Arthur Hu's AIDS Page

Arthur's AIDS Page

Index | Home Email me These are notes I have filed on AIDS that don't fall into the category of race. My conclusion? Asians and the religious have the lowest rates of AIDS mostly because they don't do the most dangerous AIDS behaviors, having anal sex with gay men or injecting drugs and sharing needles. Follow this link for lots more data AIDS by Race: Asians Have the Lowest Rate of AIDS - Why?

Contents



HIV Rate Spectrum -
Cumulative incidence per 100,000
------------------------------------------------
5000    Nigeria (UN 1999)
4508    Sub Saharan Africa (5%!) UN
2995    San Francisco 1998 (3%!)
 766    Long Beach CA 1998
 556    Marin County CA 1998
 500    South Southeast Asia UN
 300    North America UN
  30    East Asia UN


HIV Infection Spectrum

HIV infection rates
VERY HIGH RISK GROUP 10-95% - Gay men and /or IV Drug users, Hemophiliacs ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 95% AIDS deaths of original San Francisco Gay Men's Chorus members 70% SF Gay men 1987 with over 50 partners 65% '84 San Francisco Gay Men (2) 60.7% 1989 SF Gay Men Age 30-39 in STD clinic 60% 1992 SF Abortion Clinic partner at risk for HIV (sample 3/5) 52.8% 1994 Af-Am SF Gay Men in STD clinic 50-60% SF surveys of gays who enage in any anal sex (not HIV rate) 50% '97 adult, cities in Botswana, Malawi, Zambia 50% '94 estimate of % of young gay men who may get HIV in lifetime 50% '93 estimate of US hemophiliacs 50% San Francisco Gay Men's Chorus 1992 \priv\95\11\aidssum.txt 45% San Francisco Gay Homeless Youth 90-94 male 45% Gay Men STD Clinics King Co 1988 41.9% White SF TB Clinic 89-92 40.9% Gay 1994 SF Age 30-34 in STD clinic 40% Women crack users who had unp. sex for money (15) 26-40% African urban men 26-40 1999 39% Gay / Bisexual men in MACS 1984 study \doc\95\05\macs.txt 37% Gay men San Francisco '95 (17) 35.8% UN Bostswana Adult 1999 35.8% American-Born SF TB clinic 89-92 33% Gay Men San Francisco 1993 practice unprotected anal sex (3) 32.6% Seattle White MSM STD 88-90 (15) 30% Gay Men in STD Clinics King Co 1990 30% Gay men in Drug Treatment Clinic King Co 1994 27.7% 1994 White SF gay men in STD clinic 27% Gay IVDU King Co in STD Clinic 1994 26.8% Af-Am SF TB clinic 89-92 25.1% Zimbabwe UN AIDS adult 199 20-25% CDC estimate gay males CDC MMWR 12/18/87 24% SF Asian men in STD clinic 89-94 24% Gay Metro US Men '93, assuming 17% of untested HIV+(1) 23% Gay Men IVDU in King Co Drug Treatment Clinic 1994 20.0% Seattle Asian MSM STD 88-96 (15) 20% 94 New York State female prisoners WSJ 9/13/94 20% Gay black men in San Francisco 17-22 18.5% Seattle White MSM STD 88-96 (15) 18.1% Seattle White MSM STD 91-93 (15) 17% LA STD Clinic gay men, 18 times higher than not 17% Gay Men tested and HIV+(1) 1993 17% LA STD Clinic with Anal Sex, 23 times higher than not (8) 15% Het European condom study, did not use condom with HIV+ partner 15% Gay Men STD Clinics King Co 1993 14.1% Black SF IDU 90-94 13% 94 Washington Blade survey of gay men readers 13% North Thailand Army recruits peak 1996 12% Tested IV Drug using Metro US men 1993 12% LA STD Clinic (8) 3 or more partners, 2X than not 12% 94 New York State men prisoners WSJ 9/13/94 12% (16) Women in Rhode Island Prisons 10% Gay Men 17-22 San Francisco Young Men's Survey 5-9% US Gay men 15-22 6 counties (19) 9% US Gay Men 20-22 1996 (13) 8.6% UN sub-saharan Africa 1999 7.9% Seattle White MSM STD 94-96 (15) 7% Thailand north military 1993 VERY HIGH RISK GROUPS ======================================================================== HIGH RISK GROUPS - 1-9% Heterosexual promiscuous / STD or drug user 7% 1997 N. Thailand Army Recruits 7% SF 1992 Female IDU in STD clinic 6.4% White SF IDU Drug clinic 6% Kenya women Lancet 5/15/95 p. 9696 6% LA STD Clinic 2 or fewer partners 5.5% Foreign Born SF TB clinic 89-92 5.2% US prisons (14) 5% San Francisco AIDS White 2002 5% US gay men 15-19 1996 (13) 4.7% Asian SF IDU 90-94 4.1% Seattle Black Wom/HetMale STD 88-96(15) 4% Tested men married to transfusion recipient (1) 93 4% SF White Abortion Clinic 1992 3.5% Thailand north military 1995 3.5% SF Black Abortion Clinic 1992 3.2% CA prison females 1996 (12) 3% Het Men IVDU King Co in STD Clinic 1993 KKHD 3% King County prostitute estimate Seattle PI 6/30/95 B2 2.6% SF Homeless Youth Heterosexual IDU male 2.5% CA prison male 1996 (12) 2.15% Thailand UN adult HIV+ 1999 2% Tested Metro US men 1993 (1) 2% Filipino est San Francisco 1995 (AW 12/15/95) 2% Black Men US 1996 (18) 2% Rural Indian province Tamil Nadu 1998 0-2% Asian non-IDU drug clinic 90-94 1.8% SF 1994 1.5% Asian SF TB clinic 89-92 1.5% White SF Heterosexual woman in STD clinic 1994 1-2%Het European condom user, always used condoms with infected partner 1.2% US Black women 23-27 JAMA 6/18/98 1% Kansas Star Catholic Priest survey 1% Hispanic Men US 1996 (18) 1% SF Homeless Youth Heterosexual non-IDU male 1% LA STD Clinic, non-gay/bi 1% Tested male transfusion recipients 1993 (1) 1% Het Men in Drug Treatment Clinic King Co 1% Women and Het men, Drug Treatment King/Pierce Co 1994 .9% WA female prison 1995-96 (HIV/AIDS Q197) .9% US general population est CDC 1996 (14) .8% SF Lesbian 92-94 STD clinic .8% SF Black Heteroseuxal woman in STD clinic 1994 .8% SF Homeless Heterosexual Female non-IDU .75% (9) Jews in New York City 1995 (Village Voice) .7% UN India adult 1999 .67% 85-94 White SF Military applicant .6% Female Youth Clinic 9/93 .6% Black Women US 1996 (18) .6% USA UN adult 1999 .59% 85-94 Black SF Military applicant ============================================================= HIGH RISK GROUPS Minority, homeless, STD, prison, prostitute ========================================================================== LOW RISK GROUPS - Under 0.5% Heterosexual, non drug user .5% Patients of 64 HIV+ Health workers in Philadelphia Inquirer 5/1/95 p. A3 .43% SF 1994 male military applicant .4% SF Asian woman STD clinic 89-94 .4% CDC estimate of US, 1995 .3% UN India estimate 1996 0-.4% SF Asian Abortion Clinic 1990-93 .4% Het Men in STD King Co 1993 .32% Black SF Newborn 1993 .3% Risk of HIV infection from needle stick(10) .3% San Francisco AIDS Asian/PI 2002 .28% White SF Newborn 1993 .23% UN 1999 West Europe .21% SF Newborn 1993 .2% Seattle White&Asian Wom/HetMale STD 88-96 (15) .18% SF 1994 female military applicant .17% SF 89-92 Asian women Family Planning Clinic .17% U Chicago Survey group (15) .2% CA Black births 93 (4) .17% U Chicago study of 3,400 .15% Job Corp applicants WA statewide 1/88 .1% UN "est real" rate of HIV in China 2002 .1% US White women 23-27 JAMA 6/18/98 .1% US Tested women 1993 (1) .1% Seattle Male Youth Clinic 9/93 KKHD .1% Female Military Applicants WA Statewide 10/85 KKHD .1% Seattle High Risk Adolescent Clinic 9/93 male or female KKHD .07% SF Bay Newborn 1993 .06% CA Newborn 1993 .06% 2004-5 China official 2005 .05% WHO estimate of Asia 1995 .05% U Chicago survey, not gay or drug user .04% Male Military Applicants WA Statewide 10/85 .04% '94 SF Bay area 1st time male blood donors .035% Childbearing Women WA statewide 1993 .03% U Chicago study, non-hi-risk .03% US White women 1996 (18) .03% US general population, heterosexual, not drug user (14) .025% Japan estimated (WHO, it's way too high!) .02% CA White births 1993 (4) .02% CDC 1987 estimate of non-risk group MMWR 6/18/87 .009% '94 SF Bay area 1st time female blood donors .0067% CDC blood bank study 1992, non-hi risk (15) .003% Asian SF newborn 1988-1993 .003% '94 SF Bay area repeat blood donor male .003% Blood Donors WA statewide 1993 .003% 31K actual HIV reported in China in 2002 .0025% Japan reported 1993 (WHO) .002% '94 SF Bay area repeat blood donor female .002% 29K China reported 2005 ================================================================= STATISTICALLY ZERO LESS THAN .001% ================================================================= .0016% National HIV rate for women (15) .001% estimated China 1995 (5) .0005% 85-94 Asian SF Bay area military applicant .00001% China reported 1995 (5) KKHD = King County / Seattle Health department (1) \doc\95\05\cityhiv.txt "HIV Antibody Testing Among Those at Risk for Infection" (The National AIDS Behavioral Surveys) Daniel C. Berrios et al JAMA Oct 6, 1993 vol 270 No. 13 p. 1576 Self-Reported HIV Rates, based on phone sample of 13786 people aged 18 to 75 (2)"Americans Young and Old Play With Fire in the Age of AIDS" Melvin Konner M.D. (Emory University) Los Angeles Times June 11, 1990 p. B2 (3) 1994 San Francisco Health Department Young Men's Survey (4) California HIV/AIDS Update October 1994 p. 55 (5) WHO estimates 10,000 out of 1 billion people, 3,341 actual 1995 (6) WHO, 1994 (7) SFC 8/6/93, New England Journal of Medicine 1994;331:341-346. (8) Los Angeles County Health Department 1992 (9) \priv\95\02\aidssum2.txt "Sunday, the Rabbi Got AIDS" Village Voice (12/05/95) Vol. 40, No. 49, P. 27; Beiser, (10)\priv\95\02\aidssum2.txt 1. Tokars JI, Marcus R, Culver DH, et al. Surveillance of HIV infection and zidovudine use among health care workers after occupational exposure to HIV-infected blood. Ann Intern Med 1993;118:913-9. 2. Henderson DK. HIV-1 in the health care setting. In: Principles and practice of infectious diseases. 4th ed. Mandel GL, Bennett JE, Dolan R, eds. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1995:2632-56. (11)\priv\96\03\gayspred.doc "HIV spreading" Seattle Times feb 11, 1996 p. A11. 7% infection rate among young teen and gay men, one-third still engage in unprotected sex, rates are 5% 15-19 9% 20-22, 4% white 7% hisp 11% black (12)"HIV Rate in CA Prisons Higher Than in Community" AIDS Alert (02/96) Vol. 11, No. 2, P. 23 (13)\doc\96\02\aidshi.txt "HIV Prevalence High Among Male Teens Who Have Homosexual Encounters" Reuters (02/13/96) (14) Study finds inmates 6 times more likely to have AIDS Seattle Post Intelligencer 4/5/96 (CDC figures). Hetero non-drug subtracts 70% of cases. (15)\doc\96\03\scihone.txt "Scientists Hone Knowledge of How Virus Spreads" Wall Street Journal May 1, 1996 (16) Timothy Flanigan Brown University Dept of Medicine, Rhode Island prison study \doc\96\03\aidspris.txt (17) San Francisco HIV Prevention Planning Council Asian Week Jan 6, 1996 p. 7 "We Are Not Immune" (18) Sat, 6 Jul 1996 NewsHound@sjmercury.com Study Estimates One in 300 Americans Infected with HIV By TARA BURGHART (AP) (CDC, JAMA) (19) \priv\96b\07\gayhiv.txt Date: Wed, 10 Jul 1996 02:32:37 -0400 From: NewsHound@sjmercury.com (NewsHound) CDC (20) Seattle King Co HIV/AIDS Q1 97 p. 15 (21) China estimates 840,000 2004-05 out of 1.3B = 0.06%
@@age \priv\96\20\unaids.txt Newshound 6/8/96 U.N. Says AIDS Cases Rose by 25 percent in 1995 90% of deaths are under 49 @@Anal sex see gay - anal sex Anal sex is 5 to 30 times more hazardous than vaginal sex because the gay population has a much higher rate of HIV infection, and the vaginal walls offer protection against infection from semen, where anal lining offers easy access to bloodstream. Many AIDS education programs make no note of the differences in risk, and maintain that all sex is safe with a condom, even though there are no direct studies of the safety of condomes with anal sex between men. In a Los Angeles clinic those with no anal sex were 1/17 as likely to be infected as those who did. \doc\96\03\scihone.txt "Scientists Hone Knowledge of How Virus Spreads" Wall Street Journal May 1, 1996 f050196. 0.5% to 0.3% (1 in 200 to 300) of anal sex with infected person will result in infection (condom reduces by a factor of 10?) Studies of heterosexual couples show only 1 in 1000 acts to result in infection. By comparison, gonorrhea passes 90% from men to women and 25% from women to men. Vaginal rate is 1 in 1000 acts, anal is 5 to 30 per 1000 acts. Accoriding to the Los Angeles County Health Department, 1992 HIV+ Rates for groups in STD clinic 12% For 3 or more partners, 2 times rate of fewer partners 17% Had anal sex, 23 times the rate of those with no anal sex 17% Gay, 18 times rate of non-gay/bi 19% Bisexual, 18 times rate of non-gay/bi 6% 2 or fewer sexual partners partners 1% Not gay or bisexual, no anal sex The risk factor with highest ratio is _anal sex_, followed by homosexuality. If you are straight, or do not engage in anal sex, you reduce your risk by 17-23 times compared to heterosexuals to contract STD's. @@artificial insemination \priv\96\01\billhiv.htm - Judith Billings, top school official contracts AIDS from artificial insemination. @@asian see ASIAN AMERICAN.AIDS @@azt \priv\95\18\aztborn.txt - AZT reduces HIV transmission to infants by up to 68% \priv\95\10\aidssum.txt - "Early Use of AIDS Drug Is Termed Ineffective" New York Times (08/17/95) P. A15 @@bathhouse \doc\95\07\npraids.txt - debate over resurgence of bathhouses \priv\95\06\bathhous.txt "Close the Doors of the Bathhouses" Toronto Globe and Mail (05/15/95) P. A14; Samuels, Brian Argues that "safe sex" isn't happening in the bathhouses, and they should be shut down. @@behavior change \clip\97\28\knowhiv.txt http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/aids_112997.html Seattle Times Company Saturday, Nov. 29, 1997 People know about HIV but are still taking risks by Reuters (survey did not separate out gays or minorities at most risk!) \doc\95\10\behchan.txt According to NIMH, education campaigns primarily providing information about the HIV virus, modes of infection, and methods of prevention do not produce sustained behavior change. @@Catholic Priests Priests with AIDS Seattle Times Feb 7, 2000 p. A3. Kansas City Star survey of 3,000 priests found 7 or 1 in 114 said they had AIDS or might have AIDS. 15% homosexual, 5% bisexual vs. estimates between 5 and 10%. 75% said training did not offer education which would have prevented infection. @@child-abuse gay.child-abuse aids.child-abuse \priv\95\05\aidsabus.txt - One study shows 65% of HIV infected participants reported chilhood sexual or physical abuse. Sexually abused gay men are also more likely to engage in risky behaviors. "Abuse and HIV-Related Risk" Focus (04/95) Vol. 10, No. 5, P. 5; Benson, J.D. @@children \priv\95\07\"UNICEF Asks Broader Aid for Children" New York Times (06/12/95) P. A5; Crossette, Barbara AIDS is named as a major threat to the world's, children, with 1 million infected children worldwide, many in African and Asia (note, number of children in Asia is VERY small, and AIDS is is least important problem in numbers compared to vitamin deficiencies malnutrition, pneumonia, diarrheal disease, and measles, !) @@child rearing \doc\95\11\chilrear.txt - Christian approach to child rearing @@circumcision aids.circumcision \priv\96b\07\aidscirc.txt Date: Thu, 11 Jul 1996 18:08:50 -0400 From: NewsHound@sjmercury.com (NewsHound) Researchers Call Evidence of Venereal Disease Role in AIDS Overwhelming By DANIEL Q. HANEY. Cites lack of circumcision in other nations. @@city %%Los Angeles AIDS news from Los Angeles, in 1992 Asian men and women still have the lowest rate of AIDS men 1/4, women 1/3 white rate Black men #1 rate since 1987 Hispanic men less than white men, but may exceed whites by 1995 [I should check that in 1995], Hispanic women > white women. Probably due to high rate of drug use, but lower rate of homosexual activity. AIDS is leading cause of death in men since 1989, but number 6 for women STD clinic chart shows HIV rate vs. somebody not in category 3 or more partners in past 12 months 2X Anal sex, 17% HIV+, 23X vs. no anal sex Gay 17% Bisexual 19% vs. 1, or 18X %%san Francisco San Francisco HIV Counseling 1999 HIV rates GayIDU 14% MenSexFem 1% Always Condom 3.6% NotAlways Con 2.7% \doc\95\10\hivprev.txt "Prevention of HIV Infection" JAMA April 12, 1995 p. 1143 New HIV infections in San Francisco has fallen from 1000 per year in 1992 from 6000-8000 in 1982 and 1983 %%Washington DC \priv\95\05\aidssum2.txt - Washington DC is #1 AIDS deaths in the US, mostly blacks @@computer access \priv\95\04\aidsfaq8.txt If using Mosaic or similar Internet software, the universal resource locator address is "ftp://cdcnac.aspensys.com/pub/cdcnac". Gopher Server Address: cdcnac.aspensys.com A gopher server is a host computer with a simple menu interface leading to text files of documents and other options. A gopher is structured in a hierarchical or outline format with menus and submenus leading to different levels of choices, like folders or directories. The CDC Clearinghouse's gopher site contains the AIDS Daily Summary, AIDS-related Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report articles, tables from the HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, and other CDC documents. Basic HIV/AIDS-related information is available, as well as information about prevention, treatment, and living with HIV. To reach the CDC Clearinghouse gopher, point your gopher client to the address: "cdcnac.aspensys.com" The latest figures on the The Current Global Situation of the HIV/AIDS Pandemic are now available on the web using the URL: http://gpawww.who.ch/gpahome.htm There also is a gopher version available at gpagopher.who.ch For those with email only, the figures can be obtained by sending an email message to gpadoc@who.ch with the command GET EMSERVE AIDSCASE in the message text. A complete list of documents available from this service can be retreived using the GET EMSERVE INDEX command. These servers also contain additional publications and documents developed by the Global Programme on AIDS, World Health Organization. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Question 8.4. CDC AIDS Public Information Dataset. You can get the CDC AIDS public information Dataset via anonymous ftp. Michelle Murrain has set up a small AIDS ftp site, which has the most recent dataset (data through 1992). She gets each year's version (usually in June-July) and puts it there. It contains a line of data on each individual, including transmission category, OIs diagnosed, date of diagnosis, etc. The ftp site is: family.hampshire.edu directory, /pub/aids The name of the file is PIDS92Q4.DAT (BEWARE the file is 16 MB!!) There is also a Women and AIDS bibliography there. If anyone has resources they would like to share with folks via FTP let her know and she'll be glad to add them. Contact Michelle Murrain via mmurrain@HAMP.HAMPSHIRE.EDU ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Question 8.5 World Wide Web Site on AIDS (French and English) I'd like to inform you of (part of) a WWW server on AIDS and HIV in french and partly in english. It contains extensive lists of ressources in France, and also pointers to many other ressources on the Internet. The entry point in english is http://www.ircam.fr/solidarites/sida/index-e.html ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ \doc\95\07\oashbbs.txt - >> OASH BBS Washington, DC; (202) 690-5423 OASH BBS is the free and publicly accessible electronic bulletin board of the U.S. Public Health Service, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, National AIDS Program Office. \priv\95\04\aidsfaq*.txt d:\doc\94\17\aidsnet.txt - bulletin boards, etc. Ben Gardiner 415-626-1246 ben@maggadu.queernet.org library-sfstats, worldstats @@birth \priv\96b\05\pregtest.txt Date: Thu, 27 Jun 1996 20:24:12 -0400 From: NewsHound@sjmercury.com (NewsHound) AMA Calls for Mandatory HIV Testing of Pregnant Women, Newborns By BRENDA C. COLEMAN when AZT is given to HIV-positive mothers starting in the 14th week of pregnancy and also to their newborns for a few weeks after birth, the rate of infected babies drops from 25 percent to 8 percent. Currently, about 1,600 U.S. newborns get infected by their mothers each year. @@bite \priv\95\14\aidssum1.txt - "Nationline: AIDS Bite" USA Today (10/27/95) P. 3A; Leavitt, Paul; Goodwin, M. David; Rivera, Patricia V.; et al.case confirmed of 91 year old man who got HIV from bite from prostitute with bleeding gums @@black \priv\95\19\aidsblak.txt Blacks and Hispanics have been disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic. In 1993, HIV infection was the leading cause of death among black women 25-44 years of age and the third leading cause of death among Hispanic women in this age group (2). In 1991, HIV infection was the second leading cause of death among black children 1-4 years of age in New Jersey, Massachusetts, New York, and Florida and among Hispanic children in this age group in New York (CDC, unpublished data). \priv\95\16\aidssum1.txt "1 in 3 Blacks Believes in AIDS Conspiracy, Survey Finds" Miami Herald (11/02/95) P. 9A More than one-third of 1,000 black church members believe that HIV was developed in a germ warfare laboratory and has since been used to commit genocide against their race (are 1,000 church members representative?) \priv\95\07\blakaids - black aids epidemic, blacks don't admit they're bisexual, women refuse to be tested or believe healty babies are infected New Republic \priv\95\05\aidssum.txt - Highest HIV rates were reported in E Palo Alto, Richmond, West Oakland. vs. San Francisco "HIV Seroprevalence in Injection Drug Users" Journal of the American Medical Association (04/19/95) Vol. 273, No. 15, P. 1178; Watters, John K.; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Kral, Alex H. (Note these are all areas with high concentrations of African Americans) @@blood bank \doc\96\03\scihone.txt "Scientists Hone Knowledge of How Virus Spreads" Wall Street Journal May 1, 1996 f050196. Only .0067% of blood bank donors screened against hi-risk donors were HIV+ in 1992 CDC study @@blood products \priv\96b\05\blodprod.txt Date: Thu, 27 Jun 1996 09:01:54 -0400 Japan confirms 12 cases of HIV infection by unheated blood products in nonhemophiliacs @@boxing d:\priv\96\03\boxaids.txt - Boxing is an exception which does present a significant chance of transmission of AIDS. @@Condom %%effective Studies show 1-2% infection rate for heterosexual couples when one is infected. But that's still 10 times higher than the general heterosexual population, which is about 0.1% based on HIV tests of US women, and only 0.05% based on Washington state military applicants. Reduction is from 7 to 12 times by European studies, U Texas researchers found only 69% (3 to 1) reduction. WSJ quote of a CDC study gives 10 times effectiveness, but not for anal sex. \doc\95\14\wacondom.txt One study showed 1% infection rate per year, another was zero, but statistically equal to 0.5% per year. \doc\95\11\safecond.txt - notes on who might have studies that show condoms effective for gay men. \priv\95\12\aidsfind.txt - 90% more likely men->women than other way around, anal sex was more hazardous for infecting women, none of partners of infected who used condoms became infected. \priv\95\02\condsafe.txt - Condoms proven effective? A4 San Francisco Chronicle Friday Aug 6, 1993 0 / 123 vs 12 of 120 Europeans who did not consistently use 2% of 171 Italians vs. 15% of 55 who did not. But these were not gays. (Note - even a 2% infection rate is higher than any risk group except for gays and IV drug users, so it's still very dangerous. If extrapolated to 15% HIV+ gay urban population, condoms would still result in a 1-2% infection rate) Condoms Block Most HIV. US Food and Drug Administration found condoms reduce transmission of virus by 10,000 times, but a few might still get through. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 19:230, 1992 \doc\95\06\condsafe.txt In a study of 245 heterosexual couples where one partner was HIV-infected and the other wasn't, none of the 123 male or female partners who consistently used condoms became infected. (But with only 123 subjects, it's not statistically different from 1%, still very dangerous) In contrast, 12 of the 122 partners who either didn't use condoms or used them inconsistently became infected, better than 12:1 ratio. Source: De Vincenzi I. A longitudinal study of human immunodeficiency virus transmission by heterosexual partners. New England Journal of Medicine 1994;331:341-346. \doc\95\10\hivprev.txt "Prevention of HIV Infection" JAMA April 12, 1995 p. 1143 In Switzerland, condom use between 17-20 increased from 19% to 73% with no evidence of greater sexual activity. \priv\95\10\aidssum.txt - study shows no difference in sexual activity between schools with or without condom distribution programs. \priv\95\05\moreteen.txt CDC report of teens in school: Condom use by teens up from 46% in 1991 to 53% in 1993 Slight decrease in gonorrhea and births "SEXUALITY: More Teens Report Using Condoms" By A.J. HOSTETLER Associated Press Writer Medio CD Magazine May 1995 \priv\95\05\aidssum.txt "News in Brief: French Sex" Lancet (04/15/95) Vol. 345, No. 8955, P. 979 In a survey of 6,000 15- to 18-year-olds, the French National Agency for Research into AIDS found that 80 percent of the boys and 75 percent of the girls said they used a condom during their most recent sexual encounter. %%ineffective - Condom users do not have lower HIV rates - Condom use with anal sex is as risky unprotected vaginal sex - Pregnancy rates as high as 14% with condom use. San Francisco HIV Counseling 1999 HIV rates GayIDU 14% MenSexFem 1% Always Condom 3.6% NotAlways Con 2.7% \doc\96\03\scihone.txt "AIDS Fight is Skewed By Federal Campaign Exaggerating Risks" Wall Street Journal May 1, 1996. F050196-1 Amanda Bennett and Anita Sharpe. Estimate shows that anal sex with a condom is about as risky as unprotected sex with an infected woman. Chances of infection with one act 1 in 50 million Condom vaginal sex with non-hi risk group woman (1) 5 million No condom vaginal sex wit no-hi risk group woman (1) 3-30 thous Protected anal sex with 15% infected partners (3) 1,000 No condom vaginal sex with infected woman (2) 2000-300 Est of protected anal sex (3) 300 Accidental medical needle stick (5) 100 Protected vaginal sex in infected couple after 1 yr 100-50 Intravenous drug injection with infected needle (6) 200-30 Unprotected anal sex (4) Sources: 1 - 1987 CDC Study 2 - Isabelle de Vincenzi, European Study Group on Heterosexual Transmission of HIV 1994. If you take into account only 1.6 in 100,000 are infected, this is about equal to the CDC 1 in 5 million figure 3 - Assuming 10 times reduction with condom from (1), 15% chance of infection in most urban gay populations 4 - Victor DeGruttola, Harvard School of Public Health, 1989 5 - CDC 6 - Don Des Jarlais, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York Transfusion of screened blood - 1 per 450,000 to 660,000 donations: Source: CDC/ American Red Cross \priv\95\16\aidssum.txt - "A Randomized Controlled Trial of an HIV Sexual Risk-Reduction Intervention for Young African-American Women" Journal of the American Medical Association (10/25/95) Vol. 274, No. 16, P. 1271; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M. HIV education resulted in more confident women that used condoms more consistently, but there were _NO_ differences in outcome variables. "Elders is wrong choice for surgeon". Kay Coles james, president of Family research council. USA Today July 14, 1993 13A. U of Texas researchers looked at 11 condom studies and found risk reduction for AIDS is only 69% and often lower. \doc\95\05\cityhiv.txt All who tested HIV+ used condoms every time in past 6 months. JAMA Oct 6, 1993 \doc\95\04\condsafe.txt - Condoms not mostly safe. \priv\95\05\uscondom.txt "Lifestyles remain a major barrier" USA Today July 7, 1992 : Properly used condoms rarely fail during vaginal intercourse, less than 4 in 1,000 are manufactured with flaws that will leak. But in real-life, yearly pregnancy rates as high as 14%. And one recent study found that a few people, about 5%, break 20% of the condoms they use. \doc\95\05\cityhiv.txt JAMA Oct 6, 1993 "HIV Antibody Testing Among Those at Risk for Infection" (The National AIDS Behavioral Surveys) Daniel C. Berrios et al JAMA Oct 6, 1993 vol 270 No. 13 p. 1576 100% of HIV positive persons reported using condoms (1579) with every sexual contact in the past 6 months (they did not report on condom status prior to infection) \doc\95\04\condsafe.txt - Condoms not mostly safe. %%usage c:\doc\95\02\asiasex.txt - Sex by Race and Religion "Sex, Lies, and Asian Americans" About half of gays have anal sex, but only one quarter use condoms in most studies. \doc\95\06\collcond.txt - 50% condom use with low, 20% with high partners \priv\95\05\collcond.txt among college women LIFE Page 1D - March 22, 1990 Sex habits of young women change little By Kim Painter, USA TODAY Dr. Stephen H. Zinner of Roger Williams General Hospital, Providence, R.I. study, in today's New England Journal of Medicine, includes women who went to gynecologists at a student health center Of surveyed sexually active college women Over half did not use condoms. 1975 1986 1989 Consistent 12 21 41 2-5 partners 40 42 52 6+ partners 22 20 21 Note that usage went down to only 1 in 5 times with 6 or more partners. \doc\95\02\teencond.txt - 53% of teens G9-12 had sex, 53% used condoms "More Teens Use Condoms" (AP) Seattle Post Intelligencer Feb 24, 1995 p. A3 \priv\95\05\aidssum.txt "News in Brief: French Sex" Lancet (04/15/95) Vol. 345, No. 8955, P. 979 In a survey of 6,000 15- to 18-year-olds, the French National Agency for Research into AIDS found that 80 percent of the boys and 75 percent of the girls said they used a condom during their most recent sexual encounter. \priv\95\02\condsafe.txt - Condoms proven effective? A4 San Francisco Chronicle Friday Aug 6, 1993 0 / 123 vs 12 of 120 Europeans who did not consistently use 2% of 171 Italians vs. 15% of 55 who did not. But these were not gays. @@contraceptives \priv\96b\07\nox9.txt Common birth-control gels and foams already on the U.S. market contain nonoxynol-9, a sperm-killing ingredient that also appears to block transmission of the AIDS virus, but cannot be marketed that way without formal effectiveness trials. @@cost \priv\95\13\aidssum.txt "The Economic Cost of AIDS" Los Angeles Times (10/13/95); Oldham, Jennifer By the year 2000, AIDS will have cost the global economy up to $514 billion and possible 1.4 percent of the world's gross domestic product. Cost in US is between $81 billion and $107 billion from the U.S. economy by 2000. \priv\95\07\aidssum.txt "AIDS-Infected Patients Cost Hospitals Up to $260,000 Per Year, Study Says" Baltimore Sun (06/01/95) P. 16A AIDS patients can cost hospitals as much as $260,000. In some hospitals, AIDS patients take up more than 7 percent of the beds each day, according to the National Public Health and Hospital Institute study. Also, an AIDS patient's stay averages 12 days, compared to just 7.2 days for the typical patient's hospital visit. inpatient HIV care cost $1.6 billion in 1991. The average small hospital lost $92,000 that year treating people with AIDS, the average deficit approached $260,000 at teaching hospitals, where most AIDS patients seek care, Andrulis said. the average loss was $500,000 in 198. Continuing losses are due to the fact that 90 percent of HIV-infected patients in public hospitals rely on Medicaid, Medicare, or charity for care. "Cost and Outcome of Intensive Care for Patients with AIDS" JAMA Jan 18, 1995 p. 230. Average cost of Intensive Care Unit care and subsequent hospitalization averaged $174,781 per year of life saved, 25% failed to survive discharge. @@cure %%General >>\priv\96\02\aidssum.txt "Study Finds More Children 'Cured' of AIDS" Reuters (01/25/96) Results of a European study found that almost three percent of children born with HIV managed to purge the virus from their bodies, doctors reported on Friday. HIV BLOCKED BY FRIENDLY VIRUS z51\clip\2001\09\gbvc.txt Gene Emery, Reuters Wednesday, September 5, 2001 / 03:58 PM In separate studies appearing in Thursday's New England Journal of Medicine, scientists in Iowa and Germany determined that those infected with the AIDS virus live dramatically longer if they have also been recently infected with an unrelated virus known as GB virus C or GBV-C. @@deaths - see asian.aids.death d:\priv\94\19\aidsgndma.txt In New York City, the epicenter of the epidemic with over 70,000 cases, 120 people die of AIDS each week. Most are intravenous drug users or their partners, and many have children. "New AIDS Estimates Show Demographic Changes" AIDS Alert (06/95) Vol. 10, No. 6, P. 83 USA (CDC): reported cases = 441,528 reported deaths = 270,000 @@decline Young are fastest-growing group becoming infected with HIV (newsday) Seattle Times 6/17/98 JAMA today reports HIV in white male declined 45 to 50% between 1988-93. AIDS DOWN, NOT UP AMONG YOUNG PEOPLE News item: Washington Post, 2 Dec. 1997, p. A4: "In a videotaped message . . . Clinton said the battle against AIDS has shown some signs of success." "`Still, HIV is affecting more and more young people,' Clinton said." For those up to the age of 24, AIDS cases fell from 3,622 to 3,138, a decline of 13 percent. These cases, by the way, comprised less than five percent of all AIDS cases in the last 12 months. "New AIDS cases decline in U.S. for first time" Reuters Seattle Times 9/18/97 p. A3. New cases were down by 6% in 1996 compared to 1995 for the first time in history, 13% for whites, 5% for Hispanics and about http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/aids_090897.html \clip\97\20\aidsdow.txt Copyright © 1997 The Seattle Times Company Monday, Sept. 8, 1997 State, King County have second big drop in deaths from AIDS AIDS DEATHS DOWN 43% IN KING CO, 43% IN NEW YORK CITY http://www.seattletimes.com/topstories/browse/html97/aids_021197.html \CLIP\97\04\AIDSDEAT.TXT The Seattle Times Company Feb. 11, 1997 King County AIDS deaths declining New drug treatments linked to 43 percent decrease "New York City health officials recently reported a 30 percent decrease in AIDS deaths last year; King County's decrease is 43 percent. AIDS DEATHS DOWN OVERALL, AND FOR GAYS, BUT NOT BLACKS \clip\97\02\aidsdown.txt AIDS Deaths Drop in New York WASHINGTON (Reuter) - The death rate for AIDS in New York City dropped by a striking 30 percent last year in what public health officials on Friday called a likely harbinger of a national trend. "The rate among young white gay and bisexual men declined 30 percent but among young black gay and bisexual men it increased 26 percent, while the rate for young, black, heterosexual women increased by a whopping 160 percent," \priv\96\02\aidssum3.txt "Deaths from AIDS in U.S. Outpace New HIV Infections" Washington Times (02/01/96) P. A3; Price, Joyce Since 1993, the number of Americans that die of AIDS each year has surpassed the number of new infections by 10,000 to 20,000. Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, said the epidemic is starting to wane. \priv\95\07\aidssum.txt - "AIDS on Decline in Europe, Expert Tells Newspaper" Reuters (06/18/95) There was never an AIDS explosion in Europe, and AIDS is in a decline. Efforts should concentrate on Asia and Africa @@dentist d:\priv\96\03\aidssum1.txt "Fear of AIDS Is No Reason to Avoid Dentist" Boston Globe (02/12/96) P. 37; Foreman, Judy \priv\96\03\dentaid.txt - full text aids.drug @@drug \priv\95\03\hivdrug.txt - NYT 2/28/95 3/4 of new drug infections were among drug addicts. Half of heterosexual AIDS cases related to crack use. Only one quarter of new infections due to gay men, half is among drug users, others are mostly women who have sex with infected drug users. @@depression \priv\95\11\aidssum.txt "Depression in Low HIV Prevalence Areas" Focus (08/95) Vol. 10, No. 9, P. 8 depression depressed lifetime gay HIV+ 8 29 gay HIV- 3 45 general 2 3 Perkins et al. reveals that serious depression is common among both seronegative and asymptomatic homosexual men in a region of low HIV prevalence @@Dugas (patient zero) From: MOOOSO@aol.com You left out that Dugas' job route took him regularly deep into Africa. @@Duesberg Is Peter Duesberg Right About AIDS Tom Bethell Hoover Institute San Francisco Chronicle Sept 3, 1992. Says that AIDS is caused by drug use, not sex habits, you could have all the sex you want if you don't do drugs. Hemophiliacs who are HIV+ don't die earlier. Kapsosi's Sarcoma caused by mutagens in drugs. Why has a study not been done? @@education HIV reduction \priv\95\16\aidssum.txt - "A Randomized Controlled Trial of an HIV Sexual Risk-Reduction Intervention for Young African-American Women" Journal of the American Medical Association (10/25/95) Vol. 274, No. 16, P. 1271; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M. HIV education resulted in more confident women that used condoms more consistently, but there were _NO_ differences in outcome variables. @@education funding doc\94\14\aidsgay2.txt - 21% of King County funding goes to gay education @@exposure category The three largest categories are gay men, drug users, and both, with gay men accounting for 47% of 1995, and 58% of all AIDS cases. Only 11% in 1995 and 8% of all cases were transmitted through heterosexual sex. 1995 CDC gopher://cdcnac.org:72/00/4/yearend95/table3.txt Cumulative Adult/adolescent 1994 1995 total 3 exposure category No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) Men who have sex w/men 35,524 (45) 30,671 (42) 259,672 (51) Injecting drug use 21,967 (28) 19,261 (26) 128,696 (25) Men who have sex w/men and inject drugs 4,234 ( 5) 3,425 ( 5) 33,195 ( 7) Hemophilia/ coagulation disorder 508 ( 1) 445 ( 1) 4,107 ( 1) Heterosexual contact: 8,585 (11) 8,093 (11) 40,038 ( 8) Sex w/injecting drug user 3,081 2,849 18,710 Sex w/bisexual male 394 376 2,209 Sex w/person w/hemophilia 58 62 330 Sex w/transfusion recipient w/HIV infection 129 112 734 Sex w/HIV-infected person, risk not specified 4,923 4,694 18,055 Receipt of blood transfusion, blood components, or tissue4 734 ( 1) 664 ( 1) 7,433 ( 1) Other/risk not reported or identified5 7,311 ( 9) 10,821 (15) 33,397 ( 7) Adult/adolescent subtotal 78,863 (100) 73,380 (100) 506,538 (100) @@fidelity \doc\95\10\hivprev.txt "Prevention of HIV Infection" JAMA April 12, 1995 p. 1143 In Zaire, mutual fidelity increased from 28.9% to 45.7% @@Fumento, Michael Fearless purveyor of frank facts about AIDS. One of the only people to ever point out that AIDS rates among Asians is lower than for whites. 8/98 Will the real aids epidemic please stand up There are three essential books on AIDS' cultural impact: Shilts' And the Band Played On (rev., 1993), Fumento's Myth of Heterosexual AIDS (rev., 1993), and this book. THE HETERO AIDS BEAST THAT WOULD NOT DIE Sept 25, 1997 by Michael Fumento. Mentions zero Asian babies with AIDS. \priv\96\17\fumeaids.txt "Price of Hiding Truth on AIDS" Philadelphia Inquirer (05/03/96) P. B1; Boldt, David He points to a book, Michael Fumento's "The Myth of Heterosexual AIDS," which exposed the government's conspiracy in 1990 and resulted in protests by the AIDS activist community. Fumento was fired from his job and widely criticized. Two recent books by gay authors have praised his work, however. \priv\95\19\aidstruth.txt CDC news summary "AIDS: The Truth at Last?" Investor's Business Daily (12/11/95) P. A2 @@funding c:\doc\97\02\aidsfund.txt "Who Decides?" Forbes (01/27/97) Vol. 159, No. 2, P. 47; Brimelow, Peter Amount spent per death by National Institute of Health on research: Total / Death Disease $1.34 Billion $31,453 AIDS $364 million $8,210 breast cancer $123 million $815 lung cancer @@gay - Gay men, especially combined with IV drug use is still the highest risk category, but new cases have levelled off after decimating as much as 90% of some gay populations. gayaids.txt GAY MEN 75% OF AIDS CASES, 40% GAY MEN PRACTICE UNSAFE ANAL SEX Seattle King County HIV/AIDS 3rd Quarter p.28 HIV/AIDS Program Report: Changing sexual behavior reported by men who have sex with men attending Seattle's main HIV counseling & testing site 1988-1997 Men who have sex with men remain the predominant risk group for HIV/AIDS in SKC Seattle and King County Over 3/4 (77%) of AIDS cases reported in SKC through 1997 were MSM, 10% were MSM who injected drugs. A previous study showed that over two-thirds of anal sex reported by half of attendees was unprotected. the number of partners reported with whom they have engaged in risk has fallen substantially from an average of nearly 11 to fewer than 7. Risk reduction has been mostly reducing number of partners. web: http://gladstone.uoregon.edu/~ryanl/ynggay.htm, 11801 local: \clip\97\07\gayhiv\gayhiv.htm Are Gay Men at risk? Unfortunately, yes. Accumulating research shows alarmingly high HIV prevalence rates among young gay men and high rates of sexual risk taking, suggesting that young gay men in their 20's are forging a "second wave" of the AIDS epidemic. During the 1980s, the median age at HIV infection was older than 30 years. It dropped to 25 years during the period from 1987 to 1991. From 1987 to 1991, one in every four newly infected individuals in the US was age 22 or younger. In one study of SF gaymen among the 27-29 year olds, 29% were HIV+.In a survey of gay men aged 18-25 in three medium-sized West Coast communities, 43% of the sample reported having engaged in unprotected anal intercourse during the previous 6 months. [7] A study of gay and bisexual adolescent males in Minnesota found 63% were at "extreme risk" due to unprotected anal intercourse or intravenous drug use. [8] A San Francisco telephone survey showed that 44% of gay men under the age of 30 had engaged in unprotected anal intercourse during the previous year, compared to 18% of the men over age 30 \priv\96b\07\sfgay.txt Return-Path: Date: Wed, 10 Jul 1996 23:06:15 -0400 ADVANCE/UCSF Study Finds 1-2 Percent Of Young Gay And Bisexual Men In San Francisco Continue To Become HIV Infected News Editors/Med Gay men in SF are infected at 1 or 2 percent a year. At the rate of 1.4 percent per year, one-third of them could be infected by the time they are in their forties (not unlike the 50% rate observed at the peak in the 1980s) So why does the gay community continue to insist that there is nothing wrong with anal sex? And what of protected anal sex, which is more dangerous than unprotected heteroexual sex? Second wave of HIV threatening to strike gays who ignore risks \priv\96b\07\gayhiv.txt Date: Wed, 10 Jul 1996 02:32:37 -0400 From: NewsHound@sjmercury.com (NewsHound) BY ANNE ROCHELL Cox News Service The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, surveyed 1,800 gay men ages 15 to 22 in six counties nationwide, found that between 5 percent and 9 percent of the men were HIV-positive, blacks 8-13% Between 27 percent and 48 percent of the men had had unprotected anal sex, the CDC said. \doc\96\03\scihone.txt "Scientists Hone Knowledge of How Virus Spreads" Wall Street Journal May 1, 1996 f050196. In SF 1987 study, 40% of gay men had over 10 partners in past 2 years, 25% had over 50. Of those over 50, 70% had been infected >>\doc\96\03\msmrisk.txt Vol. 45 / No. 10 MMWR March 15, 1995 p.215 Undervaccination for Hepatitis B Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men — San Francisco and Berkeley, California, 1992–1993 81% of young men who had sex with men reported oral or anal sex with one or more men in the past 6 months. Among 77% of these men who lacked evidence of vaccination or infection by Hepatitis B, 80% reported having anal sex or having injected drugs during the preceding 6 months. Comment - this is counter to the notion that most gay men do not engage in risky health practices. \priv\96\04\aidssum1.txt "Many HIV-Positive STD Clinic Patients Practice Unsafe Sex" Reuters (03/04/96) Half of gay/bi men in STD clinics in UK study with recent STD knew they were HIV+, indicating they knowing engage in unsafe sex, and brings value of counseling to question. \doc\96\02\hirisk.txt - CDC finds high rate of risk behavior among drug using men. 60 (52%) had been admitted to residential drug treatment for at least 1 month during the preceding year. Most (83 [72%]) reported having used crack cocaine. Of the 116 men, 35 (30%) reported engaging in sexual intercourse greater than or equal to 12 times during the preceding 30 days. A total of 39 (34%) reported two or more sex partners, 32 (28%) reported having vaginal or anal sex without a condom, and 22 (23%) reported having traded sex for drugs or money. A total of 37 (32%) had not disclosed their HIV status to all partners, and 73 (63%) were either unaware of any partners' HIV status or believed they were negative. The 32 men who reported sex without a condom were significantly more likely than those who used condoms to report multiple sex partners, having oral sex, trading sex for money or drugs, failure to disclose HIV serostatus, and having intercourse greater than or equal to 12 times (pless than or equal to 0.05). These men were at high risk for infecting their sex partners and reported a mean of four sex partners (range: one-25) with an average of 14 sex acts without a condom for all partners during the preceding month. \priv\96\03\gayspred.doc "HIV spreading" Seattle Times feb 11, 1996 p. A11. 7% infection rate among young teen and gay men, one-third still engage in unprotected sex, rates are 5% 15-19 9% 20-22, 4% white 7% hisp 11% black \priv\95\07\aidssum.txt "Gay AIDS Data Give Mixed Picture In a New Report" Wall Street Journal (06/02/95) P. B4; de Lisser, Eleena New AIDS cases down by 3 to 20 percent in New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco since 1989. Nationwide, new cases are up 31 percent since 1989, 35,000 last year alone (that's 1.2-2.4 percent per year, assuming 1%-2% of population, but cases are up among blacks 79% and Hispanic gays by 61 percent \priv\95\07\aids2nd.txt 2nd wave of AIDS, 5.7% seroconversion per year leads to 50% infection before long. New Republic http://www.arthurhu.com/index/aids.htm#probability \doc\95\02\aidsprob.wk1 - Probability of AIDS for gay and non-drug using heterosexual men Feb 10, 1994 Analysis by Arthur Hu Based on US CDC cumulative 1993 AIDS men cases for gay or gay / drug use vs cases other than gay, drug use, or sex with drug user, and estimated gay incidence of 4% for most races and 2% for Asian American AIDS casesWhite Black Hispanic AsianAm Gay 137,351 40,410 24,496 1,640 NonGayDU 10,866 12,256 4,696 300 Population Gay % 4% 4% 4% 2% Pop % 74% 12% 10% 4% 93 pop 92,187,500 15,000,000 12,937,500 4,875,000 Gay 3,687,500 600,000 517,500 97,500 NotGay 88,500,000 14,400,000 12,420,000 4,777,500 AIDS probability 1 in Gay 27 15 21 59 NotGay 8,145 1,175 2,645 15,925 Gay Ratio 303.4 79.1 125.2 267.9 Percent Gay 3.7248% 6.7350% 4.7335% 1.6821% NotGay 0.0123% 0.0851% 0.0378% 0.0063% The probability of having AIDS is approximately 5-7% for most gay men, and about 2% for Asian gay men. The probability for heterosexual men who don't use IV drugs, or have sex with IV drug users is about 1 in 1000 for Blacks, 1 in 8000 for Whites, and 1 in 16,000 for Asians. Gay White men are therefore 300 times more likely to contract AIDS than heterosexual men. The ratio for Blacks is about 100 to 1. \doc\95\05\macs.txt Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study Summary: The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), a long-term study of HIV and AIDS in more than 5,000 gay and bisexual men 39% HIV infected in 1984 14% of remaining men have become infected 24% have developed AIDS 85% of AIDS cases have already died 1.8% of HIV infected men died of other causes before AIDS @@general population \doc\96\03\scihone.txt "Scientists Hone Knowledge of How Virus Spreads" Wall Street Journal May 1, 1996 f050196. Of the U Chicago survey group, only 6 out of 3,432 were HIV+, 3 were bisexual men, one a woman injecting drugs, one a woman with 100+ partners 2 non-traditional risk or .05% 0.03% non high risk 0.17% general population @@genes \clip\98\18\aidsgene.txt Dec 5, 1998 Gene Variation Spreads AIDS Rapidly By PAUL RECER AP Science Writer WASHINGTON (AP) -- Researchers have identified an inherited gene variation that in some patients causes an HIV virus infection to accelerate rapidly to AIDS. \clip\96\04\geneaids.txt Date: Tue, 17 Sep 1996 09:18:34 -0400 From: NewsHound@sjmercury.com (NewsHound) Many whites AIDS-resistant; few blacks are By Laurie Garrett Newsday BALTIMORE -- Genetic resistance to HIV infection is relatively common in people of Caucasian descent and virtually non-existent in people of African descent, a study by a National Cancer Institute researcher has concluded. (note: gay whites still have the highest rates of AIDS in the US, risk behavior is by far the most important factor in getting AIDS, most Black AIDS in the US is due to drug use and homosexual sex, and the low rate of Asian AIDS is due to low rates of drug use and anal sex with homosexuals, not any genetic predisposition) \clip\96\02\aidsgene.txt Aug 8, 1996 One Percent of Whites Have Genes That Ward Off AIDS By DANIEL Q. HANEY AP Medical Editor Gay white men who survived while their friends died were found to have genes which resist AIDS. @@greed \priv\96b\08\gredaids.txt Date: Mon, 15 Jul 1996 06:37:08 -0400 From: NewsHound@sjmercury.com (NewsHound) JOANNE JACOBS: Greed, not charity, will cure AIDS By Joanne Jacobs. Says if drug companies come up with a cure, they should say thanks for profits, it's a lot cheaper than current treatment. @@hemophiliac \doc\96\03\hemoaids.txt "Hemophiliacs With AIDS..." Seattle Times April 20, 1996. Drug companies offered $100,000 to each person or family affected by AIDS tained blood clotting products during the early 1980s. There are thought to be 6,000 affected left, 4,500 deaths, 6-10,000 total. There are 800 pending lawsuits. \priv\95\07\aidssum.txt "Morbidity and Mortality from Transfusion-Transmitted Disease in Haemophilia" Lancet (05/20/95) Vol. 345, No. 8960, P. 1309; Lee, Christine A. ; Sabin, Caroline A.; Phillips, Andrew N. et al. Lee et al. report that 111 male hemophiliacs at London's Royal Free Hospital Haemophilia Centre were infected with HIV between 1979 and 1985. 61 still alive in 1995, or over half. Average progression time is 14 years. Only 13 have no symptoms of HIV infection. @@Heterosexual STUDY SHOWS ABOUT HALF GOT AIDS FROM HETERO SPOUSE, BUT NONE OF CHILDREN. NEARLY ALL INFECTED HAD UNPROTECTED SEX. F061297 "Study confirms that casual contact with children doesn't give them AIDS" Ronald Kotulak Chicago Tribune (early 1990s?) study by University of Miami, headed by Dr. Margaret A. Fischl published in Journal of the American Medican Association BOSS MAN HAS OVER 30% INFECTION RATE \clip\97\11\aidsum.txt "'Boss Man' Sex Partners Now Grow to Over 100" St. Louis Post-Dispatch (04/24/97) P. A1; Sauerwein, Kristina; Bryan, Bill Man had sex with over 100 partners, of 40 tested, at least 13 have tested positive (32%) a very high infection rate for single encounters. \doc\96\06\aidshet.txt - Dr. Robert T Miller of the South African National Bioinformatics Institute says high heterosexual rates in Africa may be due to "- higher incidence of ulcerative STDs, apparently due in part to more cultural acceptance/expectation of extramarital sex - lower access and/or use of condoms \priv\95\17\aidssum3.txt "HIV-1 Seroconversion and Risk Behaviors Among Young Men in the U.S. Army" American Journal of Public Health (11/95) Vol. 85, No. 11, P. 1500; Levin, Lynn I.; Peterman, Thomas A.; Renzullo, Philip O.; et al. Of 128 proven HIV seroconversion cases 1988-91 - Homo Bi AnySame Hetero Total Num 15 34 49 70 Pct 11.7 26.5 38.2 54.6 HIV-seroconversion risk estimates rose with increasing numbers of female partners, nonsteady partners, and partners with whom sex occurred on the first day of acquaintance. The researcher concluded that the primary risk factor for HIV-1 seroconversion among young active-duty males in the U.S. Army is same-gender sex. About half of AIDS cases had only heterosexual risk, however, the gay male population in the military is generally thought to be much smaller than the general population of 2%-4% due to the ban on gays, so gay men still have the highest risk. \priv\95\12\aidsfind.txt - 90% more likely men->women than other way around, anal sex was more hazardous for infecting women, none of partners of infected who used condoms became infected. doc\95\02\lorisk.txt - 75% of the population doesn't even need to change sex habits, AIDS unlikely to go beyond gays or drug users. \priv\95\03\hivdrug.txt - NYT 2/28/95 3/4 of new drug infections were among drug addicts. Half of heterosexual AIDS cases related to crack use. Only one quarter of new infections due to gay men, half is among drug users, others are mostly women who have sex with infected drug users. d:\priv\49\19\aidsgndm.txt In 1993, there were 9,288 AIDS cases attributed to heterosexual contact, a 130 percent increase over 1992 d:\doc\94\16\priv\hetaid.txt - Very little risk to heterosexuals Only article on CD mentioning anal sex. @@hispanic or @@latino \priv\96b\07\latnaids.txt Latino beliefs impede condom use \priv\95\15\aidssum5.txt - "Demographics Help Explain Hispanic Sexual Behavior and Gender Roles and Must Be Considered for STD Prevention Programs, Says UCSF Researcher" Business Wire (10/31/95) Hispanics have more exaggerated sex roles, Hispanic men like to have sex earlier and use condoms less (but they have lower AIDS rates, this was evidently not noted in the study, due to lower rates of homosexual sex) \priv\95\07\latiaids.txt - latino aids epidemic, latino men engage in anal sex, but don't think they're gay \priv\95\04\lataids.txt - latin-american women have high risk behaviors \doc\95\05\aidshisp.txt, \priv\95\05\aidshisp.txt Latinos 2.5 times rate of whites, but only applies to Puerto Ricans. \priv\95\04\aidssum2.txt - Hispanics have higher rates of unprotected sex, or engage in "gay" sex without thinking that they are gay. 40% of cases are gay or bisexual men. @@history GENE STUDY SAYS HIV JUMPED FROM CHIMPS TO HUMANS ABOUT 1930 z51\clip\2001\09\chimphiv.txt NYT SEP 04, 2001 The Genesis of an Epidemic: Humans, Chimps and a Virus By GINA KOLATA [Chimp was found to have virus similar to HIV] From those calculations, they found a date when the spark of the epidemic was lit: 1931, plus or minus 15 years. \doc\95\02\newhiv.wk1 - New HIV Infections Peaked in 1982 Based on "The Shape of the Epidemic" New York Times 2-28-95 p. B6 Estimated number of new HIV infections per year, in thousands The rate of infections peaked in 1982, and has fallen off until it has been constant since 1988 Year Number Chart 1977 10 ++ 1978 40 ++++++++ 1979 52 ++++++++++ 1980 100 ++++++++++++++++++++ 1981 160 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 1982 190 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 1983 165 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 1984 125 +++++++++++++++++++++++++ 1985 75 +++++++++++++++ 1986 60 ++++++++++++ 1987 50 ++++++++++ 1988 40 ++++++++ 1989 40 ++++++++ 1990 40 ++++++++ 1991 40 ++++++++ 1992 40 ++++++++ 1993 40 ++++++++ Source: Dr. Don C. Des Jarlais, Beth Israel Medical Center Table prepared by Arthur Hu @@HIV Cause \doc\95\04\nothiv.txt - Not caused by HIV survey @@HIV Rates %%chorus \priv\95\10\aidssum.txt The Bittersweet Music of Life" Washington Post (08/23/95) P. C1; Crews, Chip 150 members have died from AIDS, nearly half of 225 current members are infected with HIV. (that's one of the highest HIV rates for any group, including IV drug users at STD clinics) "Remarkable AIDS film is about life" SPI 8/23/95 p. C14 Photo: San Francisco Gay Men's Chorus compares the number of its surviving original members in white (7) with those who have been lost to AIDS in black (150). (that's a 95% death rate) \doc\95\07\npraids.txt - infection rates among gay men fell to nearly zero towards the late 80s. %%estimate \priv\96b\07\hivrate.txt Date: Sat, 6 Jul 1996 13:56:58 -0400 From: NewsHound@sjmercury.com (NewsHound) Study Estimates One in 300 Americans Infected with HIV By TARA BURGHART (AP) Overall 0.3%, Black men 2%, Hispanic men 1%, White men 0.4% Black women 0.6%, 0.03% White women Date: 09 Jul 96 From: Mike Fumento <74323.1507@CompuServe.COM> USA Today's Kim Painter bashed my book The Myth of Heterosexual AIDS back in 1990. "Critics Say Author Twists Conclusions," was the sub-head. Among my "twisted conclusions" was an assertion that that the CDC's 1986 estimate of 1 to 1.5 million infections was wrong, that a better number was 500,000 to 800,000 (based on the work of Dr. Joel Hay). Before the piece appeared, when I called her to tell her there were stories that the book was being suppressed, she refused to look into it saying, "I don't believe in conspiracy theories. Six years and one suppressed book later Painter writes in USA Today, "The CDC . . . revision says there were 400,000-450,000 infections in 1984 and 550,000 to 650,000 in 1986." The media's motto: Never apologize, never explain. \priv\95\19\aidssum3.txt "Scope of the AIDS Epidemic in the United States" Science (11/24/95) Vol. 270, No. 5240, P. 1372; Rosenberg, Philip S. In the journal Science, Philip S. Rosenberg reports that a deconvolution method called backcalculation was used to estimate the nation's age-specific HIV infection rates as of January 1993. Using this technique, there were an estimated 630,000 to 897,000 HIV-infected children and adults--including up to 150,000 women--at that time. %%gay summary - Note that only high risk groups have HIV rates over 0.5% Only gays have HIV rates over 10% Next free end note - 18 California HIV/AIDS Update July 1998 table 7 %%world http://www.unaids.org/epidemic_update/report/index.html#table puts the "Estimated number of people living with AIDS/HIV, end 1999", as 0.61% for the US [adults 15-49]. sub-Saharan Africa: 8.57% Western Europe: 0.23% Carribean [their spelling] 2.11% Global total: 1.07% %%Gay \priv\95\05\sfteach.txt - Over half of estimated 70,000 homosexual and bisexual men in San Francisco were infected in the early 80's, now it's a "trickle" Blood tests at one SF clinic found 40 percent of gay men age 20 to 24 were infected \priv\95\05\aidssum.txt "Gay Medical Group Pushes for Better AIDS Education" American Medical News (04/24/95) Vol. 38, No. 16, P. 10 Unless significant changes are made, the majority of gay and bisexual men in the United States could become infected with HIV, warns a recent report by the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association. "What we're seeing is an infection rate for gay and bisexual men under 30 of 3 percent per year," said Benjamin Schatz, the association's executive director. \doc\95\05\macs.txt Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), a long-term study of HIV and AIDS in more than 5,000 gay and bisexual men 39% HIV infected in 1984 14% of remaining men have become infected 24% have developed AIDS 85% of AIDS cases have already died 1.8% of HIV infected men died of other causes before AIDS \doc\95\05\cityhiv.txt 17% of tested gay men HIV+, 12% IVDU All HIV+ used condoms every time in past 6 months. JAMA Oct 6, 1993 "Americans Young and Old Play With Fire in the Age of AIDS" Melvin Konner M.D. (Emory University) Los Angeles Times June 11, 1990 p. B2 Rates of HIV seropositivity among gays went from 1% in 1978 to 65% in 1984, but leveled off in the mid-1980s because gays reduced partners, used condoms, indulged less in anal sex, and stayed away from bathhouses that encouraged casual promiscuity. "Surviving the Second Wave" Newsweek Sept 19, 1994 p. 50 Patrick Rogers The annual rate of HIV infection in young men under 30 has increased by 4 times since 1987. Researchers funded by the National Institutes of Health project a majority of 20-year-old gay and bisexual men nationwide will eventually have the virus. "Educators are focusing on the culture of gay sex". \doc\95\01\washhiv.wk1 - HIV Surveys in Seattle/Tacoma Washington 88-94 Source: HIV/AIDS Report, 11/94 Dept Health, Seattle Washington Table Ranking by Arthur Hu Redmond Wa HIV Surveys in King/ Pierce Co and Washington State 1988-1994 STD Rates Cumlative figures with starting dates 45.0000% Gay Men STD Clinics King Co 1988 30.0000% Gay Men in STD Clinics King Co 1990 29.6000% Gay men in Drug Treatment Clinic King Co 26.9000% Gay IVDU King Co in STD Clinic 23.3000% Gay Men IVDU in King Co Drug Treatment Clinic 22.9000% Gay Men in STD, King Co 15.0000% Gay Men STD Clinics King Co 1993 2.9000% Het Men IVDU King Co in STD Clinic 1.0000% Het Men in Drug Treatment Clinic King Co 1.0000% Women and Het men, Drug Treatment King/Pierce Co 1994 0.6000% Female Youth Clinic 9/93 0.4000% Het Men in STD King Co 0.1500% Job Corp applicants statewide 1/88 0.0400% Male Military Applicants Statewide 10/85 0.0350% Childbearing Women statewide 0.0030% Blood Donors statewide 0.0000% Male Youth Clinic 9/93 0.0000% Female Military Applicants Statewide 10/85 0.0000% High Risk Adolescent Clinic 9/93 male or female The New Republic Dec 26, 1994 p. 7 "Around half of gay men in metropolitan areas are thought to be infected" Note: it's not that high, see SF below, more likely about 13%, but higher for older gays. d:\priv\94\19\gayhiv.txt Young Men's survey (SF) 33% practiced unprotected anal sex 10% used IV drugs 70% who were HIV postive didn't know it UCSF Center for AIDS prevention (SF) 5% 18-23 yr old 11% 24-26 29% 27-29 tested positive for HIV CDC 4% of gay men 20-24 have AIDS 16% of gay men 25-29 have AIDS doc\94\14\aidsgay2.txt could be up to 50% among young gay men 1994 d:\doc\94\17\priv\unsafex.txt - SF young men's 17-22 survey found 10% infected total, w + H, 20% of black d:\doc\94\17\washblad.txt - Wash (DC) Blade says 13% HIV post, est 15% total including non-tested seattle program directory says 10-13% among gay men %%hemophiliacs Hemophiliacs Half of 20,000 US are HIV+, 2,700 AIDS 27%, or 1/4 AIDS SFC 7-10-93 A5 Shalala Wants Study of Hemophiliacs, AIDS %%heterosexuals \priv\95\16\aidssum1.txt "Heterosexuals Polled on HIV-Related Risks" Boston Globe (11/02/95) P. 3 A survey completed in 1990 and repeated two years later indicates that heterosexual adults are not significantly changing their sexual behavior in response to HIV risk. %%high risk d:\priv\94\19\aidsgndm.txt (CDC) SPI Nov 24, 1994 "Aids Drops..." from 1985 through 1993 rates per 100,000 AIDS male-to-male 66.5 to 46.6 iv drug use non-gay 17.4 to 27.7 Gay or IV drug use 83.9 to 74.3 %%mother \doc\95\02\mothhiv.txt - Mothers with HIV "Declining Prevalance of HIV Among Childbearning Women" California HIV/AIDS Update October 1994 p. 55 HIV Prevalence among childbearing women California, 1993 HIV positive per 10,000 births Rate Index White 2.0 1.0 Black 22.0 11.0 Hisp 4.3 2.2 Asian/Other 3.0 1.5 The rate has been declining since 1991 until 1993 aids.hiv.new %%new \priv\96\20\unaids.txt Newshound 6/8/96 U.N. Says AIDS Cases Rose by 25 percent in 1995 US HIV infections have fallen from 100,000 / yr to 40,000. Thailand cases have dropped among military recruits USA Today July 27, 1992 \priv\95\05\statepid.txt, 47,000 diagnosed with AIDS in the past year, 40,000 thought to be newly infected %%overestimate aids.hiv.overestimate "CDC to lower estimate: AIDS cases thought to be 20% too high" NBC news says the old 1989 estimate of 800,000 to 1.2 million should be revised to 600,000 to 1 million, or down by 20%. It had been set to about 1 million for the past 5 years, but new studies show a leveling off of new cases. Seattle Times March 11, 1995 p. A2 %%prison \doc\96\03\jailaids.txt "Study finds inmates 6 times more likely to have AIDS Seattle Post Intelligencer April 5, 1996 p. A3. The CDC found 5,279 HIV infected prisoners, or 5.2 cases per 1000, six times the rate of 0.9 per 1000 in the general population. From the early 80's to 1994, there have been 4,588 deaths among inmates in the largest city and county jails and state and federa prisons. Most were infected before getting in, some statewide surveys show only 0.3% of inmates were infected in prison aids.hiv.prison of 66,000 prisoners in NY State, 12% men, 20% of women are HIV+ "AIDS: Civil Liberties vs. Lives" Helen Matthews Smith WSJ Sep-13-94 %%race [[Seattle d:\doc\94\17\seahiv.wk1 - AIDS infection rate in Seattle STD Asian HIV rate is same or greater than white, but Asians are much less likely to be in risk category gay tested W1.0 B1.69 H1.79 A-8.91 NA1.1 gay men W1.00 B1.01 H.76 A2.28 NA0.54 w26% b26% H20% A60% (5 cases) NA14% heterosexual W1.00 B5.25 H4.57 A2.45 NA15.8 W.18% B.95% H.82% A.44% NA2.8% doc940\AIDSINFE.XLS relative AIDS infection rate by race wm=1.0 white black mexican m f b m f b m f b main 1.00 -3.34 -1.67 2.43 -1.38 -1.74 -1.98 -2.92 -1.65 lo 1.00 -10.0 -1.67 3.04 -1.38 -5.22 -1.98 -4.96 -1.32 high 1.00 -1.14 -1.47 1.78 -1.38 1.69 -2.48 -1.77 -1.65 %%survey 50% San Franciso, Seattle gay men mid 1980s 45% Gay Men STD Clinics King Co 1988 39% 1984 US gay men, Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study 30% Gay Men in STD Clinics King Co 1990 29.6% Gay men in Drug Treatment Clinic King Co 26.9% Gay IVDU King Co in STD Clinic 23.3% Gay Men IVDU in King Co Drug Treatment Clinic 15.0% Gay Men STD Clinics King Co 1993 15% US Urban gay men, Seattle gay men, 1994 2.9% Het Men IVDU King Co in STD Clinic 3% Seattle female prostitutes 1% Het Men in Drug Treatment Clinic King Co 1% Women and Het men, Drug Treatment King/Pierce Co 1994 0.6% King Co Female Youth Clinic 9/93 0.5% all Philadelphia patients of 64 HIV+ Health Philadelphia Inquirer 5/1/95 p. A3 0.4% US overall (based on CDC 1 million estimate) 0.4% Het Men in STD King Co 0.15% Job Corp applicants Washington statewide 1/88 0.04% Male Military Applicants Washington Statewide 10/85 0.035% Childbearing Women Washington statewide 0.0030%Blood Donors Washington statewide 0.001% China (estimated 10,000 unreported cases) 0% Asian TB patients in Los Angles 0.0000% Male Youth Clinic Seattle 9/93 0.0000% Female Military Applicants Washington Statewide 10/85 0.0000% Seattle High Risk Adolescent Clinic 9/93 male or female %%US US News and World Report 11-14-94 Letter to Editor U Chicago study estimates only 600-800,000 infections based on study of 3,000 respondents vs. most recent CDC estimate of 1 million (but U Chicago probably based on a better survey since CDC never did a representative sample of the US) %%world http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/africa/03/aids_debate/html/default.stm World AIDS UNAIDS end 2001 Worldwide HIV Prevalence Rates 0.0-0l% Mongolia, Iraq, Turkey, Egypt, Japan S. Korea 0.1-0.5% Canada China N. Africa Australia Mexico, Israel 0.5-1% US, India, Russia, Brazil, Argentina, Norway, Spain 1-5% 5-15% 15-39% S. Africa Projected with HIV 2002 - 2010 Russian Federation 1-8m China 1-13m India 4-25m Nigeria 1-13m Ethiopia 3-8m US National Intelligence Council http://www.unaids.org/ http://www.unaids.org/bangkok2004/GAR2004_html/ExecSummary_en/ExecSumm_en_01.htm#P52_5995 "The epidemic in Asia is expanding rapidly. This is most evident with sharp increases in HIV infections in China, Indonesia and Viet Nam. An estimated 7.4 million people are living with HIV in the region and 1.1 million people became newly infected last year alone – more than any year before. Home to 60% of the world’s population, the fast-growing Asian epidemic has huge implications globally'" http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/africa/03/aids_debate/html/regional_view.stm BBC News The Global Spread of HIV 8/2004 With HIV %of world New Cases Deaths 03 Sub-Saharan Africa 25m 66.1% 3m 2.2m Nearly two-thirds of the people who die from Aids live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Asia 7.4m 19.6% 500k 1.1m North Africa MEast 480k 1.3% 75k 24k HIV prevalence in this region is still relatively low, but there is potential for a considerable increase E Europe CentAsia 1.3m 3.4% 360k 49k The Aids epidemic in Eastern Europe and Central Asia shows no signs of abating Australia NZealand 32k >.1% 4800 700 Although incidence on other Pacific Islands remains low,... High income nations 1.6m 4.2% 64k n/a @@Hype AIDS HYSTERIA OF 90S WAS TOTAL BUNK \clip\2001\06\aidshype.txt From the Washington Times, Friday, June 29, 2001, “Pruden On Politics” Column By Wesley Pruden, Editor-in-Chief, the Washington Times URL: http://www.washtimes.com/national/20010629-719867.htm Reprising hysteria over the AIDS threat Dr. Joseph was, in fact, wrong: The number of AIDS cases diagnosed in New York through the year 2000 is not 400,000, or even 200,000, but little more than 100,000. @@Immune Nobody is immune to AIDS, but for groups that don't practice unsafe AIDS transmission practices, they might as well be. \doc\95\04\aidsimmn.txt E Bay Survey Shows Chinese Ignorant of Facts About AIDS Asian Week Jan 19, 1990 There is a belief that Asians are immune from AIDS Kevin Fong, AIDS coordinator for Asian Health Services of the East Bay said that anyone, regardless of race or gender is susceptible to contracting AIDS, being heterosexual or refraining from intravenous drug use do not shield a person from contracting it note - for all practical intents and purposes they DO shield you, if you consider a probablity of less than 1 in 1000 to be immune compared to 15-70% infection rate for drug use or homosexual. @@increase "New AIDS Estimates Show Demographic Changes" AIDS Alert (06/95) Vol. 10, No. 6, P. 83 The rate of AIDS increase has slowed to only 3 percent per year. @@iv drug use \doc\96\03\scihone.txt "Scientists Hone Knowledge of How Virus Spreads" Wall Street Journal May 1, 1996 f050196. f050196 90% of the population is at near-zero risk of HIV. In one study 70% of drug user needles were contaminated by HIV, between 1% and 2% of injections result in infection. @@jews \priv\95\20\aidssum2.txt "Sunday, the Rabbi Got AIDS" Village Voice (12/05/95) Vol. 40, No. 49, P. 27; Beiser, Vince Most Orthodox Jews are hesitant to acknowledge that AIDS exists in their communities. However experts estimate that in New York, some 15,000 of the area's 2 million Jews are HIV-infected ( 1 in 133 or 1%). No one knows how many cases are in the Orthodox societies because virtually all are kept are concealed. Transmission routes such as sex with prostitutes and sex with injection drug users have been mentioned, but the majority of all HIV infections in these communities come from men having sex with men. For Orthodox Jews, this is the worst possible way because the Torah condemns homosexuality. (CDC clearinghouse summary) @@lesbian Lesbians have a much lower rate of AIDS than gays, predictably, but that doesn't mean that they're much, much higher than other women due to all the other ways you can get AIDS besides anal sex. See how Lesbians rank in HIV surveys. \priv\95\11\aidssum.txt "Lesbians Slip Through Health System Cracks--Expert" Reuters (09/01/95); O'Donnell, Lynne Growing evidence of risk to lesbians due to sex and needle sharing. She estimated that more than 20 percent of lesbians in the United States had sex with a high-risk partner, and that between 1 and 2 percent of all women with AIDS were lesbians. \doc\95\06\lesbaids.txt Reference: Chu SY, Conti L, Schable BA, Diaz T. Female-to- female sexual contact and HIV transmission. [letter] JAMA 1994;272:433. Cases of female to female transmission of AIDS is extremely rare, it's usually from drug use or infection from men. @@lowrisk also see @@lesbian aids.low-risk doc\95\02\lorisk.txt - 75% of the population doesn't even need to change sex habits, AIDS unlikely to go beyond gays or drug users. "Across the USA: South Dakota" USA Today (03/10/95) P. 6A South Dakota has the lowest rate of AIDS cases in the United States, according to a state report. In 1994, 24 new cases of HIV infection were reported. @@mortality \doc\96\02\aidsmort.txt In 1994, the death rate from HIV infection per 100,000 population among persons aged 25-44 years was almost four times as high for black men (177.9) as for white men (47.2) and nine times as high for black women (51.2) as for white women (5.7). @@murder \priv\95\05\aidssum.txt doc934:aidskill.txt Acer murdered his patients? "HIV Sentence" Maclean's (04/24/95) Vol. 108, No. 17, P. 25 In Burnaby, British Columbia, a violent criminal who intentionally exposed his sex partners to HIV, was sentenced to seven years in jail. One woman, a mother of two, has tested HIV-positive. "AIDS Trial May Hear from Mystery Witness" Toronto Globe and Mail (05/03/95) P. A1; Feschuk, Scott In Canada, the prosecutor in the trial of model Marilyn Tan--who is charged with injecting her former lover @@music SAILER ON JOBS WITH LOW AIDS RATES - SPORTS, ROCK STARS \doc\web\99\05\sailgay.txt @@native american \doc\95\11\aidnatv.txt - federal panel on native americans. Still no mention of low rate of AIDs @@Needle Exchange XI International Conference on AIDS Julie Brunzau found cocaine and heroin injectors in a Montreal hospital were 33% infected when using a needle exchange, but only 13% for those who did not use the program, contrary to other studies that show positive results AIDS Policy & Law 1996 11(13):3 @@nonexistent \priv\95\09\aids0809.txt - no AIDS cases in Eastern Arctic despite abundant STD's. @@Opinion MOST THINK AIDS IS #2 HEALTH PROBLEM From: Michael Fumento Item from the Wash. Post, 5 December, slugged, "More AIDS Funds Favored." "Americans are unusually well-informed about AIDS and want the government to spend more fighting it, according to a survey released yesterday. The nationwide survey . . . found that people think AIDS is one of the two top major health problems facing the nation." Well, this would help explain why they want more AIDS funds. But as it happens, AIDS is number eight on the list of causes of death and dropping like a rock. No. 1 is heart disease with 2.3 million deaths. No. 2 is cancer with 734,000 deaths. AIDS caused less than 33,000 deaths. Only the American media could think that if the population thinks 33,000 deaths is more than 734,000 deaths, it's "unusually well-informed." Mike Fumento @@Oral Sex Even a "safe" practice can transmit AIDS Waco Tribune-Herald, February 2, 2000, "Supercomputer Calculates HIV Origin to 1930" by Daniel Q. Haney, AP reporter - "A study released Tuesday found that oral sex was probably the cause of 8 percent of recent HIV infections among a group of homosexual men examined in San Francisco [contrary to belief that it was "safe"]" thanks to Donna Garner Texas Classroom Teacher @@Origin http://www.skeptic.com/03.2.harris-aids.html#origins \clip\97\05\aidshere.htm GAYS INSTRUMENTAL IN SPREADING AIDS IN THE US THE AIDS HERESIES A Case Study in Skepticism Taken Too Far By Steven B. Harris, M.D. From Skeptic vol. 3, no. 2, 1995, pp. 42-58. (The full article goes to page 79.) The following article is copyright © 1994 by the Skeptics Society, P.O. Box 338, Altadena, CA 91001, (818) 794-3119. Permission has been granted for noncommercial electronic circulation of this article (lippard@skeptic.com). "Also beginning around 1969 (the date of the New York City "Stonewall" riots), homosexuals in the U.S. began to take open political power, and concomitantly one faction of male homosexuals began to engage in the high-infection risk "bathhouse lifestyle" chronicled by Shilts. In addition, the American homosexual- male community was apparently many times re-infected by many world-traveling disease "vectors" from other countries in the 1970s, including an airline steward named Dugas (described in Shilts as the C.D.C. "patient zero") who traveled widely in Europe, Canada, and the U.S., died of AIDS, and is known to have had sex with no less than 40 of the first 248 Americans to be diagnosed with AIDS by April, 1982.14 What happened in the late 1970s in the U.S. is that when a large enough fraction of the American homosexual-male population became infected with HIV, the U.S. blood supply, maintained with volunteer donations only, finally became contaminated with the virus. " @@politics \doc\96\03\scihone.txt "AIDS Fight is Skewed By Federal Campaign Exaggerating Risks" Wall Street Journal May 1, 1996. Amanda Bennett and Anita Sharpe. F050196-1 Snippets \clip\97\05\wsj.txt @@pneumonia vs. AIDS \doc\95\11\pneum.txt On March 22, 1995, the National Center for Health Statistics released information on the number of deaths in calendar year 1992. 6. Pneumonia 75,719 7. Diabetes 50,067 8. AIDS 33,566 There are twice as many deaths due to pneumonia than AIDS, but to national campaign of information on how to avoid it. @@quarantine \priv\95\13\aidssum.txt "AIDS Rate Low in Cuba, at High Price" Miami Herald (10/16/95) P. 7A; Golden, Tim Quarantine of AIDS patients results in lowest rate of AIDS in LatAm/Carribean @@r @@Racist THE TRAGEDY OF CHAUTAUQUA COUNTY http://www.natvan.com/WHAT/WHATDIR.HTML. \clip\97\29\adv1.txt Warns of AIDS from sex between blacks and whites, and erasing of objections to inter-racial relations, blames jews as well. @@reduction \doc\96\03\lowrisk.txt "Case for Behavioral Studies for AIDS Prevention" Lancet (03/16/96) Vol. 347, No. 9002, P. 750; Rowe, Paul M. Studies indicate that cutting rates of risky sexual behavior in half could stop the AIDS epidemic, Thomas J. Coates, director of the Center for AIDS Prevention Studies at the University of California, San Francisco said in a lecture at the National Institutes of Health. Coates cited research that shows that behavioral interventions can achieve such reductions. For example, when condom-use rules were implemented at gay sex clubs in San Francisco, rates of unprotected sex dropped to almost zero. (But rates of AIDS tranmission did not drop to zero, even reduction by half will not stop the gay epidemic, a. hu note) @@risk \doc\96\06\aids1.txt Somebody said... So, a gay male who does not share needles and practices safe sex has (most likely) less of a chance of testing positive for HIV than a straight male who pays no attention to the AIDS scare, mistakenly believing it is just "hype." When you take into account the relative tranmission probability of an infected person of anal sex with a condom with vaginal sex without a condom, (both in the range of 1 in 300 to 2000), and then take into account that the infection rate of gay men is in the range of 10% to 25% depending on who you hang out with compared with about 0.1% of US women overall, it's still about 100-250 times more dangerous to engage in "safe" gay sex than unsafe heterosexual sex. @@sex @@unsafe sex %%anal sex - see asian.sex.anal \doc\95\06\oralanal.txt Source: Paul Cameron "Sexual Orientation and Sexually Transmitted Disease" Rates of anal / oral sex Male Female Hetero Homo Hetero Homo never 74.5 21.3 68.9 36.1 once 5.7 7.5 6.2 9.8 over 100 times 0.6 20.0 2.8 8.2 ever 25.5 78.7 31.1 63.9 "Gay unsafe sex relapses worry AIDS activists" USA Today June 22, 1990 20% of gay men in some cities have returned to at least occasional anal sex without condoms. c:\doc\95\02\asiasex.txt - Sex by Race and Religion "Sex, Lies, and Asian Americans" Most studies show 1/2 gays engage in anal sex, 1/4 to 1/3 without consistent condom use. \doc\95\05\gayvigi.txt - 1 in 3 gay men in 16 cites had unprotected anal sex \priv\95\05\sfteach.txt USA Today June 18, 1990 San Francisco health officials are sobered by recent signs that young homosexual and bisexual men are living dangerously. A 1989 survey showed more than a third still had anal sex without condoms. Blood tests at one clinic found 40 percent of men age 20 to 24 were infected %%behavior d:\doc\94\18\priv\change03.txt Title: Changes in HIV rates and sexual behavior among homosexual men, 1984 to 1988/92. Authors: Silvestre, Anthony J.; Kingsley, Lawrence A.; Wehman, Patricia; Dappen, Ryan; Ho, Monto; Rinaldo, Charles R. Citation: The American Journal of Public Health, April 1993 v83 n4 p578(3) - data from homo and bisexual menin Pittsburgh shows HIV infection rates were the same in 1984 as 88/92, 7% of younger men and 18% of men over 22 - 16% had unprotected anal receptive intercourse with more than one partner during 6 months before visit. Rates of anal intercourse were the same. - fewer partners, but 65% still had over one partner in past 6 months %%club \priv\95\05\aidssum.txt "Gay Club Promises to Bar Sex" Washington Post (05/05/95) P. D6; Goldstein, Amy Under an agreement signed on Thursday with the D.C. Department of Consumer and Regulatory Affairs, a Washington social club for gay men will be allowed to remain open as long as every patron signs an a pledge not to engage in sex during his visit. %%oral \priv\95\09\aidssum.txt CDC Clearinghouse "Gays, AIDS and Oral-Sex Risk" Philadelphia Inquirer (07/15/95) P. A7; Rotello, Gabriel One San Francisco study showed 2 infections out of 6,704 gay men over 5 years, or .03% In another study, 3 of 675 or 0.5 percent became infected. Note - not much emphasis on anal sex leading to 15-35% infection rates. %%unsafe d:\doc\94\18\priv\unsafe02.txt Unsafe sexual behavior in homosexual men. Citation: American Family Physician, August 1993 v48 n2 p330(2) - increases in gonorrhea among men in clincs since 1989 after decline - 5X increase in gonorrhea from rectal samples between 1990 and 1991, where previously there were more cases among women. - 1988 was lowest rate of new HIV cases among gay men, but has increased since then every year - STD prevelance 15-19 among young men doubled from 2.4% before 1990 to 4.7% in 1991 - HIV prevelance in STD clinics was 7.8%, 17% in London clinics, half were asymptomatic - Hepatitis B is at peak levels, highest since 1986 - They conclude that there is substantial evidence of an increase in unsafe sexual behavior and HIV infection in homosexual men. doc\94\14\aidsgay2.txt - one third of gay men unsafe sex at some time - 15% of seattle gays unprotected anal sex - 10% unprotected oral sex d:\doc\94\17\priv\unsafex.txt - SF young men's 17-22 survey found 10% infected total, w + H, 20% of black one-third engaged in unsafe practiced recently. Many were high on drugs or alchohol during intercourse. %%usa Seattle PI 6/21/94 p. 3 FDA considers home test for HIV At least 40% of estimated 1 million HIV+ have not been tested @@partners aids.partners \priv\95\01\praids.txt "WOMEN IN PUERTO RICO FIND MARRIAGE OFFERS NO HAVEN FROM AIDS" By MIREYA NAVARRO New York Times 1/19/95 And nationally, too, married women are at risk. A study of women infected by heterosexual contact by the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1993 showed that nearly a quarter were married or in common-law relationships. Thirty-five percent of the women in the study had had only one sex partner in the previous five years. @@peak \priv\95\15\aidssum4.txt - Aids insurance claims have increased by only 4.5% \priv\95\05\aidsdrop.txt Medio Vol 2 No. 4 Last year, 80,691 new AIDS cases were reported, down from 106,618 the previous year, the CDC said. ``The epidemic is slowing" \priv\95\95\aidstop.txt Medio Vol 2 No. 4 There's some evidence people are heeding that advice: The epidemic$appears to have stabilized. The number of cases increased 3 percent a year in the last few years, in contrast to the 200 percent rises in the 1980s. But that's still an increase - 80,691 new cases of AIDS last year alone. @@Poll doc933:AIDSPOLL2.txt #1 is reduce number of partners @@prevention WHY DON'T WE TREAT AIDS LIKE ANY OTHER COMMUNICABLE DISEASE? \clip\97\14\burr\burr.htm Atlantic June 1997 The AIDS Exception: Privacy vs. Public Health It's time to stop granting "civil rights" to HIV -- and to confront AIDS with more of the traditional tools of public health" by Chandler Burr http://www.theatlantic.com/atlantic/issues/97jun/burr.htm \priv\95\08\aidswork.txt - AIDS prevention has reduced AIDS infections to 1000 per year in San Francisco @@prison "HIV-Related Mental Health in Correctional Settings" Focus (01/97) Vol. 12, No. 2, P. 1; Rubel, John G.; Bowles, C. Kenneth The U.S. Bureau of Justice reports that 2.4 percent of the 880,000 inmates in U.S. prisons are HIV-positive, and at least 17 percent of that number have AIDS. \doc\96\03\waprisn.txt Seattle King County HIV/AIDS report Q4 1995 p. 11 - Washington State prison HIV rates 2.3% over 40 1.9% Black 1.0% Total (puts CDC US estimate of .9% HIV in general population in question since actual HIV tests of prison population in WA state aren't that high) 0.8% Hispanic 0.7% White @@probability \doc\96\03\scihone.txt "AIDS Fight is Skewed By Federal Campaign Exaggerating Risks" Wall Street Journal May 1, 1996. Amanda Bennett and Anita Sharpe. Estimate shows that anal sex with a condom is about as risky as unprotected sex with an infected woman. Chances of infection with one act 1 in 50 million Condom vaginal sex with non-hi risk group woman (1) 5 million No condom vaginal sex wit no-hi risk group woman (1) 1,000 No condom vaginal sex with infected woman (2) 2000-300 Est of protected anal sex (3) 300 Accidental medical needle stick (5) 100 Protected vaginal sex in infected couple after 1 yr 100-50 Intravenous drug injection with infected needle (6) 200-30 Unprotected anal sex with infected partner (4) Sources: 1 - 1987 CDC Study 2 - Isabelle de Vincenzi, European Study Group on Heterosexual Transmission of HIV 1994. If you take into account only 1.6 in 100,000 are infected, this is about equal to the CDC 1 in 5 million figure. Also see \priv\96b\01\hivrisk.htm, WSJ 6/18/96 3 - Assuming 10 times reduction with condom from (1) 4 - Victor DeGruttola, Harvard School of Public Health, 1989 5 - CDC 6 - Don Des Jarlais, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York Transfusion of screened blood - 1 per 450,000 to 660,000 donations: Source: CDC/ American Red Cross \doc\95\02\adisprob.wk1 - Probability of AIDS for gay an non-drug using heterosexual Analysis by Arthur Hu Based on US CDC cumulative 1993 men AIDS cases for gay or gay / drug use vs cases other than gay, drug use, or sex with drug user, and estimated gay incidence of 4% for most races and 2% for Asian American AIDS probability 1 in White Black Hisp Asian Gay 27 15 21 59 NotGay 8,145 1,175 2,645 15,925 Percent Gay 3.7248% 6.7350% 4.7335% 1.6821% NotGay 0.0123% 0.0851% 0.0378% 0.0063% @@Projection 1992 PROJECTION HIGH BY A FACTOR OF 10 San Francisco Chronicle Dec 15, 1992. William Haseltine of Harvard University Dana-Farber Cancer Institute says 2.5-2 million will be infected with HIV by 2000, (about 1%, he's off by a factor of about 10) it could infect 1 billion (that's 20%) by the 2010. (No freaking way, it's not 20% in any country, let alone the planet) @@prostitution \doc\96\03\scihone.txt "Scientists Hone Knowledge of How Virus Spreads" Wall Street Journal May 1, 1996 f050196. Bruce G. Weneiger of the CDC notes that good Thailand studies show 1 in 5 men using prostitutes in the past 12 months. The Univ. of Chicago found only 1% of 3,432 surveyed did. In inner city, two-thirds of crack using women had traded sex for money or drugs, 40% who had unprotected sex for money were infected. \doc\95\12\proscond.txt "Council accepts grant to dole out condoms, counseling to prostitiutes" Seattle Post-Intelligencer August 29, 1995 p. B1. George Foster. Prostitutes have "highest HIV rate", 400 prostitutes in county, estimates 16 customers are infected per month. \doc\95\09\proshiv.txt "HIV-prevention grant splits council" Seattle Post Intelligencer June 30, 1995 p. B2 HIV among female prostitutes in King County is estimated to be below 3% @@Race %%Santa Clara County d:\doc\94\17\scaraai.wk1 - AIDS in Santa Clara County 1994 Summary: Only Asians are substantially (-6) less than whites, -6 gay and -23 IVDU Blacks are 2X overall, 10X IVDU, 6X parent at risk Latino -1.23 overall, but 5X parent at risk Urban Native Am 7X IVDU, but only 1.35 overall. Low NativeAm probably due to isolation on reservations Asians 3% cumulative, 7% of current quarter is highest ever, highest in continental US, but only 62 total cases! No asian pediatric cases Asians have doubled from 2.5% of first cases to 500 of latest 250 Index Analysis White vs. Avg, Others White=1.0 White LatinoAfAm Asian/PNatAm Population 58.1% 21.0% 3.5% 16.8% 0.4% Homosexual/Bi 1.23 -1.37 1.21 -5.63 -1.12 IV Drug User 0.85 -1.06 10.32 -23.71 7.09 Homo/Bi IVDU 1.15 -1.04 2.28 0.00 1.33 Hemophiliac 1.60 -4.88 0.00 0.00 0.00 Heterosex 0.93 1.51 3.45 -3.07 0.00 Transfusion/Blood 1.23 -1.81 1.99 -3.61 0.00 None 0.69 2.63 8.30 -5.78 0.00 Adult Sub total 1.17 -1.23 2.07 -6.02 1.35 pediatric population Hemophiliac 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 parent at risk/HI 0.52 5.53 5.53 0.00 0.00 Transfusion/Blood 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 None 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Pediatric Sub total 0.52 5.53 5.53 0.00 0.00 Total 1.16 -1.22 2.08 -6.03 1.35 %%USA %%United States \doc\95\05\usaids95.txt - Ben Gardiner's AIDS digest 1994 d:\doc\94\19\cdc.txt - text file for Decc 1993 d:\doc\939\usaids93.xlw - aids report 1993 with index doc\95\02 d:\doc\93a\usaids93.xls - very rough d:\doc\94\17\usaids93.wk1 - 2nd copy aids report 1993 d:\doc\94\18\usadrisk.wk1 - AIDS risk by race, Asian \doc\95\05\cdcaid94.wk1 - 1993-94 AIDS CDC d:\doc\94\18\usadrisk.wk1 - AIDS risk for Asian adults US 1993 Based on CDC Sept 1993 AIDS report Cumulative Risks US Men sex w men W1.0 B 1.99 H 1.43 A-3.05 N-3.44 US Injecting Drug use W1.0 B14.60 H 11.96 A-5.18 N-2.17 US Sex w men/ Drug W1.0 B 3.25 H 2.11 A-8.09 N-1.19 US Hemophilia W1.0 B-1.16 H -1.26 A-2.59 N-1.56 Source: analysis of 1993 CDC AIDS report US 1993 Cumulative and Oct 1993-Sept 1993 Asian Risk vs. White for Men White Black Oct. 199CumulatiOct. 199Cumulative Sept. 19total Sept. 19total Exposure category No. No. No. No. Men who have sex with men 0.87 0.91 1.99 1.69 Injecting drug use 0.30 0.28 14.02 14.60 Sex with Men + Drugs 0.75 0.75 3.25 3.10 Hemophilia/coagulation disorder 1.07 1.08 -1.16 -1.45 Heterosexual contact: 0.24 0.23 21.76 23.59 Sex with injecting drug user 0.27 0.30 18.67 16.37 Sex with person with hemophili 0.80 0.79 1.04 1.91 Born in Pattern-II(2) country 0.00 0.00 3760.00 1997.31 Sex with Pattern II 0.31 0.46 19.27 10.28 Sex with infected transfusion 0.56 0.62 6.46 4.40 Other het sex with HIV infecte 0.30 0.32 14.34 12.77 Transfusion, Blood, Tissue 0.82 0.93 2.26 1.50 Risk not identified(3) 0.44 0.47 8.59 7.27 Total 0.64 0.71 3.93 3.17 Hispanic Oct. 199CumulatiAsian / Pac Islander Sept. 19total Oct. 199Cumulative Sept. 19total Exposure category No. No. No. No. Men who have sex with men 1.57 1.43 -2.61 -3.05 Injecting drug use 9.93 11.96 -5.90 -6.18 Sex with Men + Drugs 1.98 2.11 -5.26 -8.09 Hemophilia/coagulation disorder -1.40 -1.26 -2.55 -2.59 Heterosexual contact: 7.85 6.95 -1.56 -2.20 Sex with injecting drug user 6.81 6.23 -1.46 -2.58 Sex with person with hemophili 2.79 2.57 ERR ERR Born in Pattern-II(2) country ERR 10.44 ERR 9.72 Sex with Pattern II 1.67 1.77 ERR ERR Sex with infected transfusion 2.01 3.25 2.07 -1.39 Other het sex with HIV infecte 9.27 8.57 -1.86 -2.47 Transfusion, Blood, Tissue 1.76 1.28 -1.39 -1.35 Risk not identified(3) 5.07 5.20 -1.14 -1.11 Total 2.72 2.46 -2.57 -3.05 Native Am Totals (4) Oct. 199CumulatiOct. 199Cumulative Sept. 19total Sept. 19total Exposure category No. No. No. No. Men who have sex with men -2.03 -3.44 1.15 1.10 Injecting drug use -1.98 -2.17 3.36 3.61 Sex with Men + Drugs 1.32 -1.19 1.34 1.33 Hemophilia/coagulation disorder -1.41 -1.56 -1.07 -1.08 Heterosexual contact: -1.61 -1.76 4.12 4.26 Sex with injecting drug user -2.41 -1.71 3.65 3.31 Sex with person with hemophili ERR ERR 1.25 1.27 Born in Pattern-II(2) country ERR ERR 456.46 244.12 Sex with Pattern II ERR ERR 3.23 2.17 Sex with infected transfusion ERR ERR 1.77 1.61 Other het sex with HIV infecte -1.20 -1.50 3.35 3.09 Transfusion, Blood, Tissue -4.59 -5.36 1.21 1.07 Risk not identified(3) -1.44 -1.79 2.28 2.14 Total -1.73 -2.74 1.55 1.42 White Black Risk for Women Oct. 199CumulatiOct. 199Cumulative Sept. 19total Sept. 19total Exposure category No. No. No. No. Injecting drug use 0.33 0.30 13.97 15.87 Sex with Men + Drugs 0.69 0.87 3.11 1.94 Hemophilia/coagulation disorder 0.33 0.32 12.92 13.59 Heterosexual contact: 0.31 0.28 12.63 14.97 Sex with injecting drug user 0.63 0.67 4.68 4.24 Sex with person with hemophili 1.09 1.09 1.12 -1.07 Born in Pattern-II(2) country 0.01 0.01 654.63 1420.72 Sex with Pattern II 0.17 0.15 40.40 45.58 Sex with infected transfusion 0.65 0.77 3.42 2.22 Other het sex with HIV infecte 0.31 0.33 14.60 13.37 Transfusion, Blood, Tissue 0.60 0.78 4.65 2.54 Risk not identified(3) 0.29 0.31 17.01 14.83 Total 0.34 0.34 13.31 13.12 Hispanic Oct. 199CumulatiAsian / Pac Islander Sept. 19total Oct. 199Cumulative Sept. 19total Exposure category No. No. No. No. Injecting drug use 6.15 7.32 -4.42 -5.06 Sex with Men + Drugs 2.98 1.57 1.85 -1.85 Hemophilia/coagulation disorder 7.18 7.85 1.07 -1.33 Heterosexual contact: 9.51 11.47 -1.51 -2.12 Sex with injecting drug user 2.52 2.16 1.69 1.16 Sex with person with hemophili -5.98 -2.39 ERR -2.70 Born in Pattern-II(2) country 11.14 18.38 8.64 5.19 Sex with Pattern II 2.09 2.23 ERR ERR Sex with infected transfusion 2.90 2.42 4.23 1.62 Other het sex with HIV infecte 7.45 7.24 1.05 -1.16 Transfusion, Blood, Tissue 3.30 2.09 1.86 1.09 Risk not identified(3) 6.86 6.65 -1.53 1.05 Total 6.43 6.72 -1.46 -1.73 Native Am Totals (4) Oct. 199CumulatiOct. 199Cumulative Sept. 19total Sept. 19total Exposure category No. No. No. No. Injecting drug use -1.08 1.10 3.02 3.35 Sex with Men + Drugs ERR ERR 1.45 1.14 Hemophilia/coagulation disorder 1.36 -1.20 3.01 3.14 Heterosexual contact: 1.92 1.16 3.17 3.63 Sex with injecting drug user -2.12 -2.22 1.60 1.50 Sex with person with hemophili 1.88 -1.49 -1.09 -1.09 Born in Pattern-II(2) country ERR ERR 81.22 174.61 Sex with Pattern II ERR ERR 5.83 6.47 Sex with infected transfusion ERR ERR 1.55 1.29 Other het sex with HIV infecte 1.14 -1.41 3.23 3.05 Transfusion, Blood, Tissue -1.19 -1.86 1.67 1.28 Risk not identified(3) 1.65 1.30 3.46 3.19 Total 1.16 -1.06 2.97 2.97 Asian AIDS risk factors vs. White Exposure category Risk Factor Rate Sex Sex with person with hemophili 0.00 M Sex with Pattern II 0.00 M Sex with Pattern II 0.00 F Born in Pattern-II(2) country 9.72 M Born in Pattern-II(2) country 5.19 F Sex with infected transfusion 1.62 F Sex with injecting drug user 1.16 F Transfusion, Blood, Tissue 1.09 F Risk not identified(3) 1.05 F Risk not identified(3) -1.11 M Other het sex with HIV infecte -1.16 F Hemophilia/coagulation disorder -1.33 F Transfusion, Blood, Tissue -1.35 M Sex with infected transfusion -1.39 M Total -1.73 F Sex with Men + Drugs -1.85 F Heterosexual contact: -2.12 F Heterosexual contact: -2.20 M Other het sex with HIV infecte -2.47 M Sex with injecting drug user -2.58 M Hemophilia/coagulation disorder -2.59 M Sex with person with hemophili -2.70 F Total -3.05 M Men who have sex with men -3.05 M Injecting drug use -5.06 F Injecting drug use -6.18 M Sex with Men + Drugs -8.09 M doc\census\usaids.wk1 - Asians rank as low or lowest by all but 1 cause based on 1990 AIDS statistics Rank of risk - Asian compared to white Born AIDS cntry 2074.5% 20.74 +++++++ blood tranf 101.3% 1.01 = PedHemophil 90.5% -1.11 = Other/? 76.7% -1.30 = Blood Transf 73.8% -1.35 = HtSex with bi-m 66.2% -1.51 = HtSex other 60.8% -1.65 -- female hetero 60.7% -1.65 -- All Pediatric 58.2% -1.72 -- Hetero sexual 51.9% -1.93 -- female 50.4% -1.98 -- HtSex with IV 40.5% -2.47 -- Hemophiliac 34.5% -2.90 --- Mother risk 33.1% -3.02 --- HtSex transfusio 32.8% -3.05 --- male hetrosex 32.8% -3.05 --- All Adult 28.3% -3.53 --- Male homosexual 27.6% -3.62 --- male 27.2% -3.67 --- IV drug user 14.8% -6.76 ----- Homo and IV 7.4% -13.54 ------ %%Washington State d:\doc\94\17\seataid.wk1 - AIDS by case risk in Seattle/ King Co Asians close - within factor of 2!, Asian women equal to white Index 86.50% 3.10% 4.40% 2.90% 0.80% 100.00% MALE White Black Hispanic Asian/PI AmInd Total Mate-mate sex 1.01 1.90 -1.02 -1.80 -1.01 -1.01 Injection drug use (IDU)0.74 10.40 2.79 #DIV/0! 5.12 1.35 IDU & mate-mate 0.99 2.58 1.05 -16.33 2.44 1.01 Heterosexuat contact 0.57 15.11 6.55 1.24 13.52 1.77 Hemophilia 1.11 -1.86 #DIV/0! -1.74 #DIV/0! -1.11 Transfusion 1.09 -1.83 -2.59 -1.71 #DIV/0! -1.09 Mother at risk/has HIV 0.77 13.95 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! 1.30 Undetermined/other 0.81 6.41 3.45 -1.24 #DIV/0! 1.24 MALE SUBTOTAL.(row %) 0.99 2.45 1.12 -2.06 1.35 1.01 FEMALE White Black Hispanic Asian/PIAmInd Total Injection drug use (IDU)0.72 12.58 1.54 -1.71 6.36 100.00% HeterosexuaL contact 0.90 4.34 1.97 -3.02 2.40 100.00% Hemophilia 1.16 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! 100.00% Transfusion 0.87 3.49 1.64 2.49 4.51 100.00% -Mother 0.43 18.60 13.11 9.94 #DIV/0! 100.00% Undetermined/other 0.58 13.95 1.97 11.93 #DIV/0! 100.00% MALE SUBTOTAL W0.99 B2.45 H1.12 A-2.06 NA1.35 FEMALE SUBTOTAL W0.80 B7.29 H1.97 A 1.49 NA3.60 <- Asian female higher TOTAL W0.98 B2.65 H1.15 A-1.90 NA1.44 doc940\AIDSINFE.XLS AIDS infection rate by race white black mexican m f b m f b m f b main 1.00 -3.34 -1.67 2.43 -1.38 -1.74 -1.98 -2.92 -1.65 lo 1.00 -10.0 -1.67 3.04 -1.38 -5.22 -1.98 -4.96 -1.32 high 1.00 -1.14 -1.47 1.78 -1.38 1.69 -2.48 -1.77 -1.65 doc90:nuggets.doc doc91:hins.doc Asians lowest doc922:usnaids - to us news about asian aids doc91:AIDS91 How much AIDS d:\doc\doc924\ d:\doc\94\17\aidscity.wk1 d:\doc\95\05\aidscity.txt Rate of AIDS compared in different cities, brief summary and rank by race and location. AIDS cases by city and state d:\doc\94\17\aidscity.wk1 Aids in the world and US cities 1992 figures for world and cities Total Rates per 100,000, cumulative June94 Hawaii LA SanFran SClara NYC USA Seattle White 231.0 265.6 1915.9 84.7 427.9 64.6 Black 14.7 251.5 1387.9 131.6 740.2 219.7 All 81.0 173.4 1780.9 65.9 526.3 91 Hispanic 4.9 94.6 1129.9 59.8 610.5 166.2 Thai #N/A 80.6 #N/A #N/A #N/A #N/A AmIndian #N/A 44.2 868.1 78.4 67.1 19.2 Japanese 14.0 31.7 332.0 #N/A #N/A #N/A Filipino 28.0 30.5 241.5 #N/A #N/A #N/A OtherAs 26.0 28.2 342.3 #N/A #N/A #N/A Chinese 23.0 24.1 56.6 #N/A #N/A #N/A Asian 28.2 24.0 127.1 8.6 50.6 19.3 Vietnam #N/A 19.1 92.1 #N/A #N/A #N/A Cambodian #N/A 10.9 92.1 #N/A #N/A #N/A Korean #N/A 4.8 32.1 #N/A #N/A #N/A PacIs #N/A 4.6 591.2 #N/A #N/A #N/A As Indian* #N/A 2.3 #N/A #N/A #N/A #N/A Hawaiian 36.0 #N/A #N/A #N/A #N/A #N/A Mix NonH 8.0 #N/A #N/A #N/A #N/A #N/A Index - White = 1.0, -2.0 = 1/2 Index Hawaii LA SanFran SClara NYC USA White 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 Black -15.71 -1.06 -1.38 1.55 1.73 3.40 All -2.85 -1.53 -1.08 -1.29 1.23 1.41 Hispanic -47.14 -2.81 -1.70 -1.42 1.43 2.57 Thai #N/A -3.30 #N/A #N/A #N/A #N/A AmIndian #N/A -6.00 -2.21 -1.08 -6.38 -3.36 Japanese -16.50 -8.38 -5.77 #N/A #N/A #N/A Filipino -8.25 -8.71 -7.93 #N/A #N/A #N/A OtherAs -8.88 -9.42 -5.60 #N/A #N/A #N/A Chinese -10.04 -11.02 -33.85 #N/A #N/A #N/A Asian -8.19 -11.07 -15.07 -9.85 -8.46 -3.35 Vietnam #N/A -13.93 -20.80 #N/A #N/A #N/A Cambodian #N/A -24.33 -20.80 #N/A #N/A #N/A Korean #N/A -55.15 -59.69 #N/A #N/A #N/A PacIs #N/A -57.95 -3.24 #N/A #N/A #N/A As Indian* #N/A ####### #N/A #N/A #N/A #N/A Hawaiian -6.42 #N/A #N/A #N/A #N/A #N/A Mix NonH -28.88 #N/A #N/A #N/A #N/A #N/A Rate of AIDS in Hawaii are 1/2 LA, but rates for races about same. SF = 10X Los Angeles. NatAm much less than white in LA, SF. d:\doc\doc923\laaids.xls AIDS in different cities see %%world aids d:\doc\94\17\seataid.wk1 - aids in seattle 1994 @@endHIV @@rank (Compared to other diseases) see comparison with leprosy, malaria, tuberculosis, plague, diarrhea Worldwide Cases Deaths ------------------------------------------- 7,500,000 2,500,000 Tuberculosis ? Malaria 1,000,000 Rotavirus (Diarrhea) 5,000,000 500,000 AIDS (1995) 950,000 Leprosy AIDS IS #1 KILLER IN THE WORLD? I DONT' THINK SO From: Steven C Diamond To Steve Plaut Subject: Gay Rights and Wrongs How exactly is AIDS research overfunded, considering that this disease will soon be the #1 killer in the world? Where are your priorities? India cases \priv\95\10\aidssum.txt "India Seen as Ground Zero in Spread of AIDS to Asia" Washington Post (08/17/95) P. A20; Anderson, John Ward India has the most HIV infected in the world according to some estimates (no way!) WHO and Indian government estimate 80,000 AIDS cases, 1.5 million HIV infection, 1M/5M by 2000. [But there have been only 713 documented cases so far, 1/100 the estimated rate, far lower than any major US city even this figure is only half the US cases.] WHO - 57 cases 79-90, 45 in 91, 140 in 92, 252 in 93, 713 total AIDS - 713 in all history Plague - 359 cases in one year, 57 deaths Malaria - 70,000 cases 229 confirmed to 4,000 est deaths in one month file: \doc\95\02\aidsrank.txt: title: AIDS is number 1 cause of death men 25-44 Infectious Diseases World Resources page Although infectious diseases account for only about 1 percent of deaths in developed countries, they are still the major killer in the developing world, accounting for a staggering 16.3 million deaths, or 41.5 percent of all deaths, in those nations in 1993 (56). http://www.wri.org/wri/wr-96-97/tables/8_t1.gif \clip\97\04\disedeat.gif has this table Estimated Deaths from Infectious and Parasitic Disease, 1993 Number of deaths in thousands ------------------------------------------------- 4,110 Acute lower respiratory infections under 5 3,010 Diarrhea under age 5 including dysentery 2,709 Tuberculosis 2,000 Malaria 1,160 Measles 933 Hepatitis B 700 AIDS 360 Whooping Cough 210 Bacterial meningitis 200 Schistosomiasis 10 Foodborne trematodes 6.8 Cholera 3.9 Diptheria 2.5 Leprosy .5 Plague ------------------------------------- 16,445 Total Source: World Health Organization, The World Health Report 1995: Bridging the Gap (WHO, Geneva 1995) Table 5 p. 18 ********************************************************** The Top 10 Causes of death for men 25 to 44 years in 1993 Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Based on: US News and World Report Feb 13, 1995 1. AIDS 24,310 2. Accidents 20,290 3. Heart Disease 11,440 4. Cancer 10,580 5. Suicide 9,800 6. Homicide 9,320 7. Strokes 1,640 8. Diabetes 1,390 9. Pneumonia, flu 1,170 10.Respiratory dis. 550 AIDS overtook accidents as number 1 in 1993, but the rate of AIDS spread has leveled off, and the number of new cases reported each year is declining ST 2/25/95 "Women face increasing HIV risk" AIDS will be no. 2 killer of women by year 2000 18-44 (??) SJM 12/2/93 - AIDS rise to No. 1 killer of young men CDC figures: approx deaths per 100,000 men 25-44 1. AIDS 58 2. Accidents 50 3. Heart disease 30 4. Cancer28 5. Homicide 27 6. Suicide 27 7. Liver Disease 10 8. Stroke 5 Graph shows rise from below #8 in 1982 to #1 in 1992 %%Alzheimer "Smoking blamed for decrease in life expectancy for women" The Vancouver Sun March 26, 1997 p. A7 Alzheimer's disease killed 2,544 Canadians in 1994, more people than died of AIDS @@rape \priv\95\05\aidssum.txt - "Study Links HIV, STD Infection Risk with Rape for Poor, Urban Women" Nation's Health (04/95) Vol. 25, No. 4, P. 11 urban rape survivors were more likely to be prostitutes, to smoke crack cocaine, to have had sex with high-risk men, and to be homeless. Almost 25 percent of the rape victims were HIV-positive. @@skaters \priv\96\01\aidssum1.txt "Skating Community Hit Hard by AIDS" Washington Post (01/07/96) P. A1; Gildea, William Washington Post writer Christine Brennan's new book, "Inside Edge: A Revealing Journey into the Secret World of Figure Skating," shows that AIDS has affected male figure skaters more than any other athletes and that the epidemic continues to endanger top U.S. skater @@smoking (compared) \doc\95\01\smokdeat.txt - Only 18% - 36% of smokers die of lung cancer vs. 29% of older gays in SF, who die much younger Double Crossing to Safety James Bovard, American Spectator Jan 1995 @@spending \priv\95\07\aidssum.txt - Fumento says Ryan White CARE act is a sham because very few AIDS cases are hemophiliacs or rural. The act will cost 3.6 billion, despite a decline the epidemic @@sports SAILER ON JOBS WITH LOW AIDS RATES - SPORTS, ROCK STARS \doc\web\99\05\sailgay.txt @@states \doc\95\05\aidsstat.txt - 12/94 aids cases by states %%std @@STD doc934:aidsyung.xls doc934:aidsstd.txt - AIDS and STD relationship doc\94\14\aidsgay2.txt - gonorrhea infection among gay men is 3 times its 1988 low in King County aids.survival @@survival Source: CDC "How people catch the AIDS virus" USA Today Dec 11, 1991 p. 8B The average time from HIV infection to AIDS diagnosis 8 to 10 years The average lifespan following AIDS diagnosis: 1 1/2 to 3 years %%child some children infected at birth are living to 13 or 14. "AIDS: Civil Liberties vs. Lives" Helen Matthews Smith WSJ Sep-13-94 %%diagnosis \priv\95\95\aidstop.txt Medio Vol 2 No. 4 "AIDS: Top Killer of Youth" By LAURAN NEERGAARD Associated Press Writer Most AIDS cases are diagnosed only two years before death %%general d:\doc\94\16\aidssurv.txt - Survival from 1987 AIDS definition diagnosis is only slightly longer than one year. This is from analysis of the CDC's public information dataset, which includes data through 1992. (Believe it or not, that dataset for 1993 is not available yet - arrrgh..) This is for a cohort diagnosed with AIDS in 1986. Later cohorts have somewhat better survival rates. Variable Cumulative Probability of Survival (percent) 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year Entire Cohort 50.5 30.7 20.8 17.5 Gender Male 51.2 30.7 20.5 17.1 Female 44.0 29.0 23.1 20.3 Race White 55.4 32.4 20.4 16.5 Black 42.6 27.3 20.6 17.8 Hispanic 45.2 29.9 22.8 20.5 Transmission Category Homosexual Contact 55.0 31.9 20.1 16.3 IVDU 42.5 27.6 21.5 19.2 Heterosexual Contact 48.1 29.0 21.1 17.7 @@suicide aids.suicide \priv\96\04\aidsuic.txt "Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide in Homosexual Men with AIDS" Only 2.1% overall PAS, but 22% of homosexual men with AIDS, and 13% end of life decision, @@testing Wednesday, May 15, 1996 · Page A1 San Francisco Chronicle "Mail-In HIV Test OKd -- It Hits Stores Next Year caption goes with picture in box on jump" Charles Petit - Studies show only one-third of people at high risk for such infections are tested for the virus. About half of those with AIDS do not know they are infected until they seek medical help for their symptoms. @@Theater \priv\95\05\aidssum.txt - gay theater shut down for sex acts "Gay Movie Theater Allowed to Reopen" New York Times (04/18/95) P. B3 @@traditional medicine \priv\95\07\aidsssum.txt "Chinese Medicine: Where Does It Work Best in HIV/AIDS?" AIDS Treatment News (06/02/94) No. 224, P. 8 Money from Ryan White CARE act supports Chinese medicine for 300 HIV+ patients, some conditions seem to be helped. @@transfusion \priv\96b\05\aidstran.txt BOSTON (AP) -- The risk of catching the AIDS virus from a blood transfusion is calculated to be just two in 1 million. @@Transmission Rates %%healthcare-worker \priv\95\05\aidssum.txt "AIDS Study: No Infection from Health Workers to Patients" Philadelphia Inquirer (05/01/95) P. A3; Hostetler, A.J. A study of 22,000 patients of 64 infected doctors, dentists, and other healthcare workers found 113 HIV infections, none from the health care workers. (0.5%) %%male doc922:mmaids.txt male to male transmission %%Rate Chances of transmission with unprotected sex: 50% gonorrhea 30% herpes 1% HIV "The Smart Sex Report" Jump Jan/Feb 1998 ONE IN 600-1000 CHANCE OF HIV WITH NO-CONDOM SEX z48\clip\2001\02\hetsex.txt 2/8/2001 Catching HIV in Single Sex Act Low By DANIEL Q. HANEY .c The Associated Press CHICAGO (AP) - A study of heterosexual couples in Africa concludes that the chance of catching the AIDS virus from a single sexual encounter with an infected person is one in 588. This risk is calculated for people who do not use condoms and who have sex regularly with one infected partner... estimates from North America placed the risk at about one in 1,000 for heterosexuals. @@Tuberculosis AIDS Asians have a very low rate of AIDS with TB, but the WHO has declared that AIDS and TB form a deadly combination. Other HIV infected groups have high rates of TB, especially whites. \doc\95\07\aidstb2.txt - link between AIDS and TB not in Asian Americans \priv\95\07\aidssum.txt "Join the DOTS" Economist (05/20/95-05/26/95) Vol. 335, No. 7915, P. 81 In an unprecedented move two years ago, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared tuberculosis (TB) a global emergency. "TB and HIV Have Formed Deadly Link" Philadelphia Inquirer (06/04/95) P. D5 The World Health Organization (WHO) warned last week that AIDS and tuberculosis (TB) have formed a fatal partnership. The two diseases have characteristics that can be deadly when both are present. The predicted explosion of AIDS cases--particularly in Southeast Asia--will probably increase the spread of TB, the \priv\95\05\aidssum.txt Blacks 50% of AIDS, 62% TB, 71% of co-incidence Hisp 14-17% of AIDS, TB or co-incidence d:\doc\95\06\laaidstb.wk1 - AIDS and TB in Los Angeles Co. 1992 Asians with TB have a zero rate of HIV TB case rate in LA County W1.00 B6.48 H5.10 A10.22 HIV rate of TB client W1.00 B-1.73 H-2.22 A0.00 @@white @@european From: juan pablo montoya sangliasuga hotmail.com Sent: Saturday, July 31, 2004 7:45 PM Subject: incorrect dada arthur "Middle Easterners have the lowest AIDS rates, not East Asians. East Asians also have lower life expectancies(longest lived humans are Albanian,ms. Hoxa and French ,Ms Jeanne Louise Calment women) than European states(andorra is the longest lived state, and the mean of korea, japan, china, taiwan is lower than the mean for any four nations in west europe) and much higher 5rates of hepetitis infection." @@women %%cause .LESS THAN 2% OF CA WOMEN AIDS CASES WERE LESBIAN /BISEXUAL \doc\96\07\cafemaid.txt California HIV AIDS Update Jan 1996 Less than 2% of AIDS among women in CA were lesbian or bisexual, despite the publicity given to the threat of AIDS to lesbian women. Of 2,215 female heterosexual contact cases: 39.5% sex with IV drug user 36.3% sex with partners known to have HIV infection or AIDS So much for lesbian AIDS theories 18.9% sex with bisexual women ------ 94.7% subtotal 5.3% sex with blood transfusion or hemophiliac, HIV+ Only 9% cause not identified Only 1.5% were bisexual Less than 1% were lesbian only Only 2% were lesbian or bisexual women Nearly all were IVDU or had sex with a male IVDU. %%hiv rate Young are fastest-growing group becoming infected with HIV (newsday)Laurie Garrett Seattle Times 6/17/98 JAMA today reports HIV in white male declined 45 to 50% between 1988-93. 18-27, 1/3 cases are female, 1/3 are heterosexually transmitted. White 23-27 1 in 1000, but 1 in 80 black women. \doc\96\03\scihone.txt "Scientists Hone Knowledge of How Virus Spreads" Wall Street Journal May 1, 1996 f050196. National infection rate for women is only 1.6 per 100,000 %%numbers worldwide \doc\95\11\womnhiv.txt "Women now lead in number of new HIV infection cases" Seattle Times Feb 9, 1995 p. A2, blamed on inferior social position %%risk \priv\96b\01\womnheal.txt Date: Wed, 19 Jun 1996 07:23:21 -0400 From: NewsHound@sjmercury.com (NewsHound) Women are living longer, but . . . Report cites climb in cancer, AIDS cases Reuters Women are 7 times more likely than men to be victims of violent assault from a current or former partner. AIDS has fallen from 13 times more common in men in 1985 to only 5 times more common today. \priv\95\19\aidsblak.txt Blacks and Hispanics have been disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic. In 1993, HIV infection was the leading cause of death among black women 25-44 years of age and the third leading cause of death among Hispanic women in this age group (2). (CDC, unpublished data). Approximately one half of all AIDS cases among women have been attributed to injecting-drug use and one third to heterosexual contact. \priv\95\01\praids.txt 48% drug 36% heterosexual aids.women.risk \doc\95\04\aidswomn.txt 41% drug users, 38% sex with partner at risk. Only 19% people with no obvious risks. @@World doc924:worldaid.* doc\94\17\worldaid.xls 1994 WHO figures @@Young Mens Survey doc913:HIVYUNG.RES,RS1 also doc\census doc913:lifestyl.txt - religion and health