Arthur Hu's Index of Diversity: Poverty

(c) Arthur Hu, please cite when using data from here arthurhu @ hufamily.com (no space) on how to get more complete data or complete text of these references

Contents

Poverty

ASIANS HIGHER HOUSEHOLD INCOME, BUT URBAN POVERTY AND PER CAPITA INCOME LIKE BLACKS

Summary - Nationally, Asian poverty is slightly worse than whites, however poverty rates in some urban areas are equal or worse than blacks. Asian poverty in many census tracts ranges in the ghetto definition range from 40% up to 70%. Per capita income is often comparable or worse than blacks in urban area. In general, overall poverty rate equal to average where whites are below and other minorities are above average. In San Francisco, poverty rates are equal to blacks for equivalent family structure, single or married.



NATION'S POVERTY RATE PLUNGES TO A 21 YEAR LOW
poverty line:
1999 FAM,OF 4 $17,029
1999 FAM OF 3 $13,290
Poverty rates reach historic lows except for white
23.6 27,910 Af Am
22.8 30,375 Hispanic
10.7 51,025 Asian PI
 7.7 44,366 NonH white

Black Hispanic poverty about the same, Asians higher
poverty but also higher household income vs whites


\doc\web\96\07\incpov.txt
Median household income 1994, 1995 and
1995 poverty rate by group
          1994   1995  95 pov
Race
NHwhite  35766 36121    8.5
black    21623 22393   29.3
hisp     24085 22860   30.3(2)
asian    41629 40614   14.6
all            34076   13.8
Immigration status
native-born            13.0
for-born               22.2
naturalized            10.7
for-noncit             27.8

(2) first time Hispanic poverty is higher than black


\doc\96\01\pov94.txt
Table F. Persons and Families Below Poverty Level by Selected Characteristics:  1993 and 1994

(Numbers in thousands)
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
                                           |           Below poverty             |
                                           |__________________ __________________|      1994-93
                                           |      1994        |      1993        |     difference
              Characteristic               |__________________|__________________| ________________
                                           |                  |                  | Number   Poverty
                                           | Number    Percent| Number    Percent| of poor     rate
___________________________________________|__________________|__________________| ________________

PERSONS
Ranked by 1994 poverty rate
White Not of Hispanic origin...............   18,110      9.4    18,883      9.9    -773      -0.5
White......................................   25,379     11.7    26,226     12.2    -847     *-0.5
    Total..................................   38,059     14.5    39,265     15.1  *-1206     *-0.6
  Asian and Pacific Islander...............      974     14.6     1,134     15.3    -160      -0.6
Other races................................    2,484     21.0     2,162     18.8     322       2.2
Black......................................   10,196     30.6    10,877     33.1  * -681     *-2.5
Hispanic origin1...........................    8,416     30.7     8,126     30.6  *  290       0.1

@@areas
		 
\doc\96\01\povarea.wk1
		 
Bureau of the Census Statistical Brief
Poverty Areas SB/95-13 Issued June 1995
		 
Percent distribution of persons living inside poverty areas and
percent distribution of those living outside poverty areas, by race
and Hispanic Origin: 1990

                    White     Black     AmInd     Asian/PI  Hispanic
Poverty areas             56        30         2         3        19
Nonpoverty areas          87         7         1         3         6
Ratio                   0.64      4.29      2.00      1.00      3.17
Index                   1.00      6.66      3.11      1.55      4.92

Asians equal to average, but 1.6 times higher than Whites in poverty
areas.

@@behavior

d:\doc\94\20\calfcen2.txt
David Hayes Bautista, professor in Chicano studies at UCLA says
"Latinos are poor, but they do not have underclass behaviors" Two
parent families are still the norm, and welfare rates are low compared
to the poverty rates. They have a strong work ethic

@@Black

\clip\97\20\blakwhit.txt BOOK REVIEW: A NEW GROUND ZERO IN THE RACE
DEBATE?  AMERICA IN BLACK AND WHITE One Nation, Indivisible By
Stephan Thernstrom and Abigail Thernstrom BY PAUL MAGNUSSON 

"Half of U.S. blacks in a 1991 Gallup poll said they believed that
three-fourths of their number were both poor and living in inner
cities. The reality: Only one-fifth are"


@@Character


2 STUDIES: JUST GIVING MONEY TO THE POOR WON'T MAKE THEM MIDDLE CLASS
\CLIP\97\14\POVVALU.TXT tip: dchiang@juno.com Believe it or not, new
objective study by "Liberal Scholars" finds that income per se has a
smaller impact on how poor children fare than middle class Americans.
Of course, it is still politically incorrect to mention that poor
Asian kids do surprisingly well. But Arthur Hu should feel vindicated
with this new study. - Dave Chiang "Parents' character--their skills,
diligence, honesty, and good health--probably matter more to
children's prospects than money.  "Although children's opportunities
are unequal," she writes, "income inequality is not the primary
reason."

http://www.usnews.com/usnews/issue/970602/2pove.htm
Is lack of money the reason kids stay poor?
Liberal scholars reach surprising conclusions
BY DAVID WHITMAN US News and World Report 6/2/97

Novelist F. Scott Fitzgerald once wrote that the very rich "are
different from you and me," which provoked a famous rejoinder from
Ernest Hemingway: "Yes, they have more money." 

@@children

\doc\95\02\cens301.txt
   - In 1993, African American children in families were nearly three times
     as likely as White children (46 percent versus 17 percent) to live in
     poverty.

@@China

AGRICULTURE ONLY 19% OF CHINA GDP The Urbanization of China Wall
Street Journal Dec 22, 1997 p.  A20 chart - Ag from 28 to 19.7% of
GDP, services from 28.5 to 31.3 0.4% urban poverty, 11.5% rural
poverty (what does that mean when per capita gnp is <$1000/yr???)
\images\972\1228\china.tif

@@chronic poverty

\clip\96\02\chronpov.txt Date: Tue, 20 Aug 1996 02:30:49 -0400 Nearly
half chronically poor are children WASHINGTON (AP) -- Children make
up nearly half of Americans living in chronic poverty, the Census
Bureau says.

During all of 1992-1993, chronically poor:
 3.1% of whites
15.1% of blacks
10.3% of Hispanics

@@city - Asian poverty rates in many cities are comparable to
or sometimes higher than African Americans, sometimes exceeding
the 40% definition of a ghetto in some census tracts

[[city

\doc\96\01\povarea.txt - 40% is "extreme poverty" Does not mention
Asians in extreme poverty such as Chinatowns While 56 percent of
poverty-area residents were White, 30 percent were African American,
and 19 percent were persons of Hispanic origin.  In non-poverty
areas, 87 percent were White, with only 7 percent African American;
persons of Hispanic origin represented 6 percent.

[[california

\doc\94\20\calfcens.wk1 - California Census results
CA 90 Poverty Rate W1.00 B2.32 H2.37 A1.57 O2.62
CA 90 Household Income W1.00 B-1.49 H-1.43 A-1.02 O-1.54

[[Los Angeles

RICH LA IS WHITE DEMOCRATIC RICH VS HISP / BLACK DEMO POOR
z45\clip\2000\08\richla.txt
http://www.thenation.com/issue/000821/0821cooper.shtml August 21/28,
2000 The Two Worlds of Los Angeles by MARC COOPER Los Angeles In
South Central LA's ZIP code 90059 Here the median household income is
just over $20,000 a year.  In 90210, 84 percent of the inhabitants
are white and 50 percent of them have four years or more of college.
In 90059, 0.00 percent are white (48 percent are black, 51 percent
Latino) and only 5 percent have four years or more of college; 53
percent haven't completed high school. In 90210, the median home
value is $501,000; in 90059, it's about $100,000--still only $20,000
or so under the national median, reflecting LA's inflated housing
market.  inhabitants of 90210 had given about a half-million dollars
in presidential campaign contributions. From 90059 only $250 had been
raised--not enough to get you dessert at a DNC fundraising dinner.


[[seattle / king county

Percent of children living below poverty line by race
in King County (Seattle Times, Census and Northwest Harvest)
W69% B9% A14% H/Other 7%

Percent of children living below poverty
Tukwila 13.5%
Kirkland 7.4
Lynwood 11.9
Lake Forest Park 5.0
Redmond 4.1
Seattle 15.7

\doc\94\16\kingpov.wk1
  Races ranked by King County Poverty
              KingCo     King Co        KingCo   Pierce
                         25-34    Over 2Family   Family
              PCIncome   4+CollegeLess GPoverty  Poverty
  Hmong               NA       NA    NA       NA    NA
  Guamanian           NA       NA    NA       NA    NA
  Cambodian       $4,539      8.7  40.9     51.9  68.9
  Laotian         $5,374      4.0  39.1     39.6    NA
  Samoan         $26,750     13.7   1.1     32.2  17.0
  Vietnamese      $9,059     26.6   9.0     31.6  35.0
  PacIsl         $16,920     24.7   1.6     21.2  20.3
  AmIndian       $11,198      9.5   3.3     20.9  21.6
  Black          $11,277     15.9   1.9     19.5
  Korean         $10,108     40.2   4.3     16.2  20.7
  AllAsian       $12,945     40.8   7.2     12.7  23.9
  Hispanic       $13,304     12.4   7.0     11.4
  Chinese        $14,689     52.0   8.6     10.6  15.4
  Thai           $11,590     31.5   2.8      7.2    NA
  Hawaiin        $15,515     35.4    NA      6.8  14.0
  Filipino       $12,233     28.7   4.6      4.1   8.9
  AsIndian       $15,178     54.4   5.3      4.1    NA
  White          $19,713     33.9   0.5      3.9
  Japanese       $18,977     57.2   0.9      2.7   7.8
  Korean Pierce County poverty = Black King Co


[[seattle holly park d:\doc\94\17\hollypk.txt
     Median household income: $6,486 / year

[[seattle rainier valley doc\94\12\rainier.wk1   W28.4 B29.4 H4.3 A35.1 NA2.8
     poverty rates from 25% to 68% in many S and Central tracts

asian.poverty.city.united-states
united states - see @@national


@@definition

%%Government

POVERTY RATE OF 13.7 WOULD BE 20% WITH NO TRANSFER, 10% WITH ALL TRANSFERS
\doc\web\2001\01\povdef.txt
http://landview.census.gov/income/histpov/tabled.txt
The Cumulative Effect of Taxes and Transfers on Poverty Estimates: 1996 and 1997
1996:
13.7 Current def
21.6 Take away government income transfer
10.2 Add medicaid and other non-cash and cash transfers

POVERTY LINES THEMSELVES INFLATE OVER TIME
http://www.census.gov/hhes/poverty/povmeas/papers/elastap4.html#C2
z47\clipim\2001\01\17\povline\povline.htm
Is There Such a Thing as an Absolute Poverty Line Over Time?
Evidence from the United States, Britain, Canada, and Australia on
the Income Elasticity of the Poverty Line by Gordon M. Fisher
"the amount of high-protein foods (e.g., 
		meat and milk) for a family of four per week rose from 21.7 pounds 
		in 1908 to 32.2 pounds in 1935 and 54.7 pounds in 1960"
No electricity in 1900. No transportation in 1900 More rooms
"After adjusting the data for inflation, 
	Kilpatrick found that the New York City "minimum comfort" level rose 
	about 0.84 percent in real terms for each 1.0 percent increase in real 
	disposable income per capita."
The effects of the decision not to raise the poverty line in 1968-1969 (and the 
similar decision in 1973) may be summed up in the following comparison:
o	Over the 28-year period from 1937 to 1965, the level that was considered to be 
	poverty or minimum subsistence for a family of four rose in real terms by 55 
	percent.(220)
o	Over the 28-year period from 1965 to 1993, by contrast, there was no change in 
	real terms in the level of the U.S. poverty line.

%%Living Wage

z45\clip\2000\09\notpov.txt Family Needs Far Exceed the Official
Poverty Line By NINA BERNSTEIN NYT, 0.9.13 Carol Williams did not
need an economic study to prove that her $24,000-a-year job as an
administrative assistant could not support three children in New
York, even when squeezed into a one-bedroom, $600-a-month apartment
in the Bronx.

%%Middle Class

Dismal Scientist http://www.dismal.com/todays_econ/te_012301_2.asp
z47\clipim\2001\01\31\mid\mid.htm Membership in the Middle Class By
Toni Horst 01/23/01 12:00 PM ET Over the last quarter century, a
reliable 45% of the U.S.  population has identified itself as middle
class. Moreover, claims of middle-class status rise with income. Of
those earning less than $15,000 a year, 36% call themselves middle
class. Among those with incomes of $35,000 to $49,999, 49% claim to
be middle class, and for those with incomes of $75,000 or more, it is
71%, according to a regular survey conducted by the National Center
for Opinion Research. 

90% OF AMERICANS THINK THEY ARE MIDDLE CLASS
z45\clip\2000\10\midclas.txt Slate Explainer: Are You Middle-Class?
By Emily Yoffe Posted Tuesday, Oct. 24, 2000, at 1:13 p.m. PT "..
30th percentile of income and the 80th--which would make those
households earning between about $30,000 and $75,000 a year
middle-class....at three times the poverty rate for the low end and
seven times the poverty rate for the high end, putting households
with between $50,000 and $120,000 of yearly income But being
middle-class is more a state of mind than money. When surveyed, about
90 percent of Americans say that's what they are."

%%Not

Not So Poor National Review Oct 25, 1999 p. 28 Robert Rector
(Heritage Foundation) 35 million or 13% of Americans are poor, but
that person probably has a car, air conditioniing, regrigerator,
stove, VCR, microsave, stereo, color TV overeats, does not live in
overcrowded conditions. Adjusted for inflation, the average poor
person spends as much now as the average person in the 1970s. 41% of
the poor own their own homes, 3 bedrooms with 1 1/2 baths, median
value of $65,000, 70% of the value of all homes. 1/4 of poor minority
students in Central Harlem obese, 1/2 of these "super" obese. Total
personal income in 1996 was $6.8 trillion, but census only counted
$4.8 trillion.

%%world

CHINA HAS LOWER POVERTY THAN USA??
http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/ch.html
China 
Population below poverty line: 10% (1999 est.) 
US 
Population below poverty line: 12.7% (1999 est.) 

@@education

Asians get good grades and high test scores even in high poverty
areas or groups.


@@extreme poverty / ghetto

\doc\96\01\povarea.txt - 40% is "extreme poverty" Does not mention
Asians in extreme poverty such as Chinatowns


@@family structure

The poverty rate is highly correlated with family structure. Despite
the common position that all families structures are equal, single
parents, particularly single mothers have very high rates of poverty,
and this explains much in poverty differences between races.

"Kids Worse Off If Mom Has Never Married" Wall Street Journal Jan 27,
1995 p. B1. University of Maryland study says income of divorce mother
is double never-married at $17,500 vs. $8,600. Two-thirds of divorced
mothers work, vs. only one-third of never married. 3/4 of divorce
mothers get some support from father, vs 1/4 of never-married. 2/3 of
children living with never-married live under poverty vs. 1/3 with
divorced. Children headed by single fathers do better than single
mothers, but not as well as two-parent families.

MARRIAGE BEATS JOB, EDUCATION TO ESCAPE POVERTY FOR POOR SINGLE MOTHERS
A success story that's hard to duplicate. Isabel Wilkerson
NY Times June 12, 2005 p. 24
56% of poor single mothers who marry come out of poverty
39% if hired into a job
35% if get a 2 year degree
Only 1.4% marry in a year.

SINGLE MOTHERS 3X 2MO POOR, 8X 2 YRS, BUT ONLY 5.3% POOR 2+ YRS
http://archives.seattletimes.com/cgi-bin/texis/web/vortex/display?storyID=56146&query=poverty
Seattle Times August 10, 1998 Study shows complex picture of U.S.
poor by The Associated Press \clip\98\10\longpoor.txt 

"From 1993 through 1995, 30.3 percent of the population lived below
the poverty line for at least two months.  But just 5.3 percent of
them stayed poor for two full years.  In 1994, nearly half of the
female-headed households lived in poverty for at least two months in
a row, more than three times the poverty rate of married couples.
among the chronically poor. Single mothers were eight times as likely
to live in poverty for two years than married couples were to be poor
for at least two years.  


@@High Tech

z40\clipim\2000\03\06\downout.efx Down and out in Silicon Valley:
Seattle Times 2/17/2000


@@jewish poverty

25% of US JEWS IN POVERTY (????)

file: \doc\95\06\asjew.txt paper: asian.history.jew reference:
"Asians, Jews foster ties forged in WWII" Seattle Times May 22, 1995
by Alex Tizon About one-quarter of all Jews in the United States of 6
million total live in poverty, or just above it, according to the
Seattle Chapter of the American Jewish Committee (I don't THINK so...)


@@Length of Poverty

SINGLE MOTHERS 3X 2MO POOR, 8X 2 YRS, BUT ONLY 5.3% POOR 2+ YRS
http://archives.seattletimes.com/cgi-bin/texis/web/vortex/display?storyID=56146&query=poverty
Seattle Times August 10, 1998 Study shows complex picture of U.S.
poor by The Associated Press \clip\98\10\longpoor.txt 

"From 1993 through 1995, 30.3 percent of the population lived below
the poverty line for at least two months.  But just 5.3 percent of
them stayed poor for two full years.  In 1994, nearly half of the
female-headed households lived in poverty for at least two months in
a row, more than three times the poverty rate of married couples.
among the chronically poor. Single mothers were eight times as likely
to live in poverty for two years than married couples were to be poor
for at least two years.  

@@lunch - see asian education lunch for free lunch program eligibility


@@national poverty

http://www.arthurhu.com/index/apoverty.htm#national
Families in Poverty, 1990
Group                             Families in Poverty %
Japanese                                    3.4
Filipino                                    5.2
Melanesian                                  6.5
White                                       7.0
NHwhite                                     7.0
AsIndian                                    7.2
US                                         10.0
Thai                                       10.8
Chinese                                    11.1
Asian                                      11.4
AsPI                                       11.6
Guamanian                                  12.3
Hawaiian                                   12.7
Micronesian                                14.4
Korean                                     14.7
PacIs                                      15.0
Polynesian                                 15.3
OtherAs                                    15.6
Other PI                                   18.7
Tongan                                     20.6
---------------------------------------------
Foreign-born (total)                22.2%
--------------------------------------------
Hispanic                                   22.3
Vietnam                                    23.8
Samoan                                     24.5
Black                                      26.3
NatAm                                      27.0
Laotian                                    32.2
------------------------------------------------
Foreign-born arriving after '90     33.3%
-------------------------------------------------
Cambodian                                  42.1
Hmong                                      61.8


Source: US Census, We the Asian Americans
Immigrant Poverty: \CLIP\97\13\founder.txt Foundering In a Wave of
Immigrants U.S.  Prosperity Eludes Millions of Newcomers The
Washington Post, Saturday, May 10 1997 By William Branigin and Pamela
Constable Washington Post Staff Writers 1996 Census Data


\clip\98\13\povdown.txt
http://www.nytimes.com/yr/mo/day/news/national/census-poverty.html
New York Times, September 25, 1998
Black and Hispanic Poverty Falls, Reducing Overall Rate for the Nation
By ROBERT PEAR
"The poverty rate for non-Hispanic whites was unchanged at 8.6 percent last
year. But the rate for blacks declined to 26.5 percent, the lowest since
the government began collecting data on poverty among African Americans in
1959. The rate among blacks was 28.4 percent in 1996 and 33.1 percent in
1993.

And the poverty rate for Hispanic Americans declined to 27.1 percent, from
29.4 percent in 1996 -- the largest one-year drop in Hispanic poverty
since 1977.


In addition, the bureau said that the poverty rate for noncitizens, 25
percent, was double the rate for people born in the United States.

\doc\96\01\pov94.txt - US Census Poverty in 1993/1994 by race

\doc\94\19\incpov.wk1 - Income and Poverty by Race

US 1990 Median Household Income W1.00($32,960) B-1.69($19,532) H-1.44($22,886), A1.04($34,387)
US 1990 Poverty Rates W1.00(12.2%) B2.71(33.1%) H2.51(30.6%) A1.25(15.3%)

1980 d:\doc\95\01\asianrnk.txt

          Families in Poverty, percent
              4.2  Japanese       -1.67
              6.2  Filipino       -1.13
              7.0  White           1.00
              7.4  AsIndian        1.06
              9.6  US              1.37
             10.3  Asian           1.47
             10.5  Chinese         1.50
             10.5  Pakistani       1.50
             10.7  Asian/PI        1.53
             11.5  Melanesian      1.64
             11.6  Guamanian       1.66
             13.1  Korean          1.87
             13.1  Micronesian     1.87
             13.4  Thai            1.91
             14.3  Hawaiian        2.04
             15.2  Indonesian      2.17
             16.1  PacIsld         2.30
             16.6  Polynesian      2.37
             18.0  Tongan          2.57
             21.3  Hispanic        3.04
             23.7  Native Am       3.39
             26.5  Black           3.79
             27.5  Samoan          3.93
             35.1  Vietnamese      5.01
             46.9  Cambodian       6.70
             65.5  Hmong           9.36
             67.2  Laotian         9.60


\doc\95\03\cens301.txt

    - The 1989 poverty rate for all African American families was about 27
     percent.  In families where the householder worked, the rate declined
     to 16 percent and, if the householder worked full-time (i.e., 35 hours
     or more per week), it declined to 12 percent, and was even lower--6
     percent--when the householder worked full-time, year-round.

@@health insurance

You are poor if you can't cover food, shelter, and medical
care.

see 


@@history

As time goes by, the standard of living goes up and % of income spent
on basics goes down.

%%Century

20th century one of truly amazing changes
US Census Seattle Times Dec 13, 1999
                1900  1997
Household size    4.8   2.6
Death rates /k   17.2   8.6
Life expect men   46    74
Life expect wom   48    79
Influenza death  202    33
Phones            20(1920) 98(1998)
Rural             60    25
Urban             40    75

z50\clip\2001\08\richup.txt
Aug 5 NYtimes.com
Census Data Show a Large Increase in Living Standard
By ERIC SCHMITT
WASHINGTON, Aug. 5 — American standards of living increased
markedly throughout most of the country in the 1990's, bringing
gains in education, housing and mobility along with higher incomes,
according to comprehensive new census data being released on
Monday.

1990 2000   
75   82    High school grad
20   25    Bachlor degree
     90    Households owned a car
     18    3 or more vehicles
73   76    Drove to work
     26+   7 or more rooms in home
     20+   1 in 5 new houses larger than 3,000 sq ft
  1,307    average mortgage
13   11    Car pooling
 5    5    Public Transportation DC 35 NY 27 NJ 11
http://www.nytimes.com/2001/08/06/national/06CENS.html?ex=998091264&ei=1&en=c0eb828f5c6525a0


100 Years Ago
    Only 14 percent of the homes in the United States had a bathtub.
    Only 8 percent of the homes had a telephone.  A three minute call
    from Denver to New York City cost eleven dollars.
    There were only 8,000 cars in the US and only 144 miles of paved
    roads.
    The average wage in the U.S. was twenty-two cents an hour.  The
    average U.S. worker made between $200 and $400 per year.
   A competent accountant could expect to earn $2000 per year, a dentist
    $2500 per year, a veterinarian between $1500 and $4000 per year, and a
    mechanical engineer about $5000 per year.
    More than 95 percent of all births in the United States took place at
    home.
    Most women only washed their hair once a month and used borax or egg
    yolks for shampoo.
    The five leading causes of death in the U.S. were:
        1. Pneumonia and influenza
        2. Tuberculosis
        3. Diarrhea
        4. Heart disease
        5. Stroke
   There were about 230 reported murders in the U.S.annually.

%%England

1500's
saved by the bell
canopy bed
raining cats and dogs


%%Food

The amount of money spent on food has declined, now it is only 1/10
of income.

%of income spent on food
1930 25%
1940 21%
1960 17%
1980 13%
2000 11%

Source: American Farm Bureau Federation
as posted on USATODAY.com 3/2/99
Agriculture Dept Economic Research Service
USAToday 8/2/2001

%%Housing


[[Progress

see housing size

Seattle Times May 8, 1999
Homeonership under 25  up 20% from 1993-98  from 15-18.2 %
25-to 29 up from 34 to 36.2 percent

%%income

income is way, way up compared to the old days

baby boomers are more propsperous than parents were
Seattle Times aug 4, 2000 a6
genaro c armas ap 
median family income for 45-54 increased from 3,440 in 1947 to 61833 in 1998
by census estimate, 23,170 in 1998 dollars. More likely to have more
wealth than income

%%Race

\doc\web\2001\01\pov6799.txt
http://landview.census.gov/income/histpov/hstpov04.txt
Table 4. Poverty Status Status of Families, by Type of Family, Presence    
              of Related Children, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 1999     
      White   Black   Hispanic
1999   7.3    21.9    20.2
1989   7.8    27.8    20.3
1979   6.9    27.9    na
1969   7.7    27.9    na
1959  15.2    na      na
Note: 
o	Over the 28-year period from 1937 to 1965, the level that was considered to be 
	poverty or minimum subsistence for a family of four rose in real terms by 55 
	percent.(220)
o	Over the 28-year period from 1965 to 1993, by contrast, there was no change in 
	real terms in the level of the U.S. poverty line.


http://www.arthurhu.com/apoverty.htm#homeless

@@homelessness

Summary - Asians have consistenly the lowest rates of homelessness in
US cities, as little as 1/16 in SF and less than 1/8 in LA, even
1/1.5 nationally in cities, even though Asians are concentrated in
cities with high rates of homelessness, so national comparison is not
as favorable.

Summary -2.00 = 1/2
Ranked by Asian
------------------------------------------------------
93 US homeless         W1.0 B13.00 H 4.0  A-1.10 N12.0
96 US Mayors           W1.0 B11.84 H 2.77 A-1.40 N7.12
94 US homeless         W1.0 B 8.86 H 3.69 A-2.71 N9.49
93 SF homeless youth   W1.0 B-1.14 H-2.53 A-3.83 N2.50
93 LA homeless         W1.0 B 9.15 H-2.61 A<-8.0 N8.77

%%City


[[Seattle

1999 SURVEY FINDS 1,109 HOMELESS ON SEATTLE STREETS, DOORWAYS
More homeless living downtown, new survey says. Seattle Times Oct 23,
1999 p. A14. 1,019 total, 433 men, 87 women, 477 unknown 22 children,
156 doorways, 131 under roads, bridges, 97 in cars trucks.
filed: zip38\clipim\99\10\23\homeless.gif

%%Politics

\images\98\01\010897\p01.tif The Homeless Don't Need Outreach
WSJ Nov 17, 1997

%%Race

doc938\sfaids93.xls SF HIV survey of homeless youth
   W 1.63/1.0  B-1.14 H-2.53 A-3.82 N 2.50

d:\doc\94\18\ushmls.txt - homeless in america
W1.00(.45) B8.86 H3.69 A-2.71 NA9.49
US Conference of Mayors 1992

doc938\homeless.xls
US            White     Black     Hispanic  Asian     NativeAm
US Index           0.55      6.21      2.65     -1.58      4.59
SF Index           1.18      2.82     -2.05    -16.76        98

Los Angeles HIV survey of homeless
 Men             0.70      8.05     -2.59     0<-7.00      9.71
 Women           0.39     19.43     -2.78     0< 1.33       0
 Both            0.65      9.15     -2.61     0<-7.75      8.77

doc93B\ushomels.wk1
US Index  W(0.36)1.0 B13.0 H4.0 A-1.1 NA 12.0

\clip\97\09\homeless.txt *National Coalition For The Homeless Fact
Sheet #7; on Homeless Families published 3/97*

\doc\web\97\03\homeless.wk1
Analysis by Arthur Hu 1997

source: National Coalition For The Homeless Fact Sheet #7; on
Homeless Families published 3/97 Waxman and Hinderliter, 1996

In a 1996 survey of 29 cities, the US Conference of Mayors found that
the homeless were
           White   Black   HispanicAsian   NatAm
City Homele   30.0%   57.0%   10.0%    1.0%    2.0%
US Populati   74.8%   12.0%    9.0%    3.5%    0.7%
Rate           0.40    4.75    1.11    0.29    2.86
Index          1.00  -11.84   -2.77    1.40   -7.12

Note that even comparing city population with the national population, where
Asians are concentrated in cities, Asians are still 40% less likely than
whites to be homeless.

"Study: Millions have known homelessness" SPI Dec 28, 1994 Columbia
 University study says 13.5 million have been homeless for at least a
 few days, and 12.5 million have had to move in with family or friends
 in American Journal of Public Health, phone survey of 1,507 adults.
 Total is 26 million. Comment: That's like saying unemployment is 98%
 when it's actually only 5-10% at any given moment.

 census homeless counts by city

%%Veteran

VETERANS ARE LESS POOR THAN GENERAL POPULATION
Seattle Times May 25, 2003
Poverty rate for veterans is 1/2 general population, 6% vs. 11% in 2000
according to Census Bureau.

\clip\96\08\homevet.txt Mike Fumento comments on AP claim that 1/3 of
homeless are veterans - this is unverified and is said just to get
sympathy.

 "One-third of homeless seeking shelter are vets" Rocky Mountain
News, Denver CO: By Beth Powell Associated Press WASHINGTON -- A
third of homeless men seeking shelter are veterans, mostly combat
veterans from the Korean, Vietnam or the Persian Gulf conflicts,
according to a Veterans Day survey released Saturday.
http://www.insidedenver.com/news/1109home8.html - size 10.8K 

"The survey of 11,000 men seeking shelter in 58 missions in late
October showed 32 percent were veterans. By comparison, Veterans
Affairs figures show about 19 percent of the male population are
former members of the armed forces.  " (International Union of Gospel
Missions)


@@Housing Projects

Government housing projects have become synonymous for warehouses for
the nonworking welfare poor, mostly black, but also for other races
such as Asians and poor whites. In the 90's, many are being torn down
in favor of low-rise mixed income projects. While it is well
publicized that whites are known to attack blacks in their projects,
Blacks in San Francisco have also harrassed and attacked Asians, but
that never made the NY Times.


[[Chicago

4 OUT OF 5 CABRINI GREEN RESIDENTS ACTUALLY LIKES IT THERE
c:\doc\web\97\02\cabgren.txt US News and World Report Dec 26, 1996
"I'm Ok, You're Not" 

[[Seattle

"Holly's Loss" The Stranger April 10, 1997 p. 7 F041597 Seattle's
Holly Park, originally built as tempory defence worker housing will
be bulldozed in favor of mixed income housing. Critics say it will
destroy one of the better developments (but it is openly regarded as
the worst and most troubled development in the city) Most new
low-income units cost $100,000 to $120,000 to build, the new Holly
Park will cost $157,000 not including the land which the housing
authority already owns.

@@hunger

\doc\94\19\sfhunger.wk1 - Hunger by race in San Francisco
W1.00(10%) B2.60(26%) H1.60(16%) A1.20(12%) N2.10(21%)
"S.F Hunger Rampant, Report Says"
San Francisco Chronicle Nov 22, 1994 p. 1

@@Immigrant children

22 IMMIG CHILDREN POOR VS 7 US OF 2-PARENTS
z67\clip\2005\02\immpov.txt
Young Children of Immigrants in Two-Parent Families Have
Triple the Poverty Rate of Children With U.S.-Born Parents
http://www.ascribe.org/cgi-bin/behold.pl?ascribeid=20050208.080138&time=08%2048%20PST&year=2005&public=1
Tue Feb 8 08:47:58 2005 Pacific Time
          Young Children of Immigrants in Two-Parent Families Have
    Triple the Poverty Rate of Children With U.S.-Born Parents
       WASHINGTON, Feb. 8 (AScribe Newswire) -- One in five young 
children of immigrants in two-parent families lives below the federal 
poverty level-triple the rate for children with U.S.-born parents, new 
research from the nonpartisan Urban Institute shows. Twenty-two percent 
in the first group are poor versus 7 percent in the latter.


@@income: 

Asians tend to have higher household incomes, but lower per capita
incomes. Nationally, the difference is small, but in many major
cities Asian per capita income is as low or lower than blacks, and
about half that of whites. Incomes for southeast Asians is much lower
than even blacks.

%%education

doc933\wagegap.xls - Blacks make less, but Asian men gap is even more!



%%immigration

ASIAN IMMIGRANTS HIGHEST INCOME, MOST IMMIGRANTS BELOW NATIVE
\clip\99\19\prosimm.txt
http://www.suntimes.com:80/output/news/immi15.html Asians most
prosperous immigrants October 15, 1999 BY RANDOLPH E. SCHMID
ASSOCIATED PRESS WASHINGTON--Asian immigrants are the best-off
financially of all foreign-born Americans, with median incomes higher
even than native-born Americans, the Census Bureau says.

$42,900  asian immigrant
$36,100  native
$31,300  european imm
$30,000  foreign born
$24,100  Latin America

A. Dianne Schmidley, co-author of "Profile of the Foreign-Born
Population of the United States: 1997."

poverty rate was 21 percent for the foreign-born population in 1996,
compared with 12.9 percent for the native population.

doc934\asmoney.xls - Money by race and immigration years.

%%Scientist

From:           	"Au Lac" 
Subject:        	National Science Foundation on Asian American Salaries
Date sent:      	Wed, 03 Nov 1999 11:24:12 CST

The NSF did a survey some years ago on minority salaries as compared
to whites. As expected, whites fared the best while AAs came in a
close, but still behind, second. Interesting contrast with the high
salaries of immigrant Asians though.

http://www.the-scientist.library.upenn.edu/yr1991/sept/prof1_910916.html

"The study also found that Asian Ph.D.'s earn less than whites in most 
disciplines."

"One field in which minorities fared better is the environmental sciences, 
in which, the survey found, salaries for blacks and Asians are higher than 
those for whites."

MEDIAN ANNUAL SALARIES OF DOCTORAL SCIENTISTS BY FIELD AND RACE/ETHNIC 
GROUP, 1989
Field      Total   White     Black    Native  Asian  Hispanic
                                      American

All       $52,200  $52,400  $47,200 $48,700   $51,700  $48,300
Scientists
Physical  56,000    56,700   50,100  51,300    52,500  54,300
Scientists
Chemists  55,000    55,700    45,600    --     52,000  53,700
Physicists 58,600   58,700    57,200    --     57,300  56,000
Math       51,600   51,900    44,500    --     47,900  44,000
Scientists
Mathe-     51,600   51,800    50,100    --     48,600  42,700
matician
Statis-    51,500   52,900    --        --     47,700  --
ticians
Computer/. 58,500   58,300    --        --     60,100  56,900
Info. Spec
Environ.   55,100   54,800    63,400    --     55,900  49,300
Scientists
Earth      55,700   55,400    63,400    --     60,900  49,500
Scientists
Oceano-   50,600    50,600    --        --     55,100  --
graphers
Atmos.    53,300    54,600    --        --     48,100  --
Scientists
Life      50,700    50,800    46,300    51,100 50,400  50,100
Scientists
Biol.     50,200    50,200    46,700    --     50,000  50,200
Scientists
Agric.    48,700    49,000    40,200    --     45,500  37,700
Scientists
Medical   55,300    55,400    46,900    67,100 56,100  59,500
Scientists
Psycho-
logists   50,100    50,200    44,400    48,500 44,200  45,700


@@income effect on poverty

"Can't buy me love" Economist June 21, 1997 p. 29 Review of "What Money 
Can't Buy" by Susan Mayer says that study shows that raising the incomes of 
the poor from $15,000 to $30,000 year would not have much effect on the 
outcomes of the children of the poor. High school drop out rates would only fall 
from 17.3 to 16.1% and teen mothers only from 20% to 18%. Chart ;shows 
behavioral index about same, reading about same, mathematics only up from 
102 to 103, and vocabulary from 95 to 98. Revies mentions Chicago study that 
shows black students improved when they moved to the suburbs, which they 
might be able to do if they had more money.



@@Net Worth

Asians may be #1 in household income, but probably because most are
immigrants, their net worth is much less than whites, but more than
other minorities


The Federal Reserve reported that median Latino household net worth fell 
by 24 percent between 1995 to 1998; median net worth (half of households 
have less, half have more) was $12,170 in 1995 and $9,200 in 1998.  Most 
experts said that the reason for the drop was an influx of poor 
immigrants.  Average Latino household income (total wealth per household) 
rose from $61,000 in 1995 to $86,000 in 1998.  For more information: 
(www.federalreserve.gov/)

The net worth (a household's assets--houses, cars, investments, bank 
accounts minus its debts) of a median household, in inflation-adjusted 
1998 dollars: 

      1995        1998
Whites     81,243    95,610
All races  60,534    72,100
Other      32,710    42,800
Latinos    12,170     9,200
Blacks     10,620    15,000

Suggested citations: Census 2000; Bilingual Education. Migration News. 
April 2000. Vol. 7.  No 4. http://migration.ucdavis.edu or Migration 
News. 2000.  Census 2000; Bilingual Education. April. Vol 7.  No 4. 


@@Race


MOST TV POOR ARE BLACK, MOST REAL POOR ARE WHITE

\clip\97\19\poor.txt Associated Press 08/18/1997 19:29 EST Study:
Media Portrays Poor as Black NEW HAVEN, Conn. (AP) -- The media uses
pictures of blacks more often than whites to illustrate stories about
poverty even though most of the nation's poor are white, a Yale
University study found. [blacks are 62% of poor on TV, but only 29%
of actual poor population]

@@survey

\clip\96\04\rurlwhit.txt \clip\96\04\rurlwhit.txt The title of this
story is misleading. Most poor are white is not the same as whites
are the poorest. Blacks have the highest national poverty rate of the
major races, in some cities, Asians and Hispanics are as poor or have
even lower per capita incomes than blacks. In cities like Seattle,
there are no predominantly white neighborhoods with poverty rates
approaching the 40% definition of a ghetto.

\clip\96\04\typpoor.txt Date: Tue, 17 Sep 1996 00:52:45 -0400 From:
NewsHound@sjmercury.com (NewsHound) Study: Typical Poor American Is
White And Rural, Not An Urban Minority By RICHARD KEIL Associated
Press Writer. most welfare recipients are white and live in the
suburbs or rural areas -- and a third will lift themselves out of
poverty within 12 months. Less than half the poor receive cash
assistance, more than half the poors income from wages or job related
pensions.  Non-Hispanic whites make up 48 percent of the poor,
followed by blacks, 27 percent, and Hispanics, 22 percent. 40% live
in single parent homes, only 34% are in two-parent homes.


@@Underclass

\clip\99\05\badnews2.txt (http://www.aei.org/ps/psmurray.htm) The
Underclass Revisited Charles Murray Bradley Fellow, American
Enterprise Institute

\clip\99\05\badnews.txt And Now for the Bad News By Charles Murray
02/02/99 The Wall Street Journal (Copyright (c) 1999, Dow Jones &
Company, Inc.)  Crime is down because we locked up all the criminals.

As of 1996, 2 percent of white adults and 9 percent of black adults
were under correctional supervision. The proportional increase from
1991=9696 was about equal for each race (21 percent for whites, 20
percent for blacks).

Among 16- to 24-year-old black males not in school, the proportion
who are not working or looking for work averaged 17% during the
1980s. It first hit 20% in 1992. As of 1997, it stood at 23%. The
magnitude of dropout among white males the same age not in school is
smaller, 9% in 1997.


@@Unemployment

also see economy

WHITES LOWEST, BLACKS HIGHEST UNEMPLOYMENT
file: Z79\DOC\WEB\2004\04\famunem.wk1
Families with unemployed members in the household
W1.00 B-1.93 H-1.56 A-1.32
            2002    2003    2002    2003
Total        7.8     8.1   -1.11   -1.14
White          7     7.1    1.00    1.00
Black       13.1    13.7   -1.87   -1.93
Asian          9     9.4   -1.29   -1.32
Hispanic    11.2    11.1   -1.60   -1.56
Seattle Post Intelligencer 4/26/2004

@@urban/rural
d:\priv\94\19\subpov.txt
Tufts University John Cook
Children living in poverty
       1973   1992   Change%
suburb 7.8%   13.8%  77%
urban 20.4%   31.9%  56%
rural 16.6%   22.5%  36%
39.7% in 73 lived in suburbs vs. 47.5 now, nearly half


@@welfare

See @@welfare


@@world

Hunger spectrum

% suffering from acute malnutrition
16% North Korea 1998
18% India Bangladesh

%%Hunger

Oxfam Hunger Banquets Every day, 60,000 people starve to death, or
die of hunger-related disease. In the poorest countries, 15 million
children die each year before they reach age 5, largely because they
lack adequate nutrition and health care. Oxfam...  95%
http://www.tufts.edu/as/stu-org/oxfam/banquet.html

filed: \clip\98\18\unicef\underwt.htm
 UNICEF Map:
Underweight Children Shows SE Asia (Vietnam, Cambodia Laos) and S
Asia (India Pakistan), Central Africa over 30%, China, Iran/Iraq,
rest of Africa 15-30, developed world, most of Americas < 15%

6 MILLION WORLDWIDE CHILD DEATHS PARTLY DUE TO HUNGER?
http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/altfeed_121697.html
\clip\98\18\malnut.txt The Seattle Times - Today's Top Stories
Tuesday, Dec. 16, 1997 U.N.: Malnutrition plagues children by Craig
Turner and John-Thor Dahlburg Los Angeles Times UNITED NATIONS -
Despite a global decline in poverty in recent years, malnutrition
plagues millions of the world's children and is partly responsible
for more than half of all child deaths each year, the U.N.
Children's Fund warns in a report to be issued today in Paris.
Malnutrition is a factor in 55 percent of the estimated 12 million
preventable deaths each year of children younger than 5, UNICEF says
in its annual report on state of the world's children.


http://www.nytimes.com/library/world/asia/121098nkorea-food.html
\clip\98\18\nkorea.txt New York Times December 10, 1998 In North
Korean Hunger, Legacy Is Stunted Children By ELISABETH ROSENTHAL

62 percent of children under 7 years old suffer from stunted growth.

most experts agree that probably more than one million and perhaps as
many as three million have died prematurely since the food shortages
began. 

one limited study of 4,000 children hand-picked by the Government,
and found 10 percent had a parent who was dead. 

16 percent of children were suffering from acute malnutrition and
were underweight for their height
  
That figure is higher than in any country in East Asia and puts North
Korea among the world's worst 10 countries in terms of malnutrition.
India and Bangladesh are the worst in the world with an 18 percent
rate, but they have pockets of poverty while all of N Korea is
starving.

[problems] linked to the collapse of the Soviet Union, which had long
been North Korea's main supplier of food, fuel and fertilizer. 


%%poor
\clip\97\19\apoverty.txt Copyright 1997 Associated Press 08/26/1997
Report: Asian poverty Declines 

     By HARRY DUNPHY 
     Associated Press Writer 

" ``This decline in poverty is probably completely unprecedented in
human history,'' said Michael Walton, who helped edit the report.
``In the mid-1970s, six out of 10 households in east Asia lived in
absolute poverty. In the mid 1990s that (figure) has declined to two
out of 10....  Poverty has been largely eradicated in the four Asian
``tiger `` economies of Hong Kong, China; South Korea; Singapore and
Taiwan and has sharply declined in Indonesia and Thailand,'' "

UN: WORLD ON WAY TO ELIMINATING POVERY
http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/poor_061297.html
\clip\97\15\povdown.txt The Seattle Times Company Thursday, June 12,
1997 U.N. says poverty can be wiped out by John Omicinski Gannett
News Service

" ...in the past half-century, reducing the chronically poor by 1
billion people... optimism was based on economic growth over the past
two decades that has raised the standard of living for 1.5 billion
people. More than three-fourths of the world's population can expect
to survive to 40 years of age. Adult illiteracy has been cut by
nearly half, and infant mortality has been cut by nearly
three-fifths. Global poverty fell faster in the past 50 years than in
the previous 500, says the annual report of the UNDP." So much for
alarms that the world we're all going to be starving and dying from
overpopulation.

Most notable was giant China, which cut the numbers of poor by 79
percent in the past 25 years.


d:\doc\94\15\worlpov.wk1
         Huddle Masses: % of Population in Poverty, 1980-90

         Bangladesh         79%        19
         Ethiopia           60%        41
         Vietnam            55%        16
         Philippines        55%        49
         Brazil             45%         3
         India              40%         7
         Nigeria            40%         7
         Pakistan           30%        33
         Indonesia          25%        44
         China              10%        28
         Approx read from graph +/- 3 points
         Foreign aid per poor person $, 1992

Note that the US definition of poverty is about 11%. By the UN
definition, it might be less than 1% since all but the homeless
(about .5% of the population) get health care, housing and food.

@@working poor

e:\clip\96\03\workpoor.txt Date: Sun, 1 Sep 1996 03:27:54 -0400 From:
NewsHound@sjmercury.com (NewsHound) Study Finds Working Doesn't Help
the Poor Escape Poverty By BURT HERMAN More than 2 million
Californians live in families with incomes below the federal poverty
level, despite the presence of one or more adults who have held jobs
in their household, the study found

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