Intelligence: Anydex

updated 1/31/2013 | Contents| Home | Top of Index | Diversity / Politics / Opinion

(c) Anything Index: please cite when using data from here Top of Index | Home

This is one of the top 10 pages on this website (200/wk, 10k/yr). Contact me to place ad links

- also see testing SAT, LSAT, NEAP, literacy, etc. | Support and Advice for online PhD programs

Contents

Introduction: Intelligence and Equality

*** WARNING! DO NOT USE INTELLIGENCE TO DISCRIMINATE OR MISTREAT ANYBODY BUT ONLY AS A TOOL OF KNOWLEDGE ***

If all people are equal, then why aren't we all equal in income and economic / political power, and why are we even more sensitive when we try to measure differences in intelligence and explain the reasons why all people and peoples are different?

Now I'm Asian, and when it comes to Asians and intelligence, there are two camps. One is that Asians score better in math and get better grades, but aren't any more intelligent. The other is that they get better test scores and grades because they are more intelligent. In any case, nobody has put Asian Americans significantly below Whites since the mid 20th century. Since the 1980s and 1990s, Asians have scored as well or better on the SAT and most other standardized tests if you add up the verbal, writing and math scores. It's skills, not IQ which have a direct bearing on getting a job or admission into schools so the point is moot, and the progress of Asians shows that groups that were behind can move ahead. Still to be fair, there's quite a difference between the Chinese laborers who settled the west in the 1890s and the wave of tech people who settled in Silicon Valley in the late 20th century.

When it comes to African Americans, there are two camps. One is that Blacks score less well because of intelligence among other factors. The other is that there is no such thing as intelligence, if there is such a thing it is distributed equally across all ethnic, regional and ethnic groups, and that there are no valid comparisons to determine things like thinking skills. Most reputable sources maintain there is no evidence that any groups of people are unequal in ability. Yet they fail to cite any tests which demonstrate show equal outcomes for all groups in all abilities. Even more interesting is that a recent study of income in Canada shows blacks get higher incomes than Koreans. If income is the ultimate market-Q test that trumps IQ, clearly SOME blacks score higher than SOME asians.

This is because there are no general tests of intelligence that show the general population of blacks scoring equal to or better than the general white population (though it is not hard to find groups of blacks that score average in public or private schools, or even outstanding in some places). Many say that it's only a matter of inferior schools, less education, less income, or less spending. Yet every data point shows lower test scores even with equal income, even in districts with the best scores. This is true even in upscale black suburbs like Prince George County with highly educated parents. Even enormous amounts of spending on public education in places like Kansas City does not produce universal academic "success". Income only accounts for a fraction of the difference in IQ.

The nearly universal assumption that intelligence is not different are based on the central claim that all IQ tests are invalid. There are no IQ tests that show the races to be the same, though there have been few that score uneducated criminals higher than college educated police officers in "street" IQ. This is the classic "all of the evidence to the contrary is wrong, even if there is no evidence to support my contention, therefore you cannot disprove the zero hypothesis of equality". However, high Asian scores are inconsistent with racist bias, since that would imply the Asian advantage is based on unfair discrimination against whites.

When they come ahead, Asians come up 5 to 10 points higher than average, or about 1/3 to 1/2 as far ahead of whites as whites are ahead of blacks. Asians as a group aren't as high as Jews, but Chinese and Indians broken out separately do nearly as well on SAT tests. Asians fall behind in culturally based measures such as english skills or "document literacy", but are uniformly better in math tests except when matching unusually poor Asians with exceptionally affluent whites, such as in Seattle.

Average Black Intelligence Today

I believe the IQ story for minorities is looked at entirely the wrong way. I tell my kids don't compare yourself to anybody else, you're job is is to do the very best you can, and don't worry about who is #1 or #2. The average black American is most likely productively employed in government or industry and self-supporting, a high school graduate with some college education. There is absolutly no comparison with the European immigrant waves of the late 19th or early 20th century in terms of housing, education, or jobs.

While I can't cite anybody else, my own estimate is that by income, living standards, and education, 21st century African Americans live about as well as whites in the 1960s or even early 1970s, or some lower ranking Asian or European nations such as Korea or Sweden. That would make a development gap of less than 40 years, compared to thousands of years behind 200 years ago. African Americans are over-represented in many professional government job sectors, and do well in moderately IQ intenstive jobs such as call centers, military or medical technicians. Walking on the moon is just about the only feat that has not been accomplished by Blacks, and clearly, there are persons that could do the job, even they don't happen to be at the top of the list.

When Blacks ARE ALREADY Average

In the UK, there are reports that black children are above average in the starting years of school. In many urban schools, black children are scoring 30 to 40 percentile on basic skills scores, way above the 15th percentile associated with an 85 IQ, and in some cities in some grades K-4 such as Atlanta, Boston and New York, they score at grade level, which is the 50th percentile. If 100 IQ is the total population, then that puts blacks at 100 IQ, or lagging slightly if 100 IQ is defined as the average of Whites, not the total population. Unfortunately scores usually decline to well below average by high school grades.

When Blacks Excel

Yes, excel. Chicago has many predominantly black schools which score at state average, Detroit has some largely black magnet schools that score at the 85th percentile. There are very few instances of samples of blacks who normally score at the 20th percentile scoring at the 85th, but at least one example, the Barclay School in Baltimore does exist. If you want my opinion, "intelligence" is the same as "smart" just like there are persons with lots of money, and those with little. Basic skills test are said to have a lower g-loading than true IQ tests, nevertheless they are basically simplified versions of IQ tests.

Differences Can Change, Not No Differences

The anti-IQ crowd says there are no differences, which is wrong, but the pro-IQ crowd says IQ can't be changed, which I think is also wrong. Asian Americans scored MUCH LOWER THAN WHITES in the 19th and early 20th century. By the end of the 20th and 21st century, Asians scored higher on combined verbal-math scores on most American standards-based and standardized tests such as the SAT and state tests, as well as on the newer writing tests. This is recent proof of a group changing its status as "less" to "more" intelligent, at least as measure on a test. The average African American at the time of the Civil War was illiterate. Illiteracy is now effectively nonexistent among the native born, and the average African American is qualified for a entry to mid-level blue or white collar or military job, and at least takes one or two years of algebra.

I believe that IQ tests accurately measure a big difference in smarts between groups, but it has never been proven that they show unchangeable differences, only that it is very difficult to change. It is my belief that under ideal conditions (namely getting kids to master difficult material instead of ceding academic superiority to whites and Asians and relying on affirmative action, lowering standards and ethnocentrism) intelligence could be, and in some cases today is already equal.

Other interesting points

- Critics like Stephan Jay Gould say that races are inherently equal since evolutionarly and genetic, we're about the same. But even if that's so culture is enormously different, and IQ might be the result of culture even if our brains are wired exactly the same. Other critics say that race is abitrary, how can you talk about the IQ of hispanics when we can't even agree on what a Hispanic is? But if race didn't matter we wouldn't have affirmative action which often gives people points or puts people into competely different pools strictly on the basis of their surnames or the color of their skin. Ironically, its the people opposed to IQ who are most concious of race, and advocates of race as a selection factor, since most IQ advocates are in favor of color-blind selection.

- Some tests are part of the problem. "Higher Order Thinking" high stakes tests favored by education reformers such as CLAS, WASL and SOL MCAS really slam minorities even when they're fairly close on conventional multiple choice tests like CTBS

- While most people are arguing whether Asians are better than whites or just equal, sometimes they score worse. In Sanda Scarr's study of adopted children, adopted whites had the highest IQs, adopted blacks were still 10 points above average, but adopted Asians were only average. Asians score worse in both math and verbals in cities like Seattle and Washington DC where the whites are way above and Asians are way below the national per-capita income and education. Asians score worse on medical review board despite higher grades and MCAT scores. Asians score slightly worse on law tests. On the national literacy tests which tests tasks like figuring out how to order and pay for a delivered 2-for-1 pizza and 2 liter coke with two-toppings and extra cheese with sales tax, with the attached coupon, Asians scored as poorly as Blacks, which may explain why Asians have such a tough time getting around even though they're supposed to be IQ smart.

Asians taking the military IQ test washed out at double the rate of blacks at a study of Boston recruits in WWII (though largely due to inability in english it is thought). Most studies of Asian IQs are of children, who are equally educated as their peers, or adults in urban Asian cities, who are also well educated. However, from 30% to nearly all Asian adults in some Chinatowns, refugee groups and in rural Asia have almost no formal education at all. I haven't seen any IQ studies which include these people. I would imagine that they would score much more poorly than Blacks, who are on average high school graduates with some college, since many IQ questions concern vocabulary geometry, algebra, and science.

- On the other hand, I'm of the opinion that Asian Americans are really better at both math and verbal, once you take a representative sample of the entire population, and give them at some formal education. Asians score worse at SAT, but might be as good or better since Asians nearly twice as likely to take the test. Asians are clearly taking over not only the MIT's but Stanfords and Harvard's as well. Among Asians, the Chinese are twice as overrepresented as Asians at places like Berkeley and MIT, and SAT religion breakdown show that Hindu Asians, mostly Indian score higher than almost any other groups. Harold Stevenson did one of the only studies which claims no IQ differences, but he was matching for income and social status, which in real life isn't matched, and Minneapolis is a city where Whites are above but Asians are below the national average in incomes.

- CLAS shows Asians better than whites at verbal AND math statewide, but worse at verbal in cities where Asians worse and whites better than average. SAT scores for Asians in verbal are also better for Asians where English is the first language. Though Asians are relatively better at math than verbals, it appears to be incorrect that Asian are inherently weaker overall than whites in verbals when first language is taken into account, or even in the total population if the CLAS is right. Most Asians will tell you it's our parents beat education into their kids, and we dutifully study our little brains out.

Still it's spooky that the NEAP and its international counterpart show that Asians in America score just as well as Asians in Korea and Taiwan, and the SAT shows that english-first Asians, who are born in America score just as well in math as immigrant Asians. That tends to destroy the theory that Asian language which breaks down "eleven" into ten plus one is the key, or that Asian schools or school years are better, since test scores show Asians often excel in the same urban war zones like Boston or San Francisco where so many Blacks and Hispanics fail.

Harold Stevenson just completed another study where he claims that if you account for habits like time spent studying vs. watching TV and dating, Asians in Taiwan were no better than Asian in America, and if you threw in basic values like enthusiasm for math and studying, they weren't any better than the Whites either. If he's right, then the advantage is merely cultural, but as long as Asians are culturally different, they're still going to keep their advantage.

That's why I believe that even if some groups were lower in potential ability as some say, they'd still have a mile to improve by merely studying as hard and adopting the same values as the Asians, which most studies show they currently don't. They might even beat the Whites since Asians commonly believe a stupid person who works hard can beat a smart person who is lazy.

Thomas Sowell notes IQ differences between ethnic groups in the same race, and places the blame on cultural inferiority. He advocates assimilation and openness to change rather than cultural "protectionism" and chauvenism.

I say we can't judge the issue of genetic ability until every group has the same opportunities, and adopts the same cultural norms.

- IQs based largely on reasoning, visual, abstract and vocabulary. Catch-22 - people with higher IQs get higher education, acquire more words, but people with higher IQs come from groups with more exposure and education. IQs were developed to measure innate smartness, and some specialize on "g" which focuses on tasks which require the most mental processing, but there's no way to prove that's what they actually measure, and nobody thinks that anymore.

- Some critics of the book have used Thomas Sowell's newest book "Race and Culture" which notes that there is a 15 point difference in IQ between the Catholics and Protestants in Ireland, and across various cultures worldwide. I've gotten SAT breakdown not commonly published which show that southern and rural persons score lower than urban and northern within races, liberal christians and the non-religious score higher than fundamentalist christians. Even Murray's book states that Africans from Africa score at levels that would place them as "retarded" in the US (he says they're not actually retarded, just really bad at IQ tests) , while African Americans are at least within spitting distance of whites in the US.

- Shuey shows some tests were blacks are close, or above 100

- overall view is that Shuey believes there are innate differences, but book is full of studies that show some environment and interventions work, some IQ tests are narrow skills tests that can be trained.

- CLAS shows that urban cities have whites > avg, asians < avg, black + hisp equal to average, blacks do worse no matter how rich the school dist, and Asians do well, no matter how bad the school dist. Blacks in the best school dist equal to white state avg, Asians in the worst are close to other minorities, despite national studies of refugees which show that even poor refugees do well on grades.

- The higher the test, the bigger the spread.

- Literacy is now complete between whites and blacks (both above 97% as measured by 1970 census) which isn't the case for Hispanics or Asians with high % with no elementary let alone hs grad.

- Depending on which numbers, hs grad rate for blacks is equal to whites. If you compare black hs grad rates, the gap gained 10 years with every 10 year census. It reachd equality in 1990.

- 2 year college rates are comparable, but 4 degree behind.

- SAT scores getting better, equality in perhaps in 25 years (I projected that in late 1980s, we're not there yet, but Asians have passed whites sometime in 1990s)

- Urban blacks in SF and Boston score at 40, which is 95IQ, or very close to average whites, even though C/D average grade and worst in Bay area. Some grades in NYC blacks equal to national average

- Making tests easier don't help because high IQ people do even better. CLAS multiple choice to written answer actually widens the gap. Claims that tests test only rote, not higher reasoning don't note that low IQ people do even worse at higher reasoning than note memory.

- Blows up racist notion that all blacks have low IQS, or that race alone should be a disqualification

- Whites believe success is inherited genetically. They rely on individualism, or discrimination to keep in power. Asians believe it comes from effort, and believe in working hard even if it only gets you half as far. While it hasn't been documented, if the civil rights rhetoric is to be a measure, it would appear that blacks believe that success and failure comes primarily from racial discrimination rather than genetic inferiority or lack of effort. Their emphasis is on getting preferential treatment, equal access to the resources of the rich, and enacting laws.

- Put it this way - Whites believe they can get into Berkeley if they are rich and powerful enough. Asians believe all their kids can get in if they study hard enough. Blacks believe their kids can get in because they deserve affirmative action. How ever, Asians do not set a goal of demanding equality with other groups. They aim to get as high grades and test scores as possible, regardless of how well other groups do.

- According to civil rights theory, all inequity arises out of discrimination. But the facts are more like discrimination arises out of inequities that were there first. The facts of IQ show that if IQ isn't equally distributed, even some black thinkers have noted that even with equal color-blind treatment, blacks would still be behind as long as they started out with less capital and education if not less IQ. Indeed, this is the justification given for racial preferences as some California cities continue to give preference for Blacks even when they are not under-represented in some fire and police departments.

- Should (but won't) blow up notion that all races are equally qualified. Almost all affirmative action programs and politicians dedicated to a definition of diversity that "reflects" the population, when a colorblind selection by test score shows only a tiny percentage of those with top IQs and test scores are black when IQs and test scores are the single most important criterion in fields like engineering and medicine. This is the point that most of the press isn't seeing.

- The Asian advantage shows the problems with the civil rights philosiphy which at best raises your minority group to average. Even with unspoken quotas at Berkeley and some other colleges like the University of Washington Law School which held Blacks and Hispanics to the politically determined parity with population, the Asians are still the best represented with the best test scores, even as European Americans are now the most underrepresented minority on many elite campuses today. Asians pose the biggest threat to equality because radical racial caps, such as those being imposed on the Chinese San Francisco's elite Lowell high school, and were once imposed on Jews earlier in the century are the only way to enforce equality when one groups simply tries harder or performs better even without any discrimination.

- MIT / Berkeley undergrade have to admit in lowest 8-10% to get 7-10% black

- Blacks have higher income for given IQ which means that if the dollar is the true measure of societal worth, it discriminates less than IQ, and blacks must have other skills and talents to compensate for their higher incomes. It also implies that if black IQ ever becomes equal to whites, their incomes would be much higher if they keep their cultural advantages, while disposing of their disadvantages. In contrast, Asians have much higher IQs for a given income. Asians, male or female are paid less than whites for a given level of education, and the gap is comparable to blacks, about 10% for men, while black women now earn slightly more than white women. It's not uncommon to find cities like Redmond Washington, parts of San Jose California, and even parts of New York city where blacks earn the same or more than Whites.

Anydex IQ Spectrum

Here is what you get when you rank various IQ scores of groups, and guess what, not everybody is the same. The bad news is that, no surprise, that most figures for blacks are indeed generally below whites, but on the other hand, it is not difficult to find groups of minorities who score 100 average or far above under ideal conditions, and that groups such as Asian Americans have moved from behind to ahead over the course of American history, while blacks have higher incomes than some Asian groups in some locations such as Canada.

Those who say that tests are invalid are implying that performance is equal when every test devised by man shows differences in skills such as vocabulary, abstract reasoning, and mathematics.

What _is_ open to question is whether the tests measure innate, unchangeable abilities. As this chart shows, there are groups with average or better performance out there. However there is no evidence that any conventional race-based "social justice" intervention in education results in equal performance.

Only programs based on rigorous academics, such as Barclay and similar charter or magnet schools and not race, such as conventional desegregation, busing students to expensive surburbs or affirmative action in hiring and multiculturalism in curriculum have been shown to result in superior performance.

Age Years
---------------------------------------------------
6 months      - infant recognize name and verb
2-4 years     - adult chimpanzee or gorilla
5-6 years     - Alex the talking parrot (Nova how smart are animals)
15 yrs        - average white adult

                    IQ SPECTRUM Summary:
****** PLEASE DO NOT USE TO HARM OR STEREOTYPE PEOPLE *****
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Borderline white retarded 70-75  (2)IQ Seligman p.151
Black delinquents          74      Shuey p. 498
Africans (Africa)          75      Lynn as cited by Murray p. 288
Muhammad Ali IQ test       78      Steve Sailer early in career
Dull-Normal              80-90     IQ Textbook by Wechsler
Southern Black children    80.5    Shuey
White delinquents          81      Shuey p. 498
Black felons               81      Shuey p. 498
India                      81      Lynn IQ and the Wealth
Black SAT 1995 Math        85
Black US average           85   (3)IQ Seligman p.149
Colored (Africa)           85      Lynn as cited by Murray p. 288
Koko the Gorilla         85-95  (1)IQ Seattle Pacific magazine
Koko the Gorilla         70-95 
Border Black children      87      Shuey
Northern Black children    87.6    Shuey
Black G12 NAEP math        89      (7)
Black 6-17 DAS             89.2    DAS (10)
World Average              90      IQ and the Wealth of Nations Lynn/Vanhanen
Average Intelligence     90-109    IQ Textbook by Wechsler
Black US northern average  90   (4)IQ Jensen
Urban North Black          91.1    Shuey
Black 2-3 DAS              91.5    DAS (10)
Hisp  G12 NAEP math        92 (7)
White felons               92      Shey p. 498
White Chronic Welfare      92      Murray
Overall criminals          92      Murray
Black Calf Math CLAS       92      A.Hu estimate (6)
Hispanic 6-17 DAS          93.9    (10) DAS
Koko the Gorilla, high end 95      Claims by her trainer
Malays                     96      Lynn 1977 (Seligman)
Black Calf Reading CLAS    96      A.Hu estimate (6)
White unwed, but not welf  98      Murray
China                     100      Lynn IQ and the Wealth
Mixed child of black sold 100      Murray p. 310 (5)
Black children Boston, NYC100      See note
Adopted Asian Children    100      Sandra Scarr
British                   100      Lynn 1977 (Seligman)
Mainland China            101      Lynn (Seligman)
White CLAS reading, math  100      A.Hu set by definition (6)
Flynn's Asian studies     100
Asian G8 Calf CLAS Math   102      A.Hu (7)
White G12 NAEP math       102      (7)
British Children          102      IQ Lynn & Song 1994
malnourished Ad.Korean    102      (2)Winick, Meyer and Harris 1975
White 6-17 DAS            102.65   (10)
Asian Average             103-4    Murray
Police Office Teller Sales104      NandoTimes 9/99 Officer IQ too high 
Korean national est.      105      IQ Lynn & Song 1994
moderately nour Ad.Korean 106      (2)Winick, Meyer and Harris 1975
Chinese Hong Kong         106      IQ Chan & Lynn 1989
Chinese Hong Kong         106.7    Lynn 1982 (Seligman)
 vs. American students    100      Cattell's culture Fair Test
Japanese 9 yr olds        107      IQ Shigehisa & Lynn 1991
Asian 6-17 DAS            107.2    DAS 1986
Asian 6-17 DAS Reasoning  108.8    DAS 1986
Korean sample             108.5    IQ Lynn & song 1994
Asian G12 NAEP math       109 (7)
Korean children in Korea  109      IQ Lynn & Song 1994
Chinese Hong Kong         109.8    Lynn 1982 (Seligman)
 vs. British              100      Raven's matrices
Bright-Normal            110-119   IQ Textbook Wechseler
Koreans ad. Belgians@10   110      Frydman & Lynn 1989
Adopted Black children    110      Sandra Scarr
Chinese                   110      Lynn 1977 (Seligman)
well nourished Ad.Korean  112      (2)Winick, Meyer and Harris 1975
Jewish boys               112.8    verbal Ann Arbor Institute (Seligman)
Orthodox Jewish children applying to Hebrew schools in 1950's
                          114.9    Miles B. Storfer
Other Storfer jews        110-115  Miles B. Storfer
Jews                      115      Review of Bell Curve
Gays/Lesbian              115      See note (3), set equal to Jews
Black math                116      Barclay school Baltimore MD.
Black UC Berkeley         115      A.Hu top 15% UC definition
Adopted White children    120      Sandra Scarr
Black MIT                 120      A.Hu based on SAT 1985
White UC Berkeley         124      A.Hu top 5% top 1/3 of UC
Rejected police office    124      NandoTimes 9/99 IQ too high vs 104
GW Bush estimate          126
Superior                120-129    IQ Text Wechsleler
Very Superior           130 above
Al Gore est.              134
White/Asian MIT           138      (top 0.5% of population)
Gen Norman Schwarzkopf    170
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
All figures subject to accuracy and belief in validity and meaning
of test scores.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

American men = Asian women at visiospatial tasks (math) (Lynn / Seligman)

Notes:

(1) For those based on SAT scores, conversions were made from SAT
scores to an estimate of the US population based on percentile to IQ
conversion.
(2) Koreans adopted by Americans, Winick, Meyer and Harris 1975
(3) No published figures, but gays vote at same rate as Jews
(nearly total), and have 50% college 4-yr degree rate, therefore
likely to be comparable to Jews and best Asians in opinion of A.Hu
(4) Blacks in New York and Boston are equal to grade level in some
grades, equal to 100 IQ by definition. Some schools that are
mostly black in Chicago also perform at the 50th percentile.
(5) Study of children of mixed parents of European and Black
soldiers found no difference
(6) A.Hu Converted 1995 CLAS distribution to IQ with white=100
(7) National Assessment of Educational Progress given to national
cross-section of students, 1990
(8) "A better idea" The Economist Dec 2, 1995 p. 23 Barclay public
school in Baltimore Md. emulates a tough private school to achieve 85
percentile math scores with 90% black students, 82% free lunch who
previously were scoring 20-30 percentile. Superintendent was fired
who had opposed "rich black man's curriculum" inappropriate for poor
students.
(9) Flynn looked at studies that put Asian IQ higher and concluded
that after you accounted for increases in IQ since the tests were
"normalized", Asian IQs were actually no higher than whites might
expected to be at the same time. However, he does not dispute that
Asians still have superior academic performance in school, which is
just as useful as having a high IQ.
(10) ""Racial and ethnic differences in intelligence in the United
States on the Differential Ability Scale Pergamon Personal individual
Differences Vol 20 No. 2 pp. 271-273, 1996

 


Levels
@@intelligence


@@Abecedarian Project

IF YOU PUMP $10,000 A YEAR INTO POOR BABIES, THEY'LL GAIN 5 IQ POINTS
BY AGE 15, AND YOU'LL "PREVENT POVERTY"

This study claims that if you pump lots of money into poor kids at
birth, you can improve IQ at levels that stick around even at age 15,
compared to Head Start which starts at 3 to 5, and generally fades
out in an IQ gap. Note that even this study after 15 years has
subjects with an IQ of 94 which is still below average, and only 5
points above the control group, at a cost approaching $10,000 per
child for the first 5 years of life when most rich kids don't get any
formal schooling at all except from their parents.

ABCEDARIAN CLAIMS PRESCHOOL FIXES IQ WITHOUT FADE-OUT
"What it might take to defeat poverty: A North Carolina Program that
starts teaching at birth is based on the idea that preventing the
setbacks of poverty is more effective than trying to compensate for
them" Seattle Times Dec 5, 1996 A3 Richard Whitmire. Study with
subjects now 21, concludes that IQ can be changed, but Head Start
starts way too late at 3 to 5, it must start in the first months of
life with trained experts. [ mothers are obviously not good enough]
Craig Ramey oversaw Abecedarian and another $33 million experiment on
low birthweight children. That program raised IQs by 13 points.
Godfrey Oakley ran a $2.5M program based on ab. methods. CDC proposed
$10,000 per year, $300 million over 5 years but shot down by Clinton.
z45\clipim\2000\10\14\abced.efx  abced1.gif

IQ DIFFERENCES DID NOT STICK, BUT KIDS DID BETTER IN LIFE IQ
differences disappeared as kids aged in Mich. project Richard
Whitemire Gannett News seattle Times Dec 15, 1996 A3 High/Scope Perry
Preschool Study tracked 123 poor black children for 27 years. "Only"
7 percent of program group had been arrested vs 35% of the control
group. 4x earned $2,000 or more a month, 3x owned homes, fewer
received welfare, marriages lasted twice as long, females had fewer
out of wedlock babies. Claims that the program saved society $7 for
every $1 in cost. However, IQ differences washed out by age 10

IQ differences vs control group
3.0 84.27  100.70
3.5 93.04  102.96
4.0 89.19  101.22
4.5 91.09  101.22
5.0 93.82  101.43
6.5 92.26   98.45
7.0 91.82   98.12
8.0 93.33   97.83
12.0 88.44  93.74
15.0 90.34  94.98

Claim - differences did not fade completely, but 15 point gap has
narrowed to less than 5 points.

NY TIMES SAYS ABECEDARIAN WORKS
http://www.nytimes.com/library/national/102299early-childhood-edu.html
New York Times October 22, 1999 Quality Day Care, Early, Is Tied to
Achievements as an Adult.  The Abecedarian Project involved 111
African-American families in Chapel Hill, N.C., whose infants were
medically healthy but, demographically, at risk for failure 35% vs
15% in 4 yr college. 30% vs 56% repeat grade, over 19 vs 17 child,
below avg test scores, iq gap 17 at age 3, 5 pts by age 21

NEWSWEEK: ABECEDARIAN SHOWS GAINS AT AGE 15 VS HEAD START
Craig Ramey of the University of Alabama in 1972 launched the
Abecedarian Project.  Children enrolled in this program from ages
ranging from 4 months up to 8 years were found to still score higher
in math and reading at age 15 than the untreated, with an average
retained IQ advantage of 4.6 points, with earlier treatment lasting
longer.  Intervention after age 5 showed no benefits. "Your Child's
Brain " Newsweek Feb 19, 1996 p. 61


@@Accomodations

BOOST IQ 15 PTS BY BENDING THE RULES
z48\clip\2001\02\miniq.txt Chris Brand: New IQ for minorities A
review of: ARMOUR-THOMAS, Eleanor & GOPAUL-McNICOL, Sharon-ann
(1998). Assessing Intelligence: Applying a Bio-Cultural Model.
Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage (Racial and Ethnic Minority Psychology
Series, senior editor, F. T. L. Leong). Pp. xix + 239. ISBN
0-7619-0521-9 (pbk).  The child can be given more of a chance to
display its true ability. The instructions of Wechsler's subtests can
be repeated. More examples can be given by the tester if a child gets
off to a bad start. The tester can relax Wechsler's time limits on
items. In these ways, new IQ scores can be arranged for children. So
the authors do all this, and provide the average child with a useful
15-IQ-point boost
In the 1930's, Wechsler adopted the practice of comparing adult
testees with people in their own ten-year age bands rather than with
the generality of adults. Wechsler thus provided a much-appreciated
boost to older people 


@@Adoptions

It is commonly assumed that adoption studies have proven that IQ is not connected to race. Not so. Studies in cited in the Bell Curve and Jensens 1998 G Factor indicated that adopted children still do worse (black) or better (Asian) than adopted whites. Adoption helps IQ, but Asian children do better than white children, who do better than black children, and IQ's resemble group averages as they reach adult age.
Rushton says race IQ ranking exists even among adopted children. ADOPTION RAISES <85IQ KIDS TO +7.7/85 low +19.5/98 high SES \doc\web\99\10\adoptiq.txt Abstract from the new PNAS: Vol. 96, Issue 15, 8790-8794, July 20, 1999 How can we boost IQs of "dull children"?: A late adoption study Michel Duyme*,, Annick-Camille Dumaret, and Stanislaw Tomkiewicz Edited by Eleanor E. Maccoby, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, and approved May 26, 1999 The average IQs of adopted children in lower and higher socioeconomic status (SES) families were 85 (SD = 17) and 98 (SD = 14.6), respectively, at adolescence (mean age = 13.5 years). The results show (i) a significant gain in IQ dependent on the SES of the adoptive families (mean = 7.7 and mean = 19.5 IQ points in low and high SES, respectively), (ii) IQs after adoption are significantly correlated with IQs before adoption, ADOPTION DOES IMPROVE IQ, BUT REMAINS NO BETTER THAN AVERAGE z60\clip\2002\10\iqadop.txt http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/96/15/8790? maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=IQ&searchid=1034099522 935_6385&stored_search=&FIRSTINDEX=0 PNAS Vol. 96, Issue 15, 8790-8794, July 20, 1999 Our results show that the adoptive environment for children adopted after 4 years of age is effective in boosting low IQs. Children who had low pre-adoption IQs and were adopted between the ages of 4 and 6 had much higher scores at adolescence. They had an average IQ gain of 13.9 points, 19.5 points when they were adopted by high SES families. [but ..] in higher SES adoptive families, the mean IQ is 98 points and remains slightly below the general population average of 100 Philippe Gouillou believes this study invalid, with a Marxist point of view. Psychology-BS How can we boost IQs of "dull children"?: A late adoption study Michel Duyme*,, Annick-Camille Dumaret, and Stanislaw Tomkiewicz§ * Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U.155, Epidémiologie Génétique, Université Paris VII, RUSHTON REVIEWS JENSEN'S G FACTOR \doc\web\99\05\rushjens.txt This review of The g Factor just appeared in Politics and the Life Sciences, 1998, 17, 230-232 The g Factor also cites the evidence of transracial adoption studies. Three studies have been carried out on Korean and Vietnamese children adopted into White American and White Belgian homes. Though many had been hospitalized for malnutrition, prior to adoption, they went on to develop IQs ten or more points higher than their adoptive national norms. By contrast, Black and Mixed-Race (Black-White) children adopted into White middle-class families typically perform at a lower level than similarly adopted White children. Source: Bell Curve p. 310 In a decade later followup to the Scarr study, 116 adopted asian 10 pts above national norm (rushton, jensen) 109 biological children of white 106 adopted white children 99 black adopted one white, one black parent 89 black adopted two black parents <- not much different than north IQ \clip\99\04\gould.htm http://www.lrainc.com/swtaboo/stalkers/jpr_gould_paid.html Special Review Race, Intelligence, and the Brain: The Errors and Omissions of the Revised Edition of S. J. Gould's The Mismeasure of Man (1996) Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 23, No. 1 (July 1997), pp. 169- 180 J. Philippe Rushton Most transracial adoption studies also provide evidence for the heritability of racial differences in IQ. Studies of Korean and Vietnamese children adopted into White American and white Belgian homes have been conducted (Clark & Hanisee, 1982; Frydman & Lynn, 1989; Winick et al., 1975). As babies, many adoptees had been hospitalized for malnutrition. Nontheless, they went on to develop IQs 10 or more points higher than their adoptive national norms. By contrast, Black and Mixed-Race (Black/White) children adopted into White middle class families typically perform at a lower level than similarly adopted White children. For example, in the well known Minnesota Adoption Study, by age 17, adopted children with two White biological parents had an average IQ of 106, adopted children with one White and one Black biological parent had an average IQ of 99 and adopted children with two Black biological parents had an average IQ of 89 (Weinberg, Scarr & Waldman, 1992).

@@Africans

Africans are generally reported to have an IQ of 70. Many tests seem to bear this out, but where in white population a 70IQ also comes with huge rates of mental disability, Africans are completely comparable to whites as long as they're not asked to do abstract cognitive tests. I tend to agree that IQ tests are only useable for matters of picking out "defectives" if culture and education are comparable or simply measuring abstract performance. AFRICAN PEASANT IQ JUDEMENT IS FOOLISH Pitchford says mainstram ignores 70 iq african scores, cites others who say aficans with 70 iqs do quite well, coleman did no find hi asian iq. there are no mainstream Xopsychometricians who take the "data" on African IQs seriously, and the most convincing large-scale study of Asian (Japanese and Chinese) IQs in the US (the Coleman Report) also failed to find the fabled higher mean. For a genuinely impartial assessment of this work see chapter 5 of Mackintosh's "IQ and Human Intelligence" (OUP, 1998): it is important to acknowledge that confident pronouncements about the average intelligence of African peasants, based on the results of standard IQ tests, are foolish and dangerous: an IQ test can only purport to measure the intelligence of people with some common cultural background. NY review of books critical of validity of african iq strudies Rushton claims 84 college, 70 general IQ in South Africa. Brand reports on Rushton's findings that African do poorly on tests of abstract thinking. Rushton reports IQs from college and high school students far below US norms, supporting the 70 IQ figure. link Africans are probably not 70 IQ, not in the way whites would have 70 IQ. Black americans with 70IQ just have low IQ, not retarded as whites with similar scores are. Bell Curve p. 288 - Africans from Africa do much worse than African Americans (BellCurve) Richard Lynn says IQ = 75 from 11 studies, 1.7 SD below US, 10 below US blacks. Colored (mixed race) similar to US blacks \priv\95\02\pion2.txt He scrounged up eleven studies. Five took place in apartheid South Africa and a sixth in the genocidal Belgian Congo of 1952, where colonial rulers were slaughtering 15 million black people. The best he could find was one that, even the study's author said, did "not at all" indicate that intelligence is inherited. The author himself pointed to poorer schooling for black students and difficulty with English as a second language as reasons for the subjects' poor performances. Steve Sailer thinks african immigrants are smart @@Age IQ by age ------------------------- age 2-3 Ape / chimpanzee age 11 IQ 70 age 25 peak IQ Somwhere ther are tables of how IQ varies by age. However if we use the NAEP race gaps as a guide, it has been widely published that blacks graduate about 3-4 years behind, and Asians and Asian Americans about 2 years ahead of whites. If the standard IQ gap of 1SD is used, that would mean about a .25-.30 SD improvement for each year of age. It would also put a child that is 2SD above average at about 8 years advanced, so a very bright 10 yr old would be as smart as an adult. Philippe Gouillou: the global IQ is said to hit its top at 18-22 (max: 25), and some tests do compensate for age decline as soon as at 35 years old. The overall general agreement is that fluid IQ will increase until 16, and then stay at the same level for a few years (till 25 for some) and fall more and more sharply, the cristallized IQ will continue to increase till late in life, but soon not enough to compensate the fall of F-IQ. [1] As a consequence, to claim an mental age IQ of 200, one has to have been tested before 8 yo (for 250 it's 6 y and 3 m) and have obtained at this age an IQ of 100 on an adult scale. Until 16, there is a table of conversion from raw results to IQ scores according to age. After 16, the population is considered as adult, but in some tests points are added to the raw result to compensate for age decline. The conversion from mental age to/from distribution IQ is not automatic (one has to use tables, and these tables are different for each subtest) and it's the same for conversion of IQ from an age to another (eg: if one has an IQ of 150 at 10, you have to use tables to know what would be his IQ if he had 15 (and it will generally be more than 100), but you know that when he will be tested at 15 he will have an IQ around 150). %%Baby BABIES, MONKEYS CAN COUNT UP TO 5 z58\clip\2002\09\apecoun.txt CNN: Evidence adds up that monkeys can count - September 5, 2002 http://www.cnn.com/2002/TECH/science/09/05/coolsc.countingmonkeys/index.html "Human babies also have a rudimentary ability to estimate small quantities," said Nieder. Both human infants and monkeys can accurately discriminate quantities up to five. " %%General RUSHTON BELIEVES B/W IQ GAP = 4 YEARS link J.P. Rushton: 10/2002: An IQ of 70 is about the mental age of an eleven year old. He believes the African population has a mental age of 7 to 16 with mean of 11 vs White American 11 to 20 with mean of 15 [call the guy a racist but that's consistent with the NAEP gap of 3-4 years] As reported by Ed Miller: Full text along with tables and figures are found at:http://www.bmj.org/cgi/content/full/322/7290/819#B18 ---------------Longitudinal cohort study of childhood IQ and survival up to age 76 J Whalley et al.BMJ 2001;322:819 Objectives: To test the association between childhood IQ and mortalityover the normal human lifespan. Design: Longitudinal cohort study. Setting: Aberdeen. Subjects: All 2792 children in Aberdeen born in 1921 and attendingschool on 1 June 1932 who sat a mental ability test as part of theScottish mental survey 1932.Main outcome measure: Survival at 1 January 1997.Results: 79.9% (2230) of the sample was traced. Childhood mental abilitywas positively related to survival to age 76 years in women (P<0.0001)and men(P<0.0001). A 15 point disadvantage in mental ability at age 11conferred a relative risk of 0.79 of being alive 65 years later (95%confidence interval 0.75 to0.84); a 30 point disadvantage reduced this to 0.63 (0.56 to 0.71).However, men who died during active service in the second world war hada relatively high IQ.Overcrowding in the school catchment area was weakly related to death.Controlling for this factor did not alter the association between mentalability and mortality. Conclusion: Childhood mental ability is a significant factor among thevariables that predict age at death. Full text along with tables and figures are found at:http://www.bmj.org/cgi/content/full/322/7290/819#B18 THE AGING MIND Newsweek Health for Life Fall 2001 Relative Performance z-score Verbal Knowledge / Processing Ability 20-29 -0.5 1.0 40-49 -0.2 0.2 70-79 0.3 -0.5 80-89 0.1 -1.0 Processing ability declines from 20 but verbal increases up to 70-79 then dips slightly z50\clip\2001\08\cogage.txt http://unisci.com/stories/20013/0814014.htm Memory Starts To Decline In Our 20s, Researcher Finds People in their 20s don't usually complain about forgetting names or phone numbers or having trouble learning something new. But that's when memory and mental energy first start to decline, according to psychologist Denise Park. Park directs the Center for Aging and Cognition at the University of Michigan Institute for Social Research (ISR). z48\clip\2001\04\ageiq.txt IQ peaks at 25, but some find success at older age ANALYSIS: Creativity and age By STEVE SAILER UPI National Correspondent http://www.vny.com/cf/news/upidetail.cfm?QID=174184 Somebody who scores 100 on the test would actually score 114 at age 25 and only 93 at age 60, according to Harvard psychology Professor Raymond E. Fancher. @@AmerIndian / Native American COLEMAN REPORT PUTS AMERINDIAN GAP AS LESS THAN BLACK/WHITE GAP http://lrainc.com/swtaboo/stalkers/em_evol.html The Evolution of Australian and Amerindian Intelligence Edward M. Miller Department of Economics and Finance University of New Orleans The best single source of evidence on American Indian intelligence is provided by the Coleman report. This sampled large numbers of children widely across the US and picked up non-reservation Indians who would be functioning in the main stream US society. Jensen (1980, p. 479) calculated the Indian/white differences as .67, .93, .79, and .93 standard deviation units at grade 3, 6, 9, and 12 for verbal IQ and .38, .83, .54, and .57 for nonverbal IQ. These were appreciably smaller than observed for blacks (in spite of their higher socio-economic condition and greater acculturation). The smaller deficit on the nonverbal tests is a widely reported result, which probably reflects a true difference in the pattern of abilities. @@Animal PBS HOW SMART ARE ANIMALS? Feb 9, 2011 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/nature/how-smart-are-animals.html - Dogs are smarter in taking human cues because humans have selected them http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=XF3nTSoIEtU - Communicating is better if they can speak english Alex the Parrot was the level of a 5 or 6 year old child MONKEYS CAN COUNT TO 9, MONKEYS AND DOLPHINS CAN CHOOSE "I DON'T KNOW" z75\clip\2004\01\anthou.txt http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,1098372,00.html Animals 'can think about thought' Laboratory monkeys have counted up to nine, ..monkeys and dolphins, at least, could opt for the "uncertain" response, in a manner essentially identical to a human don't-know. A team from the University of Buffalo, New York, the University of Montana and Georgia State University report in the December issue of Behavioural and Brain Sciences ANIMALS, WHALES, CHIMPS DISPLAY CULTURE z62\clip\2002\12\animcult.txt Crashing the culture club http://www.boston.com/dailyglobe2/330/science/Crashing_the_culture_clubP.shtml Animals may pass down 'traditions,' but is it culture? By Cynthia Mills, Globe Correspondent, 11/26/2002 "in 1996, two whales tried something new. They sang wildly different songs, with new rhythms and melodies. In a few more years, all the whales were singing in the new style, as if humpback rock 'n' roll had given way to humpback punk. " DOLPHINS FIRST NON-APES TO PASS MIRROR TEST z49\clip\2001\05\dolphin.txt NYT May 1, 2001 Brainy Dolphins Pass the Human 'Mirror' Test By MARK DERR their studies lend support to the view that dolphins can develop some notion of themselves and others as distinct individuals, abilities often associated only with humans and great apes. children begin to recognize themselves in the mirror at around 18 to 24 months. @@Arab RUSHTON SAYS ARABS (AND GREEKS TURKS) ARE IN LOW 90S From: J. P. Rushton Friday, October 20, 2000 7:52 AM To: h-bd@egroups.com Subject: [h-bd] Arab IQ From Richard Lynn's ongoing compilation as well as some other not yet published data I have from Muslim populations in Europe, across a broad sweep of populations Arab and Turkish populations are averaging IQ equivalents in the low 90s. (So are Greeks). Richard Lynn also has calculated on the basis of his data so far a correlation of 0.75 bewteen a country's GDP and its average IQ score. @@Asians Asians supposedly show less m/f difference, have larger heads and brains and iq, are real good at visiospatial have smaller standard deviation Le Griffe has a theory that economic success is more closely tied to verbal IQ, and Asians lag europeans there. %%inferior ASIAN LAG IN VERBAL MAY EXPLAIN UNDERWEALTH COMPARED TO IQ SMART FRACTION THEORY II: WHY ASIANS LAG La Griffe du Lion http://www.lagriffedulion.f2s.com/sft2.htm .. data from more than 27,000 students who entered ABA approved law schools in fall 1991. The study found that only 80.75% of Asians passed the bar on the first try compared with 91.93% of non-Hispanic whites. This corresponds to a white-Asian mean-score difference of 0.53 standard deviation or in IQ terms a verbal gap of 8 points! R. Lynn reviewed the literature on racial IQ in The Mankind Quarterly, 31:3, Spring 1991, 255-296 ...12 [studies] reported both general and verbal IQ averages for NE Asians. Three of the 12 indicated a white-NE Asian verbal IQ gap of about 8 points in agreement with the bar exam result, but these are at the high end. The average verbal gap was a bit less than 4 points or about a quarter standard deviation. ..Among the races, only NE Asians and Amerindians exhibit this particular kind of verbal-nonverbal cognitive split. ..spectacular visuospatial ability of NE Asians, while accounting for their high IQ scores, does not necessarily make them good capitalists %%Peak BRAIN SIZE, IQ PEAK IN RAW SCORES AT 13 - 15 http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/life_and_style/health/mental_health/article5007079.ece The TimesOctober 25, 2008 Does age matter when electing a president? The pattern is the same on classic intelligence tests, which measure basic reasoning ability, an important ability for a nation's leaders. You may have heard that “IQ” remains relatively stable throughout life, and indeed it does. That's because IQ is a quotient (Intelligence Quotient), a relative measure that expresses your test score in relation to test scores of people your own age. Your IQ stays roughly the same because you stay in roughly the same place with respect to your cohort; virtually everyone in your cohort is deteriorating at about the same rate. The peak of raw scores on intelligence tests occurs between ages 13 and 15. A recent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study at the University of California San Diego, shows that brain size in human beings peaks at about 14 and declines gradually thereafter. Although at 70 the brain has shrunk, this doesn't mean that a 70-year-old has the intelligence of a child. It does mean, however, that although accrued knowledge and wisdom remain roughly intact, the various cognitive abilities, and especially the ability to acquire new knowledge, are in decline. %%standard deviation seligman says asian iq has smaller s.d. From: "Patricia Hausman" I think this idea of a smaller SD may have been based on Japanese data (or East Asian data) only.

@@Baby development

INFANTS RECOGNIZE NOUNS AND NAMES AT 6 MONTHS z62\clip\2002\11\babword.txt http://www.brown.edu/Administration/News_Bureau/2002-03/02-032.html Distributed November 7, 2002 Brown University News Service Cognitive and Linguistic Sciences Infants use their own name to recognize other words in fluent speech A Brown University study of 24 six-month-olds found infants recognized nouns and verbs when spoken in connection with their names. It is the youngest age at which the ability for word recognition has been documented. http://www.seattletimes.com/sbin/iarecord?NS-search-set=/335fc/aaaa001h15fca 2f&NS-doc-offset=0& \clip\97\11\braifood.txt Seattle Times April 22, 1997 Science: Stimulation is the key to how babies learn by Katherine Long Seattle Times Eastside bureau New brain imaging technologies and research into newborn behavior are telling scientists what good parents seem to know instinctively: Loving parents make smarter, happier babies. z60\clip\2002\11\babydev.txt http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2002/11/021105080630.htm cienceDaily News Release: The Eyes Have It: Study Shows Infants More Tuned Into Wider World Than Previously Believed 11/5/2002 Research by University of Washington psychologists Rechele Brooks and Andrew Meltzoff reveals the importance of eyes to12-, 14- and 18-month-old infants and shows that they are much more likely to look at an object when a person turns toward it with open eyes rather than closed. 12-month-olds had difficulty distinguishing between the headband and blindfold, while the 14- and 18-month-olds readily followed the eyes of the headband-wearing experimenter but rarely followed her when she turned with the blindfold in place. @@Barbados Lawrence Harrison says Barbados racial stock similar to poorer, more primitive Haiti, but Barbados absorbed developed English culture where Haiti did not. @@Basic Skills @@BEAUTY BEAUTIFUL WOMEN LIGHT UP MENS BRAINS z54\clip\2001\11\beauty.txt Patterns: Beauty, It Turns Out, Lights the Brain NYT November 13, 2001 By ERIC NAGOURNEY

@@Bell Curve controversy

Charles Murray and Herrenstein's book is a lightning rod for criticism of "scientific racism". z47\clip\2001\01\bushcab.txt Think Tank Frankensteins: Bush's Rainbow Cabinet by R Lederman Date: Mon, 15 Jan 2001 11:24:56 attacks Bush circle for sympathy with Charles Murray "Among the many Bush cabinet appointees and advisors associated with Murray's ideas are Stephen Goldsmith, Tommy Thompson, Elaine Chou, Myron Magnet, Marvin Olasky, Linda Chavez, Karl Rove, Floyd Flake, Spencer Abraham and various members of the Bush family - including former President Bush." Chao is also mentioned for being with Heritage Foundation. \priv\95\14\bellcurv.txt - The false science of racism \priv\95\10\bellpoli.txt - Called political, not scientific and invalud. SFC 8/11/95 \priv\95\02\sciamer.txt - Scientific American Feb 95
@@Bias FLORIDA GIFTED PROGRAM USES DIFFERENT IQ FOR RACE TO MATCH "BIAS" Z54\CLIP\2001\11\link1107.txt the state mandated a two-tiered IQ testing level to compensate for built-in biases in the test. The state settled similar lawsuits last year involving children from Hillsborough and Pinellas counties but so far has not changed its policy. Florida: Suit says gifted programs discriminate http://www.news-press.com/news/today/011107gifted.html "Florida is unconstitutionally discriminating against white and Asian children in favor of other minorities in gifted program assignments at public schools, a federal lawsuit claimed Tuesday. The suit, filed by a group led by Ward Connerly @@Birth Weight z47\clip\2001\01\heavbaby.txt 1/26/01 Heavy Babies Are Smarter Adults By EMMA ROSS The Associated Press LONDON (AP) - In the biggest study to date examining the influence of birth weight on intelligence, scientists have found that babies born on the heavy side of normal tend to be brighter as adults. in the British Medical Journal, found that among children whose birth weight was higher than 5.5 pounds - considered to be normal - the bigger the baby, the smarter it was likely to be. Gouillou finds studies show birth weight isn't the greatest factor in IQ compared to smoking or parents status.

@@Black American

@@African American

Very controversial topic, either there is no such thing as a valid black IQ, or it's 1 SD down for most test of Americans, 70IQ for Africans, or 5 points better for African immigrants. African Americans in some schools score at or above average on basic skills tests, but this hasn't been demonstrated on IQ tests which are much more difficult and / or biased. Wikipedia says african immigrants perform better than whites or Asians in the US. Canadian study finds Bermuda, mostly african descent is also highly rated. Learning a Living first results of Adult Literacy and life skills survey https://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/44/7/34867438.pdf [[acknowledge IQ Blacks who acknowledge there may be some inherent differences in IQ and ability - very few of these guys, or none. There are Asians and whites who accept this. %%Sowell Thomas Sowell - does NOT acknowledge this, cites high IQ differences within races and between cultures. he uses a study that found such a difference between Irish Catholics and Protestants. On p. 160 in RACE AND CULTURE, he alludes to this finding, citing Eysenck's THE IQ ARGUMENT (1971), p. 123. SOWELL - NOT AFRAID TO STUDY RACE AND IQ z60\clip\2002\10\sowiq.txt http://www.townhall.com/columnists/thomassowell/ts20021001.shtml Thomas Sowell October 1, 2002 Race and IQ Studies had shown that females predominated among high-IQ blacks. One study of blacks whose IQs were 140 and up found that there were more than five times as many females as males at these levels. it would "dignify" Professor Arthur Jensen's thesis of a genetic basis for black-white differences in IQ scores. Similar 15 PT IQ differences could be found between various culturally isolated white communities and the general society, both in the United States and in Britain. Jensen found black children IQ scores rose by 8 to 10 points after he met with them informally in a play room and then tested them again What a shame that others seem to have less confidence in black children than Professor Jensen has had. Robert A. Gordon, the distinguished sociologist at Johns Hopkins comes immediately to mind. He too has taken some heat, but not the literal kind you describe. - La Griffe du Lion Gordon is a real talent, but is Caucasian. He was formerly married to Linda Gottfredson and they still work together. [[African Charles Murray 5/2001: Dick Herrnstein and I could not track down any evidence for the common assertion that West Indian blacks approach equality with whites on standardized tests. Steve Sailer adds: Charles found that foreign-born blacks (not all of whom are West Indian, of course) averaged five points higher than native-born blacks on the big dataset The Bell Curve is based upon. [[average New York, Boston schools blacks are at grade level in some grades Best Chicago predominantly black schools are at 50 percentile Seattle's Zion academy claims students are performing at grade level [[carribean Mcwhorter and others speak of the success of carribean immigrants relative to natives, but there isn't much data that shows they're actually at parity with white Americans. il_leone_uno presents data points on carribean blacks: 1) Richard Lynn in The Mankind Quarterly, Spring 1991, cites IQ measurements of West Indians from two Caribbean islands: Barbados (mean IQ = 82) and Jamaica (mean IQ = 66-75). 2) Peter Brimelow writing in National Review in June 1992 points out that "the skill level of the post-1965 wave of West Indian immigrants has deteriorated sharply. Caribbean immigrants are now the most prone of all to welfare dependency." 3) A June 1999 report prepared for the Mayor's Advisory Task Force on the City University of New York, concludes from regression analysis of 8th grade performance that: "Being from the Caribbean was negatively associated with both [math and reading] skill sets." 4) The same report looking at college-bound students found that students from Puerto Rico and the Caribbean had average scores between 396 and 406 on the verbal SAT, and between 397 and 413 on the math SAT depending, respectively, on whether they went to CUNY or not. [[different Sailer notes IQ is predictive of many academic intensive tasks, but not improvisational or celebrity where blacks excel. Jordan and Oprah make most as endorsements. [[high >>f121495: \doc\95\14\barclay.txt "A better idea" The Economist Dec 2, 1995 p. 23 Barclay public school in Baltimore Md. emulates a tough private school to achieve 85 percentile math, 80 reading scores with 90% black students, 82% free lunch who previously were scoring 20-30 percentile. Superintendent was fired who had opposed "rich black man's curriculum" inappropriate for poor students. It used lots of homework, drilling, spelling tests, world history, literature, and art, and must be adept at writing reports, creative essays and letters by the age of 11. (85% is good enough to get into the University of California system, or UC Berkeley with affirmative action) , = 116 IQ [[jail \clip\2005\10\jailiq.txt - letter from psychiatrist, not named, who observes that blacks with low 70-85 IQ appear normal, and make good correctional officers, but white 70-85 IQ don't act normal, and higher "G" candidates might make bad correctional officers. [[low >>\priv\95\19\iqchart.txt potato@mo.net (Frank Weltner) provides a nice ascii summary of the conventional comparison of white and black IQ, and percentages / numbers of those falling above and below average. He claims the average is 83, based on bell curve, and that is equal to "borderline retarded" Shuey p. 205 Southern schoolchildren 80.5 Border schoolchildren 87 (excluding DC sample) Northern schoolchildren 87.6 Rural/Small Village schoolchildren 77.8 Urban schoolchildren 86 Rural vs Urban South 77 vs 82.6 (dif = 5 pts) Urban South vs North 88.3 vs 91.1 (dif = 3 pts) North vs South 87.6 vs 80.5 (dif = 8 pts) Equally bad neighborhoods vs White difference = 8 pts Fathers same occupational group or homes equal status dif = 12.8 pts Shuey does not believe this proves gap is entirely environmental. Shuey p. 103 (High school students) City gap 15 Town gap 20 Rural gap 10

@@Agreement Among Scientists

Post of Wall Street journal of 50 scientists on what IQ is

@@Armed Forces Qualification Test

@@AFQT The AFQT is one of the best paper-and-pencil measures of IQ available for adolescents and young adults. Its median correlation with full scale IQ tests such as the WISC and S-B in the NLSY sample is .81, higher than the median correlation of the WISC and S-B with other cognitive tests. Herrnstein and I gave over an entire appendix to discussion of the psychometric characteristics of the AFQT, for anyone who's curious. Charles Murray %%Gender GENDER DIFFERENCE OF .25 SD ON AFQT z54\doc\web\2002\01\afqt.txt Patricia Hausman 1/2002: In the case of the Armed Forces test, the mean difference between males and females on arithmetic reasoning, (.25 standard deviation) is apparently high enough that even with greater variability males are not overrepresented at the bottom of the curve. %%General
Pat on afqt being a IQ test with low ceiling. \clip\96\04\skillgap.txt BusinessWeek / September 23, 1996 IS THE RACE GAP A SKILLS GAP? Why wages of blacks are lagging In a controversial new study in the current issue of The Journal of Political Economy, however, Derek A. Neal of the University of Chicago and William R. Johnson of the University of Virginia found that measured by the Armed Forces Qualification Test, poorer skills as reflected in the standardized test scores explained "roughly two-thirds of the racial wage gap among young men and all of the gap for young women" @@Australian Aborigineses z46\clip\2000\11\abobrain.txt Copyright 2000 The Telegraph Group Limited SUNDAY TELEGRAPH(LONDON) November 19, 2000, Sunday THE DIFFERENCE, a three-part series on genetics, begins on Channel 4 tonight at 8pm. He's got a better memory than us New research suggests that one part of an aborigine's brain is 25 per cent bigger than a European's - but the academic community refuses to take it seriously, for fear of being branded 'racist'. ALASDAIR PALMER reports Ed Miller wrote: I summarized the literature on Australian aboriginal intelligence in a paper, which I can E-mail to anyone interested. The test results were generally poor on IQ, but there is evidence for above average pathfinding ability. On one test which asked young children which way to their home, the apparently acclimatized aboriginal kids did much better than poor Caucasian children. Louis Andrews here - Ed's paper on the Australoids is also available online on my website at: http://www.lrainc.com/swtaboo/stalkers/em_evol.html @@Book zip37\doc\web\99\14\intdes.htm Gottfriedson on Inequality by design book says that IQ only exists to oppress the poor, first attempt to rebut the bell curve with science but does a poor job

@@Brain Size

@@Head Size According to Gould's Mismeasure of Man, there have never been, and can never be any valid measure of brain size between groups of humans which shows any group difference. His widely lauded book, however, does not provide any evidence to prove the alternate thesis that brain sizes are therefore equal in size. It may be possible that brain size and structure can be influenced by culture and exercise. Arnold Schwarzenegger is strong because he is big, but he's big because he is trained. O The most outspoken opposing view is Phillipe Rushton cites research that shows that brain size at birth correlates with IQ and brain size later on in life so there may be inherent differences as well. Rushton concludes that Asians are 17 cm3 larger than Europeans who are 80 cm3 larger than Africans. [This is also consistent with most math tests that put Asians about 1/3 to 1/2 as far ahead of whites as whites are ahead of blacks] Men also have larger brains than women. In a 2002 letter, Rushton says "The best current evidence is that there is 5 cubic inches of overall average difference in cranial capacity between Blacks and Whites and about 1 cubic inch overall difference between East Asians and Whites.... I am assured (privately) that the MRI results completely confirm the race differences"
Professionals have larger brains than the unskilled. --------------------------------------- z45\clip\2000\08\afrbrain.txt August 13, 2000 J. P. Rushton Cranial capacity in CC 375-485 -2.68 A. africanus 750 -1.73 Homo Habilis 1000 Homo Erectus (1) 1200 Human .25M years ago (1) 1300-1350 1.00 Modern Human ---------------------------------------- 1276 Africans (1) 1347 Caucasians (1) 1362 -1.011 US Army AfrAm (1) 1364 Mongloids (1) 1378 1.000 US Army EuroAm (1) 1391 1.009 US Army AsianAm (1) ---------------------------------------- 1700 1.23 Neandertal Worldwide data adjusted for stature 1241 -1.045 African 1297 1.000 European 1308 1.008 E Asian (1) Rushton 1995, unadjusted, differences greater adjusted for body weight. Also 2000 z45\clip\2000\08\afrbrain.txt August 13, 2000 J. P. Rushton. Conjectures that brain features also determine maturation rates, and and wider hips, jaw structure also observed to vary between races. cran.jpg Rushton army data on cranium size "Here are Rushton's US Army data. Note that the bottom 15% of population are not allowed in US Army" Notes - black, white and asian males are shown to have more cranial capacity than any women, but Asian females do about as well in SAT math as white men. boasbrai.txtBoas found that only 27% of Blacks exceeded the White brain size average, rather than the 50% that should have done had the races been equal.

Vincent Sarich notes that brain size difference is much less than 1 SD, believes brain size explains only a small part of the race IQ difference. Rushton 8 studies linking brain size and iq. STUDIES SHOW BRAIN POWER NOT ALWAYS RELATED TO SIZE \doc\web\99\06\brainsiz.txt RUSHTON REVIEWS JENSEN'S G FACTOR \doc\web\99\05\rushjens.txt This review of The g Factor just appeared in Politics and the Life Sciences, 1998, 17, 230-232 East Asians and their descendants average about 17 cm3 (1 in3) larger brain volumes than do Europeans and their descendants, whose brains average about 80 cm3 (5 in3) larger than do those of Africans and their descendants. Jensen calculated an "ecological" correlation (widely used in epidemiological studies) of +0.99 between median IQ and mean cranial capacity across the three populations of "Mongoloids," "Caucasoids," and "Negroids." \clip\99\06\brain.txt Brain of `last wild man in America' found after 80 years at Smithsonian LOS ANGELES (February 20, 1999 8:28 a.m. EST http://www.nandotimes.com) "It was not uncommon to study brains in the early 20th century," Starn said. "Some people thought that different races had different brain sizes." Louis Andrews notes people like Rushton are still studying brain sizes and yes, they do have different sizes. BRAIN SIZE PREDICTIVE OF IQ AT BIRTH, CORRELATES WITH # NEURONS \clip\99\04\gould.htm http://www.lrainc.com/swtaboo/stalkers/jpr_gould_paid.html Special Review Race, Intelligence, and the Brain: The Errors and Omissions of the Revised Edition of S. J. Gould's The Mismeasure of Man (1996) Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 23, No. 1 (July 1997), pp. 169- 180 J. Philippe Rushton Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada The brain-size/IQ correlation is predictive from birth. The National Collaborative Perinatal Study analyzed data from 17,000 White babies and 19,000 Black babies followed from birth to 7 years (Broman et al., 1987). Head perimeters were measured at birth for all children. At age 7, head perimeters were remeasured and IQ assessed. For both the Black and the White children, head perimeter measured at birth significantly predicted head perimeter at 7 years, and head perimeter at both ages predicted IQ! Haug (1987, p.135) found a correlation of 0.479 (N = 81, P<0.001) between number of cortical neurons and brain size in humans. ... a person with a brain size of 1,400 cm3 has, on average, 600 million fewer cortical neurons than an individual with a brain size of 1,500 cm3. Consider the pattern of decreasing mean brain size going from East Asians to Europeans to Africans shown in Rushton's (1989a) reanalysis of Gould's retabulation of Morton's data. This pattern has been corroborated since 1980 by three different techniques: wet brain weight at autopsy, volume of empty skulls using filler, and volume estimated from external head sizes. Recently, a fourth technique, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), has confirmed the White/Black difference. The brains of Orientals and their descendants average about 17 cm3 (1 in3) larger than those of Europeans and their descendants whose brains average about 80 cm3 (5 in3) larger than those of Africans and their descendants. Head size Asian Euro African Beals 1984 1,415 1,362 1,268 US Army 1,416 1,380 1,359 International Labour Office 1,308 1,297 1,241 An absolute difference in brain size between men and women has not been disputed since at least the time of Broca (1861). He assembled a series of 292 male brains and found an average weight of 1,325 while 140 female brains averaged 1,144 grams, a difference of 181 grams. (US Army) men averaged 1,442 cm3 and women 1,332 cm3. But women have the same intelligence as men overall. Galton's data were analyzed by Johnson et al. (1985), who found that the professional and semiprofessional groups averaged significantly larger head sizes (both length and width) than did unskilled groups. RUSHTON DOCUMENTS DIFFERENCES IN BRAIN SIZE, COGNITIVE ABILITY AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGY ASSOCIATION CLAIMS ALL RACE DIFFERENCES ARE SOCIALLY CONSTRUCTED Rushton writes that Asians are about 1 cubic inch larger in brains than Caucasoids, about 3 more than Negroids. Was rebuttal to Gould article.

@@Brand, Chris

UK IQ race "hawk" who belives that "g" is largely determined by genes, as are racial differences. Fired from his UK university over alleged sympathy for a pedophile, more likely because of his depublished book "g factor"

For more, including a weekly newsletter, go to http://www.crispian.demon.co.uk Chris Brand Edinburgh, UK. My details and weekly (Tuesday) updates appear at .

Advocates that children be taught at a pace consistent with their IQ

Philippe Gouillou - pg@evopsy.org offers:
The book of Chris BRAND : "The g Factor - General Intelligence and its
Implications" is available on line at no cost from my web site
www.douance.org In The g Factor, Chris BRAND presents clearly the
facts, arguments and deductions about the existence of a general
factor (g), its biological roots, and provides the basis for any
serious discussion about its validity.
TO DOWNLOAD THE BOOK :
  The page http://www.douance.org/qi/brandtgf.htm contains the link to
  the zip file of the book (the book is in HTML format - compressed in
  .zip = 282 ko)
Note copyright restrictions on his website.

Published in the UK by Wiley (Chichester) in February 1996, The g Factor, a product of Chris Brand's thirty years in the psychology of intelligence and personality, met with expert approval(but met with personal attacks get getting fired)



@@Brazil

Louis Andrews: 14 Nov 2001 The current issue (Fall 2001) of _The Mankind Quarterly_
has a short article by a Maria Fernandez entitled "A Study of the
Intelligence of Children in Brazil."  It purports to be the first
evidence "published on racial and ethnic IQs in Brazil."  I believe
the study was done in conjunction with some work by/for Richard Lynn.
The study is of 10 year-olds and used the Standard Progressive
Matrices.  Approximately 1800+ were tested in Sao Paolo with a mean
age of 10.  The adjusted IQ figures and numbr tested were as follows:

Group    #        Adjusted IQ
White    735    95
Brown   718    81
Black    223    71
Asian    186    99

The adjustment was 2 pts downward to equate it to the British mean of 100
and account for the Lynn/Flynn effect.  The four categories are the ones
recognized by the Brazilian census and it was noted that the Asian group was
primarily Japanese.

@@Breast feeding

Breast feeding is said to increase IQ, may narrow the gap, more
whites than blacks breast feed.

\doc\web\99\07\briq.txt
breast feeding may narrow iq gap

BREAST FEEDING NUTRITION RAISES IQ
\clip\99\18\breaiq.txt Breast-Feeding Said Linked to IQ By Tim
Whitmire, Associated Press Writer Washington Post Wednesday, Sept.
22, 1999; 6:13 p.m.  LEXINGTON, Ky. At least 60 percent of the
average intelligence gain seen in breast-fed infants comes from
breast milk's nutritional value, rather than benefits from maternal
bonding, according to a study released Wednesday. Anderson's study is
being published in the October edition of the American Journal of
Clinical Nutrition. The study was partially funded by Martek
Biosciences Corp., a Winchester-based company that manufactures plant
versions of two fatty acids found in breast milk, docosahexaenoic
acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA). 

BREAST FEEDING RAISES IQ 5.3PTS, 3.1 AFTER =INCOME FACTORS
\clip\99\18\briq2.txt Breast Milk's Link to IQ Reiterated Boost
Independent of Socioeconomic Factors, Study Asserts By Marc Kaufman
Washington Post Staff Writer Thursday, September 23, 1999 Page A12
"Breast-fed infants tested on average 5.3 IQ points higher, according
to the study, published in the American Journal of Clinical
Nutrition. After 15 factors such as maternal smoking and education,
birth weight, birth order and family income were weighted and
subtracted, the researchers still found that breast-fed babies tested
3.1 IQ points higher than formula-fed babies.  "

Burakumin

BARAKUMIN REPUTED TO LOSE IQ GAP WHEN IN THE US http://www.theatlantic.com/issues/2001/04/olson-p1.htm "Take IQ tests as an example. In Japan the Buraku are a caste of people discriminated against in education, housing, and employment. Their children typically score ten to fifteen points below other Japanese children on IQ tests—about the average black-white difference in the United States. Yet when the Buraku emigrate to the United States, the IQ gap between them and other Japanese vanishes." Albert Himoe notes there are no references to support IQ of Buraku in US. C. Murray says it's from John Ogbu's work, but he can't find reference for US children either. BURAKUMIN ARE THOUGHT TO BE LIKE OTHER JAPANESE, BUT DOWN 15IQ "Michael Ikeda" writes 11/2000 De Vos and Wagatsuma "Japan's Invisible Race" University of California Press, 1972. the Burakumin are descendents of a pariah caste under the Tokugawa regime. This caste performed jobs that were necessary to society but considered "unclean". The caste (along with the other official social classes) was officially abolished in 1871 but the Burakumin continued (and continue) to face substantial discrimination. .. the average IQ difference between Burakumin and other Japanese is roughly 15 points.

@@Cameras

Psychologists are taught to assess patterns of performance and obtain clinical observations of the child during an intelligence testing session. During testing, psychologists often make use of security cameras to observe their subjects. The footage is then stored on DVR recorders for later review. This removes the focus from a single IQ score and allows for an assessment of the child as a whole, which can then be used to develop individualized teaching strategies.


@@Child

%%Age Equivalence

59 IQ EQUAL TO 9-12 YR OLD
Richard Lowry Seattle Post Intelligencer June 27, 2002 "Retarded Murderer doesn't fit assumptions" "Atkins, who supposedly has a 59 IQ, and the mental capacity of a 9 to 12 yr old.. based on an IQ test was mildly retarded, but knew it was wrong to kill, knew who was president in 1961, used orchestra and parable.. [used considerable sophistication in carrying out crime]"

%%Race

Some IQ experts believe that the gap is smaller between races for younger ages. Some articles show that black students enter school reading about as well as white children.

Results from the US - most of the following tests put 3/4 year old IQs at about 85-7, not much different than the common 85 figure. The last study of 2 year olds shows blacks with an IQ of 92, but n is low.

Richard Fuerle [rdfuerleadelphia.net] got this table from Richard Lynn:

Note - don't pay any attention to this table if you don't believe that IQ is a valid measure of skill or ability.

1970

  Age 4

n whites  12,029 

  n blacks

9,730

Tests

 

SB

 

IQs

87

     -

  -

Broman et al.,1975

1974

  7

  19,968

18,474

WISC

87

     -

  -

Broman et al.,1975

1972

6/16

       305

  1,870

WISC-R

84

   86

 85

Kaufman & Doppelt,1976

1977

16/74

    7,270

16,134

GATB

81

   86

 84

Aviola & Waldman, 1994

1977

 5/11

       456

     604

WISC-R

85

   87

 86

Mercer & Lewis,1979

1978

16/74

       192

  1,664

WAIS-R

85

   87

 86

Reynolds et al.,1987

1980

14/22

    3,022

  6,502

AFQT

82

     -

  -

Herrnstein & Murray, 1994

1981

2/12

       311

  1,450 

KABC

93

     -

  -

Kaufman & Kaufman,1983

1982

3/18

       932

  4,519

PPVT

84

   84

 -

Dunn, 1988

1984

12/23

       210

  1,303                       

SB-4

83

     -

 88

Thorndike et al.,1986

1984

  3

         86

       86

SB-LM

86

     -

  -

Montie & Fagan,1988

1985

  37

       502 

  3,535      

Various

83

     -

  -

Nyborg & Jensen, 2000

1989

6/16

       338

  1,620

WISC-3

85

   87

 86

Prifitera et al.,1998

1991

11/93

       241

  1,547

KAIT

88

     -

  -

Kaufman et al.,1994

1991

16/74

    7,214

14,503

GATB

81

     -

  -

Avolio & Waldman, 1994

1991

6/16

       711

     776

WISC-R

85

     -

 85

Kramer et al.,1995

1993

3

         33

      33

SB-4

85

     -

  -

Peoples et al.,1995

1993

70+

       833

 5,122

MMSE

85

     -

  -

Zsembik & Peek,2001

1993

Adults

       806

 5,300

Vocabulary

90

    90

  -

Lynn, 2004

1999

 2

         60

    157

LDS

92

     -

  -

Rescorla & Achenbach, 2002

 
 

@@child abuse

65% of mothers and 56% of fathers in study of abuse did not complete hs other studies showed abuse correlated with low IQ or education Bell Curve p. 210 asian.intelligence.college Shuey p. 495 (1966) Otis 13th percentile ACE 12th percentile SAT, MCAT 6th percentile (15th in 1993)
@@Child Care Wisconsin Online Training and Degree Programs / Independent Home Study Programs

@@China

http://www.unz.org/FILES/ChineseIntelligence.pdf Rough old high school paper theorizing on effects of Chinese society on intelligence - more successful would produce children, less would starve, but author believes might still have some good ideas. asian.intelligence.class

@@class

INHERITED IQ MATTERS MORE WITH RICH z70\clip\2003\08\iqclas.txt http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A12059-2003Sep1.html Genes' Sway Over IQ May Vary With Class Study: Poor More Affected by Environment By Rick Weiss Washington Post Staff Writer Tuesday, September 2, 2003; Page A01 the heritability of IQ at the low end of the wealth spectrum was just 0.10 on a scale of zero to one, while it was 0.72 for families of high socioeconomic status. Conversely, the importance of environmental influences on IQ was four times stronger in the poorest families than in the higher status families. Shuey p. 519 IQ difference were a greater 12-22 points in higher social classes compared to only 6-12 points different in lower classes. Average 20.3 IQ for high status, but 2.6 lower than low status whites. (A. Hu - consistent with black SAT scores lower for over $70k vs. poor Asians and middle class whites, differences are greatest at the extremes) WELFARE CHILDREN GETTING LESS THAN HALF THE LANGUAGE EXPERIENCE OF WORKING CLASS, 1/4 THAT OF PROFESSIONALS \clip\97\14\talk.txt text at http://www.seattletimes.com(top stories search) Sunday, April 27, 1997 Successful kids are talked-to kids by Carey Quan Gelernter Seattle Times staff reporter "The authors of the 1995 book "Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young American Children.", Betty Hart and Todd Risley..""They found the average number of words children heard per hour was 2,150 in professional families; 1,250 in working-class families; and 620 in welfare families. "The result was that the welfare children received, in each hour of their lives, less than half the language experience of the working-class children." @@College %%Earnings Degrees to dollars: Earnings of college graduates in 1998 College graduates usually earn more than other workers do. But the earnings of individual graduates are more difficult to predict. In 1998, the top 10 percent of college graduates made 3 times more than the bottom 10 percent. This article uses data from a Federal Government survey to find out what distinguished the high earners from the low. @@Cranium size http://www.charlesdarwinresearch.org/1997%20Rushton%20Cranial%20Size%20and%20IQ%20in%20Asian%20Americans.pdf Cranial Size and IQ in Asian Americans from Birth to Age Seven (JP Rushton) @@Creativity CONTROVERSIAL 2007 PAPER PROPOSES ASIANS LAG EUROPEANS IN CREATIVITY Mankind Quarterly, 2007, 48 (2), 157-168. Race Differences in Intelligence, Creativity and Creative Achievement Richard Lynn* University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland, BT52 1SA E-mail: LynnR540aol.com Race differences in intelligence are generally consistent with differences in the historical record of creative achievement in the arts and sciences....There is however an anomaly that the North East Asians have a higher IQ than the Europeans, but their creative achievements have not been so great. Evidence is presented showing that the North East Asians have lower creativity measured by openness to experience. It is proposed that this explains their lower creative achievement. private link http://docs.google.com/Doc?id=dfthx7q4_1559c8tvkjd6 "I have read the Lynn paper and his comments about East Asian creativity and, quite frankly, I consider it to be rather boiler plate English bigotry." Willard Olson 3/09 Table 1 Population size (millions), Nobel prize-winners and Fields medallists, and total achievements per 1 million, 1901-2006 Africans Europeans North East S.Asian Asians N. African Population - million 300 933 878 872 Nobels: Science 0 357 14 5 Nobels: Literature 1 91 3 4 Nobels: Economics 0 51 0 1 Fields: Math 0 42 5 0 Total 1 541 22 10 Per million 0.003 0.580 0.025 0.011 ASIANS DOWN BY FACTOR OF 23, AFRICAN 200 Ranked by per million Rate Relative .580 1.0 European .025 -23.2 Asian .011 -58.0 S.Asian N. African .003 -193 African

@@criminals

Shuey p. 498 In all 28 studies, average difference 13 points %%Delinquents IQs of black delinquents were still lower than whites: black delinquent 74 white delinquent 81 black felons 81 white felons 92 Differences even when matched for education, occupation and type of community. %%Overall Bell Curve p. 235 overall criminal IQ 92
@@Daycare DAYCARE HELPS, BUT POOR BLACK OUTCOMES STILL BELOW AVG http://www.nytimes.com/library/national/102299early-childhood-edu.html New York Times October 22, 1999 Quality Day Care, Early, Is Tied to Achievements as an Adult Those who received high-quality day care consistently outperformed their peers who did not on both cognitive and academic tests, and also were more likely to attend college or hold high-skill jobs, the researchers found. The program also helped participants' parents, with teen-age mothers far more likely to have completed high school after their babies received the intervention. The study of children on the lower rungs of society, called the Abecedarian Project, involved 111 African-American families in Chapel Hill, N.C., whose infants were medically healthy but, demographically, at risk for failure 35% vs 15% in 4 yr college. 30% vs 56% repeat grade, over 19 vs 17 child, below avg test scores, iq gap 17 at age 3, 5 pts by age 21 @@Deprivation DEPRIVATION RESULTS IN LESS BRAIN DEVELOPMENT Learning Society of the Future: Questions to Consider by Dee Dickinson http://www.newhorizons.org/wwart_dee2.html Dr. Bruce Perry found that Rumanian orphans, who are fed, kept clean, but live with little other human contact and interaction, have by the age of three brains that are 25% less developed than normal, as revealed by PET scans... Dr. Craig Ramey, at the University of Alabama, who has been researching the cognitive development of children of poor, borderline mentally retarded mothers. He set up a control group of children who were provided good health care and nutrition, but had no other intervention. Beginning at the age of six weeks, children with similar backgrounds were placed in an experimental group where they spent five days a week in an enriched environment. By the age of twelve, 50% of the children in the control group had failed one or more grades in school, but only 13% of the experimental group were not successful. @@Diet BLUEBERRIES, STRAWBERRIES, SPINACH HELP OLD MICE Blueberries may buoy your brain, study shows Seattle Times Sept 11, 1999 p. A7 Old rats fed equivalent of cup of blueberries a day were more coordinated and smarter than other rats in Tufts University study, funded by USDA. James Joseph neuroscientist and psychologist Barbara Shukitt-Hale had found spinish and strawberries helped rat learning, then tried blueberry extract in diet, reported in Journal of Neuroscience. (so how hard would it be to try this on humans??) zip37\clipim\99\09\11\berry.tif

@@Differential Ability Scale

DIFFERENTIAL ABILITY SCALE 1986 STANDARDIZATION SCALE \doc\web\97\03\raceiq.wk1 Means and Standard Devation of Ethnic American Groups age 6-17 on the Differential Ability Scale Asians n=48 Blacks n=254 Hispanics n=266 Whites n=1692 Abilities General Cognit 107.17 14.05 89.19 14.06 93.86 13.37 102.65 14. 25 Verbal 102.65 17.71 91.76 14.04 92.58 14.9 102.15 14. 17 Reasoning 108.81 13.52 91.15 14.94 94.1 14.13 102.29 14 .4 Spatial 106.81 12.05 89.42 14.12 97.8 13.3 102.07 14. 47 Ages 2.6-5.11 Age Blacks Hispanics Whites General 2.6-3.5 57 91.54 13.44 39 95.97 14.43 2 47 102.99 14.1 General 3.6-5.11 112 86.67 13.26 78 93.58 12.04 5 05 103.56 13.7 Verbal 3.6-5.11 112 87.07 12.55 78 87.5 14.15 5 05 104.42 13.34 Data provided by the Psychological Corporation The Differential Ability Scale consists of 22 subtests which are scored with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15. It was standardized in the US in 1986 based on a representative sample stratified by age, race, sex, geographical, urban-rural areas, parental socioeconomic status etc. with a total sample size of 3298 children "Racial and ethnic differences in intelligence in the United States on the Differential Ability Scale Pergamon Personal individual Differences Vol 20 No. 2 pp. 271-273, 1996 Richard Lynn of the University of Ulster Coleraine, Northern Ireland notes that that 1986 standardization of the Differential Ability Scale supports the Bell Curve pattern of Blacks being nearly 15 IQ points behind whites, with Hispanics in between, and Asians being 4-6 points higher on some tests. This is contrary to Flynn's claim that Asian scores weren't really higher since different tests with different norms were used, but he didn't cite any comparable tests which showed Asians to be equal. Arthur Hu notes that in most school districts, and on the SAT, Asian routinely score significantly higher than whites on math tests, which also debunks Flynn's notion of parity in cognitive ability. However, 50 isn't a very big sample on which to base the abilities of a very large population, and this does not reflect the interesting statistic that Atlanta, which is nearly all-black is basically 100 IQ / 50th percentile in the lower elementary grades, but don't fall off until after middle school.
@@Dog DOGS VERBAL 2 YR OLD, MATH 3-4 YR OLD, ADULT SOCIAL SKILLS http://docs.google.com/Doc?docid=0AZd_BaQPgLcSZGZ0aHg3cTRfMTkxM2Rwa21qc2Nk http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/32349079/?GT1=43001 Dogs are smarter than toddlers, IQ tests show Border collies and other bright canines can learn up to 250 words\ Sun., Aug 9, 2009 The canine IQ test results are in: Even the average dog has the mental abilities of a 2-year-old child. The finding is based on a language development test, revealing average dogs can learn 165 words (similar to a 2-year-old child), including signals and gestures, and dogs in the top 20 percent in intelligence can learn 250 words. if they get arithmetic (1+1=2), will expect to see two treats they would trump a 3- or 4-year-old in basic arithmetic, much better in social smarts These studies suggest dogs have a basic understanding of arithmetic, and they can count to four or five. top dogs, in order of their doggy IQ are: 1 Border collies 2 Poodles 3 German shepherds 4 Golden retrievers 5 Dobermans 6 Shetland sheepdogs 7 Labrador retrievers dogs show spatial problem-solving skills... they can locate valued items, such as treats, find better routes in the environment, such as the fastest way to a favorite chair, and figure out how to operate latches and simple machines. Like dogs also show some basic emotions, such as happiness, anger and disgust, but not guilt. dogs know whether they're being treated fairly, they don't grasp the concept of equity DOGS KNOWN TO HAVE 200-250 WORD VOCABULARY (vs 2,000 for gorilla) MATCHES NEW WORD MEMORY WITH 3 YEAR OLD HUMANS, APES, DOLPHINS z82\CLIP\2004\08\dogvocab.txt http://www.genomenewsnetwork.org/articles/2004/06/10/smartdog.php Brainy Border Collie Knows 200 Words By Kate Ruder Posted: June 10, 2004 Rico, 9 years old, can learn the names of new toys and remember them for weeks. A border collie from Germany named Rico ... has a vocabulary of more than 200 words, and has demonstrated that he can learn the names of new toys easily, and remember the names weeks later... is on par with other trained animals like apes, dolphins, sea lions, and parrots Seattle Post Intelligencer June 11, 2004 Randolph E Schmid AP Dog when given a new word fetches the new object not in his vocabulary. A month later, remembers name of the new time 3 out of 6 times, equivalent to a 3 year old, even if never seen it since the 1st test. UNLIKE PEOPLE (?) DOGS REALLY ARE BRED TO ACT DIFFERENT \CLIP\99\08\dogtrait.txt Wed, 10 Mar 1999 18:36:18 -0500 (EST) http://www.slate.com/Features/dogs/dogs.asp Mau-Mauing the Dogcatcher:Is it racist to dislike a dachshund? By Jonah Goldberg Racism among humans is overwhelmingly based upon cultural differences--what breeders might call "training." The actual genetic differences between human "races" are so infinitesimal that making sweeping statements is rarely useful and often dangerous. Genetic differences between human races are literally superficial. But the differences between purebred dogs are anything but. That's why they call it breeding.

@@Education achievement

WHITES MORE LIKELY TO BE IN COLLEGE, BUT BLACKS MORE LIKELY AT 100 IQ (implies either affirmative action preference, or propensity to go to college) source: bell curve p. 320 based on NLSY Probability of
college degree overall W27% B11% L10% Probability of IQ 100 person in college W50% B68% L49% @@education contribution "Study: Schooling has big effect on intelligence development" Seattle Times Aug 12, 1998 p. A7 (Chicago Tribune) journal Child Development reports study headed by Janellen Huttenlocher, professor of psychology of Univ of Chicago. Schooling can influence how smart children can be, skills that determine intelligence fluctuate up or down according to education, improve during school, but not vacation, especially for map reading and language. Compare to genetic potential theories. Study of 5,000 K and 1G found same pattern across races.

@@education gap

shuey p. 497 black 10th graders scored as low as whites with no formal schooling in WWII IQ AGCT tests.

@@Egg Donor

\clip\99\01\geneegg.txt cnn.com Infertile couples hope Ivy League eggs mean Ivy League kids January 3, 1999 NEW HAVEN, Connecticut (AP) -- Some infertile couples want strictly Grade A eggs. [nobody knows for sure, but people are marketing based on the possibility kids at ivy colleges have better eggs]

@@employment

Bell Curve p. 328 Probability of being unemployed for a month or more Average Age (29) W10% B21% L14% Avg Age and 100IQ W11% B15% L11%

@@Equal

You would think that with all the effort spent attacking the concept that intelligence is different between the races that somebody would have a reasonable case proving that intelligence is equal, but there aren't any. There have been a few studies which claim to show that intelligence is the same when environment is compensated for, however, that is not the same as showing that on average, intelligence is same regardless of background, or that someone with low IQ can easily have it raised. Arthur Jensen says that it is unfair to compensate for other factors since they are correlates for IQ, and would be like saying that people with the same incomes have the same incomes. The only studies that claim to show that IQ are equal are either that 1) all IQ studies are invalid, therefore IQ is equal for lack of any other data or 2) by the time you equate all the other variables, IQ would be the same (but that doesn't show 2 populations that are actually equal in IQ) or 3) blacks can get average IQs, but under conditions where Whites and Asians are even higher. THE RACES OF MANKIND SHOW NO DIFFERENCES IN INTELLIGENCE p. 23 Today's World: The Human Race Linda Gamlin 1988 Alladin Books ltd RUTH MITCHELL - RESEARCH HAS ESTABLED THAT ACADEMIC ABILITY IS EQUAL ACROSS ALL RACES (?) Wed, 09 Sep 1998 11:47:43 -0400 From: "George K. Cunningham" gkcunn01@ulkyvm.louisville.edu Unrealistic Standards Consider the following quote from the Christian Science Monitor: In a Council for Basic Education publication, Ruth Mitchell writes that "while research has established that academic ability is distributed evenly throughout all racial and ethnic groups, the lower tracks in schools are still disproportionately populated with Latinos, blacks, newly arrived immigrant groups, and poor white children.... Few today would suggest that this phenomenon - predominantly white middle-class students in the upper tracks and poor, minority, and immigrant students in the lower ones - is still based on perceived destiny." INTELLIGENCE IS THE ONLY QUANTITY EQUALLY DISTRIBUTED ACROSS ALL RACES? \clip\97\11\race.txt http://www.seattletimes.com/sbin/iarecord?NS-search-set=/3353b/aaaa006YQ53be 0f&NS-doc-offset=10& Seattle Times National News : Oct. 9, 1996 Close-up: Scientists reject the traditional notion of races by Robert S. Boyd Knight-Ridder Newspapers "The University of Michigan's Brace, who is writing a book on the subject, contended that intelligence is the only human trait that does not seem to vary from one population to another. Instead, he said basic intellectual capacity is distributed equally among all peoples, regardless of their skin color. " \doc\96\04\bellhamm.txt F052496 "Study hammers 'Bell Curve' contentions" Seattle Post-Intelligencer May 19, 1995 p. E2 Kimberley Mills Child Development journal article of study by Columbia University Teacher's College and in Northwestern University. Found 15 point IQ difference overall, but no significant difference in black and white IQ after complete environment taken into account, including parental education, income, and child provided with toys that taught color, shape and size, and encouraged to learn alphabet and numbers. Poverty was 52% of difference, home environment 28%, leaving 3 point "insignificant" gap. Suggests that Bell Curve thesis of unchangeable IQ is incorrect (however, this study did not show that children with low IQs could be easily raised) \doc\95\04\afaccase.txt "Affirmative action: Case of friendly fire" DeWayne Wickham, USA Today March 20, 1995- "There is no evidence blacks are less smart" Comment - that is not correct unless you discount every comparison of general populations of blacks and whites. Stephen Jay Gould's "Mismeasure of Man" contains no evidence that measureable intelligence is equal, only claims that all known methods of measuring intelligence are faulty. @@Eskimo
Sailer has seen Eskimo IQ studies from 70 to 100. Others say that on Raven's matrices, Eskimos score 100, despite "primitive" technological culture. 10/2001 The available evidence on the Eskimos (Inuit) shows them testing as well as Europeans. With a slight adjustment for disadvantage in the environment and cultural effects this suggest superiority in the genes. They are classic hunters. Edward Miller

@@eugenics

\priv\95\13\iqeug2.txt IQ and Eugenics part 2 Kansas Science Standards: National Drafters Linked to American Eugenics Society By Rebecca R. Messall, J.D. Mentions rushton @@Evolutionary Psychology z45\clip\2000\08\evpsy.txt Flameproof racism On the Evolutionary Psychology mailing list, dangerous ideas thrive -- without the usual online rancor and hatred. http://www.salon.com/tech/feature/2000/08/30/evpsych/index.html By Andrew Brown Given the volatility of online debate, the existence, then, of the Evolutionary Psychology mailing list seems like a miracle. All these unspeakable things and more are debated there, yet it is actually possible to learn new things -- and the arguments, however ruthless, are always polite. The list has nearly 2,000 subscribers, among them some of the most distinguished names in the field. Richard Dawkins was on for a while; Dan Dennett lurks there; and so does anthropologist Dan Sperber. http://www.egroups.com/group/evolutionary-psychology @@Execution ROUGHLY 1/3 OF EXECUTED KNOWN TO HAVE SUB-RETARDED IQ SCORES Z75\CLIP\2004\01\yriq.txt http://www.news.cornell.edu/releases/Dec03/IQ.retardation.ssl.html The year in which an IQ test is given can make the difference between life or death, Cornell researchers find Of the 350 people executed since 1990, 112 were known to have IQ scores of 70 or below (the cutoff for mental retardation). (Flynn effect) A score from a test taken at the end of one cycle can vary widely from a score derived from a test taken at the beginning of the next cycle, when the test is more difficult,

@@Flynn Effect

@@Rising

Flynn argues that Asians really aren't smarter because Asians took tests in years where results have a different meaning since IQ scores rise every year, 5 to 25 points in a generation. Rushton calls it a Lynn-Flynn effect when most cultures that have been testing show a rise in scores. It is said that the average child now tests as well as the near genius not long ago.

Other egalitarians say this proves that there isn't any difference between any races, but every time the races that are behind catch up, whites have moved up just as far or farther.

More widely reported is that average IQs for everybody have risen about 3 points per decade, however the gap between groups hasn't narrowed much, if any, as measured by standard deviation.


WHY ARE IQ TESTS RISING? START PLAYING GRAND THEFT AUTO
\clip\2005\05\flynnwired.txt
WIRED
http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/13.05/flynn.html?pg=1&topic=flynn&topic_set=
By Steven Johnson
Twenty-three years ago, an American philosophy professor named James 
Flynn discovered a remarkable trend: Average IQ scores in every 
industrialized country on the planet had been increasing steadily for 
decades. Despite concerns about the dumbing-down of society - the 
failing schools, the garbage on TV, the decline of reading - the 
overall population was getting smarter.

z54\clip\2002\01\iqtrend.txt
The Express 
January 7, 2002 
THE FUTURE LOOKS BRIGHT AS RESEARCH SHOWS OUR IQ OUTSTRIPS WORLD
COMPETITORS; WHY WE BRITS ARE CLEVERER THAN EVER 
ANDREW CUNNINGHAM 
WE MAY not rule the waves any more - but Britain still rules the brain
waves. A new study reveals that the intelligence of the average Briton has
grown at a faster rate than the citizens of any other developed nation. 

The Independent (London) January 7, 2002, Monday YOU NEED TO BE
CLEVER TO SPOT THE FLYNN EFFECT Simon Carr ARE WE really cleverer
than we used to be? James Flynn, a professor of IQ at Otago
University in New Zealand says we are. We're smarter than our parents
but outwitted by our children. He has measured this trend and
suggested that average IQs in Britain have gone up more than 27
points since the Second World War.  Today, 12-year-olds have never
heard of the perfect interrogative negative of se depecher

The Mirror 
January 7, 2002, Monday 
BRITANNIA RULES THE BRAINWAVES;  WHY WE HAVE HIGHEST IQS IN THE WORLD 
Jill Foster 
Tests taken in universities and the military in 20 countries prove that, on
average, the British IQ has risen faster than in any other nation. 

z49\clip\2001\04\newsflyn.txt
Then and now: The average child's IQ score in the United States has
jumped 12 points since 1932 
Are We Getting Smarter?  http://www.msnbc.com/news/560048.asp?cp1=1
The rise [in iq] is so sharp that the average child today is as
bright as the near genius of yesteryear.  IQ scores rose steadily in
the 20th century. As scientists search for the reasons, they are
shedding new light on the dance between genes and life experience
that determines intelligence 
 By Sharon Begley
NEWSWEEK 

z49\clip\2001\05\branflyn.txt The great IQ-score rise: test
sophistication, Caesarian births or masked mystificatory multipliers?
Chris Brand, 4/2001 [Flynn fails in his attempt to show IQ is not
related to group differences, Brand advocates testing and teaching to
IQ according to traditional tracking]
z49\clip\2001\05\branflyn.txt The great IQ-score rise: test
sophistication, Caesarian births or masked mystificatory multipliers?
Chris Brand, 4/2001 [Flynn fails in his attempt to show IQ is not
related to group differences, Brand advocates testing and teaching to
IQ according to traditional tracking]

z49\clip\2001\04\flynn.txt http://www.apa.org/releases/iqmodel.html
APA Press Releases New Model of IQ Development Accounts for Ways that
Even Small Environmental Changes Can Have a Big Impact, While Still
Crediting the Influence of Genes WASHINGTON - A new mathematical
model suggests a larger environmental role in IQ than previously
thought... in the April issue of Psychological Review, published by
the American Psychological Association (APA).  William T. Dickens of
The Brookings Institution in Washington, D.C. and James R. Flynn of
the department of political studies, University of Otago, Dunedin,
New Zealand, applied their statistical expertise to an unresolved
paradox in IQ research: If most variation between people's IQs are
due to differences in their genes, as has been widely argued, then
why have IQs risen over several generations in some 20 nations?

z47\clip\2000\12\moreiq.txt
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/12/20/national/20LESS.html New York Times
December 20, 2000 LESSONS Another Look at the Way That Intelligence
Flowers 
By RICHARD ROTHSTEIN The National Academy of Sciences report sees the
brain as more plastic than "hard wired." The manner of nurturing can
raise or lower the limits of I.Q.  in the early 1980's, James R.
Flynn, a political scientist in New Zealand, made a remarkable
discovery: average I.Q.'s rose by about three points a decade during
most of the 20th century.  "The Rising Curve" (American Psychological
Association, 1998), edited by Prof.  Ulric Neisser of Cornell
University, tries to explain this "Flynn effect."  

Rushton says Flynn effect does
not affect 1SD black white gap.

z39\clipim\2000\02\16\cmurraybga0799.pdf From: "Louis R. Andrews"
Behavior Genetics Association meeting last summer, "The Secular
Increase in IQ and Longitudinal Changes in the Magnitude of the
Black-White Difference: Evidence from the NLSY," that addressed the
Flynn Effect.
http://www.lrainc.com/swtaboo/taboos/cmurraybga0799.pdf The paper
runs 25 pages, includes several graphics and offers little solace to
the egalitarians. 

Difference in IQ tests between black white
NLSY born 60sor 80s 1.24
1970s               1.12
since 1960s         1.10
Stanford Binet 86   1.10  ages 12-23
overall 1900-1980s  1
Wechsler 1981       1.0
1930s               0.82
Stanford Binet 86    .80  ages 2-11

Academic
1965 EqEdOp Survey  1.18
1992 NaEdLo Study   0.82

NAEP Hedges and Nowell 1994
 .66 Reading
 .89 Mathematics
1.08 Science
 .68 Writing

Tests of learned academic or basic skills show less difference than
g-loaded tests of mental ability.

NLSY 1980 AFQT predicted for untested children
children          white  black
mean (iq scale)   102.2   86.9
mean mother ed     14.0   12.9
married 1966       88.0   39.4
born poverty       14.9   39.8
moth ever welf     12.5   61.1
born out wed        7.3   50.0

In the two generations of the NLSY, no convergence has occurred. The
BW difference on a highly g-loaded cognitive test for the 1 st
generation of the NLSY, born from 1957–64, was 16.6 points, amounting
to 1.24 SDs relative to the black and white distributions.  For the 2
nd genera-tion, born primarily in the 1980s, the difference on a
widely used test of verbal cognitive ability was 17.8 points, or 1.26
SDs. The matched sibling pairs in both the 1 st and 2 nd generation
of the NLSY effectively rule out the tradi-tional types of
environmental analysis (parental socioeconomic status, family
background vari-ables, quality of education) as explanations for the
differences in comparison sibling IQ. together, I suggest the
following hypothesis: the BW difference on tests of academic
achievement narrowed during this century while the BW difference in
tests of cognitive ability did not.

AVERAGE 1918 IQ BY MODERN TEST WOULD BE 85?
\clip\99\13\flynn.txt
London Sunday Times Magazine
June 12 1999

The Battle of Wits

[EXCERPT] IQ tests are under attack, accused of being misleading, elitist and
even downright evil. So how will the society of the future tell a genius from
an idiot? Investigation by BRIAN APPLEYARD

In 1982 James Flynn, now professor of politics and moral philosophy
at the University of Otago in New Zealand, discovered that people in
the developed world were getting smarter at a phenomenal rate.  The
tests had changed over the years and, because of the way they were
constructed, they always tended to show roughly the same average IQ
of about 100. But Flynn gave old tests to new people; 1980s children
took tests from the 1920s. Then, as he puts it, "something weird
happened". His results showed that an average child in 1918 had an IQ
of 85 or lower, whereas an average contemporary child would have an
IQ of 100 or higher.


* 50 YEAR GAP *
He says that the race gap may or may not be caused by whatever causes
IQ to inflate, but black IQs are where whites were 50 years ago

Rushton The Dutch Armed Forces have
been giving Raven's Matrices to conscripts since about (oddly) 1944
and find the rising scores to at least the mid-1980s. I believe
Lynn's classic 1982 study in Nature (on the Japanese) found the gain
in 40-plus year olds from the 1950s from WAIS to WAIS-R (although it
might have been WISC given to an adult sample).

clip\98\18\flynn.txt
\clip\98\18\flynn\flynn.htm charts
http://www.sciam.com/1999/0199issue/0199profile.html
January 1999 Marguerite Holloway Scientific American
Flynn's Effect Intelligence scores are rising, James R. Flynn
discovered--but he remains very sure we're not getting any smarter


\clip\98\06\newscl01.txt 3/1/98 New York Times Tests Prove That
Nobody's Smart About Intelligence By GEORGE JOHNSON [TIMSS, RISING
NAEP, SAT SCORES, IQ, FLYNN EFFECT, MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES] "The
Flynn effect": all over the world IQ scores are steadily rising.
Since at least the late 19th century, right on through the SAT
decline, people have been getting smarter, or at least better at
taking IQ tests. IQ, according to the Flynn effect, is rising by
about three points a decade.


@@Galton

One of the founders of modern intelligence theory, for better or 
worse.

Gavan Tredoux has collected a sizeable body of Galton's work at 
   http://www.mugu.com/galton/

@@Gap

IQ GAP DUE TO LOW VOCABULARY?
WILSON QUARTERLY Autumn 2004
http://wwics.si.edu/index.cfm?fuseaction=wq.essay&essay_id=96228
A Real Head Start
3The Black-White Test Score Gap2 by George Farkas, in Contexts (Spring
2004), Univ. of California, Dept. of Sociology, No. 1980, Berkeley,
The persistent gap between the standardized-test scores of black and
white children has long resisted explanation. Biased tests? The tests
focus on basic abilities needed in school and well-paying jobs (and
the gap shows up even when the teachers are black). Race-related test
anxiety? The gap is found even among very young children. A genetic
basis? There9s no evidence for genetic superiority in IQ in
individuals of either race. Social class and family background? Yes,
of course, but most studies find that these account for only about
half of the gap. And while racial differences in income have narrowed
since 1990, the test score gap has not.
...farkas's own study of youngsters ages three to 13 showed that black
children from high-income families had significantly smaller
vocabularies than their affluent white counterparts. The
African-American children had about the same vocabulary knowledge as
white children from low-income families.



@@Gender

Patti Hausman on boy/men math advantage 2/2002: Male advantage: PSAT Math .32 SAT Math .36 MCAT Quant .36 GMAT Quant .49 AFQT math .25 And the grand finale: GRE Math .87 The authors of that paper say the gap only exists "for the brightest students." Where do they think mathematicians come from? MEN FASTER NAVIGATORS BECAUSE OF THEIR BRAINS z40\clip\2000\03\navig.txt Gender differences found when it comes to traversing a maze Copyright © 2000 Associated Press By MALCOLM RITTER NEW YORK (March 20, 2000 5:02 p.m. EST http://www.nandotimes.com) - Men are generally better than women at finding their way in unfamiliar settings, and use different parts of the brain to do it, a study published in the journal Nature Neuroscience suggests. "The men got out of the maze in an average of two minutes and 22 seconds, vs. an average of three minutes and 16 seconds for the women. That fits with previous studies in animals and people that suggest males navigate better in an unfamiliar environment...Just last week, other scientists reported that male London taxi drivers show structural changes in the hippocampus, apparently because of their professional experience. " MEN MAKE FASTER NAVIGATORS OUT OF VIRTUAL MAZE z48\clip\2001\03\navigate.txt 21 March 2000 BBC news web-site ( http://news.bbc.co.uk)\Dr Matthias Riepe and colleagues at the University of Ulm in Germany asked 12 men and 12 women to navigate their way out of a virtual reality maze displayed on a computer. "Men and women use different parts of the brain to find their way about, scientists report. The study is likely to fuel that old argument about whether men or women are better at navigation in the car and reading maps. The men got out of the maze in an average of two minutes and 22 seconds. The average for the women was three minutes and 16 seconds. The outcome fits with previous studies in animals and people that suggest males navigate better in an unfamiliar environment. BOYS AND GIRLS ARE *NOT* EQUAL IN INTELLIGENCE http://www.seattletimes.com/news/nation-world/html98/boys_040398.html \clip\98\07\boys.txt The Seattle Times Company Friday, April 3, 1998 Thank heaven for little boys? by Megan Rosenfeld The Washington Post " Diane Halpern, a psychology professor at California State University in San Bernadino, recently surveyed current studies of differences between male and female intelligence. She found that women do better in tasks that test language abilities, fine motor tasks, perceptual speed, decoding nonverbal communication, and speech articulation. Men are superior in "visual working memory," tasks that require moving objects, aiming, fluid reasoning, knowledge of math, science and geography, and general knowledge. At the same time males have more mental retardation, attention deficit disorders, delayed speech, dyslexia, stuttering, learning disabilities and emotional disturbances. "
@@gene manipulation SMARTER MICE THROUGH IMPROVED GENES zip37\clip\99\17\geneiq.txt http://www.pathfinder.com/time/magazine/articles/0,3266,30526,00.html TIME Magazine Smart Genes --PAGE 1-- SEPTEMBER 13, 1999 THE I.Q. GENE? SEPTEMBER 13, 1999 VOL. 154 NO. 11 Smart Genes? A new study sheds light on HOW MEMORY WORKS and raises questions about whether we should use genetics to make people brainier BY MICHAEL D. LEMONICK "Would it be possible to manipulate a higher cognitive function like learning and memory by changing a single molecule? The researchers spliced the gene that creates NR2B into the DNA of ordinary mouse embryos to create the strain they called Doogie. Then they ran the mice through a series of standardized tests--sort of a rodent sat."

@@generational

\priv\95\19\ussmart.txt Tests put U.S. students among best - and worst Tacoma News Tribune Story Number: 56007 12/10/95 Shankar Vedantam IQ in the US increased by 7 pts per generation Bell Curve p. 308 IQs rise over time, so White Americans two generations ago probably would score no lower than Blacks today

@@frank

doc\94\6\priv\iqtest.txt - LA Daily news why not be frank about IQ and race?

@@g general factor

The opposite of mutiple intelligences is the idea of a single g factor that predicts everything http://www.sciam.com/specialissues/1198intelligence/1198gottfred.html z48\clipim\2001\03\14\gfact\1198gottfred.html The General Intelligence Factor Despite some popular assertions, a single factor for intelligence, called g, can be measured with IQ tests and does predict success in life by Linda S. Gottfredson PART OF BRAIN MAY DRIVE "G" z44\clip\2000\08\braing.txt N.Y. Times July 21, 2000 Study Finds Region of Brain May Be Key Problem Solver By NATALIE ANGIER Addressing a longstanding debate among scientists over how much of the brain is activated to perform a difficult task like taking an I.Q. test, researchers have found that a surprisingly small and specific region of gray matter may be the brain's master problem solver. NO DIFFERENCE IN COLLEGE OR SES AFTER CONTROLLING FOR "G"
\doc\web\99\07\sesg.txt From: "Patricia Hausman" Brodnick RJ & Ree, MJ (1995). A structural model of academic performance, socioeconomic status, and Spearman's g. Educational and Psychological Measurement 55(4): 583-594. The authors find no relationship between performance of college students and SES after controlling for g. \clip\98\17\gfact.htm http://www.sciam.com/1998/1198intelligence/1198gottfred.html Scientific American 11/98 special issue Scientific American Presents: Feature Article: The General Intelli= gence Factor: November 1998

@@genetic / @@innate

%%Against AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION SAYS NO GENETIC BASIS FOR RACE DIFFERENCES BUT MAYBE SO FOR GENDER z46\clipim\2000\11\apaiq\apaiq.htm http://www.apa.org/releases/intell.html The differential between the mean intelligence test scores of Blacks and Whites does not result from any obvious biases in test construction and administration There is certainly no such support for a genetic interpretation. At this time, no one knows what is responsible for the differential. Although there are no important sex differences in overall intelligence test scores, substantial differences do appear for specific abilities. Males typically score higher on visual-spatial and (beginning in middle childhood) mathematical skills; females excel on a number of verbal measures. %%For INTELLIGENCE LARGELY DETERMINED BEFORE BIRTH BY GENES, GRAY MATTER z54\clip\2001\11\braitwin.txt http://www.theage.com.au/news/world/2001/11/05/FFXS43ROLTC.html By JOHN VON RADOWITZ LONDON Monday 5 November 2001 "The quantity of frontal grey matter, in particular, was most similar in individuals who were genetically alike; intriguingly, these individual differences in brain structure were tightly linked with individual differences in IQ." z54\clip\2001\11\brainsi.txt http://www.nytimes.com/2001/11/05/health/anatomy/05BRAI.html N.Y. Times November 5, 2001 Study Finds Genetic Link Between Intelligence and Size of Some Regions of the Brain By NICHOLAS WADE Plunging into the roiled waters of human intelligence and its heritability, brain scientists say they have found that the size of certain regions of the brain is under tight genetic control and that the larger these regions are the higher is intelligence. PIT BULLS ARE CHEMICALLY WIRED TO KILL z39\clipim\99\12\23\pitbull.efx City Journal Spring 1999 Not Scared of Pit Bulls? You Should be! Economist article says that pit bulls has different brain chemicals that make them agressive and immune to pain. GENES DO MATTER IN BEHAVIOR- TWIN STUDIES http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0679430288/qid=912796124/sr=1-5/002 -9479203-2552259 Born That Way : Genes, Behavior, Personality by William Wright JENCKS: INNATE ABILITY PLAYS A MINOR ROLE IN GAP? \clip\98\16\hered.txt Copyright © 1998 by The American Prospect, Inc. Preferred Citation: Christopher Jencks and Meredith Phillips, "The Heredity-Environment Controversy," The American Prospect no. 40 (September-October 1998): 48-49 (http://epn.org/prospect/40/40jesbfs.html). The Heredity-Environment Controversy "But we find it hard to see how anyone reading these studies with an open mind could conclude that innate ability played a large role in the black-white gap." Elsie Moore found that black children adopted by white parents had IQ scores 13.5 points higher than black children adopted by black parents. \clip\97\15\genement.txt http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/WPlate/1997-06/06/092L-060697-idx.html [Image] Genes Play Surprisingly Large Role in Mental Ability Late in Life, Study Finds "On some measures, genes account for as much as 62 percent of the difference -- approximately twice the contribution made by nearly a century of education, work, lifestyle and diet." By Curt Suplee Washington Post Staff Writer Friday, June 6, 1997; Page A04 The Washington Post \priv\95\02\racegene.txt - Race not determined by genes? In a more serious vein, some of the scientists also questioned whether anyone knew how to measure human intelligence reliably -- much less find a gene that determines it. The use of IQ tests, although widespread, is still widely debated. In the 1920s, researchers widely believed in a factor called ''g'' for general intelligence and spent years searching for it, said Peter Schonemann of Purdue University. That concept was finally discarded by the late 1920s. ''People do not know in the field what intelligence is now,'' Schonemann said, ''any more than they did in 1930.''

@@german

Bell Curve p. 310 research of mixed descent children of white vs. black soldiers found no difference in IQ, suggests environmental difference

@@gifted

Shuey p. 498 in unselected samples, blacks were about 1/6 the rate of whites among the gifted.

@@Gorilla

@@Primates

IS IQ THE MEASURE OF AN APE? It has been widely quoted that Koko the signing gorilla has a 85-90 IQ. But if that's true, that would be the same as the commonly quoted "bell curve" 85 IQ figure for disadvantaged American or European ethnic groups, or underdeveloped nations in Africa or Asia, grown up humans who have done just about everything except walked on the moon, just with a little less education, and economic development. In fact, that IQ was only loosely referring to the development of an infant Koko, not performance on a human IQ test. It seems that the studies out there show that chimps are capable of academics and abstract thought at the level of a 4-5 year old human, preschool to kindergarten reading and math, recognizing spoken english, spellings and whole words. No primates have demonstrated anything close to the mental capacity of humans beyond a few years of age (barely talking). Apes can: - respond to attention as infants - can use sign language - recognize letters - recognize words - vocalize different sounds for different food - appear to "pretend" - appear to have IQ consistent with 2-4 yr old - count up to 9 KANZI CAN TALK IN LEXIGRAMS, UNDERSTAND LIMITED HUMAN SPEECH A Telling Difference Stephen Anderson Natural History Nov 2004, article not online - nobody has looked at the research notes on Koko, non really familiar with ASL. - Kanzi performed as child of mother who didn't train very well. 44 lexigrams in vocabulary, recognize spoken words. Coke to mean all dark liquids, bread including taco shells. Kanzi did not understand more complex grammar like in, on, next. MONKEYS CAN COUNT TO 9, MONKEYS AND DOLPHINS CAN CHOOSE "I DON'T KNOW" z75\clip\2004\01\anthou.txt http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,1098372,00.html Animals 'can think about thought' Laboratory monkeys have counted up to nine, ..monkeys and dolphins, at least, could opt for the "uncertain" response, in a manner essentially identical to a human don't-know. A team from the University of Buffalo, New York, the University of Montana and Georgia State University report in the December issue of Behavioural and Brain Sciences CLOTH MONKEY MOM SHOWS MOMS SHOULD CUDDLE THEIR BABIES http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/books/134566557_goonpark03.html z60\clipim\2002\11\06\goonpark\goonpark.htm Dr. strange love. Harry Harlow showed love is life itself, but his primate subjects paid the price. Review by Mary Ann Gwinn: "Love at Goon Park: Harry Harlow andthe Science of Affection" Deborah Blum. Seattle Times Nov 3, 2002 Connection between high death rates in orphanages (7 times older children) of loneliness when touching children was discouraged, and monkeys raised separately from mothers. Famous study that monkeys preferred the cloth mother over the wire mother with water bottle. VEGAN PAGE SAYS HARLOW TORTURED MONKEYS http://www.vegans.org.uk/viv-harlow.html 11/2002 z60\clipim\2002\11\06\veghar\vegharl.htm http://whyfiles.org/087mother/4.html The Science of Mother's Day After Ceausescu was executed in the coup in 1989, the orphanages were opened to a world that saw Dickensian warehouses for the unwanted. Scientific study confirmed what the untrained eye could see: The children were in the third to tenth percentile for physical growth, and "grossly delayed" in motor and mental development, Carlson says. They rocked and grasped themselves like Harlow's monkeys, and grew up with weird social values and behavior MONKEYS WITH GOOD PARENTS GROW UP WELL ADJUSTED Wiley Europe: Love at Goon Park: Harry Harlow and the science of affection Deborah Blum Far from encouraging human contact medical advice even to mothers with small children was that physical contact with their child was unhygienic, likely to 'spoil' the child and to be too sexual for the nature of the relationship. Harlow challenged these ideas through studies of social behaviour of monkeys. .. one of the many paradoxes and tragedies of his work that the importance of love and humanity was only proved by a series of horrific and inhuman experiments, which subjected young primates either to isolation or to the custody of neglectful or evil surrogate mothers. Perhaps predictably these experiments showed that young animals reared by an attentive and loving parent grow into well-adjusted adults; those reared by neglectful or abusive parents grow into insecure, maladjusted and highly stressed adults who frequently repeat the pattern of abuse. MONKEYS NEED PLAYMATES AND MOTHERS http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/bhharl.html z60\clipim\2002\11\06\harlow\harlow.htm Harry Harlow 1905-1981 Science Odyssey "young monkeys reared with live mothers and young peers easily learned to play and socialize with other young monkeys. Those with cloth mothers were slower, but seemed to catch up socially by about a year. Babies raised with real mothers but no playmates were often fearful or inappropriately aggressive. Baby monkeys without playmates or real mothers became socially incompetent, and when older, were often unsuccessful at mating." BABIES, MONKEYS CAN COUNT UP TO 5 z58\clip\2002\09\apecoun.txt CNN: Evidence adds up that monkeys can count - September 5, 2002 http://www.cnn.com/2002/TECH/science/09/05/coolsc.countingmonkeys/index.html "Human babies also have a rudimentary ability to estimate small quantities," said Nieder. Both human infants and monkeys can accurately discriminate quantities up to five. " 4 YR OLD CHIMPS PEFORM AT PRE-K LEVEL AT READING, MATH Keeli & Ivy: Chimps Like Us. Discovery 4/2002. Sally Boysen at Primate Research Center at Ohio State works with 2-6 yr old chimps with goal of having them write sentences. Previous apes could only manage 1 or 2 word responses. They can spell words and recognize whole words, add and subtract (about kindergarten level) . They make different sounds which are like distinct words for grape or lettuce. 2 1/2 year old humans can't, but 3 year olds can use models to find hidden objects, chimps can do this at age 4. Nim could master 150 signs, Kanzi, about 200 lexigrams. 3 1/2 yr old chimp could use rod to push nut out of tube, vs 3 yr old human. lab: http://chimpcenter.osu.edu/ RATTLING THE CAGE: CHIMPS CAN COMMUNICATE AT LEVEL OF 3-4 YR OLD Wall Street Journal 4/25/02 Steven Wise, author of Rattling the Cage says chimps using sign language can communicate at the level of 3 to 4 yr old humans. z57\clip\2002\08\apepre.txt Pretenders in the Mist? Scientists Debate Whether Apes Play Make-Believe Chronice of Higher Education, 2.8.9 http://chronicle.com/weekly/v48/i48/48a01601.htm Pretenders in the Mist? Scientists debate whether apes play make-believe By LILA GUTERMAN Viki [the chimp] impersonates her adoptive mother. She pushes around the vacuum cleaner, files her fingernails, and smoothes on lipstick with a finger.Dolphins, parrots, and elephants have exhibited some behaviors that look like pretending, but Mr. Mitchell says that only researchers who work with primates were willing to contribute to the book. RUSHTON CERTAIN APE IQ MUCH LOWER THAN ANY HUMANS J.P. Rushton 2002: Charles Murray bet the gorilla's IQ is under rather than over 50. I'd bet the same but it may be very very close. Sub-Saharan Africans AVERAGE an IQ of 70. Australian Aboriginies may be tad lower, judging from their mean brain sizes. If the average human brain is 1350 cubic centimeters, and homo erectus is 1,000 cubic centimeters, and gorillas and chimpanzees are less than 500 cubic centimeters, it can't be much higher. OSU CHIMPS TAUGHT TO READ AND WRITE LETTERS, WORDS z55\clip\2002\04\chimread.txt http://dsc.discovery.com/news/briefs/20020408/chimp.html April 19, 2002 Chimps Taught to "Read" By Jennifer Viegas, Discovery News April 13 — A pair of chimpanzees can "read" their own names and over a dozen other words relating to many of their favorite foods and objects, a team of researchers at Ohio State University announced on Friday. 1ST CHIMPS, NOW BABOONS SHOW ABSTRACT THOUGHT z52\clip\2001\10\baboon.txt http://unisci.com/stories/20014/1015011.htm Signs Of Abstract Thought Seen In Old World Monkeys Chimpanzees, in the ape family, already have demonstrated abstract thought. Now, two trained baboons successfully determined that two differently detailed displays were fundamentally the same in their overall design. THEY'RE JUST MONKEYS "Monkey Wrench" Richard Conniff Smithsonian September 2001 p. 97 http://www.smithsonianmag.si.edu/smithsonian/issues01/oct01/baboons.html (summary) Study of baboons concludes that while these guys do possess a lot of knowledge and langauge, they don't seem to know that other baboons have minds too. They'll scream for help, but won't call back in reply. STRUCTURE, NOT SIZE KEY TO HUMAN BRAIN DIFFERENCE z55:\clip\2002\04\langbran.txt http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/09/010905071926.htm Source: Medical College Of Georgia (http://www.mcg.edu/) Date: Posted 9/5/2001 Brain Circuitry Involved In Language Reveals Differences In Man, Non-Human Primates ..distinct, microscopic differences in the minicolumns of humans and non-human primates..they are lateralized, larger on the left side than on the right side of the brain.. In most humans, language function is housed on the left side of the brain, which would make the left-right differences found all the more pertinent, Dr. Casanova said. CHIMPS SHOW DIFFERENT CUSTOMS, TOOLS http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_1484000/1484261.stm z55\clip\2002\04\chimpcul.txt Friday, 10 August, 2001, 16:10 GMT 17:10 UK Cultural habits of chimps A chimp in West Africa makes a tool to prepare food By BBC News Online's Helen Briggs CHIMPS ABOUT EQUAL TO HUMAN 4 YR OLD IN INTELLIGENCE? z43\clipim\2000\06\20\monkey\monkey.htm [I dunno, my 4 yr old can type in his name on a computer and play Putt Putt on a PC to completion at age 3] Beauty and the Beasts: woman, ape and evolution by Carole Jahme (Virago, £18.99, 406pp) "humans share nearly 99 per cent of their genes with chimps and bonobos, whose intelligence is equal to that of a four-year-old human child." http://www.independent.co.uk/enjoyment/Books/Reviews/2000-06/ beautandbeast170600.shtml SKEPTIC SLAMS TALKING/SIGNING APES http://www.urbanlegends.com/language/primates_and_language.html z41\clip\2000\05\chimp.htm At the age of washoe could allegedly make 85 signs, and combine them into two-word "sentences". For comparison, most human children can do the same when they are about two years old. Probably the most famous of the NHP studies is that centering around Koko the gorilla. Koko's primary trainer, Francine Patterson, certainly makes the most far-reaching claims about the experiment. She says that Koko knows several hundred signs, composes sentences of varying length, and shows a fondness for jokes, puns, and metaphors. However, both of these experiments were criticized for being too uncontrolled. KOKO STILL PEGGED AT 70-95 IQ http://dsc.discovery.com/news/briefs/20040809/koko.html Gorilla Signs Request for Surgery By Jennifer Viegas, Discovery News Aug. 9, 2004 — " Koko has learned to sign over 1,000 words and she understands over 2,000 words. According to her caregivers, the gorilla has a tested IQ of between 70-95 on a human scale, where 100 is considered "normal." Koko's companion Michael had a vocabulary of 600 words before he died four years ago."
Monkey test can measure intelligence in children An intelligence test first developed for rhesus monkeys has proven successful in estimating IQs in children. [but offers no comparison between monkeys and humans] Reference: Paule, M.G., J.J. Chelonis, E.A. Buffalo, D.J. Blake, and P.H. Casey. 1999. Operant test battery performance in children: correlation with IQ. Neurotoxicol teratol 21(x) 000-000. FAMILY IN 30S TRIED RAISING CHIMP WITH SON, EQUAL UNTIL 3 An American family raised their infant son and an infant chimp side by side in the Thirties. They were inseperable friends, with the ape the dominant personality. They progressed equally until thir third year. The family called it off because the chimp had stopped making progress toward being human, but their son was growing ever more chimp-like in his behavior. [Steve Sailer] TEACHING ORANGATANS TO USE NOUNS AND VERBS, COUNT IN DC http://www.sciencenetlinks.com/sci_update.cfm?DocID=34 z55\clipim\2002\04\25\orang\orang.htm At the National Zoo, Azee, age 22 and Inde, age 19, are poring over computer screens, "they have to use a verb and then a noun to tell me what to do." "a new phase.. ability to learn how to look at a quantity and label it with a number, which is what we would call counting." Shumaker's discovering that the orangutans are similar to humans in the sorts of things they can learn--they just can't pick up the concepts as quickly, or take them as far. MSNBC Chimps being taught the three R’s By Bill Sloat NEWHOUSE NEWS SERVICE COLUMBUS, Ohio, March 16 2000 — The first colony of college-educated apes dwelling anywhere on this planet has finally mastered simple math. They understand fractions on a computer screen. They can count, add and subtract, even match a quantity of objects to its correct Arabic number. A typical formula for the apes of math goes something like this: Four grapes equals 4. Now they are discovering how humans read and write. Full text: z55\clip\2002\04\chimp.htm http://veederandld.20m.com/greports/31600.html PRIME-TIME PRIMATES: Chimps Count Chimpanzees doing fractions? Scientific American Frontiers Fall 1990 to Spring 2000 an Ohio State University researcher has taught some chimpanzees to solve simple arithmetic problems. Primatologist Sally Boysen shows that the chimps are truly processing the information and not just learning by rote. http://www.pbs.org/safarchive/4_class/45_pguides/pguide_504/4554_chimp2.html CHIMPS LEARN ARITHMETIC BY 1991 http://www.edwardwillett.com/Columns/animalintelligence.htm Animal Intelligence Copyright 2000 by Edward Willett Sarah Boysen, a psychology professor, began trying to teach arithmetic to chimpanzees in the 1970s. By 1991, a chimp named Sheba had figured it out. Once one chimp learned it, others followed. 2000: KEELI AND IVY BEING TAUGHT TO SPELL z40\clipim\2000\03\22\chimp\chimp.htm chimps and humans shared more than 98 percent of the same genetic material. Blood chemistry is even closer — it is virtually identical between the two species, whose lineage split sometime during the last 7 million years or so. she began teaching arithmetic to them in the 1970s, when nobody believed it could be done. But by 1991, a chimp named Sheba had figured it out Now, two pre-adolescent chimps named Keeli and Ivy, both nearly 4, are being taught the concept of spelling on a computer touch screen in Columbus \priv\95\12\gorriq.txt - full text of Seattle Times article with Koko. Only one sentence mentions koko Steve sailer says that Koko is no ordinary gorilla, no others have been as trainable, and her child did not pick up sign either. \doc\94\17\goriliq.txt - Koko the gorilla scored 85-95 on IQ test equal to average for African Americans, but most Af-Ams don't recieve as intense training, gorillas can't do most tasks even retarded humans can be as employed, independent citizens. Sailer discusses if Koko is just a really talented gorilla. graexec/obidos/ts/book-glance/0029066832/002-3013368-9572621 The Intelligence of Dogs : Canine Consciousness and Capabilities by Stanley Coren (out of print) PBS special A Conversation with Koko \clip\99\15\koko.txt http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/koko/index.html In A CONVERSATION WITH KOKO, we present the story of Dr. Penny Patterson's remarkable relationship with Koko, a western lowland gorilla she taught to communicate via sign language. On 1976 video, when Koko was small, she was quoted on camera as saying Koko was only lagging by a year or two, which would be equal to a 85 IQ. [This is not the same as saying the adult Koko has an 85 IQ which has often been quoted.] GORILLAS CAN ONLY CONVERSE AT LEVEL OF HUMAN 4 YR OLD GORILLA RIGHTS JOHN LEO: Pity the fools who go ape over the rights of animals. Seattle Times Sept 4, 1999 p. B7 Duke University law professor William Reppy Jr says we may have apes testifying on their on behalf, even though they can talk only at the level of a human 4-year-old. GROUP CLAIMS KOKO GORILLA HAS IQ FROM 75 TO 90 Found on web cite site: http://simplecom.net/jbindon/aol_puts_gorilla_in_chat_room.htm \doc\web\99\09\gorchat.txt AOL Puts Gorilla in Chat Room Original article: http://www.abcnews.com/sections/tech/DailyNews/Koko980424.html saved at zip35\clipim\99\07\06\koko\koko.htm text at zip35\clip\99\13\gorchat.txt ABCNEWS.com April 27 1998 Josh Knauer, executive director of EnviroLink Network, an environmentalist Web site that is sponsoring the event, says Koko is a free spirit The group says Koko has an IQ between 70 and 95, which is somewhat lower than the human average of 100. Her typical sentences range from three to six words. http://www.gorilla.org/ The Gorilla foundation @@Chinese chmalay.txt "Louis R. Andrews" Not surprisingly to me at least, the mean IQ of the Chinese in Malaysia is about 10-15 points higher than that of the Bumiputra. Flynn notes Chinese don't need as high IQ to get into college, over-representation is far in excess of what minor IQ advantage alone might explain. %%Koko z56\clip\2002\06\koko2.txt http://www.csicop.org/articles/koko/index.html Questioning Talking Apes and Chimpanzee Memoirs Matt Nisbet May 11, 1998 At twenty-six years of age, Koko has inspired a best-selling novel and film Koko, a resident of the Gorilla Foundation in the suburbs of San Francisco, California, has been tutored in modified American sign language for 25 years and reportedly is able to understand close to 2,000 words of spoken English. Her trainers claim she has an IQ between 70 and 95 KOKO MORE INTELLIGENT THAN RETARDED HUMAN z56\clip\2002\06\goriq3.txt Beastly Behavior? A Law Professor Says It's Time to Extend Basic Rights to the Animal Kingdom By a Washington Post Staff Writer Wednesday, June 5, 2002; Page C01 [also notes dolphins, elephants] 300-pound Koko, a remarkably conversant gorilla whose sign language skills surpass minimum levels for human fluency. Koko knows more than 1,000 signs, uses more than 500 regularly and understands several thousand English words. On human IQ tests, Koko scores between 70 and 95 -- by human standards, slow but not retarded. She articulates emotions -- a human attribute increasingly shown in nonhuman animals in neurological and zoological research at Oxford and New York universities, among others. @@Crime BRAND CLAIMS BLACK CRIME CLOSE TO WHITE IF IQ IS ACCOUNTED FOR \doc\web\99\10\rcrime.txt From: Chris Brand july 22, 1999 America's problem cannot be attributed largely to Afro-Americans (or, for that matter to racism against Black people). Once IQ is allowed for, the Black rate of crime in the USA is little higher than the White.* * R. A. Gordon (1987). 'SES versus IQ in the race-IQ-delinquency model.' International Journal of Sociology & Social Policy 7, 30-96. @@Dog Intelligence of Dogs The Intelligence of Dogs with rankings http://www.petrix.com/dogint/index.html http://home.att.net/~eugenics/dogs.htm z57\clip\2002\08\intdog.htm Politically incorrect Matt Nuenke notes that the press in the Bell Curve all believe that environment explains 100% of intelligence difference between varieties of humans, but genetics explains 100% of differences between dog breeds. @@Genetic Some books sugggest that the culture such as Asian study habits may be aided by genetic predispositions. From: "Patricia Hausman" Date sent: Wed, 21 Jul 1999 10:44:49 -0400 If you're not familiar with the lit, read Rowe's book. It's inexpensive, short, easy to read and full of important info. The review you found does a *lousy* job of describing the content. He mentions BTW some studies where Asian children who had actually been malnourished in orphanages (perhaps immediately after the Vietnam war, I'm not sure of circumstances) were adopted by U.S. families. Despite their early deprivation, they did splendidly in school. There are several transracial adoption studies of Asian-US discussed in the book, with more insight than evidenced by the typical social scientist. To: David Rowe >.. Asian genetic predisposition helps family study values... > >That's amazing, I've never seen that before, but that furthers my >idea that Asian and African culture may have been shaped by their >predispositions with respect to academic success. > >Found this on Amazon, no mention of genetic study superiority in >their review! > >http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0898621488/qid%3D932 >510850/002-6136436-5720019 >The Limits of Family Influence : Genes, Experience, and Behavior >by >David C. Rowe Our Price: $19.95 >> "Previous chapters have shown that traits emerge through >> a process of gene x environment correlation . . . In this >> view, the supportive environments of Asian families >> *and* a set of genetically based traits lead together to >> high levels of academic achievement. The Asian children's >> long attention span, greater self-control, and large working >> memory capacity constitute a recipe for academic success >> through self-directed study. Were these traits lacking, the >> long hours around a dining room table would erupt into >> family arguments, with jumpy children anxious to break >> away from the unpleasant duty imposed on them." From: "Louis R. Andrews" I can't recommend the Rowe book too highly. In fact, when folks ask me for some recent book references on human development and ethnic/racial diversity and its significance I recommend four books. The authors certainly do not agree on all topics, but all are important books published in 1994 and after. The Rowe book is the first I recommend they read. Here is list in the suggested order of reading. Interestingly, three of the four living authors are members of this mailing list. 1. _The Limits of Family Influence_, David C. Rowe 2. _The Bell Curve_, Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray 3. _Race, Evolution, and Behavior_, J. P. Rushton 4. _Why Race Matters_, Michael Levin Ian Pitchford REPLY: In the interests of balance you might also try: 1. Devlin, B., Fienberg, S.E., Resnick, D.P., & Roeder, K. (1997). Intelligence, genes and success: Scientists respond to The Bell Curve. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag. 2. Montagu, A. (1999). Race and IQ. Oxford, New York, NY: Oxford University Press (First edition published New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1975). 3. Mackintosh, N.J. (1998). IQ and human intelligence. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 4. Kohn, M. (1996). The race gallery: The return of racial science. London: Vintage (First published London: Jonathan Cape, 1995). From: Jonathan Marks An interesting list, but Iit could probably be fleshed out a bit by including the Protocols of the Elders of Zion. For the course I teach on race, I use: Human Biodiversity (Marks) The Science and Politics of Racial Research (Tucker) Darwin's Athletes (Hoberman) and a reader that includes articles by Madison Grant, Ruggles Gates, Henry Garrett, Herrnstein/Murray, Rushton and others. Sailer likes Marks but not Darwin's athletes @@Gorilla and chimps Humans are very similar to chimpanzees and apes, one figure commonly thrown about is that a signing Gorilla was good for a 85 or 90 IQ, but that's the same figure thrown out by the Bell Curve for lower performing human races when gorillas are closer in ability to 1 or 2 year old humans than adults from undeveloped nations. PRIMATE LIKE ME z50\clip\2001\08\apelike.txt NYT AUG 12, 2001 He's Not Hairy, He's My Brother By SETH MYDANS as Richard Wrangham, a chimpanzee behavior expert at Harvard University once put it: "Like humans, they laugh, make up after a quarrel, support each other in times of trouble, medicate themselves with chemical and physical remedies, stop each other from eating poisonous foods, collaborate in the hunt, help each other over physical obstacles, raid neighboring groups, lose their tempers, get excited by dramatic weather, invent ways to show off, have family traditions and group traditions, make tools, devise plans, deceive, play tricks, grieve, are cruel and are kind." The Intelligence of Dogs : Canine Consciousness and Capabilities by Stanley Coren (out of print) DO CHIMPS REALLY TALK OR MASTER SIMPLE COMMANDS? \clip\99\15\chimp.txt BBC News July 26, 1999 Chimps' language skills in doubt Kanzi is reputed to be one of the LRC's brightest pupils By Environment Correspondent Alex Kirby "They can use language effectively to make requests", he said. "But whether they're understanding what they're doing is a much more difficult mystery to disentangle." GROUP CLAIMS KOKO GORILLA HAS IQ FROM 75 TO 90 Found on web cite site: http://simplecom.net/jbindon/aol_puts_gorilla_in_chat_room.htm \doc\web\99\09\gorchat.txt AOL Puts Gorilla in Chat Room Original article: http://www.abcnews.com/sections/tech/DailyNews/Koko980424.html saved at zip35\clipim\99\07\06\koko\koko.htm text at zip35\clip\99\13\gorchat.txt ABCNEWS.com April 27 1998 Josh Knauer, executive director of EnviroLink Network, an environmentalist Web site that is sponsoring the event, says Koko is a free spirit The group says Koko has an IQ between 70 and 95, which is somewhat lower than the human average of 100. Her typical sentences range from three to six words. http://www.gorilla.org/ The Gorilla foundation

@@groups

Jews > White (50% college educated, high religion SAT) Asian Indians (Hindu Asian), Chinese > Asian (High award, MIT pop, rel SAT) White > Black Gay > Straight (50% college educated) Urban > Rural (White or Black) North > South (Shuey) Liberal Christian / Nonreligious > Fundamentalist Christian (UCLA survey, religion SAT) Educated > NonEducated (Murray, SAT) Rich > Poor (Murray chart, SAT) Developed Nations > Underdeveloped Nations (Murray Africans, Sowell) Adopt by white > Adopt by black African American > African National (Murray)
@@Gould, Stephen J. Stephen J. Gould's The Mismeasure of Man is widely cited as debunking the myth of IQ, but it does so largely by discrediting the sources, not with any positive evidence that the races are equal in anything. Other IQ experts are less charitable. \clip\99\04\gould.htm http://www.lrainc.com/swtaboo/stalkers/jpr_gould_paid.html Special Review Race, Intelligence, and the Brain: The Errors and Omissions of the Revised Edition of S. J. Gould's The Mismeasure of Man (1996) Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 23, No. 1 (July 1997), pp. 169- 180 J. Philippe Rushton Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada

Head Size

BIGGER HEADS ARE SMARTER Stephen Gould ridicules 19th century science which tried to show that whites and smart people had bigger head and larger brains. This fell out of fashion, but new research with more accurate equipment seems to show that it wasn't all that wrong in the first place. However, measuring average head size may not tell much about potential, as Arnold Schwarengeggers's arms are much larger than those of someone who hasn't worked out as much, conversely, people with brains that have had more "exercise" are physically and chemically different from ones with less stimulus. \clip\97\03\headsize.gif \clip\97\03\chaphat.txt Fortune February 17, 1997 http://pathfinder.com/@@H*MWeQUA8nsMuMX2/fortune/1997/970217/kup.html Keeping Up Daniel Seligman He knocks Stephen Jay Gould's Mismeasure of Man 1981, cites J. Phillipe Rushton who found that officers brains average 1,393 cubic centimeters vs 1,375 for enlisted. New MRI data show that bigger heads do have bigger brains. Seligman doesn't mention Rushton's controversial positions on race, IQ and sexual activity that links intelligence / head size and penis size / AIDS rates / sexual activity inversely and puts Asians and Africans at two ends of a human evolution scale. His study also says Asians had bigger heads (I'm Asian, and most caps are small on me...) Just because it sounds goofy doesn't mean it's wrong.

@@Hate

Hate crimes may be motivated out of fear of a superior, not inferior iq - Sailer

@@hereditary

\doc\94\18\priv\bellcurv.txt AUTHORS' CONTENTIONS ON IQ, HEREDITY SURE TO SPARK RACIAL DEBATE 8/17/94 SJM link Chris Brand from The g Factor Newsletter, 4 viii '97 IQ Realism NEW BLOW FOR SOCIAL ENVIRONMENTALISTS The latest 'Nature' (31 vii '97) carries a new meta-analysis of kin correlations for intelligence by statisticians from Carnegie-Mellon University. According to Devlin, Daniels and Roeder, 212 studies covering some 50,000 pairings yield the following correlations for IQ between various kinds of relative. ---------------------------------------------------------- Monozygotic Twins reared together .85 Monozygotic Twins reared apart .74 Dizygotic Twins reared together .59 Siblings reared together .46 Mid-parent / Child together .50 Single parent / Child together .41 Single parent / Child apart .24 Adopting parent / Child together .20 ---------------------------------------------------------- In so far as these figures contain any surprises for a mainstream hereditarian, they are that the correlations between parents and children are on the low side -- especially when the parent and child are 'apart.' Thus the authors argue that the effect of whether or not relatives shared the same womb may have been underestimated previously; and they accordingly suggest Herrnstein and Murray's conclusion of a 60% heritability for IQ producing a stratified society to be "tenuous."

@@height

Boston Globe Oct 6, 1986 p. 13 "Tallev Children score higher on intelligence test, study says" Dr. Darrell Wilson, Stanford U NHES survey of 14,000 children 6-17 found 14 IQ points between shortest and tallest students, height accounted for 2% of intelligence difference.

@@high school

Shuey found high school Iq = 83.5, same as in school age South = 82 border/ north = 91 Only 2 of 45 tests at 100 or better.

@@hiring affirmative action

Bell Curve p. 322 Probability of High IQ Occupation Overall W5% B3% L3% 117IQ W10% B26% L16% Bell Curve p. 490 Graph shows that for equal IQ, Blacks were hired under parity before 1965 in professional and technical jobs, but were over-represented after 1965, implying dual standards or racial preference. asian.intelligence.lynn

@@home testing

\clip\97\02\homeiq.htm New York Times 1/22/97 Home IQ Test is controversial @@IQ comparison site http://members.shaw.ca/delajara/index.html

@@immigrant ranking

/doc/96/06/immiq.html Chart show that recruits from Italy, Russia and Poland scored closely to negro (black) recruits in test in early 20th Century. Example of illiterate tests - draw strings on violin, shadow on 2nd cat, net across tennis court.

@@improvement / @@head start

It's not just IQ \clip\98\08\headstar.txt The Seattle Times Company April 19, 1998 Jerry Large / Times Staff Columnist Head Start counteracts negative effects of poverty Mary Carr-Wilt, program manager for the Seattle Public Schools Head Start/Early Childhood Education and Assistance Program, cites a 25-year study that shows HS graduates have greater odds of going on to college and of avoiding teen pregnancy than children from similar backgrounds who haven't been in the program. EARLY HEAD START - TRYING AGAIN, BUT EARLIER \clip\97\14\headstar.txt http://www.seattletimes.com (search top stories) Seattle Times Sunday, April 27, 1997 An early start: Experiments may change how a child is raised by Carey Quan Gelernter Seattle Times staff reporter "One study showed the gap between the language experiences of privileged and underprivileged children was so great by age 3 that the poor kids could never catch up. On average, the privileged children had heard 20 million words more than the underprivileged. " \priv\96\13\babyiq.htm Saturday, Februay 10, 1996 · Page A1 (c) 1996 San Francisco Chronicle "Education of Babies Shown to Boost IQs Study finds 15-30% jump in scores for those whose training began earliest " David Perlman, Chronicle Science Editor Summary: Infants of poor black mothers showed 15-30% increase in IQ compared to control groups, Head Start is too late and fades by the 3rd grade, these started before 4 months of age, 5 days a week. 85exec/obidos/ts/book-glance/0029066832/002-3013368-9572621

@@groups

Jews > White (50% college educated, high religion SAT) Asian Indians (Hindu Asian), Chinese > Asian (High award, MIT pop, rel SAT) White > Black Gay > Straight (50% college educated) Urban > Rural (White or Black) North > South (Shuey) Liberal Christian / Nonreligious > Fundamentalist Christian (UCLA survey, religion SAT) Educated > NonEducated (Murray, SAT) Rich > Poor (Murray chart, SAT) Developed Nations > Underdeveloped Nations (Murray Africans, Sowell) Adopt by white > Adopt by black African American > African National (Murray) @@Gould, Stephen J. Stephen J. Gould's The Mismeasure of Man is widely cited as debunking the myth of IQ, but it does so largely by discrediting the sources, not with any positive evidence that the races are equal in anything. Other IQ experts are less charitable. \clip\99\04\gould.htm http://www.lrainc.com/swtaboo/stalkers/jpr_gould_paid.html Special Review Race, Intelligence, and the Brain: The Errors and Omissions of the Revised Edition of S. J. Gould's The Mismeasure of Man (1996) Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 23, No. 1 (July 1997), pp. 169- 180 J. Philippe Rushton Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada

Head Size

BIGGER HEADS ARE SMARTER Stephen Gould ridicules 19th century science which tried to show that whites and smart people had bigger head and larger brains. This fell out of fashion, but new research with more accurate equipment seems to show that it wasn't all that wrong in the first place. However, measuring average head size may not tell much about potential, as Arnold Schwarengeggers's arms are much larger than those of someone who hasn't worked out as much, conversely, people with brains that have had more "exercise" are physically and chemically different from ones with less stimulus. \clip\97\03\headsize.gif \clip\97\03\chaphat.txt Fortune February 17, 1997 http://pathfinder.com/@@H*MWeQUA8nsMuMX2/fortune/1997/970217/kup.html Keeping Up Daniel Seligman He knocks Stephen Jay Gould's Mismeasure of Man 1981, cites J. Phillipe Rushton who found that officers brains average 1,393 cubic centimeters vs 1,375 for enlisted. New MRI data show that bigger heads do have bigger brains. Seligman doesn't mention Rushton's controversial positions on race, IQ and sexual activity that links intelligence / head size and penis size / AIDS rates / sexual activity inversely and puts Asians and Africans at two ends of a human evolution scale. His study also says Asians had bigger heads (I'm Asian, and most caps are small on me...) Just because it sounds goofy doesn't mean it's wrong.

@@Hate

Hate crimes may be motivated out of fear of a superior, not inferior iq - Sailer

@@hereditary

\doc\94\18\priv\bellcurv.txt AUTHORS' CONTENTIONS ON IQ, HEREDITY SURE TO SPARK RACIAL DEBATE 8/17/94 SJM link Chris Brand from The g Factor Newsletter, 4 viii '97 IQ Realism NEW BLOW FOR SOCIAL ENVIRONMENTALISTS The latest 'Nature' (31 vii '97) carries a new meta-analysis of kin correlations for intelligence by statisticians from Carnegie-Mellon University. According to Devlin, Daniels and Roeder, 212 studies covering some 50,000 pairings yield the following correlations for IQ between various kinds of relative. ---------------------------------------------------------- Monozygotic Twins reared together .85 Monozygotic Twins reared apart .74 Dizygotic Twins reared together .59 Siblings reared together .46 Mid-parent / Child together .50 Single parent / Child together .41 Single parent / Child apart .24 Adopting parent / Child together .20 ---------------------------------------------------------- In so far as these figures contain any surprises for a mainstream hereditarian, they are that the correlations between parents and children are on the low side -- especially when the parent and child are 'apart.' Thus the authors argue that the effect of whether or not relatives shared the same womb may have been underestimated previously; and they accordingly suggest Herrnstein and Murray's conclusion of a 60% heritability for IQ producing a stratified society to be "tenuous."

@@height

Boston Globe Oct 6, 1986 p. 13 "Tallev Children score higher on intelligence test, study says" Dr. Darrell Wilson, Stanford U NHES survey of 14,000 children 6-17 found 14 IQ points between shortest and tallest students, height accounted for 2% of intelligence difference.

@@high school

Shuey found high school Iq = 83.5, same as in school age South = 82 border/ north = 91 Only 2 of 45 tests at 100 or better.

@@hiring affirmative action

Bell Curve p. 322 Probability of High IQ Occupation Overall W5% B3% L3% 117IQ W10% B26% L16% Bell Curve p. 490 Graph shows that for equal IQ, Blacks were hired under parity before 1965 in professional and technical jobs, but were over-represented after 1965, implying dual standards or racial preference. asian.intelligence.lynn

@@home testing

\clip\97\02\homeiq.htm New York Times 1/22/97 Home IQ Test is controversial

@@immigrant ranking

/doc/96/06/immiq.html Chart show that recruits from Italy, Russia and Poland scored closely to negro (black) recruits in test in early 20th Century. Example of illiterate tests - draw strings on violin, shadow on 2nd cat, net across tennis court.

@@improvement / @@head start

It's not just IQ \clip\98\08\headstar.txt The Seattle Times Company April 19, 1998 Jerry Large / Times Staff Columnist Head Start counteracts negative effects of poverty Mary Carr-Wilt, program manager for the Seattle Public Schools Head Start/Early Childhood Education and Assistance Program, cites a 25-year study that shows HS graduates have greater odds of going on to college and of avoiding teen pregnancy than children from similar backgrounds who haven't been in the program. EARLY HEAD START - TRYING AGAIN, BUT EARLIER \clip\97\14\headstar.txt http://www.seattletimes.com (search top stories) Seattle Times Sunday, April 27, 1997 An early start: Experiments may change how a child is raised by Carey Quan Gelernter Seattle Times staff reporter "One study showed the gap between the language experiences of privileged and underprivileged children was so great by age 3 that the poor kids could never catch up. On average, the privileged children had heard 20 million words more than the underprivileged. " \priv\96\13\babyiq.htm Saturday, Februay 10, 1996 · Page A1 (c) 1996 San Francisco Chronicle "Education of Babies Shown to Boost IQs Study finds 15-30% jump in scores for those whose training began earliest " David Perlman, Chronicle Science Editor Summary: Infants of poor black mothers showed 15-30% increase in IQ compared to control groups, Head Start is too late and fades by the 3rd grade, these started before 4 months of age, 5 days a week. 85 IQ (black average times 1.3 would equal 110, or above average IQ. \doc\96\02\chilbrai.txt Head Start gains fade after 3 years. Another study found more lasting effects when treated earlier and longer, but only a 4.6 point advantage of a 15 point average IQ racial gap. Head Start gains fade after about 3 years. Craig Ramey of the University of Alabama in 1972 launched the Abecedarian Project. Children enrolled in this program from ages ranging from 4 months up to 8 years were found to still score higher in math and reading at age 15 than the untreated, with an average retained IQ advantage of 4.6 points, with earlier treatment lasting longer. Intervention after age 5 showed no benefits. "Your Child's Brain " Newsweek Feb 19, 1996 p. 61

@@income

In general, income increases with intelligence. However blacks actually score lower in most tests even with equal incomes, and Asians often score higher even at lower incomes on the SAT. See edcation.test.sat.income. JENSEN'S G FACTOR: SOCIOECONOMICS ONLY ACCOUNTS FOR 4 IQ PT DIFFERENCE
\doc\web\99\05\rushjens.txt This review of The g Factor just appeared in Politics and the Life Sciences, 1998, 17, 230-232 Controlling for overall socioeconomic level only reduces the mean difference by 4 IQ points. Culture-fair tests tend to give Blacks slightly lower scores, on the average, than more conventional tests, as do non-verbal tests compared with verbal tests, and abstract reasoning tests compared with tests of acquired knowledge. Charles Murray's table of IQ vs income www.aei.org/7094-9.HTM BLACK 50TH PERCENTILE EARN 96% OF WHITE WAGE "Teacher Quality is the key to lifting minority students" Seattle Times Aug 12, 1998 p. B6 Christopher Jencks and Meredith Phillips in American Prospect, based on book "Black-White Test Score Gap" (Brooking Institution Press) changes view that test score rises will not bring wage equality. Among men above 50th percentile, black earnings were only 2/3 of whites, now it's 96%, near equality \clip\96\04\skillgap.txt BusinessWeek / September 23, 1996 IS THE RACE GAP A SKILLS GAP? Why wages of blacks are lagging In a controversial new study in the current issue of The Journal of Political Economy, however, Derek A. Neal of the University of Chicago and William R. Johnson of the University of Virginia found that measured by the Armed Forces Qualification Test, poorer skills as reflected in the standardized test scores explained "roughly two-thirds of the racial wage gap among young men and all of the gap for young women" @@Increase also see Flynn Effect z47\clip\2000\12\brainpo.txt http://www.dallasnews.com/education/237517_millgen_14liv..html Games boosting kids' brainpower 12/14/2000 The Orange County Register Kids are getting smarter. Literally. Over the last 100 years, each generation has scored roughly 7 points higher, on average, than the previous generation on most standardized IQ tests, says David Berliner, dean of the School of Education at Arizona State University. @@Indian Asian Indians in America are the only group that consistently matches or exceeds education and awards compared to Ameircan Jews. Yet Lynn says Indians only have a 91 IQ. Others observe ethnic splits within India favoring southern darker skinned dravidian brahmins. Also see Overrepresentation LYNN RATES INDIAN IQ AS 91 \doc\web\99\09\indiq.txt As to data on intelligence, Lynn in his 1997 discussion merely repeat his 1991 table, which gives an estimated IQ of 91 for South Asian Caucasoids. \doc\web\99\09\indiq.txt SAILER SAYS INDIANS SPLIT DRAVIDIAN VS ARYAN DARKEST DRAVIDIAN SOUTH INDIANS SMARTEST VS LIGHTER ARYAN NORTHERNERS olimu@li.net (John Derbyshire) writes: it seems to me that there is a (positive) correlation between how dark (i.e. "Dravidian") they are and how mathematically adept they are. "India: A Million Mutinies Now" by V.S. Naipaul. the South Indian talent for science and math, especially among Dravidian brahmins. ... In an essay on Indian-Americans by a professor of South Asian Studies at Brown,among Hindu immigrants, a new divide is emerging: a racial one between northern, lighter-skinned Aryans and southern, darker-skinned Dravidians. @@Integration IQ USED TO JUSTIFY SEGREGATION http://www.amren.com/natlreview.htm z47\clip\2000\12\natlrev.txt The Decline of National Review by James P. Lubinskas NR was once a voice for whites. September, 2000, American Renaissance Sam M. Jones wrote ..that year criticizing integration in the Washington, D.C., public schools. Titled “Caution: Integration at Work,” he accurately predicted that “the problem of school integration in the nation’s capital may be eventually solved by the steady migration of the white population out of the District of Columbia.” Jones criticized school integration on the grounds of IQ differences, citing “a white average ranging from 105 to 111 and a Negro average of 87 to 89. (An intelligent quotient of 85 is generally considered the minimum for receiving education.)” @@Invalid IQ TESTS ARE INVALID \doc\web\98\10\noiq.txt "Intelligence tests are a pseudoscience and can't be anything else, because they will always be without a scientific foundation from which to be constructed and tested." WD Wright's _Racism Matters_, recently published by Praeger. @@Jencks HALF OF GAP ALREADY IN BY GRADE 1 \clip\99\06\edclip01.txt Los Angeles Times Wednesday, February 10, 1999 Q & A / MEREDITH PHILLIPS Closing the Gap The UCLA educator and author says that bringing black students' scores on standardized tests up to the level of their white counterparts is a key to promoting racial equality. By LOUIS SAHAGUN, Times Staff Writer A: Our analysis suggests that half the gap we see at the end of 12th grade is due to the gap that already exists at the first grade. AMERICA SHOULD TRY TO ERASE SCORE GAP BLACK - WHITE, IT MIGHT BE POSSIBLE file: \clipim\99\03\scoregap\scoregap.htm url: http://epn.org/prospect/40/40jencnf.html Christopher Jencks and Meredith Phillips, "America's Next Achievement Test: Closing the Black-White Test Score Gap," The American Prospect no. 40 (September-October 1998): 44-53 Genetic variation does explain a substantial fraction of the variation in cognitive skills among people of the same race. So does environmental variation. But once hereditarianism percolates into popular culture, it can easily become an excuse for treating academic failure as an inescapable fact of nature. In the 1960s, racial egalitarians routinely blamed the test score gap on the combined effects of black poverty, racial segregation, and inadequate funding for black schools. That analysis implied obvious solutions: raise black children's family income, desegregate their schools, and equalize spending on schools that remain racially segregated. But blacks lag even in desegregated schools, affluent families, and resources are the same except for test scores of teachers in black schools. invited responses: (http://epn.org/prospect/41/41jencks.html) @@Jensen, Arthur One of the original proponents of the 1960s that brought back the idea that racial differences come largely out of real IQ differences, writer of numerous excellent books on IQ and testing bias Bookfinder.com search $33-39 used G-FACTOR: REACTION TIMES SHOW RACE DIFFERENCES IN INTELLIGENCE \clip\99\20\gfact.txt psycoloquy.99.10.044.intelligence-g-factor.3.rushton Mon Nov 15 1999 ISSN 1055-0143 (16 paragraphs, 12 references, 253 lines) PSYCOLOQUY is sponsored by the American Psychological Association (APA) Copyright 1999 J. P. Rushton THE "JENSEN EFFECT" AND G VECTOR ANALYSIS Book Review of Jensen on Intelligence-g-Factor http://www.sscl.uwo.ca/psychology/faculty/rushton.html http://www.bookworld.com/rushton Jensen has applied the method of correlated vectors (fully explicated in Appendix B of Jensen 1998) to many collections of variables and shown that the vector of a test's g loadings is the best predictor not just of that test's correlation with scholastic and work-place performance, but with brain size, brain pH, brain glucose metabolic rate, average evoked potential, reaction time, and other physiological factors, hence establishing the biological (as opposed to the mere statistical) reality of g. children with higher IQ scores perform faster than do those with lower scores, and White children, on average, perform faster than Black children. The correlations between the g loadings of these types of reaction time tasks and the Black-White differences range from +.70 to +.81. On average, East Asians scored higher in g than do Whites. RUSHTON REVIEWS JENSEN'S G FACTOR \doc\web\99\05\rushjens.txt This review of The g Factor just appeared in Politics and the Life Sciences, 1998, 17, 230-232 OUTTAKES FROM G-FACTOR Measurement and Analysis of Genetic Distance between Groups. The greatest genetic distance, that is, the largest D, is between the five African groups (listed at the top of Figure 12.1) and all the other groups. The next largest D is between the Australian + New Guinean groups and the remaining other groups; Table 12.1 Mean Cranial Capacity (cm") of Three Racial Populations Determined from Four Types of Measurements Measurement East Asian European African Autopsy 1351 1356 1223 Endocranial volume 1415 1362 1268 External head measurements 1335 1341 1284 Corrected for body size 1356 1329 1294 Mean 1364 1347 1267 Source: Based on data summarized by Rushton & Ankney. 1996. 12.4. The regression of median IQ on mean cranial capacity is almost perfectly linear, with a Pearson r = +.998. (chart plots head size vs IQ for 3 races) JENSEN HARRASSED BY PROTESTERS IN UK \doc\web\98\10\jensen.txt

@@jews

ARE JEWS THE SMARTEST ETHNIC GROUP IN THE WORLD? Bell Curve says Jews are 1 S.D. or 15 points above average compared to just 3 or 4 points for Asians. "Cochran and Harpending also cite studies claiming that Ashkenazim have the highest IQ of any ethnic group for which there’s reliable data," [Chinese-Ams and Indo-Americans may be this high or higher] Some IQ theorists believe selection into social niches in Europe may have selected for IQ, along with certain diseases. A.Hu opinion - Asians seem about half as far ahead as Jews, but Chinese and Japanese are comparable to Jews in over-representation at MIT and colleges - see US News Ivy League survey. I'm also wondering if Asian IQs hold up for the average peasant as opposed to the kids who grow up in the USA, since the average African American gets 1 or 2 years of college but the average Chinese in China doesn't even start high school. DISEASES ACCOUNT FOR JEWISH SMARTS? z91\clipim\2005\10\askjew.htm .txt http://www.newyorkmetro.com/nymetro/news/culture/features/1478 NewYorkmetro.com Feature Are Jews Smarter? Did Jewish intelligence evolve in tandem with Jewish diseases as a result of discrimination in the ghettos of medieval Europe? That’s the premise of a controversial new study that has some preening and others plotzing. What genetic science can tell us—and what it can’t. By Jennifer Senior "Cochran and Harpending also cite studies claiming that Ashkenazim have the highest IQ of any ethnic group for which there’s reliable data," "showed growth of additional dendrites in the tissues of humans and cats with Tay-Sachs and Niemann-Pick. They also cite a 1995 study in the Journal of Biological Chemistry that shows increased neural growth in the brains of rats with Gaucher disease. The authors decided to contact Ari Zimran, the head of the Gaucher Clinic at the Shaare Zedek Medical Center in Jerusalem. It turns out that 81 of his 255 working-age patients have jobs that require, by the author’s estimates, an IQ of at least 120." PERSECTION OF Ashkenazi Jews BRINGS IQ, DISEASE http://www.economist.com/displaystory.cfm?story_id=4032638 The evolution of intelligence Natural genius? Jun 2nd 2005 From The Economist print edition The high intelligence of Ashkenazi Jews may be a result of their persecuted past THE idea that some ethnic groups may, on average, be more intelligent than others is one of those hypotheses that dare not speak its name. But Gregory Cochran, a noted scientific iconoclast, is prepared to say it anyway. z63\clip\2003\04\jewiq.txt Subject: Lynn: Avg. verbal IQ of American Jews: 107.5 From the invaluable Human Races Archive site: The intelligence of American Jews http://www26.brinkster.com/archived/viewnews.asp?newsID=189663112164 Author: Richard Lynn Filed: 4/2/2003, 7:14:31 PM Source: Personality and Individual Differences doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(03)00079-5 "they confirm the previous studies showing that American Jews have a higher average verbal intelligence level than non-Jewish whites. Second, the 7.5 IQ point Jewish advantage is rather less than that generally proposed and found in the studies reviewed in the introduction finding that Jews have verbal IQs in the range of 110-113 but is closely similar to the figure of 107.8 obtained in the Bachman study which is arguably the most satisfactory of the previous studies in terms of the size and representativeness of the sample." z55\priv\2002\02\lyniq.txt LYNN PUTS AMERICAN JEWS A HAIR BELOW AVERAGE (?!!) Richard Lynn 2/2002 on h-bd...In this study Jews had an advantage of 107.7 IQ points over non-Jewish whites on verbal ability and a disadvantage of 8.7 IQ points on visual reasoning. This result replicates a number of other studies showing thatJews in the US have an unusual pattern of abilities consisting of strong verbal ability and weak visual/spatial ability. .. [an average ] gives a Jewish American IQ of 99.5. EVOLUTION THEORY THAT THOUSANDS OF YEARS OF SELECTION MIGHT EXPLAIN IT 23 Nov 1999 15:43:10 -0800 (PST) John McCarthy There is the well known theory that Jews made smart boys into rabbis who had many children, whereas Christians made smart boys into priests having no children. The time scale for such an effect to make a difference is hundreds of years rather than tens of thousands. Presumably here we are talking about recombination of existing genes rather than about mutation. see
link for comparisons of Jews vs Indians and Chinese and for comparisons of SAT scores with other races and religions CCNY NOBEL WINNERS WERE ALL JEWISH z45\clipim\2000\08\02\jewiq.htm La Griffe du Lion Volume 2 Number 8 August 2000 IQ MATTERS http://www.lagriffedulion.f2s.com/iq.htm The City College of New York -- CCNY. Eight of its alumni won Nobel Prizes, seven in the sciences and one in economics. That record is unmatched by any public college or university in the world. all eight were jews who graduated in a 21 year period between 1933 and 1954. Jews by 1910 made up 25 percent of the city's population, and 80 percent of the CCNY students. He asserts that American Jews constitute about 27 percent of any group whose distinguishing characteristic is intelligence. Ninety-three Nobel Prizes (excluding Peace and Literature) went to Americans born between 1912 and 1933. Prodigy's Conjecture theorizes that 25 or so were Jewish. The minimum IQ of a CCNY grad is estiimated to be between 139 and 142 IQ points (100 = non-Jewish New Yorker) the mean IQ difference between Jews and non-Jews in the general population computes to between 0.92 and 1.02 SD, putting the mean IQ of Jews between 114 and 115 The minimum IQ in a CCNY graduating class was about 2.7 SD above the non-Jewish population mean, and about 1.7 SD above the Jewish population mean. Jewish graduates of CCNY represented the top four or five percent of Jews From: ABrown5568@aol.com14 Jul 1999 Ashkenazi Jews score the highest of any ethnic group on standardized tests, yet are often indistinguishable from other caucasians by appearance alone. in chapter 13 of The Bell Curve, on page 275. The authors claim, "Jews-specifically, Ashkenazi Jews of European origins-test higher than any other ethnic group...somewhere between a half and a full standard deviation above the mean..." The authors list their sources as Storfer and Lynn in the footnote. Kirk Douglas and William Shatner are both purportedly Ashkenazi Jews; like many, they are indistinguishable from other Caucasians. From: "Patricia Hausman" DIFFERENCES BETWEEN Jews of Ashkenaz and Sephardic background See Intelligence and Giftedness by Miles Storfer (Jossey-Bass, 1990). The differences are discussed in Chapter 20. The Ashkenazim have substantially higher exec/obidos/ts/book-glance/0029066832/002-3013368-9572621 The Intelligence of Dogs : Canine Consciousness and Capabilities by Stanley Coren (out of print) GROUP CLAIMS KOKO GORILLA HAS IQ FROM 75 TO 90 Found on web cite site: http://simplecom.net/jbindon/aol_puts_gorilla_in_chat_room.htm \doc\web\99\09\gorchat.txt AOL Puts Gorilla in Chat Room Original article: http://www.abcnews.com/sections/tech/DailyNews/Koko980424.html saved at zip35\clipim\99\07\06\koko\koko.htm text at zip35\clip\99\13\gorchat.txt ABCNEWS.com April 27 1998 Josh Knauer, executive director of EnviroLink Network, an environmentalist Web site that is sponsoring the event, says Koko is a free spirit The group says Koko has an IQ between 70 and 95, which is somewhat lower than the human average of 100. Her typical sentences range from three to six words. http://www.gorilla.org/ The Gorilla foundation

@@groups

Jews > White (50% college educated, high religion SAT) Asian Indians (Hindu Asian), Chinese > Asian (High award, MIT pop, rel SAT) White > Black Gay > Straight (50% college educated) Urban > Rural (White or Black) North > South (Shuey) Liberal Christian / Nonreligious > Fundamentalist Christian (UCLA survey, religion SAT) Educated > NonEducated (Murray, SAT) Rich > Poor (Murray chart, SAT) Developed Nations > Underdeveloped Nations (Murray Africans, Sowell) Adopt by white > Adopt by black African American > African National (Murray) @@Gould, Stephen J. Stephen J. Gould's The Mismeasure of Man is widely cited as debunking the myth of IQ, but it does so largely by discrediting the sources, not with any positive evidence that the races are equal in anything. Other IQ experts are less charitable. \clip\99\04\gould.htm http://www.lrainc.com/swtaboo/stalkers/jpr_gould_paid.html Special Review Race, Intelligence, and the Brain: The Errors and Omissions of the Revised Edition of S. J. Gould's The Mismeasure of Man (1996) Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 23, No. 1 (July 1997), pp. 169- 180 J. Philippe Rushton Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada

Head Size

BIGGER HEADS ARE SMARTER Stephen Gould ridicules 19th century science which tried to show that whites and smart people had bigger head and larger brains. This fell out of fashion, but new research with more accurate equipment seems to show that it wasn't all that wrong in the first place. However, measuring average head size may not tell much about potential, as Arnold Schwarengeggers's arms are much larger than those of someone who hasn't worked out as much, conversely, people with brains that have had more "exercise" are physically and chemically different from ones with less stimulus. \clip\97\03\headsize.gif \clip\97\03\chaphat.txt Fortune February 17, 1997 http://pathfinder.com/@@H*MWeQUA8nsMuMX2/fortune/1997/970217/kup.html Keeping Up Daniel Seligman He knocks Stephen Jay Gould's Mismeasure of Man 1981, cites J. Phillipe Rushton who found that officers brains average 1,393 cubic centimeters vs 1,375 for enlisted. New MRI data show that bigger heads do have bigger brains. Seligman doesn't mention Rushton's controversial positions on race, IQ and sexual activity that links intelligence / head size and penis size / AIDS rates / sexual activity inversely and puts Asians and Africans at two ends of a human evolution scale. His study also says Asians had bigger heads (I'm Asian, and most caps are small on me...) Just because it sounds goofy doesn't mean it's wrong. @@gypsy from 2004 h-bd board: (Spring/Summer 2004) of The Mankind Quarterly carries a study by Petr Bakalar of Prague entitled "The IQ of Gypsies in Central Europe." It compared Gypsy vs non-Gypsy IQ in the Czech and Slovak Republics. The native population came in at about 101 with a SD of 14, while the Gypsies came in at about 80 with a SD of only 10. ..The Czech version of the WISC-III was used. The article also indicated that a head size study showed a statistically significant difference (smaller) and noted that while Gypsies are about 3% of the population, they are about 50% of the orphans in orphanages.

@@Hate

Hate crimes may be motivated out of fear of a superior, not inferior iq - Sailer

@@hereditary

\doc\94\18\priv\bellcurv.txt AUTHORS' CONTENTIONS ON IQ, HEREDITY SURE TO SPARK RACIAL DEBATE 8/17/94 SJM link Chris Brand from The g Factor Newsletter, 4 viii '97 IQ Realism NEW BLOW FOR SOCIAL ENVIRONMENTALISTS The latest 'Nature' (31 vii '97) carries a new meta-analysis of kin correlations for intelligence by statisticians from Carnegie-Mellon University. According to Devlin, Daniels and Roeder, 212 studies covering some 50,000 pairings yield the following correlations for IQ between various kinds of relative. ---------------------------------------------------------- Monozygotic Twins reared together .85 Monozygotic Twins reared apart .74 Dizygotic Twins reared together .59 Siblings reared together .46 Mid-parent / Child together .50 Single parent / Child together .41 Single parent / Child apart .24 Adopting parent / Child together .20 ---------------------------------------------------------- In so far as these figures contain any surprises for a mainstream hereditarian, they are that the correlations between parents and children are on the low side -- especially when the parent and child are 'apart.' Thus the authors argue that the effect of whether or not relatives shared the same womb may have been underestimated previously; and they accordingly suggest Herrnstein and Murray's conclusion of a 60% heritability for IQ producing a stratified society to be "tenuous."

@@height

Boston Globe Oct 6, 1986 p. 13 "Tallev Children score higher on intelligence test, study says" Dr. Darrell Wilson, Stanford U NHES survey of 14,000 children 6-17 found 14 IQ points between shortest and tallest students, height accounted for 2% of intelligence difference.

@@high school

Shuey found high school Iq = 83.5, same as in school age South = 82 border/ north = 91 Only 2 of 45 tests at 100 or better.

@@hiring affirmative action

Bell Curve p. 322 Probability of High IQ Occupation Overall W5% B3% L3% 117IQ W10% B26% L16% Bell Curve p. 490 Graph shows that for equal IQ, Blacks were hired under parity before 1965 in professional and technical jobs, but were over-represented after 1965, implying dual standards or racial preference. asian.intelligence.lynn

@@Hispanic

@@Latino SAILER USES 1/3 OF BW GAP 1/2004 1. The Thernstroms wouldn't give the the gap in the NAEP achievement tests for American born Hispanic students, but from clues they gave, I'd guesstimate 3.3 grade levels among 17 year olds, which is 66% of the 5 grade level white-black gap. The overall gap on the NAEP, immigrants and natives combined, is about 80% of the white-black gap. Most of the following are a combination of natives and immigrants: 2. For example, the gap between whites and Mexican-Americans on the SAT is 77 percent of the size of the gap between whites and blacks. 3. On the SAT's competitor, the ACT, the white-Mexican gap is 71 percent of the white-black gap. (It¹s 56 percent for other Hispanics.) 4. IQ? The huge NSLY study run by the U.S. military, which formed the basis for The Bell Curve, found Latinos scored 14 points below whites, or 77 percent of the white-black IQ gap. 5. Nearly two decades earlier, the 1965 Coleman report found a 13-point white-Hispanic IQ gap. 6. IQ reports from Latin America are not encouraging either‹Richard Lynn and Tatu Vanhanen in their important book "IQ and the Wealth of Nations" found, on a scale with white Americans as 100, scores like: Mexico, 87; Ecuador, 80; Peru 90; Puerto Rico, 84; Guatemala, 79; Argentina, 96; Uruguay, 96. (Read my review for all the caveats and implications on the book.) 7. L & V found three studies of Mexican-American children in the U.S.: 84, 84, and 95. average = 88. So, the last one is in line with Ron's estimate, but it seems like the odd man out. I give links to my data sources at: http://www.vdare.com/sailer/n _excuses.htm With proper assimilation, perhaps this gap could be narrowed. But I just don't see a lot of really encouraging data here. Steve Sailer RUSHTON 1/2004 SAYS 90-93 Are "Latinos" expected to be above or below the world average? I'd guess, for the Amerindian base population, just about average. If mixed with White, a little higher; if mixed with black, a little lower. But, virtually every study done on Amerindians or Hispanics shows they score in between American Blacks and American Whites, so the midpoint of that range is 93. Working average, therefore, is 90 to 93. Disclaimer - Rushton is politically incorrect in the max. HISPANIC IQ GAP 0.6 TO 0.8 SD From: La Griffe du Lion The Coleman Report (1966) found a white - Mexican-American IQ gap of 0.84 SD. The College Board divides Hispanics into several subgroups: Mexican American, Puerto Rican and Other Hispanic. Here are SAT (M+V) gaps between whites and each of these for 1998: Mexican American - 0.69 SD Puerto Rican - 0.76 Other Hispanic - 0.62 --Griffe Griffe 1/2004: Forty years ago Coleman measured the Mexican-American/white IQ gap to be 0.84 SD. Twenty-five years ago the NLSY measured the Latino-white gap to be 0.93 SD. Last year the white/Mexican American verbal and math SAT gaps were 0.81 and 0.74 SD, respectively -- forty years and not a

@@home testing

\clip\97\02\homeiq.htm New York Times 1/22/97 Home IQ Test is controversial

@@immigrant ranking

/doc/96/06/immiq.html Chart show that recruits from Italy, Russia and Poland scored closely to negro (black) recruits in test in early 20th Century. Example of illiterate tests - draw strings on violin, shadow on 2nd cat, net across tennis court.

@@improvement / @@head start

It's not just IQ \clip\98\08\headstar.txt The Seattle Times Company April 19, 1998 Jerry Large / Times Staff Columnist Head Start counteracts negative effects of poverty Mary Carr-Wilt, program manager for the Seattle Public Schools Head Start/Early Childhood Education and Assistance Program, cites a 25-year study that shows HS graduates have greater odds of going on to college and of avoiding teen pregnancy than children from similar backgrounds who haven't been in the program. EARLY HEAD START - TRYING AGAIN, BUT EARLIER \clip\97\14\headstar.txt http://www.seattletimes.com (search top stories) Seattle Times Sunday, April 27, 1997 An early start: Experiments may change how a child is raised by Carey Quan Gelernter Seattle Times staff reporter "One study showed the gap between the language experiences of privileged and underprivileged children was so great by age 3 that the poor kids could never catch up. On average, the privileged children had heard 20 million words more than the underprivileged. " \priv\96\13\babyiq.htm Saturday, Februay 10, 1996 · Page A1 (c) 1996 San Francisco Chronicle "Education of Babies Shown to Boost IQs Study finds 15-30% jump in scores for those whose training began earliest " David Perlman, Chronicle Science Editor Summary: Infants of poor black mothers showed 15-30% increase in IQ compared to control groups, Head Start is too late and fades by the 3rd grade, these started before 4 months of age, 5 days a week. 85 IQ (black average times 1.3 would equal 110, or above average IQ. \doc\96\02\chilbrai.txt Head Start gains fade after 3 years. Another study found more lasting effects when treated earlier and longer, but only a 4.6 point advantage of a 15 point average IQ racial gap. Head Start gains fade after about 3 years. Craig Ramey of the University of Alabama in 1972 launched the Abecedarian Project. Children enrolled in this program from ages ranging from 4 months up to 8 years were found to still score higher in math and reading at age 15 than the untreated, with an average retained IQ advantage of 4.6 points, with earlier treatment lasting longer. Intervention after age 5 showed no benefits. "Your Child's Brain " Newsweek Feb 19, 1996 p. 61

@@income

In general, income increases with intelligence. However blacks actually score lower in most tests even with equal incomes, and Asians often score higher even at lower incomes on the SAT. See edcation.test.sat.income. JENSEN'S G FACTOR: SOCIOECONOMICS ONLY ACCOUNTS FOR 4 IQ PT DIFFERENCE
\doc\web\99\05\rushjens.txt This review of The g Factor just appeared in Politics and the Life Sciences, 1998, 17, 230-232 Controlling for overall socioeconomic level only reduces the mean difference by 4 IQ points. Culture-fair tests tend to give Blacks slightly lower scores, on the average, than more conventional tests, as do non-verbal tests compared with verbal tests, and abstract reasoning tests compared with tests of acquired knowledge. Charles Murray's table of IQ vs income www.aei.org/7094-9.HTM BLACK 50TH PERCENTILE EARN 96% OF WHITE WAGE "Teacher Quality is the key to lifting minority students" Seattle Times Aug 12, 1998 p. B6 Christopher Jencks and Meredith Phillips in American Prospect, based on book "Black-White Test Score Gap" (Brooking Institution Press) changes view that test score rises will not bring wage equality. Among men above 50th percentile, black earnings were only 2/3 of whites, now it's 96%, near equality \clip\96\04\skillgap.txt BusinessWeek / September 23, 1996 IS THE RACE GAP A SKILLS GAP? Why wages of blacks are lagging In a controversial new study in the current issue of The Journal of Political Economy, however, Derek A. Neal of the University of Chicago and William R. Johnson of the University of Virginia found that measured by the Armed Forces Qualification Test, poorer skills as reflected in the standardized test scores explained "roughly two-thirds of the racial wage gap among young men and all of the gap for young women" @@Indian Asian Indians in America are the only group that consistently matches or exceeds education and awards compared to Ameircan Jews. Yet Lynn says Indians only have a 91 IQ. Others observe ethnic splits within India favoring southern darker skinned dravidian brahmins. Also see Overrepresentation LYNN RATES INDIAN IQ AS 91 \doc\web\99\09\indiq.txt As to data on intelligence, Lynn in his 1997 discussion merely repeat his 1991 table, which gives an estimated IQ of 91 for South Asian Caucasoids. \doc\web\99\09\indiq.txt SAILER SAYS INDIANS SPLIT DRAVIDIAN VS ARYAN DARKEST DRAVIDIAN SOUTH INDIANS SMARTEST VS LIGHTER ARYAN NORTHERNERS olimu@li.net (John Derbyshire) writes: it seems to me that there is a (positive) correlation between how dark (i.e. "Dravidian") they are and how mathematically adept they are. "India: A Million Mutinies Now" by V.S. Naipaul. the South Indian talent for science and math, especially among Dravidian brahmins. ... In an essay on Indian-Americans by a professor of South Asian Studies at Brown,among Hindu immigrants, a new divide is emerging: a racial one between northern, lighter-skinned Aryans and southern, darker-skinned Dravidians. @@Invalid IQ TESTS ARE INVALID \doc\web\98\10\noiq.txt "Intelligence tests are a pseudoscience and can't be anything else, because they will always be without a scientific foundation from which to be constructed and tested." WD Wright's _Racism Matters_, recently published by Praeger. @@Jencks HALF OF GAP ALREADY IN BY GRADE 1 \clip\99\06\edclip01.txt Los Angeles Times Wednesday, February 10, 1999 Q & A / MEREDITH PHILLIPS Closing the Gap The UCLA educator and author says that bringing black students' scores on standardized tests up to the level of their white counterparts is a key to promoting racial equality. By LOUIS SAHAGUN, Times Staff Writer A: Our analysis suggests that half the gap we see at the end of 12th grade is due to the gap that already exists at the first grade. AMERICA SHOULD TRY TO ERASE SCORE GAP BLACK - WHITE, IT MIGHT BE POSSIBLE file: \clipim\99\03\scoregap\scoregap.htm url: http://epn.org/prospect/40/40jencnf.html Christopher Jencks and Meredith Phillips, "America's Next Achievement Test: Closing the Black-White Test Score Gap," The American Prospect no. 40 (September-October 1998): 44-53 Genetic variation does explain a substantial fraction of the variation in cognitive skills among people of the same race. So does environmental variation. But once hereditarianism percolates into popular culture, it can easily become an excuse for treating academic failure as an inescapable fact of nature. In the 1960s, racial egalitarians routinely blamed the test score gap on the combined effects of black poverty, racial segregation, and inadequate funding for black schools. That analysis implied obvious solutions: raise black children's family income, desegregate their schools, and equalize spending on schools that remain racially segregated. But blacks lag even in desegregated schools, affluent families, and resources are the same except for test scores of teachers in black schools. invited responses: (http://epn.org/prospect/41/41jencks.html) @@Jensen, Arthur One of the original proponents of the 1960s that brought back the idea that racial differences come largely out of real IQ differences, writer of numerous excellent books on IQ and testing bias Bookfinder.com search $33-39 used RUSHTON REVIEWS JENSEN'S G FACTOR \doc\web\99\05\rushjens.txt This review of The g Factor just appeared in Politics and the Life Sciences, 1998, 17, 230-232 JENSEN HARRASSED BY PROTESTERS IN UK \doc\web\98\10\jensen.txt

@@jews

Bell Curve says Jews are 1 S.D. or 15 points above average compared to just 3 or 4 points for Asians A.Hu opinion - Asians seem about half as far ahead as Jews, but Chinese and Japanese are comparable to Jews in over-representation at MIT and colleges - see US News Ivy League survey. see
link for comparisons of Jews vs Indians and Chinese and for comparisons of SAT scores with other races and religions \doc\web\99\10\abrown.txt From: ABrown5568@aol.com Date sent: Wed, 14 Jul 1999 04:09:12 EDT Ashkenazi Jews score the highest of any ethnic group on standardized tests, yet are often indistinguishable from other caucasians by appearance alone. in chapter 13 of The Bell Curve, on page 275. The authors claim, "Jews-specifically, Ashkenazi Jews of European origins-test higher than any other ethnic group...somewhere between a half and a full standard deviation above the mean..." The authors list their sources as Storfer and Lynn in the footnote. Kirk Douglas and William Shatner are both purportedly Ashkenazi Jews; like many, they are indistinguishable from other Caucasians. From: "Patricia Hausman" DIFFERENCES BETWEEN Jews of Ashkenaz and Sephardic background See Intelligence and Giftedness by Miles Storfer (Jossey-Bass, 1990). The differences are discussed in Chapter 20. The Ashkenazim have substantially higher cities where Asians worse and whites better than average. SAT scores for Asians in verbal are also better for Asians where English is the first language. Though Asians are relatively better at math than verbals, it appears to be incorrect that Asian are inherently weaker overall than whites in verbals when first language is taken into account, or even in the total population if the CLAS is right. Most Asians will tell you it's our parents beat education into their kids, and we dutifully study our little brains out.

Still it's spooky that the NEAP and its international counterpart show that Asians in America score just as well as Asians in Korea and Taiwan, and the SAT shows that english-first Asians, who are born in America score just as well in math as immigrant Asians. That tends to destroy the theory that Asian language which breaks down "eleven" into ten plus one is the key, or that Asian schools or school years are better, since test scores show Asians often excel in the same urban war zones like Boston or San Francisco where so many Blacks and Hispanics fail.

Harold Stevenson just completed another study where he claims that if you account for habits like time spent studying vs. watching TV and dating, Asians in Taiwan were no better than Asian in America, and if you threw in basic values like enthusiasm for math and studying, they weren't any better than the Whites either. If he's right, then the advantage is merely cultural, but as long as Asians are culturally different, they're still going to keep their advantage.

That's why I believe that even if Blacks are lower in potential ability, they'd still have a mile to improve by merely studying as hard and adopting the same values as the Asians, which most studies show they currently don't. They might even beat the Whites since Asians commonly believe a stupid person who works hard can beat a smart person who is lazy

Thomas Sowell notes IQ differences between ethnic groups in the same race, and places the blame on cultural inferiority. He advocates assimilation and openness to change rather than cultural "protectionism" and chauvenism.

I say we can't judge the issue of genetic ability until every group has the same opportunities, and adopts the same cultural norms.

- IQs based largely on reasoning, visual, abstract and vocabulary. Catch-22 - people with higher IQs get higher education, acquire more words, but people with higher IQs come from groups with more exposure and education. IQs were developed to measure innate smartness, and some specialize on "g" which focuses on tasks which require the most mental processing, but there's no way to prove that's what they actually measure, and nobody thinks that anymore.

- Some critics of the book have used Thomas Sowell's newest book "Race and Culture" which notes that there is a 15 point difference in IQ between the Catholics and Protestants in Ireland, and across various cultures worldwide. I've gotten SAT breakdown not commonly published which show that southern and rural persons score lower than urban and northern within races, liberal christians and the non-religious score higher than fundamentalist christians. Even Murray's book states that Africans from Africa score at levels that would place them as "retarded" in the US, while African Americans are at least within spitting distance of whites in the US.

- Shuey shows some tests were blacks are close, or above 100

- overall view is that Shuey believes there are innate differences, but book is full of studies that show some environment and interventions work, some IQ tests are narrow skills tests that can be trained.

- CLAS shows that urban cities have whites > avg, asians < avg, black + hisp equal to average, blacks do worse no matter how rich the school dist, and Asians do well, no matter how bad the school dist. Blacks in the best school dist equal to white state avg, Asians in the worst are close to other minorities, despite national studies of refugees which show that even poor refugees do well on grades.

- The higher the test, the bigger the spread. Literacy now complete between whites and blacks (which isn't the case for Hispanics or Asians with high % with no elementary let alone hs grad), and depending on which numbers, hs grad no equal to whites, compared to white progress, a gain of 10 years every census, with equality in 1990. 2 year college comparable, but 4 degree behind.

- SAT scores getting better, equality in < 25 years

- Urban blacks in SF and Boston score at 40, which is 95IQ, or very close to average whites, even though C/D average grade and worst in Bay area. Some grades in NYC blacks equal to national average

- Making tests easier don't help because high IQ people do even better. CLAS multiple choice to written answer actually widens the gap. Claims that tests test only rote, not higher reasoning don't note that low IQ people do even worse at higher reasoning than note memory.

- Blows up racist notion that all blacks have low IQS, or that race alone should be a disqualification

- Whites believe success is inherited genetically. They rely on individualism, or discrimination to keep in power. Asians believe it comes from effort, and believe in working hard even if it only gets you half as far. While it hasn't been documented, if the civil rights rhetoric is to be a measure, it would appear that blacks believe that success and failure comes primarily from racial discrimination rather than genetic inferiority or lack of effort. Their emphasis is on getting preferential treatment, equal access to the resources of the rich, and enacting laws.

- According to civil rights theory, all inequity arises out of discrimination. But the facts are more like discrimination arises out of inequities that were there first. The facts of IQ show that if IQ isn't equally distributed, even some black thinkers have noted that even with equal color-blind treatment, blacks would still be behind as long as they started out with less capital and education if not less IQ. Indeed, this is the justification given for racial preferences as some California cities continue to give preference for Blacks even when they are not under-represented in some fire and police departments.

- Should (but won't) blow up notion that all races are equally qualified. Almost all affirmative action programs and politicians dedicated to a definitino of diversity that "reflects" the population, when a colorblind selection by test score shows only a tiny percentage of those with top IQs and test scores are black when IQs and test scores are the single most important criterion in fields like engineering and medicine. This is the point that most of the press isn't seeing.

- The Asian advantage shows the problems with the civil rights philosiphy which at best raises your minority group to average. Even with unspoken quotas at Berkeley and some other colleges like the University of Washington Law School which held Blacks and Hispanics to the politically determined parity with population, the Asians are still the best represented with the best test scores, even as European Americans are now the most underrepresented minority on many elite campuses today. Asians pose the biggest threat to equality because radical racial caps, such as those being imposed on the Chinese San Francisco's elite Lowell high school, and were once imposed on Jews earlier in the century are the only way to enforce equality when one groups simply tries harder or performs better even without any discrimination.

- MIT / Berkeley undergrade have to admit in lowest 8-10% to get 7-10% black

- U Texas, Georgetown and therefore, Stanford Harvard law have to admit below lowest 1% to get 15% black (no quotas, yeah, right)

- Less than a couple dozen blacks with scores that high, less than 1% vs 15% population

- press cedes that the iIQs. In a big Israeli study in the 1960s the difference was almost a full SD, but supposedly it has narrowed in recent decades. I don't have the complete report. \doc\web\98\10\jewiq.txt From: "Patricia Hausman" The IQ data in the Bell Curve are from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY-79). The NLSY79 database contains test scores for 11,878 non-institutionalized American youth born between 1957 and 1964. The Armed Forces Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) was administered to these young people in 1980. Mean AFQT score, expressed as percentile Jewish males (n=55) 75 Jewish females (n=54) 69 All Jewish examinees (n=109) 72 ______________________________________ @@Kindergarten A few studies show that black IQ / ability may be equal to whites in Kindergarten, but then lag later. z84\clipim\2004\10\09\kindscore.pdf Vol. 86, Issue 2 - May 2004 _Table of Contents_ (http://mitpress.mit.edu/catalog/item/default.asp?sid=852C8204-F840-4A9D-A8C4-6D48CFA5533A&ttype=5&tid=1471) | _Next Article >_ (http://mitpress.mit.edu/catalog/item/default.asp?sid=852C8204-F840-4A9D-A8C4-6D48C FA5533A&ttype=6&tid=13921) ____________________________________ Understanding the Black-White Test Score Gap in the First Two Years of School _Roland G. Fryer Jr._ (http://mitpress.mit.edu/catalog/author/default.asp?sid=852C8204-F840-4A9D-A8C4-6D48CFA5533A&aid=22157) and _Steven D. Levitt_ (http://mitpress.mit.edu/catalog/author/default.asp?sid=852C8204-F840-4A9D-A8C4-6D 48CFA5533A&aid=5723) pp. 447 - 464 (http://mitpress.mit.edu/journals/pdf/rest_86_2_447_0.pdf) .. most tests 1 std deviation apart... kindergarten .64 apart ... In previous research, a substantial gap in test scores between white and black students persists, even after controlling for a wide range of observable characteristics. Using a newly available data set (the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study), we demonstrate that in stark contrast to earlier studies, the black-white test score gap among incoming kindergartners disappears when we control for a small number of covariates (.. control for age, birth weight, WIC, mothers age, books at home ). Real gains by black children in recent cohorts appear to play an important role in explaining the differences between our findings and earlier research. The availability of better covariates also contributes. Over the first two years of school, however, blacks lose substantial ground relative to other races. There is suggestive evidence that differences in school quality may be an important part of the explanation. None of the other hypotheses we test to explain why blacks are losing ground receive any empirical backing. (this study also shows Asians have an advantage) @@Knowledge From: Rovarose Date sent: Wed, 18 Mar 1998 15:49:31 EST Subject: IQ/LD This quote from the Investors' Business Daily article is interesting.....it looks like the 15 point spread is necessary to the DEFINITION of "learning disabled". "Washington requires at least a 15-point difference between the student's IQ and a score based on his performance in schools to tag him as LD." E.D. Hirsch gave a wonderful speech at the Core Knowledge Conference in Atlanta last week. I hope I can get a transcript. His theme was that American education is much too fixated on the idea of "native intelligence", and he emphasized the close statistical correlation between general knowledge and general intelligence, as measured by IQ tests. He also claimed that among individuals with identical IQ's, it has been demonstrated that the ones with greater general knowledge have been shown to be able to learn new material better. Bob Rose EDUCATION CONSUMERS CLEARINGHOUSE asian.intelligence.liberal

@@liberal \priv\95\02\leftiq.txt New Republic 02/27/95 HOW THE LEFT

BETRAYED I.Q. BELL CURVE LIBERALS By Adrian Wooldridge - IQ was used as a method to pick out smart but underpriveledged youngsters, but was hijacked as an excuse to segregate races. asian.intelligence.lynn

@@Lynn, Richard

Richard Lynn of Ireland is one of the primary researchers who has found that Asians generally score higher than Whites/Europeans on IQ tests. http://www.ulst.ac.uk/ University of Ulster home page General queries about the University can be directed to: University of Ulster, Cromore Road, Coleraine, Co Londonderry, N Ireland, BT52 1SA. Tel: 01265-44141 \clip\96\03\lynnrank.txt INTELLIGENCE, INCOME, AND ETHNIC IDENTITY IN THE U.S. by RICHARD LYNN UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER, NORTHERN IRELAND JOURNAL OF SOCIAL, POLITICAL, AND ECONOMIC STUDIES VOL 20, No. 3 Fall 1995 Issue This paper presents data for average earnings, IQs and occupational achievements of 39 racial and ethnic groups in the United States. It is shown that the three measures are highly correlated. \priv\95\20\noiq.txt - critical review by Here is an excerpt from Charles Lane's essay in _The_Bell_Curve_Debate_ (edited by R. Jacoby and N. Glauberman, p. 129-135). doc939\asianiq.doc Lynn paper on intelligence \doc\94\0\koreaniq.doc,.xls Lynn paper on Korean intelligence Confucian Work Ethic Time Mar 28, 1993 p. 52 Richard Lynn found Japanese 11 point higher than Americans on Wechsler IQ test Superiority on puzzles may be due to ideographic language (I don't think so -- english-lanuage only Asians also better in math AHU) \priv\95\01\pion2.txt The Bell Curve leaves the impression that Lynn tested similar samples in the three countries around the same time. But actually he compared only 178 Japanese children in 1985 with 64,000 U.S. children in 1973 and 10,000 British students in 1978. Such is the state of science in the fantasy world of Murray and Herrnstein. (A. Hu - this doesn't mean it's invalid, international math tests give similar results, Stevenson uses much smaller samples to conclude there are no differnces in IQ, but his is the only study that says IQ is equal) LYNN HAS SUMMARY OF VARIOUS IQ SCORES BY RACE ACROSS THE WORLD http://www.geocities.com/race_articles/lynn_race_diff.html z82\clipim\2004\07\28\lynniq\lynniq.htm Source : Mankind Quarterly, Spring91, Vol. 31 Issue 3, p255, 42p Author : Richard Lynn Abstract : Presents a review of the world literature on racial differences in intelligence. Studies using intelligence tests; Studies of reaction times; Contributions to civilization. Note: Lynn does believe in differences in intelligence between races. For those who do not believe in such differences, this data is not valid, and should not be used to cause harm to other people or groups of people. Race differences in intelligence: A global perspective. Table 1: Mean IQs of various Caucasoid populations Caucasoids Sample Age Number Test United States - - - Austria adults 187 Culture Fair Australia 9-13 35,000 Otis Australia 6 600 Coloured PM Australia 8-12 400 WISC Belgium adults 247 Culture Fair Belgium 5-15 600 WISC Belgium 10-16 920 Culture Fair Britain 13-15 10,000 Differential Aptitude Britain adults 1,405 Culture Fair Bulgaria adults 215 Culture Fair Czechoslovakia adults 363 Culture Fair Czechoslovakia 6 832 Coloured PM Denmark 12 628 Progressive Matrices Denmark adults 122 Culture Fair Finland adults 120 Culture Fair France adults 1,320 Culture Fair France 6-9 618 Coloured PM Germany, DR 7-11 454 Coloured PM Germany FR 6 3,607 Coloured PM Germany FR adults 1,572 Culture Fair Caucasoids Intelligence Sample General Verbal Visuo-spatial United States 100 100 100 Austria 101 - - Australia 95 Australia 104 Australia - - 104 Belgium 98 Belgium - - 101 Belgium 104 Britain 101 102 102 Britain 100 Bulgaria 94 Czechoslovakia 98 Czechoslovakia 104 Denmark 100 Denmark 99 Finland 96 France 94 France 104 Germany, DR 100 Germany FR 102 Germany FR 107 Caucasoids Sample Source United States Austria Buj. 1981 Australia McIntyre, 1938 Australia Reddington and Jackson, 1980 Australia Radcliffe and Trainer, 1969 Belgium Buj, 1981 Belgium Berte, 1961 Belgium Goosens, 1962 Britain Lynn, Hampson and Iwawaki, 1987 Britain Buj, 1981 Bulgaria Buj, 1981 Czechoslovakia Buj, 1981 Czechoslovakia Raven, 1986 Denmark Veileskov, 1968 Denmark Buj, 1981 Finland Buj, 1981 France Buj, 1981 France Bourdier, 1964 Germany, DR Kurth, 1969 Germany FR Schmidtke, Schaller & Becker, 1978 Germany FR Buj, 1981 Caucasoids Sample Age Number Test Greece adults 220 Culture Fair Hungary adults 260 Culture Fair Ireland adults 75 Culture Fair Italy adults 1,380 Culture Fair Italy 10-16 614 Progressive Matrices Netherlands adults 333 Culture Fair New Zealand 9-15 26,000 Otis New Zealand 8-16 2,635 Progressive Matrices Norway adults 100 Culture Fair Poland adults 835 Culture Fair Poland 10 213 WISC Portugal adults 242 Culture Fair Romania 6 300 Coloured PM Scotland 11 1,000 Stanford Binet Scotland 11 1,215 Terman Merrill Spain 10 113,749 Progressive Matrices Spain adults 848 Culture Fair Sweden adults 205 Culture Fair Sweden 6-15 1,106 WISC Switzerland adults 163 Culture Fair Yugoslavia adults 525 Culture Fair India children 5,000 various British Indians 11 170 British Ability S.African Indians 16 1,063 Junior Aptitude Caucasoids Intelligence Sample General Verbal Visuo-spatial Greece 97 Hungary 99 Ireland 78 Italy 101 Italy 100 Netherlands 107 New Zealand 99 New Zealand 102 Norway 100 Poland 106 Poland 107 Portugal 101 Romania 95 Scotland 99 Scotland 102 Spain 87 Spain 98 Sweden 104 Sweden - - 104 Switzerland 101 Yugoslavia 104 India 86 British Indians 96 89 S.African Indians 85 Caucasoids Intelligence Sample Source Greece Buj, 1981 Hungary Buj, 1981 Ireland Buj, 1981 Italy Buj, 1981 Italy Tesi and Young, 1962 Netherlands Buj, 1981 New Zealand Redmond and Davies, 1940 New Zealand Raven and Court, 1989 Norway Buj, 1981 Poland Buj, 1981 Poland Firkowska et al 1978 Portugal Buj, 1981 Romania Zahirnic et al 1974 Scotland Scottish Council, 1933 Scotland Scottish Council, 1949 Spain Nieto-Alegre et al 1967 Spain Buj, 1981 Sweden Buj, 1981 Sweden Scandinaviska Test for laget, 1970 Switzerland Buj, 1981 Yugoslavia Buj, 1981 India Sinha, 1986 British Indians Mackintosh and Mascie-Taylor, 1985 S.African Indians Owen, 1989 Table 2: Mean IQs of various Mongoloid populations Mongoloids Sample Age Number Test Japan 5-16 1,070 WISC Japan 6 240 Vocabulary-spatial Japan 11 240 Vocabulary-spatial Japan 2-8 550 McCarthy Scales Japan 4-6 600 WPPSI Japan 6-16 1,100 WISC-R Japan 13-15 178 Differential Aptitude Japan 13-14 216 Kyoto-NX Japan 3-9 347 Columbia MMS Japan 9 444 Progressive Matrices Hong Kong 6-15 4,500 Progressive Matrices Hong Kong 10 197 PM, Space Relations, Fluency Hong Kong 9 376 Cattell Culture Fair Hong Kong 6 4,858 Coloured PM Mongoloids Intelligence Sample General Verbal Visuo-spatial Japan - - 103 Japan 97 89 105 Japan 102 98 107 Japan 100 92 108 Japan 103 98 108 Japan 103 101 107 Japan 104 - 114 Japan 101 100 103 Japan 110 - - Japan 110 - - Hong Kong 110 - - Hong Kong 108 92 114 Hong Kong 113 - - Hong Kong 116 - Mongoloids Sample Source Japan Lynn, 1977 a Japan Stevenson, Stigler, Lee, Lucker Kitamura and Hsu, 1985 Japan " " " " Japan Lynn and Hampson, 1986 a Japan Lynn and Hampson, 1986 b Japan Lynn and Hampson, 1986 c Japan Lynn, Hampson and Iwawaki, 1987 Japan Lynn, Hampson and Bingham, 1987 Japan Misawa, Motegei, Fujita and Hattori, 1984 Japan Shigehisa and Lynn, 1991 Hong Kong Lynn, Pagliari and Chan, 1988 Hong Kong Lynn, Pagliari and Chan, 1988 Hong Kong Lynn, Hampson and Lee, 1988 Hong Kong Chan and Lynn, 1989 Mongoloids Sample Age Number Test P R China 6-16 5,108 Progressive Matrices Taiwan 16 1,290 Culture Fair Singapore 13 147 Progressive Matrices Belgium-Koreans 6-14 19 WISC United States 6-17 4,994 Various United States 6-11 478 Various United States 6-10 2,000 Figure copying United States 6 80 Hunter Aptitude United States 6-14 112 Various Koreans Canada-Calgary 15 122 Differential aptitude Canada-Vancouver 6-8 38 WISC Mongoloids Intelligence Sample General Verbal Visuo-spatial P R China 101 Taiwan 105 - - Singapore 110 - - Belgium-Koreans 110 102 115 United States 100 97 - United States 101 - - United States 105 United States 106 97 106 United States 107 Koreans Canada-Calgary 105 97 108 Canada-Vancouver 100 94 107 Mongoloids Sample Source P R China Lynn,1991 Taiwan Rodd, 1959 Singapore Lynn, 1977b Belgium-Koreans Frydman and Lynn, 1989 United States Coleman et al, 1966; Flynn, 1991 United States Jensen and Inouye, 1980 United States Jensen, 1973 United States Lesser, Fifer and Clark, 1965 United States Winick, Meyer and Harris, Koreans 1975 Canada-Calgary Vernon, 1982 Canada-Vancouver Kline and Lee, 1972 Table 3: Mean IQs of various Negroid populations Negroids Sample Age Number Test Congo adults 320 Progressive Matrices Ghana adults 225 Culture Fair Nigeria 6-13 87 Colored Matrices, PMA Nigeria adults Progressive Matrices South Africa 8-16 1,220 Progressive Matrices South Africa adults 703 Progressive Matrices South Africa 10-14 293 Army Beta South Africa 9 350 Progressive Matrices South Africa 16 1,093 Junior Aptitude Uganda 12 50 Various Zambia adults 1,011 Progressive Matrices Negroids Intelligence Sample General Verbal Visuo-spatial Source Congo 65 Ombredane, Robaye and Robaye, 1952 Ghana 80 Buj, 1981 Nigeria 75 - 81 Fahrmeier, 1975 Nigeria 86 Wober, 1969 South Africa 81 Notcutt, 1950 South Africa 75 Notcutt, 1950 South Africa 65 Fick, 1929 South Africa 67 Lynn and Holmshaw, 1991 South Africa 69 60 69 Owen, 1989 Uganda 80 Vernon, 1969 Zambia 75 Pons, 1974; Crawford Nutt, 1976 Table 4: Mean IQs of various Negroid-- Caucasoid hybrid Populations Negroid-Caucasoid Hybrids Sample Age Number test United States - - 362 Studies United States 4 4,550 Stanford Binet United States 2 46 Stanford Binet United States 6-18 4115 Verbal and non-verbal United States 6 111 WISC United States 6-16 305 WISC-R United States 7-14 642 PMA United States 6-11 2,518 Various S Africa coloureds 10-14 4,721 Army Beta Barbados 9-15 108 WISC-R Britain 11 113 NFER Britain 10 125 British Ability Scales Britain 8-12 205 NFER Jamaica 10-11 50 various Jamaica 11 1,730 Moray House Jamaica 5-12 71 WISC Intelligence Sample General Verbal Visuo-spatial United States 85 United States 87 United States 86 United States 84 89 United States 81 86 80 United States 84 87 88 United States 77 77 83 United States 84 S Africa coloureds 84 Barbados 82 84 84 Britain 86 87 Britain 94 92 Britain 87 Jamaica 75 82 90 Jamaica 72 72 Jamaica 66 74 64 Sample Source United States Shuey, 1966 United States Broman, Nichols and Kennedy,1975 United States Montie and Fagan, 1988 United States Coleman et al, 1966 United States Miele, 1979 United States Jensen and Reynolds, 1982 United States Baughman and Dahistrom, 1968 United States Jensen and Inouye, 1980 S Africa coloureds Fick, 1929 Barbados Galler, Ramsey and Forde, 1986 Britain Mackintosh and Mascie-Taylor, 1985 Britain Mackintosh and Mascie-Taylor, 1985 Britain Scarr, Caparulo, Bernardo, Tower and Caplan, 1983 Jamaica Vernon, 1969 Jamaica Manley, 1963; Vernon, 1969 Jamaica Hertzig, Birch, Richardson and Tizard, 1972 Table 5: Mean IQs of Amerindians Amerindians Sample Age Number Test United States 6-17 4,994 verbal & non-verbal Navajo 5-8 44 WISC Navajo 4-5 27 WPPSI Navajo 6-7 26 WISC Navajo 16-17 100 WAIS Navajo - 44 WISC-R Oneidas 7-14 82 WISC Canadian Indians - 236 WISC-R Ojibwa, Canada - 35 WISC-R Ojibwa & Crees, Canada 6-7 33 WISC " 9-10 31 WISC " 14-15 36 WISC " 16-20 60 WAIS Dakota Indians 6-16 200 WISC-R Papago 6-16 240 WISC-R Amerindians Intelligence Sample General Verbal Visuo-spatial United States 94 89 Navajo 79 65 93 Navajo 75 64 91 Navajo 78 66 96 Navajo 89 84 95 Navajo 78 64 95 Oneidas 91 86 97 Canadian Indians 97 90 105 Ojibwa, Canada 97 91 104 Ojibwa & Crees, Canada 86 70 101 " 90 81 100 " 89 78 101 " 87 91 103 Dakota Indians 95 86 102 Papago 86 75 96 Amerindians Sample Source United States Coleman et al, 1966 Navajo Thurber, 1976 Navajo Cundick, 1970 Navajo Cundick, 1970 Navajo Howell, Evans & Downing, 1958 Navajo Teeter, Moore & Peterson, 1982 Oneidas Turner & Penford, 1952 Canadian Indians Crawley in McShane & Plas, 1984 Ojibwa, Canada McShane & Plas, 1984 Ojibwa & Crees, Canada St John, Krichev & Bauman, 1976 " " " " " " " " " " " " Dakota Indians Browne, 1984 Papago Reschly & Jipson, 1976 Table 6: Mean IQs of various south East Asian populations South East Asians Sample Age Number Test Australia -- Peabody Picture Aborigines 5-13 83 Vocabulary Australia -- Peabody Picture Aborigines 3-4 22 Vocabulary Australia -- Aborigines 9 1,000 Queensland New Zealand -- Primary Mental Maoris 13 131 Abilities New Zealand -- Progressive Maoris 8 151 Achievement/PM New Zealand -- Maoris 8-14 303 Queensland New Zealand -- Progressive Polynesians 8-9 71 Achievement Carolines Micronesians 12-18 400 Culture Fair Singapore -- Malays 14 190 Progressive Matrices Intelligence Sample General Verbal Visuo-spatial Australia -- Aborigines -- 80 -- Australia -- Aborigines -- 67 Australia -- Aborigines 85 -- -- New Zealand -- Maoris 93 95 87 New Zealand -- Maoris 92 91 -- New Zealand -- Maoris 90 New Zealand -- Polynesians -- 87 Carolines Micronesians 88 Singapore -- Malays 96 Sample Source Australia -- Aborigines Bruce, Hengeveld & Radford, 1971 Australia -- Aborigines Nurcombe and Moffit, 1970 Australia -- Aborigines McElwain and Kearney, 1973 New Zealand -- Maoris Walters, 1958 New Zealand -- Maoris Harker, 1978 New Zealand -- Maoris St George, 1983 New Zealand -- Polynesians Beck and St George, 1983 Carolines Micronesians Jordheim and Olsen, 1963 Singapore -- Malays Lynn, 1977b Table 7 Means for Progressive Matrices and 12 reaction time measures for 9 year old children from five countries (in milliseconds). Hong Kong Japan Britain Number 118 444 239 Progressive Matrices IQ 113 110 100 Decision time simple 361 348 371 complex 423 433 480 omo 787 818 898 Movement time simple 273 218 236 complex 267 227 261 omo 323 268 297 Decision time variabilities simple 99 103 90 complex 114 138 110 omo 269 298 285 Movement time variabilities simple 68 63 52 complex 65 66 56 omo 136 127 110 Ireland South Africa SD r Number Progressive Matrices IQ 317 350 Decision time 89 67 simple 388 400 64 -94[**] complex 485 501 67 -89[*] omo 902 991 187 -96[**] Movement time simple 260 236 72 13 complex 280 236 66 13 omo 307 256 96 56 Decision time variabilities simple 121 129 32 -83[*] complex 141 155 30 -73 omo 328 332 95 -85[*] Movement time variabilities simple 73 69 30 -33 complex 80 70 25 -42 omo 129 119 49 40 One and two asterisks denote statistical significance at the 5 and 1 per cent level, respectively. %%end
@@Mankind Quarterly Internet web site address: (http://www.mankind.org/) Leading journal of "race science", often dismissed as racist science, mostly deals with IQ issues. contact: socecon@aol.com

@@map

Africans have problems with mapping 2D to 3D

@@Military

Despite negative stereotypes, the average IQ of American soldiers is above national average. Parts of the AFQT are essentially high quality IQ-tests. It cuts low test scores. Of the 30% of the population with lowest IQ the army takes less than one in ten. Steve Sailor has calculated the average IQ of the troops. http://isteve.blogspot.com/2006/11/average-iq-of-enlisted-men.html The average enlisted has an IQ of 105, compared to 98 for the national average. The officers have a higher average IQ.

@@migration

shuey p. 49 Northern born higher than southern born, Washington DC was higher than average, and IQ increases with time spent in the North. 7-10 points between Northern and Southern blacks, believes partly environment and selection.

@@military

MILITARY RECRUITS ABOVE AVERAGE IN IQ ACROSS ALL RACES Steve Sailer "From 1992-2004, the military accepted almost no applicants for enlistment who scored below the 30th percentile on the Armed Forces Qualification Test. This eliminated within the ranks the majority of the IQ gap that causes so much discord in civilian America. Contra John Kerry, enlistees of all races averaged above the national mean in IQ: white recruits scored 107, Hispanics 103, and blacks 102." Steve Sailer: Fragmented Future http://www.amconmag.com/2007/2007_01_15/cover.html [Linked by Arts & Letters Daily.] 7.1.15
The military calls the AFQT a measure of trainability. I don't have a problem with the idea that it's essentially an IQ test. (Armed Forces Vocational Aptitude Battery). The AFQT is a composite score; for some time it's been derived from 4 of the 10 ASVAB subtests. ANDREWS SAYS MILITARY IQ REQUIREMENTS ARE SEVERE FOR BLACK AVERAGE Only 50% of otherwise qualified US blacks are intellectually capable of meeting the Army minimum IQ standards (85) and only 34% for the Navy (91 required). If your statement about Army demographics is correct (I don't have the current stats), then the respective black/white pools available are 50% and 84% of the otherwise available populations. It would also indicate that blacks are rather over-represented and whites under-represented based on IQ standards alone. Louis Andrews Shuey p. 495 WWI IQ of enlisted blacks 83 vs. white 100 Best black states were worse than worst white states, North and Southern Whites better than either Black group vs. claims that Northern Blacks might be smarter than Southern Whites. \doc\94\19\chinrejt.txt - Intelligence: Rejection Rates in WWII Hyde, Robert W., and Chisholm, roderick M. Studies in medical sociology III. the relation of mental disorders to race and nationality. New England J. Med 1944 231, 610-618 Rejection rates at the Boston Armed Forces Induction Station for recruits aged 18 to 44 during wartime, 60,000 drawn from greater Boston area. Whites 0.7 to 3.9% Blacks 11.7% Chinese 24.5% Chinese were rejected primarily due to langauge and cultural handicaps. Author's opinion was that Chinese and to a lesser degree, Blacks and Portuguese were not familiar enough with the materials to make the tests valid.

@@military officers

Shuey p. 497 Ginzburg observed at end of WWII there were only 1 black officer per 100 but 1 to 8 among whites. (Comment, this does not take discrimination into account, which could partly explain this disparity)

@@mixed race

There is some evidence for improved IQ with mixed race children, but not everybody agrees. z48\clip\2001\04\intrace.txt Commentary: Multiracial Tiger Woods By STEVE SAILER, UPI National Correspondent Thursday, 5 April 2001 18:04 (ET), http://www.vny.com/cf/news/upidetail.cfm?QID=174674 Marriages between first cousins, so common among the crowned heads of Europe, tend to reduce IQ by 7 to 10 points, according to a review of 14 different studies. It was a careful 1986 analysis by C.T. Nagoshi and R.C. Johnson of biracial white-Japanese children in Hawaii compared to monoracial peers of the same socio-economic status. They were given 15 highly diverse tests of mental abilities. The biracial children scored higher on 13 of the 15. For the crucial "general factor" of intelligence, the biracial children were measured at the 60th percentile compared to the 50th percentile for the monoracial control group. \doc\95\07\mixiq.txt - Chinese newspaper claims mixed Asians have lower IQ. Another believes mixed Asians disproportionaly successful and visible at Harvard. Shuey p. 498 racial hybrids (negro) score higher than pure blacks Scarr Race and Class found that this was not the case, but other reviews of Scarr's data show that adopted mixed children scored higher than pure blacks.

@@moron

Moron from the Greek moros (‘dull’) is nowadays a slang term for a stupid person, but it was originally a term used only in psychology to refer to adults with a mental age of 8-12. Intellectual Radioactivity: How Science Documentaries are Used to Pervert the Course of Science and Advance Political Aims, Part 2 Alex Kurtagic November 8, 2009

@@mother

Bell curve p. 230 Mother's IQ is much more important than social status in determining IQ

@@Multiple Intelligences

\clip\99\05\whoown.txt http://www.theatlantic.com/issues/99feb/intel.htm Atlantic Feb 1999 Howard Gardner The Atlantic Monthly; February 1999; Who Owns Intelligence?; Volume 283, No. 2; pages 67-76. "Why settle for an IQ or an SAT test, in which the items are at best remote proxies for the ability to design experiments, write essays, critique musical performances, and so forth? Why not instead ask people actually (or virtually) to carry out such tasks? And yet by not opening up the Pandora's box of values and subjectivity, one can continue to make judicious use of the insights and technologies achieved by those who have devoted decades to perfecting mental measurement." "But the imperative to broaden our definition of intelligence in a responsible way goes well beyond the academy. Who "owns" intelligence promises to be an issue even more critical in the next century than it has been in this era of the IQ test. "
%%Music That Makes You Dumb see http://musicthatmakesyoudumb.virgil.gr/ Low 876-996 Lil Wayne Soca The Used Beyonce Jay-Z Classical 1071 = median Med 1036-1116 Classic Rock 1036 The Eagles 1050 Jimi Hendrix 1080 Kelly Clarkson 996 Bon Jovi 996 Queen 1036 Hi Lifehouse David Bowie Counting Crows deniz selcuk to me show details 12:00 PM (34 minutes ago) Reply Hi! Here is an interesting data about the music preferences and the SAT scores of the universities. http://musicthatmakesyoudumb.virgil.gr/ http://musicthatmakesyoudumb.virgil.gr/schools.php Do you think that they are true, especially the second link? ' Showing all 1352 schools in database. School Score SAT %SAT ACT %ACT #ugrads fb network Location 1 California Institute of Technology (Go Beavers!) 1520 1520 99% - - 864 caltech Pasadena, CA 1. Radiohead 2. Pink Floyd 3. Coldplay 4. The Beatles 5. Led Zeppelin 6. Green Day 7. Nirvana 8. Jimmy Eat World 9. Classical 10. Linkin Park 2 Franklin W. Olin College of Engineering 1487 1495 100% 33 (~1450) 21% 304 olin Needham, MA 1. Cake 2. Death Cab For Cutie 3. Coldplay 4. The Beatles 5. Muse 6. Red Hot Chili Peppers 7. Pink Floyd 8. Ben Folds 9. The Postal Service 10. Led Zeppelin 3 Yale University 1485 1485 96% - - 5333 yale New Haven, CT 1. U2 2. Jack Johnson 3. The Beatles 4. Radiohead 5. Coldplay 6. Bob Dylan 7. Beethoven 8. The Shins ... 10. Ben Folds 4 Harvard College 1484 1490 99% 33 (~1450) 18% 6715 harvard Cambridge, MA 1. Coldplay 2. U2 3. Radiohead 4. The Killers 5. The Beatles 6. Snow Patrol 7. Pink Floyd 8. Jack Johnson 9. Red Hot Chili Peppers 10. Bob Dylan 5 Princeton University 1475 1480 98% 32 (~1430) 11% 4760 princeton Princeton, NJ 1. Coldplay 2. U2 3. Radiohead 4. The Beatles 5. Jack Johnson 6. Counting Crows 7. Red Hot Chili Peppers 8. The Killers 9. Guster ... 6 Massachusetts Institute of Technology 1461 1470 97% 32 (~1430) 28% 4127 mit Cambridge, MA 1. The Beatles 2. Radiohead 3. Coldplay 4. U2 5. Pink Floyd 6. Beethoven 7. Nirvana 8. Classical ... 10. Queen 7 Duke University 1451 1465 95% 32 (~1410) 32% 6330 duke Durham, NC 1. Coldplay 2. U2 3. Jack Johnson 4. Radiohead 5. Counting Crows 6. Guster 7. Red Hot Chili Peppers 8. The Fray 9. The Beatles ... 8 Dartmouth College 1434 1450 86% 31 (~1390) 31% 4085 dartmouth Hanover, NH 1. Ben Folds 2. Jack Johnson 3. Coldplay 4. The Beatles 5. Modest Mouse 6. Sufjan Stevens 7. Snow Patrol 8. Red Hot Chili Peppers 9. Led Zeppelin 10. Country 9 Rice University 1434 1435 96% 32 (~1430) 33% 3049 rice Houston, TX 1. Queen 2. Radiohead 3. Jack Johnson 4. Coldplay 5. U2 6. The Shins 7. Muse 8. The Killers 9. The Beatles 10. Red Hot Chili Peppers 10 Washington University in St. Louis 1433 1450 85% 32 (~1405) 54% 7386 washu St. Louis, MO 1. Coldplay 2. Radiohead 3. The Killers 4. Jack Johnson 5. The Shins 6. The Beatles 7. John Mayer 8. U2 9. The Postal Service 10. Ben Folds 11 Stanford University 1425 1440 96% 31 (~1365) 25% 6422 stanford Stanford, CA 1. Radiohead 2. U2 3. Coldplay 4. The Beatles 5. The Killers 6. Jack Johnson 7. Death Cab For Cutie 8. Pink Floyd 9. The Shins 10. The Fray 12 Brown University 1424 1440 96% 30 (~1345) 20% 6010 brown Providence, RI 1. Radiohead 2. Coldplay 3. The Beatles 4. U2 ... 6. Red Hot Chili Peppers 7. Phish 8. Modest Mouse ... 13 Amherst College 1419 1430 83% 31 (~1365) 17% 1648 amherst Amherst, MA 1. The Shins ... 5. Radiohead ... 7. Beethoven ... 9. David Bowie ... 14 Swarthmore College 1418 1425 97% 31 (~1390) 25% 1484 swarthmore Swarthmore, PA ... 3. Queen 4. Pink Floyd 5. Nirvana 6. Maroon 5 ... 10. Beethoven 15 Williams College 1414 1420 97% 31 (~1385) 20% 2003 williams Williamstown, MA 1. Coldplay 2. The Beatles 3. U2 4. Jack Johnson 5. Radiohead 6. Counting Crows 7. Bob Dylan 8. Guster 9. The Killers 10. Red Hot Chili Peppers 16 University of Pennsylvania 1413 1420 97% 31 (~1385) 26% 9730 upenn Philadelphia, PA 1. U2 2. Coldplay 3. Radiohead 4. Led Zeppelin 5. Counting Crows 6. Billy Joel 7. Green Day 8. Ben Folds 9. The Killers 10. Red Hot Chili Peppers 17 Columbia University: Columbia College 1411 1420 96% 31 (~1365) 18% 4184 columbia New York, NY 1. U2 2. Coldplay 3. The Beatles 4. Bob Dylan 5. Radiohead 6. The Killers 7. Jazz 8. Snow Patrol 9. Jack Johnson 10. John Mayer 18 Webb Institute 1410 1410 100% - - 87 webb Glen Cove, NY 1. Classic Rock ... 5. The Beatles ... 19 University of Chicago 1407 1430 82% 31 (~1365) 45% 4807 uchicago Chicago, IL 1. The Beatles 2. Coldplay 3. Pink Floyd 4. U2 5. Radiohead 6. The Shins ... 8. Jack Johnson 9. Ben Folds 10. Beethoven 20 Northwestern University 1400 1410 82% 31 (~1385) 51% 8153 northwestern Evanston, IL 1. Coldplay 2. The Beatles 3. Radiohead 4. Jack Johnson 5. Ben Folds 6. U2 7. Red Hot Chili Peppers 8. The Killers 9. John Mayer 10. Counting Crows 21 Tufts University 1398 1410 93% 31 (~1360) 28% 4995 tufts Medford, MA 1. Coldplay 2. The Beatles 3. Jack Johnson 4. Guster 5. Radiohead 6. U2 7. Red Hot Chili Peppers 8. Dispatch 9. Counting Crows 10. Sublime %%Lessons CHILDREN GIVEN MUSIC LESSONS SHOW MORE IQ IMPROVEMENT http://www.psychologicalscience.org/media/releases/2004/pr040819.cfm News Release August 19, 2004 Z82\CLIP\2004\08\musiciq.txt report http://www.psychologicalscience.org/pdf/ps/musiciq.pdf The results of this study revealed that increases in IQ from pre- to post-test were larger in the music groups than in the two others. Generally these increases occurred across IQ subtests, index scores, and academic achievement. Children in the drama group also exhibited improvements pre- to post-test, but in the area of adaptive social behavior, an area that did not change among children who received music lessons. z51\clip\2001\08\classmu.txt http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/healthscience/134327382_brain12.html Sunday, August 12, 2001 - 12:00 a.m. Pacific Classical-music fans may have more brains By Melinda Bargreen Seattle Times music critic ... the results of recent British and Italian studies that offer one explanation for individual preferences for classical versus pop music: The former may require more brainpower. PLAYING MUSIC INSTRUMENT BUILDS VERBAL (BUT NOT WRITTEN) ABILITY \clip\98\16\musimem.txt The Seattle Times Company Science/Health : Thursday, November 12, 1998 Music lessons may help tune verbal memory, study finds by Robert Cooke Newsday "A new study by Chinese psychologists indicates that children who have spent a few years learning to play a musical instrument also end up with better verbal skills, compared with those who never studied music." @@Narcissism of minor difference Narcissism of minor difference @@National IQ estimates @@WORLD LYNN'S NATIONAL IQ / INCOME TABLE as posted on http://home.att.net/~eugenics/lynn.htm, as it appeared 2001 in Mankind Quarterly. Country............. avgIQ Actual GDP Predicted GDP Hong Kong........... 107 20,763 19,817 South Korea......... 106 13,478 19,298 Japan............... 105 23,257 18,779 Taiwan.............. 104 13,000 18,260 Singapore........... 103 24,210 17,740 Austria............. 102 23,166 17,221 Germany............. 102 22,169 17,221 Italy............... 102 20,585 17,221 Netherlands......... 102 22,176 17,221 Sweden.............. 101 20,659 16,702 Switzerland......... 101 25,512 16,702 Belgium............. 100 23,223 16,183 China............... 100 3,105 16,183 NewZealand.......... 100 17,288 16,183 U. Kingdom.......... 100 20,336 16,183 Hungary............. 99 10,232 15,664 Poland.............. 99 7,619 15,664 Australia........... 98 22,452 15,145 Denmark............. 98 24,218 15,145 France.............. 98 21,175 15,145 Norway.............. 98 26,342 15,145 United States....... 98 29,605 15,145 Canada.............. 97 23,582 14,626 Czech Republic...... 97 12,362 14,626 Finland............. 97 20,847 14,626 Spain............... 97 16,212 14,626 Argentina........... 96 12,013 14,107 Russia.............. 96 6,460 14,107 Slovakia............ 96 9,699 14,107 Uruguay............. 96 8,623 14,107 Portugal............ 95 14,701 13,589 Slovenia............ 95 14,293 13,588 Israel.............. 94 17,301 13,069 Romania............. 94 5,648 13,069 Bulgaria............ 93 4,809 12,550 Ireland............. 93 21,482 12,550 Greece.............. 92 13,943 12,031 Malaysia............ 92 8,137 12,031 Thailand............ 91 5,456 11,512 Croatia............. 90 6,749 10,993 Peru................ 90 4,282 10,993 Turkey.............. 90 6,422 10,993 Colombia............ 89 6,006 10,474 Indonesia........... 89 2,651 10,474 Suri name........... 89 5,161 10,474 Brazil.............. 87 6,625 9,436 Iraq................ 87 3,197 9,436 Mexico.............. 87 7,704 9,436 Western Samoa....... 87 3,832 9,436 Tonga............... 87 3,000 9,436 Lebanon............. 86 4,326 8,917 Philippines......... 86 3,555 8,917 Cuba................ 85 3,967 8,398 Morocco............. 85 3,305 8,398 Fiji................ 84 4,231 7,879 Iran................ 84 5,121 7,879 Marshall Islands.... 84 3,000 7,879 Puerto Rico......... 84 8,000 7,879 Egypt............... 83 3,041 7,360 India............... 81 2,077 6,322 Ecuador............. 80 3,003 5,803 Guatemala........... 79 3,505 5,284 Barbados............ 78 12,001 4,765 Nepal............... 78 1,157 4,765 Qatar............... 78 20,987 4,765 Zambia.............. 77 719 4,246 Congo (Brazz)....... 73 995 2,170 Uganda.............. 73 1,074 2,170 Jamaica............. 72 3,389 1,651 Kenya............... 72 980 1,651 South Africa........ 72 8,488 1,651 Sudan............... 72 1,394 1,651 Tanzania............ 72 480 1,651 Ghana............... 71 1,735 1,132 Nigeria............. 67 795 -944 Guinea.............. 66 1,782 -1,463 Zimbabwe............ 66 2,669 -1,463 Congo............... 65 822 -1,982 Sierra Leone........ 64 458 -2,501 Ethiopia............ 63 574 -3,020 Equatorial Guinea... 59 1,817 -5,096 There is a lot of controversy over these numbers, for example, Israel is set at less than 100, some nations are lower than 65, which is normally the definition of retardation, and some predicted GNPs are negative. SAILER SUMMARIZES WEALTH OF NATIONS VS IQ TABLE has entered virtually all the information in Appendix 1 on each IQ study into a _web page_ (http://www.isteve.com/IQ_Table.htm) z82\clip\2004\08\iqsteve.htm Hu notes: there is an entry for hispanic americans, but not for other US subgroups. I would put LGBT, Jews, NE / Chinese Asians, and Indo-Americans at 1 SD ahead of 100, or 115, and Asian Americans in general at 1/2 SD or 107 based on SAT scores and 50% college going rate. Most Asian nations don't do nearly as well as their American representatives by this chart, with Hong Kong at 107. SAILER COMMENTS PROBABLY CULTURE AND RACE MATTERS. WORLD AVG IS 90 Lynn and Vanhanen benchmarked their IQ results so that Britain is 100. America scores 98 on this scale, and the world average is 90. IQ's are assumed to form a normal probability distribution ("bell curve") with the standard deviation set at 15. Here are a few examples (My apologies if the formating doesn't survive emailing): Avg IQ %tile GDP Per Cap Eq. Guinea 59 0.3% $ 1,817 Nigeria 67 1% $ 795 Barbados 78 7% $12,001 Guatemala 79 8% $ 3,505 India 81 10% $ 2,077 Iraq 87 19% $ 3,197 Mexico 87 19% $ 7,704 Argentina 96 39% $12,013 US 98 45% $29,605 China 100 50% $ 3,105 UK 100 50% $20,336 Italy 102 55% $20,585 Japan 105 63% $23,257 Hong Kong 107 68% $20,763 LYNN ESTIMATES IQ OF MIDEAST NATIONS Note, these estimates made by Richard Lynn and Tatu Vanhanen are seen as of dubious value, but are presented here for anyone that wonders. Bell curve adherants generally put African Americans at 85, American Jews at 105-110. 100 Israel: Western Jews 94 Israel 90 Turkey 88 Israel: Eastern Jews 86 Lebanon 84 Iran (non-Arabic) 83 Egypt 81 India 78 Qatar z52\clip\2001\09\midiq.txt Richard Lynn and Tatu Vanhanen, National IQ and EconoomicDevelopment: A Study of Eighty-One Nations," _The Mankind Quarterly_,Summer 2001 Richard Lynn and Tatu Vanhanen, IQ and theWealth of Nations (Human Evolution, Behavior, and Intelligence), Hardcover (January 2002) Praeger Pub Text; ISBN:027597510X "The explanation is that Israel is an ethnically diverse nation with about equal numbers of Western (European) and Eastern (Asian) Jews. Western Mews have an IQ about 12 points higher than Eastern Jews. (Lieblich, Ninio and Kugelmass, 1972, Zeidner, 1987). The IQ of Eastern Jews in Israel is approximately 88 and is closely similar to that of neighboring South Asian populations like Turkey (90), Lebanon (86), Iraq (87) and Iran (84)." It goes on some more. SET IQ=100 AT WORLD IQ, NOT NORTHWEST EUROPEAN IQ? Ruston 2001: The world average IQ is about 90. So Africans are not THAT low compared to the world average. CONTROVERSIAL THEORY OF NATIONAL WEALTH AND IQ Note: this is invalid for anyone who believes the assignment of IQs to races and nations is invalid. z54\clip\2001\11\natiq.txt _The Bigger Bell Curve: Intelligence, National Achievement, and The Global Economy_ is by J. Philippe Rushton, Department of Psychology,University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5C2 Canada and is in press in the Elsevier Science journal, Personality and Individual Differences, October 2001 "IQ scores turn out to be the single best predictor. One of the most perplexing problems for the general theory is why the peoples of East Asia with their high IQs lagged behind the European peoples in economic growth and development until the second half of the 20th Century. China’s science and technology were generally more advanced than Europe’s for around two thousand years, from about 500 B.C. up to around 1500 A.D. The widespread though rarely stated assumption of economists and political scientists that the peoples of all nations have the same average level of intelligence turns out to be seriously incorrect. Singapore and Hong Kong belong to the ethnic group with the highest IQs, while the people of Lesotho and Swaziland belong to the ethnic group with the lowest IQs.. Some racially mixed countries were assigned IQs proportionate to the IQs known for the various groups that make up the country scatter chart of IQ vs income Ranking 104 North East Asia 98 European nations 98 North America and Australasia 87 South and Southwest Asia from the Middle East through Turkey to India and Malaysia 86 Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands 85 Latin America and the Caribbean 70 Africa Upstream: RACE DIFFERENCES IN INTELLIGENCE: A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE http://www.mugu.com/cgi-bin/Upstream/People/Lynn/lynn-race-iq.html Karl Granat notes: the nations IQ's are widely varied in Europe- and generally correlate with higher IQ's in areas of the Protestant Reformation and lower IQ's where the Roman Catholic Church predominates (where the priests are celibate).

@@National Review

Cover: If You're So Smart... How Come You're Not Japanese IQ and National Prosperity National Review April 15, 1991 image: \image\97\76irs\smart.tif F091497 @@Nerd Social adjustment is one intelligence that some say that blacks and women may be better at. Sailer and Bloom @@Niesbett NIESBETT CLAIMS LITTLE OR NO IQ RACE CORRELATION \doc\web\99\07\nisbett.txt The studies most directly relevant to the question of whether the IQ difference between blacks and whites is genetic in origin show no association between IQ and African, as opposed to European, ancestry. @@Nobel Countries Ranked by Population to "Intellectual" Nobel Prize Ratio http://members.shaw.ca/delajara/Nobels.html For a proper comparison, the population of each country was divided by the number of Nobel Prizes it had gotten. The only Nobel Prizes excluded from the count were the Peace Prizes author, Rodrigo de la Jara at rodrigo_de_la_jara_2002 at hotmail dot com Author notes dominated by north europeans. Note Japan, USSR, India at bottom Rank Country Physics Chemistry Physiology or Medicine Literature Economic Science Total 1999 Population x1000 Ratio Population/ Nobels 1 Iceland 0 0 0 1 0 1 273 273 2 Sweden 4 4 6 7 2 23 8911 387 3 Luxembourg 0 0 1 0 0 1 429 429 4 Switzerland 2 5 6 2 0 15 7275 485 5 Denmark 3 1 4 3 0 11 5357 487 6 Britain 21 26 24 8 6 85 59113 695 7 Ireland 1 0 0 4 0 5 3633 727 8 Norway 0 1 0 3 2 6 4439 740 9 Netherlands 8 3 2 0 2 15 15808 1054 10 Germany 21 27 16 8 1 73 82087 1124 11 U.S.A. 73 45 85 11 28 242 272640 1127 12 Austria 2 1 3 0 1 7 8139 1163 13 France 12 7 9 12 2 42 58978 1404 31 USSR 7 1 1 5 1 15 266000 17733 32 Japan 3 1 1 2 0 7 126182 18026 33 South Africa 0 1 0 1 0 2 43,426 21713 34 Romania 0 0 1 0 0 1 22334 22334 35 Egypt 0 1 0 1 0 2 67274 33637 36 Colombia 0 0 0 1 0 1 39309 39309 37 Mexico 0 1 0 1 0 2 100294 50147 38 Nigeria 0 0 0 1 0 1 113829 113829 39 Pakistan 1 0 0 0 0 1 138123 138123 40 India 1 0 0 1 1 3 1000849 333616 Also see wonderlic @@Occupation jensen paper on G and occupation: http://www.mugu.com/papers/various/journal-vocational-behaviour-88.pdf z58\ahu\doc\web\2002\09\gct.txt Mean GCT standard scores, standard deviations, and range of scores of 18,782 AAF white enlisted men by civilian occupation Berelson and Steiner's Human Behavior: An Inventory of Scientific Findings (Harcourt, Brace, and World, 1964), but their source was from 1949 @@Ogbu Researcher cited to show that Japanese castes also have lower reported IQs, Charles Murray says there's no data in there though. @@Parrot PARROTS LEARN ENGLISH FASTER WITH REAL INTERACTION \doc\web\99\09\parrot.txt Pepperberg, I.M., & McLaughlin, M.A. (1996). Effect of avian-human joint attention in allospecific vocal learning by grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 110(3), 286-297. The authors studied whether grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) would learn referential English vocalizations if training lacked full social interaction with humans. In previous studies, grey parrots learned human vocalizations most readily when training simultaneously demonstrated the meaning (full reference) and function (full contextual applicability) of the utterance and actively engaged the subject in learning (full interaction). @@Pilot z54\clip\2002\01\pilot.txt Predicting Pilot and Navigator Criteria Not Much More Than g Michele Morales Olea, Malcolm James Ree Human Resources Directorate , Armstrong Laboratory Brooks Air Force Base Discussion Consistent with past findings, g was the best predictor. These results are consistent with the belief that g is strongly related to learning ability ( Jensen, 1986 ).

@@Pioneer fund

Controversial Pioneer Fund background - grants money to research issues of race and genetics Mainstream Research The projects funded by Pioneer in the past have been in the mainstream of scientific research, as evidenced by the 1980s survey of 1,020 scholars in relevant fields by Snyderman and Rothman, and also by the statement "Mainstream Science on Intelligence" (Wall St. J. ed page December 13, 1994) signed by 52 of the nation's leading experts from leading institutions (15 of whom had received Pioneer support). Many Pioneer-funded scientists have been invited to contribute chapters to scholarly books, they are cited in every serious current book on intelligence, and 16 of them are listed in the references of a single major current college text on intelligence. Twin and adoption studies funded by Pioneer are reflected in most modern school and college texts. Pioneer scientists are cited many times in the recent Herrnstein-Murray book The Bell Curve. Thomas Sowell's 1994 book on Race and Culture relies on work by three Pioneer grantees in his chapter "Race and Intelligence". Robert Sternberg's forthcoming book Intelligence, Heredity, and Environment features invited chapters by three grantees. While both Sowell and Sternberg dispute some of those researchers' conclusions, both treat their work as mainstream, which is, of course, because Pioneer-funded research, with that of certain other leading scientists, is the mainstream.
Pioneer Fund Home Page IS PIONEER FUND REALLY TO BE FEARED? z54\clip\2001\12\pion.txt http://www.vdare.com/sailer/pioneer.htm VDARE.com December 12, 2001 Pioneer Fundophobia By Steve Sailer (SteveSlr@aol.com) Minnesota Study of Identical Twins Reared Apart (better known as the [16]Minnesota Twins project), which reunited separated twins from around the world. Researchers at the University of Minnesota was funded by Pioneer Sarcastic funding proposal critical of white tendencies towards drunk and drug use. Getting Serious About White Deviance: An Open Letter to the Pioneer Fund By Tim Wise "The Pioneer Fund is committed to the proposition that people of different ethnic and cultural backgrounds are, on the basis of heredity, inherently unequal and can never be expected to behave or perform equally." _The Science of Human Diversity: A History of the Pioneer Fund_, Richard Lynn, University Press of America, 2001 ISBN: 0-7618-2040, with a lengthy introduction by Harry F. Weyher, President, The Pioneer Fund. Lynn discusses the origins and founding of the PF http://www.mosaic.co.za/gavan/Upstream/Issues/psychology/IQ/pioneer.html clip\96\02\pioneer.htm doc\95\01\pionfun2.txt @@Police By BRIGITTE GREENBERG NEW HAVEN, Conn. (September 8, 1999 9:05 p.m. EDT http://www.nandotimes.com) - A federal judge dismissed a lawsuit by a man who was deemed too smart to be a police officer, ruling that the New London, Conn., Police Department's rejection of Robert Jordan because he scored too high on an intelligence test did not violate his rights. In 1996, he scored a 33, the equivalent of an IQ of 125. The average score nationally for police officers, as well as office workers, bank tellers and salespeople, is 21 to 22, the equivalent of an IQ of 104. @@Politics http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1968042,00.html Study: Are Liberals Smarter Than Conservatives? A libertarian (and, as such, nonpartisan) researcher, Satoshi Kanazawa of the London School of Economics and Political Science, has just written a paper that is set to be published in March by the journal Social Psychology Quarterly. The paper investigates not only whether conservatives are dumber than liberals but also why that might be so. (See the top 10 political gaffes of 2009.) The short answer: Kanazawa's paper shows that more-intelligent people are more likely to say they are liberal. They are also less likely to say they go to religious servi Read more: http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1968042,00.html#ixzz0ghJkpfgE Kanazawa quotes from two surveys that support the hypothesis that liberals are more intelligent. One is the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which is often called Add Health. The other is the General Social Survey (GSS). The Add Health study shows that the mean IQ of adolescents who identify themselves as "very liberal" is 106, compared with a mean IQ of 95 for those calling themselves "very conservative." The Add Health study is huge — more than 20,000 kids — and this difference is highly statistically significant. Read more: http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1968042,00.html#ixzz0ghJtl6wN Read more: http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1968042,00.html#ixzz0ghJtmM1x more-intelligent GSS respondents (as measured by a quick but highly reliable synonym test) were less likely to agree that the government has a responsibility to reduce income and wealth differences. In other words, intelligent people might like to portray themselves as liberal. But in the end, they know that it's good to be the king. Read more: http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1968042,00.html#ixzz0ghK0WCP5 Sell, Tooby and Cosmides found that men (but not women) with the most physical strength were the most likely to feel entitled to good treatment, anger easily, view themselves as successful in winning conflicts and believe in physical force as a tool for resolving interpersonal and international conflicts. Women who thought of themselves as pretty showed the same pattern of greater aggression. All of which means that if you are a liberal who believes you're smarter than conservatives, you probably shouldn't bring that up around them. You might not like them when they're angry. Read more: http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1968042,00.html#ixzz0ghK6uuMC @@Premature Birth z63\clip\2003\02\prem.txt This article is: http://www.chron.com/cs/CDA/story.hts/nation/1774971 HoustonChronicle.com -- http://www.HoustonChronicle.com | Section: Health & Medicine Feb. 11, 2003, 10:28PM Study of IQ growth in preemies indicates the brain repairs itself By LINDSEY TANNER Associated Press "the study found that many youngsters considered borderline retarded make up for lost ground and end up scoring in the nearly normal IQ range by age 8... .today's Journal of the American Medical Association. " PREMATURE BABIES MORE LIKELY TO HAVE LOW IQ (DUH) z45\clip\2000\08\premiq.txt The Wall Street Journal August 8, 2000 World-Wide Babies Born Prematurely Risk Having Learning Problems Later Associated Press Ms. Barlow said that she found 39% of the premature babies had below normal IQs of 85 or less, while only 13% of the full-term infants had such IQs. The international average for IQs of 85 or less is 16%. @@Preschool IQ VOCABULARY GAP IN PLACE BY AGE 3 preiq.txt From: "Gregory M. Cochran" <74771.3230@compuserve.com> * U. CAL BERK-145.10) Christopher Jencks & Meredith Phillips, THE AMERICAN PROSPECT, September -October 1998, pp. 44-53, Online, INFOTRAC, When three- and four-year-olds take vocabulary tests, for example, the typical black child's vocabulary score falls below the twentieth percentile of the national distribution. The black-white gap in IQ is in place by age three or four*. @@President Sailer UPI series on IQ and presidency - Gore is smarter than Bush, but that doesn't make him better for the presidency. Brand says having IQ more than 30 points over the troops makes it hard to communiticate. Part 1: Why you can't believe what they tell you about politicians' brains: http://www.vny.com/cf/news/upidetail.cfm?QID=128747 Part 2: What the test scores tell us about Bore and Gush: http://www.vny.com/cf/news/upidetail.cfm?QID=128748 Part 3: Does IQ matter in a President? http://www.vny.com/cf/news/upidetail.cfm?QID=129262 Gregory Chochran say Nixon had a 143 IQ Sailer posts gore vs bush iq/sat Al Gore: SAT: Verbal 625; Math 730 = 1355 (old style) Advanced tests: Physics 488 Chem 519 English 705 History 701 IQ scores were 133, 134 at the two ends of Prep School. (134 is 98.8th percentile) George W. Bush SAT score: Verbal = 566, Math = 640, total = 1206 (old style) Charles Murray estimates IQ from SAT score as around 126 (95.8th percentile z84\clip\2004\10\kerrscore.txt steveslr aol.com wrote: Kerry's IQ Likely Lower than Bush's Summary: John F. Kerry's supporters widely assume he is much smarter than George W. Bush. For example, Howell Raines, former Executive Editor of the NY Times, wrote, ""Does anyone in America doubt that Kerry has a higher IQ than Bush?" Yet, objective evidence of Kerry's intelligence, such as grades or test scores, was unavailable ... until now. Albert Himoe On Wednesday Slate Magazine went public with former New Jersey Senator Bill Bradley's SAT score -- an underwhelming 485 points out of a possible 800 on the verbal section. *** According to Jensen, the average SAT-V for Cornell freshman in the period 1965-1969 ranged for 660 to 703. Assuming that the standards at Princeton were similar, and assuming the above figure is true [I'm skeptical.] Bradley's presence at Princeton was solely due to his basketball skills. AH Dec. 6 199 issue of Newsweek biography of Gore ["Inventing Al Gore: A Biography" by Bill Turque] which mentions in passing Al Gore's IQ, 134. GORE 730MATH 625VERBAL From: Con1453@aol.com Date sent: Sun, 19 Mar 2000 03:29:39 EST Verbal 625; Math 730 (compares to Bush 566/640) Advanced tests: Physics 488 Chem 519 English 705 History 701 IQ scores were 133, 134 at the two ends of Prep School. Class Rank at St. Alban's 25/51; grades mostly not that good although did get a cum laude at Harvard. Jim Chapin

@@People

Stormin' Norman Schwarzkopf has an IQ of 170 The Bear - General H. Norman Schwarzkopf - Interview http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3197/is_n12_v36/ai_11814745 With an IQ of 170, his sharp mind and decisive leadership abilities quickly drew his second, third and, finally, fourth star. His final assignment was Commander-in-Chief of the United States Central Command from 1988 until his retirement following Desert Storm.

@@profession

BLACKS IN MODERATE IQ JOBS GET PAID _MORE_ \doc\94\19\iqprof.wk1 - IQ by Profession and Race The average black in any given profession has an IQ 1 to 1.5 Std Dev lower than whites in the same field, but makes more money in many of the lower professions vs. equal IQ white. Bell Curve p. 488

@@Race

Race Gaps “Standardized Tests: The Interpretation of Racial and Ethnic Gaps” at: http://members.xoom.com/griffedulion/testing.htm z39\clipim\2000\03\testing\testing.htm [Claims of narrowing the race score gap are bogus] z56\doc\web\2002\07\ability.txt From: Albert Himoe Sent: 2002 April 29, Monday 04:16 Subject: Black-white cognitive ability meta-analysis My summary of a meta-analysis of black-white differences in cognitive ability for various samples. In all these tables, the first figure is the difference in standard deviation units, the second is the number of studies, and the third the total number of individuals tested, "g" means the results of a comprehensive test, e.g., SAT, Wonderlic. Not surprisingly, "incumbents" show smaller [but still large] group differences than applicants. Note the very large difference in graduate school applicants, so it is no surprise that large differences in test scores in admitted law students show up. Albert Himoe ************************************************* Ethnic group differences in cognitive ability in employment and educational settings: a meta-analysis. Author: Roth, Philip L.; Bevier, Craig A. Bobko, Philip. Source: Personnel Psychology v. 54 no2 (Summer 2001) p. TABLE 1 Overall Results for Black-White Samples(FN1). Overall g 1.10 105 6,246,729 Education g 1.12 48 5,378,539 Education, no GRE 1.00 38 3,007,284 Industrial g .99 34 464,201 Military g 1.10 22 387,705 TABLE 3 Analysis of Black-White Within Job and Across Job Study Results for Industrial Samples. Within job studies Applicants Low complexity .86 64 125,654 Moderate comp. .72 18 31,990 High comp. .63 2 4,884 Incumbents .38 6 2,006 Across job studies Applicants w/o Wonderlic 1.23 4 18,028 Applicants using Wonderlic 1.00 3 355,587 Incumbents .92 6 48,638 TABLE 4 Analysis of Black-White Applicant and Incumbent Samples. Industrial samples Applicants g 1.00 11 375,307 Incumbents g .90 13 50,799 Industrial samples-- large samples excluded(FN1) Applicant g .99 8 6,169 Applicant verbal .83 6 8,633 Applicant math .74 5 4,556 Incumbent g .41 11 3,315 Incumbent verbal .63 5 1,471 Incumbent math .54 4 1,150 Military studies Applicant g 1.46 1 245,036 Incumbent g 1.05 22 133,488 Incumbent g w/o large samples(FN3) .53 19 21,081 TABLE 5 Analysis of Black-White Samples for Educational Level. High School .95 5 18,104 College applicants .98 13 2,911,312 College students .69 7 1,953 Graduate school applicants 1.34 10 2,371,255 Other graduate applicant samples1.17 13 11,604 TABLE 6 Analysis of Black-White Samples by Construct of Interest. Industrial tests Measures of g .99 33 464,046 Verbal .76 15 34,957 Math .76 11 28,337 SAT verbal .84 5 241,462 SAT math .90 5 241,462 ACT total 1.02 7 498,661 ACT verbal .92 7 498,661 ACT math .82 7 498,661 GRE total 1.34 10 2,371,255 GRE verbal 1.10 10 2,371,255 GRE math 1.08 10 2,371,255 GRE analytical 1.23 10 2,371,255

@@Raising

recall the Milwaukee early intervention project, in which each increase in IQ point represented an expenditure of $23,000 per child (in the 70s). And the initial enthusiastic reports of success were followed by findings of effect fade-out. Referenes in G factor and chapter 6 of Herman Spitz' book, The Raising of Intelligence (Erlbaum, 1986). @@religion Wikipedia Religiousness and intelligence http://inductivist.blogspot.com/2008/02/odd-religions-and-iq-discussion-of.html based on The General Social Survey Mean IQ for whites Episcopalian 109.9 Lutheran 107.4 Mormon 105.7 Presbyterian 102.3 United Methodists 101.8 Southern Baptists 98.0 Assembly of God 94.5 Pentecostal 92.2

@@retarded

Definition: IQ below 70. Current technical literature still reports mental retardation rates at 2 to 3 percent of the general population In 1977, about 2%, but by 1997 only 1.3% were classified as retarded by schools. CAN / SHOULD GOVT DEMAND EQUAL RATES OF RETARDATION BY RACE? z45\clipim\2000\10\raceret\raceret.htm http://www.lagriffedulion.f2s.com/retard.htm African American mean falls at about 85 with an SD of about 13.5, lags behind and is narrower than the white. The small difference reducing both the numbers of retarded and exceptional blacks. Blacks should be 6.1 times more likely to fall below the boundary for retardation, and 53 times less likely to be gifted. The number of mentally retarded children in public schools from approximately 2.2 percent to less than 1.3 percent since 1977. Childen no longer receive appropriate educational services specifically earmarked for the retarded In 1959, AAMD set the IQ threshold for mental retardation at < 85, (but 50% of blacks fall below that). In 1973, responding to this concern, AAMD (by then AAMR) changed the threshold for retardation from IQ < 85 to IQ < 70. (down 1 SD, which would put 12% of blacks under this line) County Enrollment Percent of a Total Enrollment/ b Number Retarded/ c Percent Classified Retarded / d B/W Ratio of Percent Classified Retarded a b c d Baltimore: Black 23,121 23% 331 1.43% 2.21 White 71,667 72% 463 0.646% Howard: Black 5,572 15% 41 0.736% 2.06 White 27,387 76% 98 0.358% Harford: Black 4,139 12% 62 1.5% 1.89 White 29,805 84% 236 0.792% Montgomery: Black 22,170 19% 117 0.528% 1.75 White 66,569 57% 201 0.302% Prince Georges: Black 83,427 70% 374 0.448% 1.52 White 23,766 20% 69 0.290% Table 1. Retardation rates in the five Maryland counties cited by the Office for Civil Rights. Harford County, a semi-rural mostly white county, reports about 3 times the rate of retardation as the more cosmopolitan Montgomery County and the predominantly black Prince Georges County Paper says that if we look organic retardation (disease) rather than familial (normal variation in IQ) then then about 2.0 percent of black children and 0.5 to 1.0 percent of white children should be mentally retarded, or 2 to 4 times the rate of whites. "Retardation Linked to Often Overlooked Tiny Genetic Flaws" New York Times Jan 31, 1995 p. b6. 6% of unexpected retardation may be caused by tiny genetic flaws. About 3% of the population is retarded, defined as IQ below 70. Shuey p. 498 blacks in unselected samples were 6 times the rate of whites among the mentally retarded.
@@Rote Learning Ed reform puts less emphasis on rote learning with the theory that high expectations will make minorities excel. But differences are much greater when higher order thinking is required. IQ DIFFERENCES SLIGHT WITH ROTE MEMORY, GREATER FOR THINKING \doc\web\99\05\rushjens.txt This review of The g Factor just appeared in Politics and the Life Sciences, 1998, 17, 230-232 [Phil Rushton is controversial race theorist from Canada reviewing book by Arthur Jensen] But the 18 point IQ difference between American Blacks and Whites is only an average. On some sub-tests the Black-White difference is smaller and on other sub-tests the Black-White difference is larger. Black-White differences are markedly smaller on tests of rote learning and short term memory than on tests of reasoning and those requiring transformation of the input. For example, on the Forward Digit Span Test, in which people are asked to recall a series of digits in the same order as that in which they were presented, Black-White differences are quite small, but on the Backward Digit Span Test in which people recall a series of digits in the reverse order to that in which they were presented, they are quite large. @@Running RUNNERS SCORED HIGHER IN IQ AFTER RUNNING z54\CLIP\2002\01\JOgiq.txt Jogging May Make You Smarter, Study Says http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/nm/20011228/hl/jogging.html December 28 2001 "individuals consistently scored higher on intellectual tests after embarking on a running program."

@@Rushton, Philippe

RUSHTON: KOOK, OR MAYBE HE'S ON TO SOMETHING?

Controversial Canadian race researcher. He has perhaps the most outrageous theory where IQ is only the tip of a racial iceberg that human races can be ranked according to an evolutionary scale, with lower forms having more numerous and fragile offspring, and higher forms having fewer, more intelligent offspring. He calls it differential "k" theory. Judging by the spin and [lack of ] respect for other races, he might qualify as a racist, but his conclusions and theories do seem to have something to them.

He observes that Asians have the highest intelligence, largest heads and brains (based on US army helmet study measurments), smallest penis size (shopping mall survey), least testosterone, lowest AIDS rates and sexual activity, and crime rates. Whites are in the middle, while African Americans are at the opposite extreme.

"As a matter of fact Asian babies are born lighter in weight but with bigger heads than White babies and by age seven Black children have the largest bodies and smallest heads with Asian children the smallest bodies and largest heads. This is all in the scientific journal article I am about to send back off in the next day or so. At 7 Asians also have the highest IQ scores, then whites, then Blacks." (email 7/1/97)

He's been ridiculed for going on TV, and for recruiting people in malls to measure penis and clitoris size, but his data isn't inconsistent with the few other surveys on penis size and race, or intelligence for that matter.

It's my belief that the patterns he notes seem to hold up, even if you don't buy his evolutionary explanations. Culture could explain much of the difference, and even if there are different predispositions, culture could be enough bring parity or at least reduce disparities in academic achievement, econmics and health.

%%Amerindians RUSHTON ON AMERINDIANS z56\priv\2002\05\rushind.txt "My impression is that American Indians mostly derive from the [early East Asian stock]before modern "classic" East Asians had evolved. Amerinidians have prominent noses and no eye folds, for example, which modern Chinese devbeloped during the last ice ages. Most of the behavioral data suggests that that Amerindians are "more K" than Blacks but "less K" than Whites." %%Against "WHITE SUPREMACY MASQUERADING IN GUISE OF SCIENCE" z63\clip\2003\01\nazeug.txt Lombardo's original article, below. someone has posted a copy at https://webspace.utexas.edu/SNEEDSM/www/The%20Bell%20Curve%20Debate/the%20be ll%20curve%20and%20american%20eugenics.txt Albany Law Review, Spring 2002 v65 i3 p743(87) "The American breed": Nazi eugenics and the origins of the Pioneer Fund. Paul A. Lombardo. Full Text: COPYRIGHT 2002 Albany Law School Pioneer grants supported a second recent book in this genre, written by J. Phillipe Rushton... Race, Evolution, and Behavior, was published in 1995. Rushton dredges up nineteenth century measures of cranial capacity and the size of black male genitals as concrete evidence of black inferiority. (508) His book is only the most recent example of old fashioned white supremacy masquerading in the guise of science. FREE RUSHTON BOOKS TOSSED AS OFFENSIVE z48\clip\2001\02\rushdown.txt http://www.africana.com/ Penn State U. Faculty, Students Get Racist Books in Mail-(Pennsylvania State U.) February 13, 2001 (U-WIRE) UNIVERSITY PARK, Pa. -- Graduate students and faculty members in the Pennsylvania State University Department of Anthropology recently received little green books in the mail. [ The book is titled Race, Evolution and Behavior: A Life History Perspective.]" Most threw them directly in the garbage. %%Birth Head Size by age 7, Asians are above average in brain size but below average in body size whereas the opposite pattern is found for Blacks and an intermediate pattern is found for Whites. %%Entine JOn ENTINE ACKNOWLEDGES RUSHTON WORK z54\clip\2001\11\entine.txt In Taboo, on a footnote on page 74, I write about "J. Philippe Rushton, a developmental psychologist at the University of Western Ontario, Canada. Rushton believes that intelligence has an evolutionary bias and is distributed along a racial hierarchy with Asians the most gifted, whites in the middle, and blacks on the bottom." [but he says he doesn't believe that] %%General IT'S CULTURE, NOT BIOLOGY, BUT DOES BIOLOGY DETERMINE CULTURE? z55\clip\2002\04\rushtoy.txt Fred Reed, April 8, 2002 Race, Rushton, And Us Getting Used To What We Can't Change http://www.fredoneverything.com/Rushton.html "The people who would become East Asians, living in still more difficult conditions, needed more of these qualities. Those who survived had them. This may be true. It may not. In evolutionary circles, plausibility trades as evidence. Yet it fits. " "Behavior that seems racial, they argue, is in fact determined by culture. The question is tricky. Culture may itself be to a considerable extent the expression of biology. If East Asians are by nature less aggressive than whites, perhaps because of lower levels of testosterone, one would expect the lack of aggressiveness to be embodied in the culture. " IS RACE IS A VALID TAXONOMIC CATEORY z54\clip\2001\11\rushrace.txt Rushton claims that blacks are better developed when born, Orientals are slower to mature, less fertile, and less sexually active, and have larger brains and higher IQ scores, blacks the opposite. Blacks also have from 3 to 19% more of the sex hormone testosterone than Whites or Orientals, ...makes them more masculine in general. They are physically more active in school, and this can get them into trouble and even lead to their being diagnosed as hyperactive.. Asians and white women have wider hips to give birth to babies with larger brains. RUSHTON CLAIMS FAMILY STRUCTURE AFFECTED BY RACE/GENETICS link The pattern is due partly to genetic effects (although culture obviously plays a role) and may be mediated by hormones like testosterone and psychologically through extraverted and disruptive personlities. East Asians (once again) are at the other end of the continuum with Whites intermediate. Rushton's abridged edition of Race, Evolution and Behavior has distilled the original work -- a 358-page book first published five years ago -- into an even more inflammatory pocket-sized publication. Rushton's argument goes beyond intelligence to suggest that across 60 different variables touching on various aspects of human behaviour, the patterns are constant: East Asians (Rushton uses the outdated terms "Orientals" and "Mongoloids") are at one end of the spectrum, blacks are at the other and whites fall somewhere in between. \doc\web\2000\01\rushton.txt Monday, January 31, 2000 Academics take aim at 'racist science' Outrage over Rushton Andy Lamey National Post Prof. Rushton's work places characteristics such as brain size, intelligence, crime rates, sexual frequency and penis size along a racial continuum. Prof. Rushton writes in a summary of his views on Amazon.com. Not just environment, but genes and evolution are the cause of this, he believes. Full text: http://www.nationalpost.com/home.asp?f=000131/191150 ED MILLER: EVOLUTION AFTER AFRICA MAY HAVE SELECTED FOR HIGHER IQ \doc\web\99\16\edmill.txt Follows the thinking of Rushton that differences in race IQ are evolutionary. ACADEMIC PARIAH LEFT AND RIGHT \clip\99\13\pariah.txt http://chronicle.com/weekly/v45/i43/43a01201.htm The Chronicle of Higher Education From the issue dated July 2, 1999 The Academic Path to Pariah Status Personal disputes and controversial research lead some scholars to be shunned by colleagues [Rushton, sarich, graglia, etc] By ALISON SCHNEIDER Peter H. Duesberg used to be a player in academe. Now he's a pariah. From: Ken Jacobs Readers of Marek Kohn's level-headed review of claims concerning the suppression of racial research [posted here earlier] may want to consult the source of some of his information, Andrew S. Winston's "The Context of Correctness: A Comment on Rushton" (1996), to which there's also a link on Kohn's website. Winston's article can be found at: ADOPTED ASIANS HAVE HI IQ TOO, LARGER HEADS AT BIRTH rushton RUSHTON - BLACK RUN ON FASTER BIO-CLOCK \doc\web\99\07\rushbirt.txt rushton believes premat birth and poor health due to faster genetic clock, leads to faster maturity in blacks, slowest in asian, associated with iq and brain size RUSHTON AND BRAND LEADING "RACE" SCIENTISTS \clip\99\11\racesci.txt http://www.indexoncensorship.org/399/kohn.html Index online: Cover Story A race apart Marek Kohn The scientific study of race, according to Professor Jean-Philippe Rushton of the University of Western Ontario, is proscribed by a `taboo' that has `no parallel ... not the inquisition, not Stalin, not Hitler'. Rushton argues that evolution has made people of African descent less intelligent, more violent and more promiscuous than Europeans or East Asians. Rushton on how the west has ranked africans vs asians who were also disliked. Rushton reviews Jared Diamond Guns, Germs, and Steel Europeans were "environmentally" advantaged in Europe with contact with lots of other animals and cultures and domesticatable animals. Date forwarded: Wed, 16 Dec 1998 12:30:42 -0500 (EST)
From: "Louis R. Andrews"
I have added the following paper by J. P. Rushton to my site. It is a concise restatement of his r-K theory as discussed in his book Race, Behavior and Evolution with the accompanying data. The three tables are separate to allow faster loading and only the graphs and diagrams are missing.

Race, genetics, and human reproductive strategies by J. Philippe Rushton Genetic, Social & General Psychology Monographs,Vol. 122 02-01-1996.

http://www.lrainc.com/swtaboo/stalkers/jpr_rghrs.html

6/97 email response about latest work

Some Patterns from http://www.idir.net/~fenix/ED-whatwhite.html (a white nationalist page) Interesting that whites don't mind having other races put ahead of them as long as other are put beneath them.

J. Phillippe Rushton's book Race, Evolution,and Behavior, published in 1995 or 1996, lists a huge number of distinguishing characteristics between the three major races. Some interesting, but not necessarily important ones are:

Blacks have triplets 17 times more than whites, who have them 10 times more than Orientals.

Blacks have fraternal twins twice as often as whites, who have them twice as often as Orientals.

Blacks walk at 11 months, whites at 12 months, Orientals at 13 months. Blacks mature sexually 2-3 earlier than whites, who sexually mature 1 year earlier than Orientals.

Blacks are better coordinated at any earlier age than whites, who are better coordinated at an earlier age than Orientals.

Blacks are more promiscuous than whites, who are more promiscous than Orient als. 240 out of 100,000 blacks are in mental institutions, 162 out of every 100,000 whites.

Blacks suffer from mental disorders, drug addiction, and alcoholism at higher rates than whites in all social classes - so it's not a class thing. (this is borne out by my index as well, Arthur Hu)

Amazon
Books Race, Evolution, and Behavior : A Life History Perspective
by J. Philippe Rushton Hardcover Published by Transaction Pub
Publication date: February 1997 ISBN: 1560003200

\priv\94\19\rushton.txt - Rushton book review

See his penis size survey
Rushton on head size


@@Ryden, Tommy

Swedish IQ researcher who flaunts race-iq theories, his 
web page is in swedish at

http://www.tommyryden.com/

ryden introduction to 
me.

@@Sarich, Vincent

link
Observes that Africans are probably not 70 IQ, not in the way whites
would have 70 IQ. Black americans with 70IQ just have low IQ, not
retarded as whites with similar scores are.

@@SAT test

@@SAT Equivalence


Boston.com / News / Boston Globe / Ideas / What does the SAT test? ...
003 X SAT Verbal) + 50.241 = IQ For SAT scores before 1996 -- before
the "recentering," which raised the average SAT back to 500 --
Detterman provides this ...
www.artsjournal.com/ideas/redir/20040705-49201.html - 30k - Cached -
Similar pages 

Boston.com / News / Education / K-12 / What does the SAT test? ...
psychology professor Douglas K. Detterman of Case Western Reserve
University and graduate student Meredith C. Frey, argue that the SAT
actually measures ...  www.boston.com/news/education/
k_12/articles/2004/07/04/the_sat_tests/ - 28k - Cached - Similar pages



http://www.sq.4mg.com/IQformula.htm
From http://www.gnxp.com/MT2/archives/002360.html, as reported in the Boston Globe:

To convert SAT scores from 1996 through this year to an IQ score,
Professor Douglas Detterman of Case Western Reserve University
provides this formula: (.095 X SAT Math) + (.003 X SAT Verbal) +
50.241 = IQ (small data sample in chart “c” below)

For SAT scores before 1996 -- before the "re-centering," which raised
the average SAT back to 500 -- Detterman provides this formula: (.126
X SAT Combined Score) - (.0000471 X SAT Combined Score X SAT Combined
Score) + 40.063 = IQ.  (data in charts “a” and “b” below)

Other comments to: VanSloan@yahoo.com 

This fellow has constructed a theoretical equivalence between
SAT GRE and IQ at:
IQ COMPARISON SITE
http://members.shaw.ca/delajara/GREIQ.html
How to estimate your IQ based on your GRE or SAT scores
z50\clipim\2001\08\21\gresatiq\gresatiq.htm
Copyright © 2000-2001 Rodrigo de la Jara

This way of estimating was based simply on an interpolation between
two points: 1) the theoretical average IQ of GRE takers= 115 with the
average GRE V+Q score currently being 1035...

http://members.shaw.ca/delajara/Pre1974SAT.html
Rodrigo de la Jara 2000-2001
Pre-1974 SAT to IQ Conversion Table 
The table is from the paper 'Conversion Tables for Otis Gamma and Scholastic Aptitude Test,' by Warren W. Willingham and James A. Strickland in the Personnel and Guidance Journal,  41(4), 1962, 356-358.  It took some effort and luck to dig up this obscure paper.  The experience was a bit like finding a Rosetta stone.  ;-) 
Note that the Mensa
criteria of a SAT score of 1250 being equivalent to an IQ of 132 is
quite consistent with the table below

Table 1 
Equivalent Scores for Otis Gamma and Scholastic Aptitute Test Total Score
SAT Otis IQ SAT Otis IQ  SAT Otis IQ
 702 100 873 111 1063 122 
 716 101  889 112 1083 123 
 730 102  906 113 1103 124 
 745 103  922 114 1123 125 
 760 104  938 115 1143 126 
 776 105  955 116 1162 127 
 792 106  972 117 1182 128 
 808 107  990 118 1201 129 
 824 108 1008 119 1221 130 
 840 109 1026 120 1240 131 
 856 110 1044 121 1260 132 
                  1280 133 

http://www.sq.4mg.com/IQ-SATchart.htm
Find Out your IQ, with your SAT score

Last Update: Friday, April 19, 2002

@@Scar, Sandra

Performed famous adoption studies which claimed to show that blacks
reared in adoptive white familes had average or better IQs. Problem
is those with black and white parents had better IQs, and the
biological children had even better still. "When retested as young
adults (average age 17) the b/b adoptees displayed an average IQ of
89.4 while the w/w adoptees averaged 105.6 and the white biological
children of the adopting middle class white parents scored 109.4.
Recall that generally the racial IQ gap nationally is about 15
points, whereas here the gap is: 16.2"

 Professor
Shockley's Experiment By Glayde Whitney Professor Florida State
University, Tallahassee Former President Behavior Genetics
Association Posted on politically incorrect "white activist" home
page. Republished from Mankind Quarterly, Fall 1996. Mankind
Quarterly, published by The Institute for the Study of Man, 1133 13th
St., N.W., Suite C-2, Washington, D.C. 20005, is available at most
university libraries. A one year private subscription is $37.50.


Asian.Intelligence.School-Age

@@school-age

Shuey p. 494 Whites scored higher than Blacks in all 58 tests except when children were selected for delinquent tendencies In 45 tests against national norms, only 1 test in Washington DC in 1933 rated at 100, average difference 13 points before 1944, 16 points up to 1966 Asian.Intelligence.Segregation @@Scientist FAMOUS QUOTE? THEORETICAL PHYSICISTS 170, EXPERIMENTAL 152 Carol Iannone: IQ of theoretical physicists was quoted at 170, with experimental physicists being about 18 points lower is either from "The Making of the Atomic Bomb," by Richard Rhodes, or, more likely, its sequel, "Dark Sun: The Making of the Hydrogen Bomb." A fiend who read the books told me about it. It was based on a sample of various types of US scientists conducted in the late 1940s.

@@Segregation

Shuey p. 519 found differences even when Blacks and Whites went to the same schools or came from the same neighborhood The test score spectrum and Lawrence Steinberg's "Beyond the Classroom" also show that blacks score worse than whites even from the same schools and neighborhoods, regardless of racial composition.

@@Sex

SPI 10-25-94 A11 Study Shows Girls Ahead of Boys University of London study of 10,000 technology students shows girls better in 2/3 of assessment categories WOMEN X-GENSES PROGRAMMED SAFER AGAINST SOCIAL MISTAKES z60\clip\2002\11\sociq.txt Genetic clue to 'girl power' http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/low/science/nature/2400593.stm Tuesday, 5 November, 2002, 12:32 GMT By Helen Briggs BBC News Online science reporter Women may be less prone to "geekiness" because of their genes. Research suggests they are genetically programmed to be adept in social situations. " The evidence comes from a study of women with Turner's Syndrome, a female genetic condition caused by a missing or defective X-chromosome"

@@sexual activity

Rushton believes that Asians are at one scale of low sexual activity, high intelligence, and small genitals and blacks are at another with high sexual activity, large genitials and low intelligence, (Bell Curve)

@@Shuey, Audrey

This old book has a pile of studies on black intelligence from the early to mid 20th century, which basically must be the basis of the unchanging 85 IQ figure generally thrown about, since most studies of the general population fell around this figure. It can still be found in libraries here and there, and is actually a pretty good compendium of various studies, if you think that any of these studies has any validity. Liberals hate it, it gets quoted by white nationalists all the time, but the problem with dismissing this book, like the Bell Curve or any other book on the science of intelligence is that it's basically right in that there simply aren't any tests that rank the races equally, and that some races fall on the short end every time, so either you believe that IQ tests show the races to be unequal, or that you believe that all IQ tests ever devised are invalid. A negative review: http://www.etext.org/Politics/Progressive.Sociologists/psn-archives/95/nov95 What is so remarkable for me is that the Bell Curve is only a re-hash of old arguments that were discredited 34 years ago when I was a grad student at Harvard. We read a book called The Testing of Negro Intelligence by the psychologist Audrey M. Shuey, who was at a southern college. The book uses the same data and testing (as of its 1958 publication) to make essentially the SAME arguments that the Bell Curve makes, but at that time no one gave serious attention to this book. Certainly this long book sold relatively few copies and was all but ignored by the major media. Now basically the same arguments have moved from the MARGIN, that is from the segregationist context of Shuey, to New York city publishers and mass media pundits. A crucial question for intellectual historians is how and why did this essentially segregationist discourse move from the margin to the center?" Another negative review from Snag (snag@NS1.UNICOMP.NET) Sat, 29 Apr 1995 19:05:21 -0400 http://www.afrinet.net/~hallh/afrotalk/afroapr95/1027.html SHuey, whose book "The Testing of Negro Intelligence", has been the basis for many racist studies including those of Arthur Jensen and R.J. Hernstein, professor psychology at Harvard (the other co-author of the Bell Curve). All of these are recipients of funding form the Pioneer fund.also, somethig else worth noting, the Academic Press (in 1978) published "Human Variation" The Biopsychology of Age, Race and Sex" which featured work from Arthur Jensen and Audrey SHuey. Academic Press _is not_ a vanity press, but a subsidiary of _Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich_ one of the larges publishing houses int he US> A similar text entitled "Race" by John R. Baker was published by Oxford University Press in both London and New York. Cited by PC pro-white page: http://www.idir.net/~fenix/ED-whatwhite.html And of course, the 15-18 point IQ gap between whites and blacks have remained consistent since 1917 when the military first started using them. See The Testing of Negro Intelligence, Vol. 1, Audrey Shuey. The testing of Negro intelligence [by] Audrey M. Shuey. PUBLISHER New York, Social Science Press, 1966. EDITION 2d ed. DESCRIPT xv, 578 p. 25 cm. SUBJECT(S) 1) Afro-Americans -- Intelligence levels. 2) Intelligence levels -- United States. 3) Intelligence tests -- United States. No copies in King County library system. Shuey p. 494 Southern negro high school 82, border and northern 91 p. 494 SAT and MCAT, blacks were at the 6th percentile (now much higher) p. 495 WWI armed forces black enlisted = 83

@@Skin Color

Saturday Night Live skit made reference to income, IQ and darkness of skin.
Reports of correlation between IQ and skin color, but not to degree of intermixing Skin Color and Intelligence in African Americans. Author: Richard Lynn Filed: 11/2/2002, 10:12:30 PM Source: Population & Environment, Mar2002, Vol. 23 Issue 4 http://www26.brinkster.com/archived/viewnews.asp?newsID=413433253765 Examines the relation between skin color and intelligence in the U.S. Correlation between light skin color and intelligence; Determination of the level of intelligence in African Americans by the proportion of Caucasian genes; Factor affecting the difference in socio-economic status. Examines theory of link to white ancestry. @@Skull Size Although largely discredited among mainstream scientists, there remains much evidence that skull and brain size do differ in average between the races, and this may explain cognitive differences found Rushton on skull size @@Standard Deviation On the normal curve, or conversion from IQ to percetiles, one standard deviation away from the mean covers about 70% of the population, with 85 IQ falling at about the 16th percentile, and 115 falling at 84 percentile. chart in "How to Think About Statistics". Most IQ scores are now based on 85 IQ defined as 1 standard deviation down from the mean rather than age1 / age2 * 100. 1.02 AIMS 10%/01% 1.00 Black White SAT 0.90 Washington WASL 1997 0.32 Male Female Math SAT norm1.xls Excel spreadsheet to computer standard deviation from pass rates. Lion explains how to compute standard deviation from differential pass rates. La Griffe du Lion Volume 1, Number 1 September 1999 http://members.xoom.com/griffedulion/women_and_minorities_in_science.htm zip38\clipim\99\10\10\lion\lion.htm Out of these (Asian/PI), 48 percent are Chinese, Japanese or Korean, the troika of high achievers. All the groups designated by the College Board have math SAT distributions with standard deviations clustered about 100, except the Asians/Pacific Islanders. And no wonder. Their standard deviation is closer to 120, showing their diverse nature. The distributions for 1987 for both Asians and Whites are shown in Figure 2, where the qualitative difference between the two distributions is apparent to the naked eye. The distribution for Asians is uncharacteristically broad, with a flattened top. It hints at bimodality. In 1998, the SAT I mathematical test Men averaged 529.6 (SD = 114.1). Women averaged 494.5 (SD = 107.8). Since the two distributions have slightly different standard deviations, we computed the gap as the difference in the means divided by the root mean square of the two SDs, obtaining a male-female math gap of 0.32 SD. Bell Curve Calculations with Excel If you want to use Griffe's method of thresholds to calculate the standard differences of proportions, in Excel that would be: =normsinv(PCTA)-normsinv(PCTB) For example, the difference between a pass rate of 68% and a pass rate of 30% =normsinv(.68) - normsinv(.3) @@Sowell, Thomas Black conservative who believes that many races show the same gap as black/white and that blacks at least at small scales have an can perform at the same levels at whites, but for various reasons, don't at the present time. Bell Curve review http://www.mugu.com/cgi-bin/Upstream/Issues/bell-curve/sowell.html Race & IQ, pts 1-3 http://www.townhall.com/columnists/thomassowell/ts20021001.shtml http://www.townhall.com/columnists/thomassowell/ts20021002.shtml http://www.townhall.com/columnists/thomassowell/ts20021003.shtml @@Sperm DOES SMART SPERM MAKE SMART BABIES? MAYBE. z48\clip\2001\02\supbaby.txt Two Anonymous Moms Their kids are great, but don't call them "superbabies." Intro by David Plotz http://slate.msn.com/seed/entries/01-02-13_100773.asp As the mother of one of the so-called "Nobel" babies, I'd like to let people know that my decision to accept donated sperm from Dr. Graham's Repository was not necessarily motivated by the urge to create a "superbaby." @@Sports %%Basketball Steve Sailer 7/17/2001 says former NBA most valuable player David Robinson is a [black] handsome, 7'-1", an Annapolis grad, spent two years as a naval officer, and had a Math SAT score well over 700 z50\clip\2001\07\sat700.txt %%Football " pro football prospects (black and white) score about 5-10 points higher than their race's average on the NFL's mandatory Wonderlic IQ test. " Steve Sailer 4/2004 March Madness On The Campuses: Basketball Players Aren't Graduating! By Steve Sailer March 28, 2004 Fully linked at http://www.vdare.com/sailer/march_madness.htm#hoops z75\clip\2004\03\footbiq.txt

@@State

STEVE SAILER ON STATE IQ LIST HOAX http://www.isteve.com/Web_Exclusives_Archive-May2004.htm#38115.6465670139 z78\CLIP\2004\05\hoax.htm

@@Subjective

Sailer says IQ does not measure subjective social skills as well as objective technical skills, which may explain why low IQ Blacks are as capable or seem as intelligent as whites with higher IQs.

@@Supremacy

Most people put whites at the top of the heap in terms of world dominance over other peoples, yet the IQ hawks and evolutionary race scientists all put Asians at the top of the IQ and evolutionary development ranking. Perhaps the history of Europe has encouraged more of the risk taking creativity than was possible in a relatively stable China. Perhaps it is better to have some of the chararcteristics of Blacks and Asians rather than be at either extreme. Cochran on why high IQ Asians did not beat out Europeans for world supremacy. The Wall Street Journal letter Shelby Steele links IQ with white supremacy, yet most IQ hawks rank Asians higher than whites.

@@survey

[[Murray \priv\94\19bellgarb.txt - Bell Curve is racist garbage \priv\94\19\bellcur2.txt - BGlobe on Bell Curve \priv\94\19\herren.txt - herrenstein obituary New Republic Articles: \priv\94\19\IQWARS.txt \priv\94\19\IQDEST.txt \priv\94\19\IQSTONE.txt \priv\94\19\APOLIQ1.txt \priv\94\19\APOLIQ2.txt \priv\94\19\APOLIQ3.txt \priv\94\19\IQISSUE.txt \priv\94\19\HACKIQ.txt \priv\94\19\GATESIQ.txt \priv\94\19\RAMOSIQ.txt \priv\94\19\STARIQ.txt \priv\94\19\PERETZIQ.txt \priv\94\19\CROUCHIQ.txt \priv\94\19\LOURYIQ.txt \priv\94\19\ROSENIQ.txt critical of Richard Lynn and J. Phillipe Rushton, source of Asian studies \priv\94\19\ROSENIQ.txt In The Bell Curve, Murray and Herrnstein also introduce readers to the work of J. Phillipe Rushton, a Canadian psychologist. Rushton has argued that Asians are more intelligent than Caucasians, have larger brains for their body size, smaller penises, lower sex drive, are less fertile, work harder and are more readily socialized; and Caucasians have the same relationship to blacks. \priv\94\19\NASBITIQ.txt New Republic Oct 31, 1994 p. 14 Blue Genes, Richard Nisbett, (U Michigan) the book shows studies show that from one-quarter to one third and in one case as much as one-half of the black/white gap has already been bridged. \priv\94\19\GLAZERIQ.txt - Nathan Glazer wonders if we're better off pretending that there isn't a good reason for inequality and working to eliminate it, vs. acknowlegeing that smart people get more, and some groups have more smart people. Hugh Pearson, Race Mutters - we should still strive to admit blacks to the best colleges with the same grades and test scores as whites and Asians. Why not dwell on S Europeans or Asians? \priv\94\19\WOLFIQ.TXT \priv\94\19\JUDISIQ.txt - keep the taboo on pseudo-scientific racism, the races are not distinct, so you can't say they're different \priv\94\19\HULBERIQ.txt - Ann Hulbert invokes Orwell Ignorance is Strength, says that "branding a race with unalterable inferiority will have a devisive and corrosive impact \priv\94\19\RANKENIQ.txt \priv\94\19\WIESELIQ.txt \priv\94\19\iqwars.txt - John Leo says Murray book unhelpful \priv\94\19\iqdest.txt - IQ is not destiny US News summary Scar says blacks adopted about same as other blacks (?) \priv\94\19\iqstone.txt - U.S.NEWS & WORLD REPORT, OCTOBER 24, 1994 WISDOM WE INHERITED FROM THE STONE AGE evolution of intelligence \doc\94\0\questint.doc - Excerpt from Seligman "A Question of Intelligence" @@Switzerland SWISS BEAT THE CHINESE IN INNOVATION 10/2001 "if you are right, then East Asians are deficient in something more important than 'g'. Because they aren't that good at solving new problems. Switzerland out-ideates all of East Asia year after year after year, decade after decade after decade. Even though they are outnumbered 500 to one. Life its own self trumps every test. Gregory Cochran "

@@poverty

Poverty is the usual explanation for IQ differences, but even children of rich people in low IQ groups score lower. This website claims poverty explain everything http://home.att.net/~Resurgence/L-inferiorIQ.htm "But liberals believe that the IQ gap is the result of nearly three centuries of slavery and yet another 130 years of segregation and institutionalized racism." Bell curve p. 326 - Blacks more poverty even with equal IQ (family structure?) For age 29, poverty rate W7% B26% L18% For average IQ 100 W6% B11% L9% doc\94\3\priv\pooriq.txt - poor children have lower iqs

@@Percentile

A percentile ranking is where you would rank among a representative spectrum of 100 people ranked from worst to best. 1 means worse than 99 out of 100. 99 means you did better than 99 out of 100. This is similar to a norm-referenced measurement since it is a comparison with a normal population, as opposed to a criterion-referenced measurement. There are standard charts which convert from IQ or standard-scores (mean = 100, standard deviation = 15) to percentiles. A 85 IQ is about equal to 15th percentile. Comparison chart IQ vs percentile vs rarity
http://www.iqcomparisonsite.com/IQtable.aspx PERCENTILE TO SD FROM MEAN From: Vincent Sarich sarich snowy.SSCL.Berkeley.EDU Sent: Friday, October 31, 2003 12:27 PM 1 SD above the mean = 84th percentile 2 SD above the mean = 97.7th percentile 3 SD above the mean = 99.9th percentile HOW TO COMPUTE PERCENTILE TABLE il_leone_uno@yahoo says Try this on your spreadsheet to generate the table: percentile(IQ) = 100*@NORMDIST(IQ,100,15,1) CONVERSION CHART PERCENTILE TO/FROM IQ \doc\94\17\iqpercnt.wk1 - IQ vs. percentiles Table 5.5 Equivalent Percentile Ranks WAIS Full Scale IQ Scores (Ages 16 to 60) IQ style scale is also often called as "standard score" From IQ Textbook (sorry, forgot to write down tthe title) p. 125, 128 IQ Percentile 50 0.40 62 0.50 64 0.80 66 1.10 68 1.60 70 2.20 72 3 74 4 76 5 78 7 80 9 82 11 84 14 86 17 88 21 90 25 92 30 94 34 96 40 98 45 100 50 102 55 104 60 106 66 108 70 110 75 112 79 114 83 116 86 118 89 120 91 122 93 124 95 126 96 118 97 130 97.80 132 98.40 134 98.90 136 99.20 138 99.50 140 99.60 UNDERSTANDING TESTS AND MEASUREMENTS for the Parent and Advocate Peter W. D. Wright, Esq. and Pamela Darr Wright, M.A., M.S.W. Licensed Clinical Social Worker 1998 Excellent introduction to various scoring schemes, percentile, criterion referenced vs. norm, standard scores, etc. (\clip\98\09\test\tests.htm) Some contents: III. STATISTICS: GENERAL PRINCIPLES A. Statistics: Applied IV. MEASURING PROGRESS: THE BELL CURVE A. Understanding The Bell Curve B. Composite Scores C. Subtest Scatter D. When Apparent Progress Means Actual Regression C. Norm Referenced versus Criterion Referenced Tests D. Standard Deviation E. Standard Scores F. Rules to Remember V. UNDERSTANDING TEST DATA A. Other Tests: Means & Standard Deviations Comparison of scales Bot -SD Med +SD Top Percentile 0- 15 50 85 99 IQ NA 85 100 115 NA Z Score NA -1.0 0 +1.0 NA T Score NA 40 50 60 NA Stanine 1 3 5 7 9

Z Scores

Z scores are simply standard deviation scores of one with a mean of zero (Mean = 0, SD = 1, instead of a mean of 100 and SD of 15 as we found with standard scores). If you know that a particular child earned a Z score of -1, then you also know that the child's score was one standard deviation below the mean, which is a percentile rank of 16. If you convert this score, using the standard score format with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15, you will see that a z score of -1 is the same as a standard score of 85.

T scores

, the mean is 50 and each unit of standard deviation is equal to 10. A T score of 60 is the same as a Z score of +1. A T score of 60 and a Z score of +1 are equal to a percentile rank of 84. A T score of 70 is equal to a Z score of +2, a standard score of 130, and a percentile rank of 98.

Stanine test

. In Stanine tests, the mean is five and the standard deviation is 2. Standard Subtest Subtest Subtest Subtest % Standard % Standard % Sta ndard % Score Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Score S core 145 19 >99 107 -- 68 97 -- 42 87 -- 19 140 18 >99 106 -- 66 96 -- 39 86 -- 18 135 17 99 105 11 63 95 9 37 85 7 16 130 16 98 104 -- 61 94 -- 34 80 6 9 125 15 95 103 -- 58 93 -- 32 75 5 5 120 14 91 102 -- 55 92 -- 30 70 4 2 115 13 84 101 -- 53 91 -- 27 65 3 1 110 12 75 100 -- 50 90 8 25 60 2 <1 109 -- 73 99 -- 47 89 -- 23 55 1 >1 108 -- 70 98 -- 45 88 -- 21 SAT TEST VS. PERCENTILE 1995, total population: Math Verbal Range Percent Pctile Percent Pctile 750-800 1% 99 0% 100 700-740 4% 93 1% 99 650-690 7% 86 2% 97 600-640 9% 5% To convert SAT from a population percentile to IQ, here's what I estimated: \doc\96\01\SATPCT.wk1 College Board 1995 Profiles, National, All Students College-Bound Seniors who took the Scholastic Aptitude Test Math Top Verbal Top Range Percent Pctile Percent Pctile 750-800 1% 1 0% 0 700-740 4% 5 1% 1 650-690 7% 12 2% 3 600-640 9% 21 5% 8 550-590 10% 31 8% 16 500-540 13% 44 11% 27 450-490 13% 57 15% 42 400-440 14% 71 18% 60 350-390 12% 83 16% 76 300-340 11% 94 12% 88 250-290 4% 98 7% 95 200-240 1% 99 5% 100 To roughly convert to IQ, divide SAT top percentile by 2 since only about the top half of the US takes the SAT. \doc\94\19\iqperc.wk1 IQ vs. percentile Table 5.2 Intelligence Classification of W-B IQ's - Ages 10 to 60 (Actual) Classification IQ Limits Percentage Included Retarded 65 and below 2.20 Borderline 70-79 6.70 Dull-normal 80-90 16.10 Average 91-110 50.00 Bright-normal. 111-119 16.10 Superior 120-127 6.70 Very Superior 128 and over 2.20 Table 5.3 Intelligence Classification of WAIS IQ's - Ages 16 to 75 (Actual) Classification IQ Limits Percentage Included Retarded 69 and below 2.20 Borderline 70-79 6.70 Dull-normal 80-89 16.10 Average 90-109 50.00 Bright-normal. 110-119 16.10 Superior 120-129 6.70 Very Superior 130 and above 2.20

@@Teach Intelligence

The Problem with Standards: Why Present Strategies for Educational Reform Will Not Work George K. Cunningham University of Louisville Wed, 13 May 1998 In the May issue Phi Delta Kappan, there are four articles on the topic of intelligence, each of which emphasizes the idea that intelligence can be taught.

@@Temperment

Genetics are consistent with differences in temperment in dogs and races, indicate need to educate groups differently

@@test gap

Blacks about 4 years behind Asians and Asian Americans about 2 years ahead in school tests Summary - test scores converge from 50 to 100 years from now at current rate of progress Bell curve p. 291, p. 639 NEAP change in gap in SD 69-1973 to 1990 (19 yrs) 9 yr old .21 or 90 yrs 13 yr old .32 or 59 yrs 17 yr old .28 or 67 yrs National High School study 1972-1982 (10 yrs) Reading .21 or 47 yrs Math .23 or 44 yrs SAT-V from 1980 to 91 (11 yrs) SAT Verbal .22 about 50 yrs SAT Math .20 ACT .16 SD or 68 yrs @@Top 1% http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/Thetabitha/intertel.htm Intertel organization accepts these tests as proof of being in the top 1% in intelligence: California Test of Mental Maturity (CTMM) - IQ 136 Cattell (Verbal) - IQ 156 Cattell (Culture Fair) - IQ 140 Cattell (Culture Free, test 2B) - 39 Cattell (Culture Free, test 3A) - 35 Stanford-Binet (Form L-M) - IQ 136 Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) - IQ 135 Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) - IQ 135 Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) prior to 1993 only, combined Verbal & Math only - 1375 Graduate Record Exam (GRE) combined Verbal & Math only - 1300 Law School Admission Test (LSAT) prior to 1983 only - 694 Navy Classification Test (NCT) 1942 through 1943 - 88; 1948 through 1953 - 74; 1944 through 1947 and 1954 to present - 68 Army General Classification Test (AGCT or GT) - 145 Miller Analogies Test - 74 Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices, raw score - 27

@@training

\doc\95\11\techkid.txt "Teaching kids to be smart" Newsweek Aug 21, 1995 p. 58 Xavier college in New Orleans has a SOARS program which teaches black students to get better test scores. They believe that intelligence can be taught. GENIUS CAN BE TRAINED - MAYBE? z48\clip\2001\02\genius.txt Who wants to be a genius? Jan 11th 2001 From The Economist print edition Psychologists are divided over whether genius is innate or acquired. Nobody has yet been smart enough to figure it out "Just as Dr Ericsson took people with no discernible talent and turned them into champions, so, in a fashion, did a Hungarian, Laszlo Polgar. When he began training his daughters, it was widely believed that women could not play serious tournament chess."

@@Tuskeegee Airmen

Tuskeegee airmen had much lower test standards, some complaints about quality

@@urban

Shuey p. 500 Urban whites in North equal to urban whites in South Northern blacks lag urban whites by 13 points Southern blacks lag urban whites by 20 points

@@violin

\priv\95\13\violin.txt STUDY: PLAYING VIOLIN MAKES BRAIN BIGGER SJM 10/12/95 Scientist found that parts of brain for left hand got bigger with best musicians.

@@Visospatial

VISIOSPATIAL LINKED TO VERBAL INTELLIGENCE z54\clip\2001\12\visio.txt http://www.apa.org/releases/visuospatial2.html Research Offers More Evidence That Intelligence Goes Beyond Verbal Skills New research correlates visuospatial abilities, less extensively explored than verbal abilities in intelligence research, with the brain's "executive function," the central cognitive command and control that may lie at the heart of smarts. These findings appear in the December issue of the Journal of Experimental Psychology - General,

@@voting

Bell curve p. 260 - higher IQ votes more (but not Asians) DIFFERENT RATES OF VALID VOTES IS ALSO LIKE IQ TEST z47\clip\2001\01\littest.txt Ballots still present literacy test Jeff Kunerth of the Sentinel Staff Posted January 29, 2001 http://www.orlandosentinel.com/news/local/orl-literacy012901.story?coll=orl%2D with 24 million functionally illiterate adult Americans, the ability to understand a ballot has become its own literacy test. "The Supreme Court says there can't be a literacy test to vote. But if you put the bar high enough, it's a literacy test in a new form," literacy expert Timothy Shanahan said.

@@wage

Bell curve p. 324 Table shows that blacks actually have an advantage in clerical and service jobs for equal age and IQ Bell curve p. 323 Wage differences are reduced to 2 or 3 percent when IQ is corrected for. (But Asians do not appear in this comparison, they have higher IQs, but lower wages for equal education) Annual wages overall W$27,372 B$20,994 (-1.31) L$23,409 (-1.16) Wages for 100IQ W$25,546 B$25,001 (-1.03) L$25,159 (-1.02)

@@Wealthy

THE VERY WEALTHY ARE NOT THE VERY SMART No need to phone - book says brilliance isn't required to be a millionaire Chad Roedmeier. Seattle Times Feb 7, 2000 Donald Sonner has 1 year of high school and collects junk but was a millionaire at 24. Thomas Stanley surved 1,300 millionaires for "The Millionaire Mind". On average made Bs and Cs in college, average SAT of 1190. Finds no correlation between SAT, GPA and economic achievement. Studied top 1% of households with net worth of 9.2 million. Avg 54 yrs old, married to same woman for 28 years 3 children, almost none credit being smart. [So much for ed reforms promising that academic excellence will make us all well-paid wage earners] http://www.educationnews.org/commentaries_and_reports.htm =========================== "Flawed Thinking of School Reformers" by Billee Bussard The flawed thinking of school reformers who blame schools for every business ill becomes clear in a new book "The Millionaire Mind" by Thomas J. Stanley and William D. Danko. HIGH TEST STANDARDS HAVE NO CONNECTION TO BUSINESS SUCCESS http://www.educationnews.org/flawed_thinking_of_school_reform.htm z39\clip\2000\02\flawed.txt EducationNews.org February 10, 2000 "Flawed Thinking of School Reformers" The flawed thinking of school reformers who blame schools for every business ill becomes clear in a new book "The Millionaire Mind" by Thomas J. Stanley and William D. Danko. Their survey of 1,300 millionaires found the average millionaire made Bs and Cs in college and their average SAT scores were a mere 1190, which would keep them out of top-notch schools.

@@welfare

\priv\95\19\immwelf2.txt - "Don Barnett" arguments that half of new cases in CA are child-only children of illegals, it's a myth they make more than they use \doc\95\01\welftest.txt The Economist July 4, 1987 p. 39 "One, two, three and out to work" California, which tests the educational level of every AFDC recipient, has found that nearly two-thirds of them would require basic remedial education before they were ready to join the workforce In other words, the median level of education is less than required for the lowest entry level job. Bell Curve p. 200 Persons with lower IQs have a higher rate of problems, [but whites with problems have higher IQs than blacks with the same rate of problems, since the median black is not on welfare, or a criminal] IQ / percentile 105/60 White women childless or babies in marriage 98/45 Gave birth to illegitimate baby, but never on welfare 94/34 Went on welfare, but not chronic 92/30 Chronic welfare recipients Note that average black = 85, but only 15% of blacks are on welfare.
@@Whitney "Glayde Whitney" \clip\99\10\whitney.txt TAMPA TRIBUNE ONLINE 3/30/99 Professor defends theories others view as racist By DAVID PEDREIRA of The Tampa Tribune. Professor Glayde Whitney wrote forward for David Duke book, subscribes to Rushton theory that testosterone levels in blacks lead to higher crime rates, plus usual iq theories. The tenured Florida State University professor has written, among other things, that blacks are less intelligent than whites and more inclined to murder. Recently, he wrote the foreword to David Duke's autobiography, lauding the former Ku Klux Klan leader for an ``academically excellent'' work that could ``change the very course of history.'' @@Women The lag for women is not as great as between blacks and whites, but still substantial on math. In the graduate level GRE, the math difference is nearly 1 SD, or as large as the BW race difference. 0.3 SD Undergraduate admissions 0.6 SD MCAT, GMAT, GRE 0.9 SD GRE math %%general Griffe vs Hausman on size of difference %%political z40\clip\2000\03\wompol.txt Tuesday, March 28, 2000 Study says women lag in political knowledge On 25 questions about the presidential campaign, women outperformed men on only one [public camp. financing], the Annenberg Public Policy Center finds By Steven Thomma KNIGHT RIDDER NEWSPAPERS @@Wonderlic @@Job intelligence rating " Developed in 1937 by E.F. Wonderlic as part of his doctoral thesis at Northwestern University, the test is given to three million people each year in all types of industries. The purpose of the test, which is written on a sixth-grade reading level, is to measure a person's general cognitive ability." FairTest Examiner z54\clipim\2002\01\22\wonderlic\wonderlic.htm http://www.fairtest.org/examarts/spring95/wonderli.htm Testing Pro Football Players Spring 1995 A Los Angeles Times investigative reporting team has discovered that the National Football League (NFL) requires all prospective draftees to take a widely criticized test of "general intelligence." z54\clip\2002\01\wonderlic.tx http://www.sportingnews.com/voices/dennis_dillon/20010223.html Testing, testing: taking the Wonderlic February 23, 2001 Print it Dennis Dillon The Sporting News "One NFL general manager told me that 25 is the average score for quarterbacks and offensive linemen. Other positions average about a 20. I read the Wonderlic scores of these NFL quarterbacks: Drew Bledsoe, 37; Steve Young, 33; John Elway, 30; Troy Aikman, 29; Brett Favre, 22; Dan Marino, 16; Jeff George, 10." median score for a sportswriter?" and is told "For a news writer? Twenty-six. 21=IQ 100, 50 questions, 12 minutes to answer 17 unskilled labor 25 clerical worker 26 sportswriter 28 accountant 29 = 114 IQ 32 systems analyst 35 = Arthur Hu (6 min timing) On Wed, 23 Jan 2002 01:30:28 -0500 GMT, Ken Hirsch wrote to h-bd@yahoogroups.com : KH> This was in the news a lot a couple of years ago, when the applicant for a KH> police officer job was rejected because his Wonderlic was too high. It was KH> 33, said to be equivalent to an IQ of 125. Roughly speaking, IQ = KH> 100+(W-20)*2, so a Wonderlic of 35 is approximately 130, or around the 98th KH> percentile. Here were some occupational ranges published in the NY Times: Administrator - 27 to 35 Editor - 29 to 35 Industrial Engineer - 28 to 34 Reporter - 27 to 34 Teacher - 27 to 34 Bookkeeper 24 - 29 Police, Patrol Officer - 22 to 27 Telephone Operator - 22 to 26 Driver, bus or truck - 20 to 24 Warehouse person - 17 to 21 calculation gives : Administrator 114 to 130 Editor 118 to 130 Industrial Engineer 116 to 128 Reporter 114 to 128 Teacher 114 to 128 Bookkeeper 108 to 118 Police, Patrol Officer 104 to 114 Telephone Operator 104 to 112 Driver, bus or truck 100 to 108 Warehouse person 94 to 102 There's a (MS Word) document at http://www.mhhe.com/business/opsci/mason/qbrating.doc that lists some stats on QB ratings for the 1999 NFL season. The QBR (a weighted measure of passing success) correlates .52 with wins, which seems pretty decent Also check Linda Gottfredson's 1997 _Intelligence_ special and her 1998 Scientific American Online piece, @@Working Class Cyril Burt was knighted for using IQ tests to increase number of working class children sent to college.