Anything Index: Military Minorities

(c) 1995-2011 please cite when using data from here mail me on how to get more complete data or complete text of these references


Asians / Pacific Islanders are generally underrepresented in the
military, except in the Navy, San Francisco applicants, and they are
close to parity among officers. Filipinos and Guamanians are the only
groups far above parity in armed forces membership, and probably
explain large presence in the Navy. Asians are the least likely to
plan to join the armed services in high school, and most likely to
go to college.

Blacks are overrepresented in most of the armed services except the
Air Force, among officers, and Desert Storm killed (probably because
most of those killed were disproportionately pilots with low ground

Ranked by Asian relative representation
Summary                   W    B     H     A     N
Guamanians in Armed Force 1.00             10.92
Filipino in Armed Forces  1.00              5.00
1991 Desert Storm Navy    1.00  1.54 -1.95  1.33 -1.71
San Francisco Applicants  1.00 -1.16 -4.79  1.12  3.23
Armed Forces Officers 88  1.00 -2.1  -2.0  -1.2  -4.7
US Military Applicants    1.00  1.64 -1.44 -1.28 -1.28
1991 Desert Storm Marines 1.00  1.15 -1.57 -1.94  1.38
Veteran Status            1.00 -1.16 -2.00 -2.00 -1.16
Coast Guard Officers      1.00 -5.18 -5.13 -2.39 -1.59
HS plan Military Serv     1.00  1.60  2.2  -2.5   NA
1991 Desert Storm Army    1.00  2.29 -2.63 -2.76 -1.29
1991 Desert Storm AF      1.00 -1.22 -4.51 -3.18 -1.36
USMC KIA Desert Storm     1.00 -1.5  -2.9  -3.2  -1.1
Vietnamese in Armed Force 1.00             -5.55



\clip\98\17\adp02.txt Army forces blacks into combat jobs November 23, 1998 By
Rowan Scarborough The Washington Times "The Army has begun ordering
more black second lieutenants into combat positions because minority
officers are shunning artillery, infantry and tank units in favor of
rear-echelon support jobs, according to an internal Army memo.

Seattle Times Jan. 16, 1997 About-face in the U.S. infantry Now it's
mostly white, while blacks hold majority of office jobs by Thomas E.
Ricks Wall Street Journal
\clip\97\01\NEWARMY.TXT Few inner city blacks qualify to apply to the
Army. Whites want to be Rambo, blacks want a good career office job.

 Only 9 percent of the new infantry is black, compared with 11.8 percent
     of the civilian population aged 18-44. In 1995, 79 percent of the new troopers were white, compared
     with 74.3 percent of civilians. 

Army promotion rate to colonel for blacks is half that for whites in
'98 There is ``extreme concern'' in the Pentagon, a spokesman said. A
study has been ordered.  By Susanne M. Schafer ASSOCIATED PRESS


\priv\95\17\armyrect.txt ARMY FIGHTS FOR MORE RECRUITS  San Jose

Mercury News 11/13/95 By ERIC SCHMITT New York Times
Percentage of men 16-24 yrs old who said they were inclined to
join the military:

        Percent       Index
        1989    1994  1989    1994
black   42      23    1.90    1.17
white   22      19.5  1.00    1.00


Saturday, March 01, 2003
Asian-Americans and Military Service
Eric Lien: New California Media reports briefly on Asian-Americans in the US
Koreans Outnumber Other Asians in U.S. Military Service Koreans lead
other Asian Americans in the U.S. armed forces, according to numbers
released by the Pentagon in the Korea Times.  As of last October,
Asian American service men and women -- active and reserve -- numbered
16,740. Koreans made up more than one third of this number, with 6,367
serving in the army, the Pentagon statistics showed. Koreans were
followed by Japanese Americans with 3,794, Chinese (3,616), and
Vietnamese (2,963).  That is to say, on a per-capita basis, Koreans
are 1.24 times as likely as Japanese (who are 74% as numerous in the
general population), 2.24 times as likely as Vietnamese (who are
equally numerous), and 3.25 times as likely as Chinese (who are 2.15
times as numerous) to volunteer for US military service. 
Seattle Times Company
May 14, 2000 
21 Asian-American vets to get Medal of Honor 

WASHINGTON - Twenty-one Asian-American veterans of World War II will
receive the Medal of Honor, the nation's highest honor for valor in
combat, for their heroism in France, Italy and the Philippines, the
Army announced Friday. 


Common wisdom: 
Blacks most likely to have most dangerous combat jobs
Least fortunate blacks go to military

Not so common
Whites most likely to have risky jobs such as pilot
Above average blacks join the military

z63\clip\2003\01\blackmil.txt USA Today 21 2003 Page 1A Front-line
troops disproportionately white, not black Numbers refute long-held
belief By Dave Moniz and Tom Squitieri USA TODAY In a host of
high-risk slots [and high education] -- from Army commandos to Navy
and Air Force fighter pilots -- blacks constitute less than 5% of the
force, statistics show.

* Of the Army's 45,586 enlisted combat infantryman, 10.6% are black.
* Of the Air Force's 12,000 pilots, 245, or about 2%, are black.
* In the Navy, 2.5% of the pilots are black.

"several theories have emerged, including lingering racism in some
quarters of the military and a tendency among black recruits to
choose jobs that help them find work in the civilian sector."

z63\clip\2003\01\minarm.txt Thu, 16 Jan 2003 01:37:04 EST Are soldiers
mostly black & poor?  by Steve Sailer UPI National Correspondent Not only do black
and white soldiers come from households of almost equal income, but
their educational attainments are virtually identical. In 1994, 99
percent of black and 97 percent of white Army enlisted personnel were
high school graduates, figures above the national average...on a
number of measures, African-American enlistees tend to stand well
above the black average and very close to, or above, the mean for
white enlistees. ..The racial gap in test scores that bedevils
American civilian society is a much smaller problem in the Army.
Moskos and Sibley found that in 1994: "83 percent of white recruits
scored in the upper half of the mental aptitude test (compared with 61
percent of white youths in the national population), while 59 percent
of black recruits scored in the upper half (compared with 14 percent
of the black youths nationwide)."

Sailer notes: because it provides an IQ explanation for why blacks and
whites get along so famously in the U.S. Army: the average black
enlistee has an IQ of 99 (if white Americans are 100), judging from
the AFQT test that the Bell Curve was based upon.  If you add in black
officers' IQ, then the overall black score for the Army would be at or
above the white national average. (This data is from Moskos & Sibley's
fine book "All That We Can Be," 1996). 

@@black history

priv\95\03\blakship.txt - Only one ship in Navy in WWII manned
by blacks

\clip\97\02\vetdecry.txt Copyright © 1997 The Seattle Times Company
Jan. 24, 1997 Veterans decry Army book about black regiment 

@@British Army

British Army seeks minorities \clip\97\25\britarm.txt ]
Copyright © 1997 The Seattle Times Company Tuesday, Oct. 28, 1997 by
qWilliam D. Montalbano Los Angeles Times "The goal is that within
five years the army should reflect the 7 percent of ethnic minorities
in British society.  Right now, about 1,100 minority soldiers serve
in the army - about 1 percent of the 112,200-member force. In the
British civil service, minorities total about 5 percent."


Breakdown of U.S. soldiers wounded in Iraq action
By race:
White    58.6%
Black     9.2%   Only slightly higher than white rate
Hispanic  6.5%
Asian     1.2%   Only about 1/4 of population
Other     0.8%   Native Am, Al Native, Pac Islander
Unknown  23.3%
Source: Dept of Defence New England Journal of Medicine
Seattle Post Intelligencer Dec 9, 2004
"In-field care helps 90% in Iraq survive wounds"



The tale of Boeing's high-risk flight into the jet age

Until 1958, more people crossed the Atlantic Ocean aboard ships than
on airplanes. And fewer than 1 in 10 American adults had ever even
been on an airplane. In the new book "Jet Age," author Sam Howe
Verhovek takes a look at how Boeing President Bill Allen and test
pilot Tex Johnston changed everything by betting the company on the
jet age.
By Sam Howe Verhovek


z44\clipim\2000\07\24\chinww2.efx Hom uncovers forgotten history of
WWII's Chinese Americans Northwest Asian Weekly's July 1-July 7, 2000
Decades later, Flying Tigers receive a hero’s welcome at home in Seattle
Posted on 22 September 2010
Tags: 2010, Flying Tigers, Vol 29 No 39 | September 25 - October 1
By Sarah Yee
Northwest Asian Weekly

A photo of the 987th Signal Company during field training at Camp
Crowder, Mo., in 1943 (Photo provided by Christina Lim)

At their 24th formal reunion, Wayne Wong and his friends recollected
serving as Flying Tigers. They belonged to the 14th Air Force and the
987th Signal Company — the only all-Chinese American units that served
the U.S. Army during World War II.

In 1945, they were received by Seattle’s Chinese American community
with a hero’s welcome upon returning from duty. Last week, the city of
Seattle welcomed them once again during their annual reunion.

“We are like brothers. We are blessed people. We served our country,”
said Harry Lim.

Attendees at the reunion included Mack Pong, Albert Chinn, Wilfred
Eng, and Tom Lew — all proud veterans in their 80s.

@@coast guard

As of Sept. 30, 1994, 8.7 percent of 5,859 officers in the Coast
Guard were minorities. Of those, 173 or 3 percent were black, 164 or
2.8 percent were Hispanic, 141 or 2.4 percent were Asian-American or
Pacific Islander, and 33 or 0.6 percent were native Americans.

\doc\94\19\coastgd.wk1 - Coast Guard Officers by Race 1994
W1.00(1.28) B-5.18 H-5.13 A-2.39 NA -1.59 Min -4.22


Military minorities doubt chances for advancement, study says
Associated Press Nov 23, 1999 \clip\99\20\milmin.txt In the survey, 9
percent of blacks, 6 percent of Hispanics, 5 percent of American
Indians or Alaskan natives, 4 percent of Asian Pacific islander, but
only 2 percent of whites, said they had been unfairly punished
because of their race, the survey suggested. 


1st 4 star Asian American/PI General
>>We are proud to announce that one of our own, General Eric K. Shinseki,
>>has just been promoted to a 4-star General, and took over as Commander 
>>in Chief of U.S. Army Europe and 7th Army, and NATO Land Forces.
>>This is a HISTORIC  FIRST.  General Shinseki is the first American of 
>>Asian Pacific Islander heritage to attain the rank of full General 
>>(4-stars) in the history of the US Military.  General Shinseki was born
>>in Hawaii and is of Japanese ancestry.
Wang Yung, Seattle OCA 8/97

Military Diversity Statistics

The Defense Equal Opportunity
Management Institute has a nice summary of profiles of race,
ethnic, and Jewish groups at

Jewish data is at

They also have a place where you can request a handout with a
breakdown of miliary personell by race, and job description.

\doc\94\18\priv\iraqawac.txt - Chinese charged in
Iraq friendly shootdown.

\doc\94\17\armypop.txt - army personell 1994
Racial/ethnic composition:
              Force (%)   Commissioned officers (%)  Enlisted
    White        62                  82                   59
    Black        27                  11                   30
    Hispanic     5                    2.7                  5
    Other        5                    4.2                  6


\doc\94\17\hivmilit.wk1 HIV Prevalence Among Military Recruits

Hispanics least, Asians next least, blacks most likely to
be applicant, relative to population in WA and USA.

Applicants by race:
        Tested        Pop           Index
        WA     USA    WA     USA    WA     USA
White       88%    72%  86.5%  75.2%  1.02   0.96
Black        5%    19%   3.1%  12.1%  1.59   1.64
Hisp         3%     6%   4.4%   9.0% (1.49) (1.44)
API+NAm      5%     3%   6.0%   4.0% (1.22) (1.28)
White vs. Avg, others vs. white = 1.0


Minorities in the Military
Veteran Status, Males over 16, 1980 Census

 White     36%  1.00
 Guamanian 32%
 Native Am 31% -1.16
 Japanese  27%
 Black     26% -1.38
 Filipino  21%
 Hispanic  18% -2.00
 Asian     18% -2.00
 Chinese   12%
 Korean    12%
 AsianInd   4%
 OtherAsian 8%

Comment: Asians the least likely to be veterans, along with Hispanics
in general, but some ethnic groups are high.


SF Chronicle Feb 9, 1991, A11 "Volunteer Army Facing First Big
Test in Gulf War" Source: DOD, Census

Blacks over-represented in Army(2.19) and Marines(1.30)
Whites over-represented (1.13) in Air Force
Asians under-represented (-2 to -3) except in Navy (1.33),
and among officers (-1.2, 20% short of parity)
Hispanics under-represented in all services.

Indexed White=1.00 relative to population
 Entire Military, 1991
            White     Black     NativeAm  Hispanic  Asian
 Army          -1.07      2.19     -1.63     -2.73     -2.15
 Navy           1.06      1.06     -1.49     -2.41      1.19
 Marines        1.03      1.30     -1.03     -1.79     -2.57
 Air Force      1.13     -1.05     -1.13     -3.86     -1.99

 Desert Sword in Jan 1991 (mostly combat)
            White     Black     NativeAm  Hispanic  Asian
 Army          -1.09      2.29     -1.29     -2.63     -2.76
 Navy          -1.03      1.54     -1.71     -1.95      1.33
 Marines        1.04      1.15      1.38     -1.57     -1.94
 Air Force      1.16     -1.22     -1.36     -4.51     -3.18

 Index: Officers in Armed Forces, 1988
            White     Black     NativeAm  Hispanic  Asian
                 1.2      -2.1      -4.7      -2.0      -1.2

US Census data

Indexed representation of those over 16 in Armed Forces, 1980 white =

Notes: Only Guamanian and Filipinos over-represented, explains
why Asians are over-represented in the Navy.

Guam      1092.7
Filipino   499.9
Korean     101.8
----------------- parity
Japanese    85.6
OtherAsian  59.7
Chinese     33.9
AsIndian    29.5
Vietnamese  18.1

  doc91\asarmy.doc Hu's on First column: Asians in military

  doc911\ASKIA Asians killed in action, desert storm 

  doc938\sfaids93.xls San Francisco civilian applications
   WBHAN  1.37   -1.16   -4.79    1.12      3.23


  doc938\marinkia - desert storm killed in action


 US Marine Casualties Killed in Action by Race
 Desert Storm

                White     Black     Hispanic  Asian     NatAm    Total
 Combat                90        16         7         2        1       116
 NonCombat            150         9         3         1        1       164
 Total                240        25        10         3        2       280

                White     Black     Hispanic  Asian     NatAm
 Combat             77.6%     13.8%      6.0%      1.7%      0.9%
 NonCombat          91.5%      5.5%      1.8%      0.6%      0.6%
 Total              85.7%      8.9%      3.6%      1.1%      0.7%

 Population         75.3%     12.0%      9.0%      3.0%      0.7%
 Index                1.1      -1.5      -2.9      -3.2      -1.1

 Relative to White=1.0, -2.0 = 1/2

Rank by race
White  1.1
NatAm -1.1
Black -1.5
Hisp  -2.9
Asian -3.2

 Relative to US population, Whites most likely to have been killed in
action (1.1)

 Asians and Hispanics were least (1/3)
 Source:  A Line in the Sand (CD-ROM) briefing slides,
 supplemental slides


  doc938\marintst.doc officer's test

  doc942\jpmarine.txt - japanese american promoted after discrimination

  doc93b\usmcrace.xls - usmc test results by race



\clip\96\08\hispwar.txt Raoul Contrares lists contributions
and medals for Hispanic soldiers.


\priv\95\20\okinawa.htm From reversion through August this
year, 4,748 crimes were committed by American servicemen, including
12 murders. The rape of a schoolgirl in September was symbolic of
such crimes. Asahi news Japan 12/22/95

\priv\95\17\okinmurd.txt - There have been more than 4500 cases of
crimes committed by US servicemen - including 12 murders - in Okinawa
since 1972, the year when it reverted to Japan's control.


\priv\95\17\japnvet.txt New York Times 11/12/95 "Japanese
Vets Finally Getting Their Due" c.1995 N.Y. Times News Service


Jewish War Veterans A study of Jewish
participation in the military during World War II clearly indicates
Jews served in the Armed Forces beyond their numerical proportion to
the general population. They received more than 52,000 awards,
including the coveted Congressional Medal of Honor. Jews participated
in the Korean War, in Vietnam, and most recently in the Persian Gulf
War. \clip\97\05\jvw2.txt


Institute Press 1991 Aircraft carrier composition is 77% white,
21-22% African American, 0.5 Asian (vs. 3% national) .2-.3 Native

\clip\97\07\navydiv.txt "The
Navy in the Puget Sound region is almost 30 percent minority,
including 13.5 percent African-American and 7.8 percent Asian.  (8.7
other) " Seattle Times Tuesday, March 11, 1997 Snohomish County's
educators gather to do some diversity homework 


\doc\95\10\milpole.txt - poles have highest rate of veterans,
were disproportionately in Army in WWI and casualties.

    d:\doc\94\19\edplans.wk1 - Educational plans of HS sophomores

Index            All      White    Hispanic Black   Asian
HS plan Mil Service 1.40     1.00     2.20     1.60    -2.50

Asians least likely to choose military, most likely to choose 4 yr college

@@vietnam veterans

PBS "Chicano!" documentary, April 1996 "According to
many sources" Mexican Americans accounted for 20% of Vietnam
casualties, but only 12% of the US Southwest.

\doc\95\14\vietvet.txt "Enemies All Around" Asian Week Nov
3, 1995 p. 17 Alethea Yip. The 1990 Census showed that there are
88,118 APA Vietnam vets, slightly more than 1 percent of the total
number of Americans who served. However, the US Department of Defence
did not track the number officially. The only official count of APA
deaths is 603, based on the sum of Malayan, Mongolian, or other.
Peter Kiang counted 250 names on the wall, based on surnames, but
Spanish names for Filipinos and names which were also Western such as
Young and Lee were not counted.

@@end military

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