.80 444.02 Canada 3 11 8 22 25.95 847.78 Hungary 7 4 10 21 10.60 1981.13 Romania 4 7 9 20 23.05 867.68 Netherlands 4 5 10 19 14.76 1287.26 Poland 7 5 5 17 37.86 449.02 Spain 5 6 6 17 39.05 435.34 Bulgaria 3 7 5 15 8.99 1668.52 Brazil 3 3 9 15 144.43 103.86 Britain 1 8 6 15 57.08 262.79 Belarus 1 6 8 15 10.37 1446.48 Japan 3 6 5 14 122.61 114.18 Czech Republic 4 3 4 11 15.62 704.23 Kazakhstan 3 4 4 11 17.16 641.18 Greece 4 4 0 8 10.01 799.20 Sweden 2 4 2 8 8.44 947.87 Kenya 1 4 3 8 23.88 335.01 Switzerland 4 3 0 7 6.62 1057.40 Norway 2 2 3 7 4.20 1666.67 Denmark 4 1 1 6 5.13 1169.59 Turkey 4 1 1 6 52.42 114.46 New Zealand 3 2 1 6 3.29 1823.71 Belgium 2 2 2 6 9.92 604.84 Nigeria 2 1 3 6 104.96 57.16 Jamaica 1 3 2 6 2.45 2448.98 South Africa 3 1 1 5 29.60 168.92 North Korea 2 1 2 5 21.90 228.31 Ireland 3 0 1 4 3.54 1129.94 Finland 1 2 1 4 4.95 808.08 Indonesia 1 1 2 4 174.95 22.86 Yugoslavia 1 1 2 4 23.56 169.78 Ethiopia 2 0 1 3 47.88 62.66 Algeria 2 0 1 3 23.84 125.84 Iran 1 1 1 3 52.52 57.12 Slovak Republic 1 1 1 3 5.37 558.66 Argentina 0 2 1 3 31.96 93.87 Austria 0 1 2 3 7.61 394.22 Armenia 1 1 0 2 3.48 574.71 Croatia 1 1 0 2 4.69 426.44 Portugal 1 0 1 2 10.41 192.12 Thailand 1 0 1 2 54.54 36.67 Namibia 0 2 0 2 1.76 1136.36 Slovenia 0 2 0 2 1.97 1016.44 Malaysia 0 1 1 2 16.92 118.20 Uzbekistan 0 1 1 2 2.21 903.83 Moldova 0 1 1 2 4.46 448.87 Georgia 0 0 2 2 5.63 354.97 Trinidad & Toba 0 0 2 2 1.24 1612.90 Morocco 0 0 2 2 23.91 83.65 Burundi 1 0 0 1 5.15 194.17 Hong Kong 1 0 0 1 5.68 176.06 Costa Rica 1 0 0 1 2.87 348.43 Syria 1 0 0 1 11.34 88.18 Ecuador 1 0 0 1 10.20 98.04 Zambia 0 1 0 1 7.53 132.80 Latvia 0 1 0 1 2.74 365.55 Tonga 0 1 0 1 0.10 9620.10 Chinese Taipei 0 1 0 1 19.90 50.25 Bahamas 0 1 0 1 0.24 4166.67 Philippines 0 1 0 1 58.72 17.03 Azerbaijan 0 1 0 1 7.57 132.04 Lithuania 0 0 1 1 3.82 261.80 Mongolia 0 0 1 1 2.09 478.47 Puerto Rico 0 0 1 1 3.41 293.26 Uganda 0 0 1 1 17.19 58.17 Israel 0 0 1 1 4.43 225.73 India 0 0 1 1 796.60 1.26 Mozambique 0 0 1 1 14.93 66.98 Tunisia 0 0 1 1 7.81 128.04 Mexico 0 0 1 1 82.73 12.09 Ranked by medals per billion 1988.00Medals US COUNTRY GOLD SILVERBRONZETOTAL Pop, Millipercap Index ======= ==== ================= ----------#1 Asian / Pacific ----------------------------------------- 1Tonga 0 1 0 1 0.10 9620.10 23.5 2Bahamas 0 1 0 1 0.24 4166.67 10.2 3Australia 9 9 23 41 16.50 2484.85 6.1 4Jamaica 1 3 2 6 2.45 2448.98 6.0 5Cuba 9 8 8 25 10.40 2403.85 5.9 6Hungary 7 4 10 21 10.60 1981.13 4.8 7New Zealand 3 2 1 6 3.29 1823.71 4.4 8Bulgaria 3 7 5 15 8.99 1668.52 4.1 9Norway 2 2 3 7 4.20 1666.67 4.1 10Trinidad & Toba 0 0 2 2 1.24 1612.90 3.9 11Belarus 1 6 8 15 10.37 1446.48 3.5 12Netherlands 4 5 10 19 14.76 1287.26 3.1 13Denmark 4 1 1 6 5.13 1169.59 2.9 14Namibia 0 2 0 2 1.76 1136.36 2.8 15Ireland 3 0 1 4 3.54 1129.94 2.8 16Switzerland 4 3 0 7 6.62 1057.40 2.6 17Slovenia 0 2 0 2 1.97 1016.44 2.5 18Sweden 2 4 2 8 8.44 947.87 2.3 19Uzbekistan 0 1 1 2 2.21 903.83 2.2 20Romania 4 7 9 20 23.05 867.68 2.1 21Canada 3 11 8 22 25.95 847.78 2.1 22Germany 20 18 27 65 77.90 834.40 2.0 23Finland 1 2 1 4 4.95 808.08 2.0 24Greece 4 4 0 8 10.01 799.20 1.9 25Czech Republic 4 3 4 11 15.62 704.23 1.7 26France 15 7 15 37 55.87 662.25 1.6 ------------ #1 Asian ----------------------------------------------- 27Korea 7 15 5 27 41.97 643.32 1.6 28Kazakhstan 3 4 4 11 17.16 641.18 1.6 29Italy 13 10 12 35 57.44 609.33 1.5 30Belgium 2 2 2 6 9.92 604.84 1.5 31Armenia 1 1 0 2 3.48 574.71 1.4 32Slovak Republic 1 1 1 3 5.37 558.66 1.4 33Mongolia 0 0 1 1 2.09 478.47 1.2 34Poland 7 5 5 17 37.86 449.02 1.1 35Moldova 0 1 1 2 4.46 448.87 1.1 36Ukraine 9 2 12 23 51.80 444.02 1.1 37Spain 5 6 6 17 39.05 435.34 1.1 38Croatia 1 1 0 2 4.69 426.44 1.0 39Russia 26 21 16 63 149.30 421.97 1.0 40United States 44 32 25 101 246.33 410.02 1.0 41Austria 0 1 2 3 7.61 394.22 -1.0 42Latvia 0 1 0 1 2.74 365.55 -1.1 43Georgia 0 0 2 2 5.63 354.97 -1.2 44Costa Rica 1 0 0 1 2.87 348.43 -1.2 45Kenya 1 4 3 8 23.88 335.01 -1.2 46Puerto Rico 0 0 1 1 3.41 293.26 -1.4 47Britain 1 8 6 15 57.08 262.79 -1.6 48Lithuania 0 0 1 1 3.82 261.80 -1.6 49North Korea 2 1 2 5 21.90 228.31 -1.8 50Israel 0 0 1 1 4.43 225.73 -1.8 51Burundi 1 0 0 1 5.15 194.17 -2.1 52Portugal 1 0 1 2 10.41 192.12 -2.1 53Hong Kong 1 0 0 1 5.68 176.06 -2.3 54Yugoslavia 1 1 2 4 23.56 169.78 -2.4 55South Africa 3 1 1 5 29.60 168.92 -2.4 56Zambia 0 1 0 1 7.53 132.80 -3.1 57Azerbaijan 0 1 0 1 7.57 132.04 -3.1 58Tunisia 0 0 1 1 7.81 128.04 -3.2 59Algeria 2 0 1 3 23.84 125.84 -3.3 60Malaysia 0 1 1 2 16.92 118.20 -3.5 61Turkey 4 1 1 6 52.42 114.46 -3.6 62Japan 3 6 5 14 122.61 114.18 -3.6 63Brazil 3 3 9 15 144.43 103.86 -3.9 64Ecuador 1 0 0 1 10.20 98.04 -4.2 65Argentina 0 2 1 3 31.96 93.87 -4.4 66Syria 1 0 0 1 11.34 88.18 -4.6 67Morocco 0 0 2 2 23.91 83.65 -4.9 68Mozambique 0 0 1 1 14.93 66.98 -6.1 69Ethiopia 2 0 1 3 47.88 62.66 -6.5 70Uganda 0 0 1 1 17.19 58.17 -7.0 71Nigeria 2 1 3 6 104.96 57.16 -7.2 72Iran 1 1 1 3 52.52 57.12 -7.2 73Chinese Taipei 0 1 0 1 19.90 50.25 -8.2 74China 16 22 12 50 1104.00 45.29 -9.1 75Thailand 1 0 1 2 54.54 36.67 -11.2 76Indonesia 1 1 2 4 174.95 22.86 -17.9 77Philippines 0 1 0 1 58.72 17.03 -24.1 78Mexico 0 0 1 1 82.73 12.09 -33.9 79India 0 0 1 1 796.60 1.26 -326.6 \priv\96b\03\vietwres.txt Date: Fri, 21 Jun 1996 03:08:21 -0400 From: NewsHound@sjmercury.com (NewsHound) Killion column: Escape to Atlanta BY ANN KILLION Mercury News Sports Columnist Thanh Nguyen may be the first Vietnamese on a US Olympic team, and certainly the first Asian weightlifter. So much for wimpy Asian guys. \DOC\94\19\ASGAMES.TXT - 94 ASIAN GAMES RESULTS doc941\wintolym.wk1 - 1994 winter olympics by nation europeans 35 times Asians, no African nations won medals @@pool If Asians are good at math and visiospatial skills, they should be good at billiards, maybe they are. Asians are well represented among pool winners \priv\95\05\billard.txt - Jeanette Lee is top ranking Korean pool player. @@professional sports \clip\96\04\sporrace.txt Date: Wed, 4 Sep 1996 23:31:50 -0400 From: NewsHound@sjmercury.com (NewsHound) Women Finding Greater Role In Pro Sports By Source. By JIMMY GOLEN AP Sports Writer In the NFL 100 percent of the cornerbacks in the NFL are black, as well as 91 percent of the running backs and wide receivers. Meanwhile, 91 percent of the quarterbacks and 84 percent of the centers were white. In baseball, only 7 percent of the pitchers and 1 percent of the catchers were black. Blacks made up 54 percent of the outfielders, Hispanics 18 percent and whites just 28 percent. @@Racial Superiority It's not about hatred, it's like air superiority, it goes to the team that deserves the title, and anybody with the skills and luck it takes to get to the top, whether it's Canadian hockey players, Japanese Sumo wrestlers, or black basketball players. Might be culture, might be genes, might be both or neither, it all depends. z39\clip\2000\01\blakspor.htm 'Taboo': The Race to the Swift. Or Is It the Swift to the Race? New York Times January 14, 2000 BOOKS OF THE TIMES 'Taboo': The Race to the Swift. Or Is It the Swift to the Race? By RICHARD BERNSTEIN TABOO Why Black Athletes Dominate Sports and Why We're Afraid to Talk About It. By Jon Entine. Illustrated. 387 pages. PublicAffairs. $25. Black athletes are so dominant in track, basketball, boxing and football, and so strongly represented at the top echelons of baseball, that a serious effort to determine why seems inevitable. Sailer: Wilt Chamberlain wrote that black basketball players appear to be "gifted" in ways that others are not. Shocking? HOW MUCH BETTER CAN BLACKS EXPECT TO BE? A first-rate statistical analyst who uses the nom de plume La Griffe du Lion has just posted on his website (at http://members.xoom.com/griffedulion/blackathlete.htm) an analysis of numerous interesting questions relating to sports and race, such as: What is the probability that a randomly selected adult American white male will be faster than his similarly selected African-American counterpart? z39\clipim\2000\01\12\athlete\athlete.htm He finds an "AQ" difference of .82-.85 standard deviation for basketball or sprinting. (this is somewhat smaller than the common 1SD IQ gap usually quoted) the threshold for this inner circle of 150 NBA players is about 4 SD from the mean of the black population at large. This is very rarefied territory indeed. A white must have a minimum AQ almost 5 SD above the white mean to make the inner circle of 150 NBA top scorers. Using the basketball AQ gap of 0.87 we found the most probable Dream Team would have 11 blacks and 1 white. The team selected in January 2000 had precisely this composition. It is worth noting that all the Dream Teamers were high up on the list of 150 high scorers used to assess the gap. We also note that the lone white on the team ranked last among his teammates on this list SARICH AGREES ON .8 AQ DIFFERENCE the NBA discussion paralleled my effort in Skeptic 3:3, (1985) pg 87. As far as I'm aware, that was the first time any such calculation had been published BLACK SPORTS EDGE MAY BE DUE TO VARIABILITY Why are blacks so good at sport? http://www.telegraph.co.uk:80/et?ac=000208632407947&rtmo= 33fb6faf&atmo= 33fb6faf&pg=/et/97/7/26/tlfast26.html \clip\97\19\kidd.txt London Electronic Telegraph Saturday 26 July 1997 Issue 792 Q: Is there any data on how Asians do in athletics? A: entine THE person who would know is Robert Malina. He’s editor of the American Journal of Human Biology and retired head of the Youth Sports Institute at Michigan State. He was a big help in both my documentary and book and has studied racial differences since he got his PhD (one of two) at UPENN in the 60s. (517) 355-7620, rmalina@pilot.msu.edu @@Running %%Asian ASIANS 0/50 GIRLS, 1/71 BOYS TRACK EVENTS IN 1990 USA's top high school track and field performers USA Today 6-21-1990 Girls 0/50 Boys 1/71 Phoupet Singbadith Anaheim Magnolia Triple Jump (Population parity would be 1.5 out of 50 or 3 out of 100) z49\clip\2001\05\gravrace.txt http://www.insightmag.com/archive/200105301.shtml No: The so-called distinctions are science fiction and have a social and political agenda. By Joseph L. Graves Jr. However, this year the men’s Boston Marathon was won by a South Korean, with an Ecuadorian finishing in second place. However, third, fourth, fifth, 10th, 12th, 15th, 16th and 17th place went to East Africans (mostly Kenyans). The women’s race gave no evidence of Eastern African domination, with only first, fourth and fifth place going to East Africans. There were four Eastern Europeans, 10 of Western European origin (mostly American) and three East Asians. From: SteveSlr@aol.com Date sent: Mon, 22 Mar 1999 22:30:11 EST I wanted to mention that a male Japanese sprinter named Nobuhara made the semifinals (top 16) of the 1996 Olympics 100m dash. He didn't qualify for the finals, but recorded a very respectable time placing him around 12th place overall in the toughest field ever assembled. His all time best is 10.08. Where Japanese and Koreans really shine is in the marathon. At the end of 1997, they had 16 of the top 100 times ever for men. Chinese women have set some spectacular distance running records in the 1990s, but most observers are extremely dubious since they've never run times close to those outside of China, where drug testing is more rigorous. However, the best Chinese woman won a silver and a gold in Atlanta. Northeast Asians are pretty good marathoners - in 1997 they held 16 of the top 100 times ever in the marathon. At 10,000 meters they are decent, but not really world class. At shorter distances they are unknown until you get down to the 100 meters, where the Japanese have had 3 semifinalists in the last 2 Olympics: a solid 3 out of 32. Considering how the Japanese tend to choke in the Olympics in other sports due to the psychological pressures of representing the nation-race There are a lot of stats at: http://www.isteve.com/addtrack.htm %%Women Sailer Women gap has grown bigger MEN WILL ALWAYS BE FASTER THAN WOMEN \clip\99\01\womrun.txt January 10, 1999 Study: Women Can't Outrun Men By The Associated Press The study rebuts a controversial 1992 article which found that women's world distance records were improving faster than men's and extrapolated that women would overtake men. The 1992 article predicted that the women's record for the marathon would equal the men's in 1998. ... ``We found that the sex difference is really stable for the last nearly 10 years in events from the mile to the marathon,'' Sparling said. ASIAN MEN CAN'T RUN \DOC\95\05\SJRUN.WK1 - San Jose 10 K run averages Results published in San Jose Mercury News March 21, 1995 Analysis by Arthur Hu Sample 25 Asian and White men and women Selected by Surname Men Women Asian Avg 0:57:50 1:01:46 SD 0:07:53 0:08:45 White Avg 0:52:00 1:07:43 SD 0:11:55 0:16:35 SD Diff 0.49 -0.36 Asian men slower by 1/2 Standard Deviation, by 1 SD in 94 Asian women faster by 1/3 Standard Deviation, slower by .2 in 94 doc941\mercrun.wk1 - Asian men slower in running by 1 SD, women lag by only .5SD doc\94\3\priv\bostmar.txt - Korean 4th in Boston Marathon @@Ski About 1/4 of the US are skiiers. 2003 Classmates.com poll 5% bunny slope 6% green trail 11% blue trail 6% black diamond 2% snowboard 69% don't ski rec.skiing.snowboard Date: 1998/10/05 The number of people going to ski areas has stayed flat since 1992, at about 54 million people nationally in the 97-98 ski year, about 14 percent of those people were snowboarders, snowboarding has been increasing about 20 percent a year for the last five years (Michael Berry president of national ski areas association). @@soccer (football) %%asian ASIANS CAN'T PLAY FOOTBALL (BRITAIN) \clip\97\02\asfoot.txt The Electronic Telegraph Monday 25 September 1995 Football PFA pin faith in project to tackle Asian indifference Comment - one chap says the problems is that Asians look to doctors instead of soccer stars as heros. In Britain, Asian means "Indian" to the Americans. JAPANESE ANTICIPATE GETTING CREAMED BY UK IN SOCCER \clip\97\03\japnsocc.txt http://www.telegraph.co.uk:80/et?ac=000208632407947&rtmo= 32f1378f&atmo=32f1378f&pg=/et/95/6/2/japa0206.html The Electronic Telegraph Friday 2 June 1995 Football Japanese find it hard to compete in muscle game By Christopher Davies http://www.nytimes.com/library/sports/soccer/071299soc-wc-china.html \clip\99\13\chinsoc.txt New York Times July 12, 1999 The View From China: 'So Close, So Close' By SETH FAISON Says Chinese still thinks soccer is for the men. http://espn.go.com/soccer/wworldcup99/history/index.html clip\99\13\sochist.txt All-time WWC scorers - Ailing Liu China #9, top 13 otherwise is from Europe, US world standings \clipim\99\07\12\soccer\standings.html http://espn.go.com/soccer/wworldcup99/history/standings.html China is #5 COUNTRY G W L T GF GA PTS* United States 12 10 1 1 40 10 31 Norway 12 10 2 0 37 11 30 Germany 12 8 4 0 26 16 24 Sweden 10 6 4 0 24 11 18 China PR 10 5 3 2 21 14 17 Denmark 8 2 5 1 14 14 7 Italy 4 2 2 0 8 5 6 England 4 2 2 0 6 9 6 Brazil 6 2 4 0 4 15 6 Chinese Taipei 4 1 3 0 2 15 3 Japan 7 1 6 0 2 20 3 Canada 3 0 2 1 5 13 1 Nigeria 6 0 5 1 5 21 1 Australia 3 0 3 0 3 13 0 New Zealand 3 0 3 0 1 11 0 Roster http://espn.go.com/soccer/wworldcup99/teams/usa.html \clipim\99\07\13\usa.html out of 24 players. 0 Asians 1 black mixed asian? tiffany roberts, lorrie fair race team us rate index ---------------------------- black 4% 15% -3.75 -5.14 white 96% 70% 1.37 1.00 Sailer on race class specialization http://espn.go.com/soccer/wworldcup99/news/1999/990711/01347700.html \clipim\99\07\19\soccer\soccer.htm 7-11-99 Goalie Briana Scurry said she relished her position as a role model for young black girls and said she planned to hold some inner city soccer clinics to get more black boys and girls involved in the sport. \clipim\99\07\19\disney.jpg team picture in Disneyland - 1 black out of 17 faces? 7/12/99 notes: I read someplace that the Chinese may have the best woman athlete in the world. I would also guess that the US soccer team is predominantly Euromerican women, while blacks dominate running and basketball, can anyone confirm this, were there any Asian Americans on the US team? %%black BLACKS COMPLAIN BLACK GOALIE GOT SHORT SHRIFT \clip\99\14\blsocc.txt From: "Louis R. Andrews" The column four article in today's _WSJ_ discusses the US women's soccer championship in terms of race and might be relevant to this discussion. The title (paper version) is "A Black Soccer Hero Got Short Shrift, Many Blacks Believe." %%class Soccer is for rich kids in US @@Suvey (many sports) \doc\web\98\05\prosport.wk1 Race and pro sports 91-92 NBA NFL MLB White 25% 36% 68% Black 75% 62% 17% Latino 0% 20% 14% Other 0% 0% 0% 96-97 NBA NFL MLB White 20% 31% 58% Black 79% 66% 17% Latino 1% 1% 24% Other 5% 2% 2% Source: Northeastern University Center for the study of Sport in Society Chart appeared in Seattle Times April 13, 1998 Head Coaches White 78% 96% 93% 76% 90% 86% Black 22% 4% 4% 78% 10% 11% Latino 0% 0% 4% 0% 0% 3% @@swimming Survey of own ability: Can Keep Head Above Water for 15 Minutes Cheif Sealth / Cleveland High School 88 89 Euro American 86 74 Multi-Ethnic 65 61 Other 59 Filipino 68 59 African American 65 Other 65 Pacific Islander 63 Latino 42 41 Other Asian 39 Chinese 40 30 Vietnamese Health Strengths Survey Department of Pediatrics Harborview Medical Center Box 359774 325 Ninth Ave Seattle WA 98104-2499 d:\doc\94\18\chinswim.txt - Chinese medals in olympic competition d:\doc\94\19\priv\chinoly2.txt In all 16 women's swimming events, China won 12 golds, including all three golds for relays. Medals Table(including swimming, diving, water polo and synchronized swimming) Gold Silver Bronze Total China 16 10 2 28 USA 7 10 8 25 Australia 6 3 4 13 Russia 5 7 5 17 Hungary 3 3 5 11 Finland 2 2 0 4 Germany 1 2 6 9 Spain 1 2 0 3 Sweden 1 2 0 3 Canada 1 1 3 5 Italy 1 0 2 3 Poland 1 0 0 1 Zimbabwe 1 0 0 1 Japan 0 2 1 3 _____ _____ _____ @@Tennis Michael Chang is a champion Chinese American Tennis Player Arthur Ashe was a champion Black Tennis Player @@video games \DOC\95\12\KIDVID.TXT USA Today Oct 3, 1995 Video game play by boys and girls age 9-13 in hours boys girls Less than 1 29.5 49.2 1 33.6 30.8 2 and over 36.9 20.1 source: Sports Illustrated for Omnibus @@Women WOMENS RUNNING AND BASKETBALL AS GOOD AS HIGH SCHOOL BOYS z56\clip\2002\05\jump.txt http://www.weeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/001/200ofapa.asp Why White (and other) Women Can't Jump From the Spring 2002 issue of the Women's Quarterly: The WNBA makes a great feminist propaganda tool. by Jonathan V. Last 05/10/2002 12:00:00 AM Jonathan V. Last, online editor Whoever wins the WNBA championship this year would get blown out by most of the country's top high-school boys' basketball teams. Marion Jones went the most ballyhooed female sprinter in history, and she made good on her promise, winning gold in both the 100 and 200 meter events In the 100 meters at last year's New Jersey state boys championship meet, Jones would have finished fourth. (At the Olympics Jones won in 10.75 seconds; the boy who was state champ in New Jersey last year ran a 10.30.