Affirmative Action / Preferences | Arthur's Anydex: The Index of Anything

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Introduction

From NOW National Organization of Women The actual phrase "affirmative action" was first used in President John F. Kennedy's 1961 Executive Order 10925 which requires federal contractors to "take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed, and that employees are treated during employment, without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin." The same language was later used in Lyndon Johnson's 1965 Executive Order 11246. In 1967, Johnson expanded the Executive Order to include affirmative action requirements to benefit women.

Much of the opposition to affirmative action is framed on the grounds of so-called "reverse discrimination and unwarranted preferences." In fact, less than 2 percent of the 91,000 employment discrimination cases pending before the Equal Employment Opportunities Commission are reverse discrimination cases. Under the law as written in Executive Orders and interpreted by the courts, anyone benefiting from affirmative action must have relevant and valid job or educational qualifications.

It was thought that there would be no need for preferential treatment or quotas. From Sun Sentinel: Hubert Humphrey once said he would eat the 1964 Civil Rights Act if anyone could prove it would spawn quotas or racial preferences.

Neither JFK nor LBJ actually called for preferences or quotas. It was acutally Republican Richard Nixon who introduced "goals and timetables"

from: Richard Nixon and the origins of affirmative action. Publication:The Historian Publish date:March 22, 1998 Author:Kotlowski, Dean J Until recently, many scholars and journalists have credited Democratic Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson with initiating affirmative action. Yet it was a Republican president who first sanctioned formal goals and time frames to raze barriers to minority employment. Nixon, recalled civil rights leader James Farmer, was the strongest president on affirmative action--up to that point."

In 1963..., Kennedy directed his Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity to monitor hiring practices on federal construction projects. Two years later, Johnson signed Executive Order 11246, which reaffirmed the government's commitment to promote "equal employment opportunity" in companies holding federal contracts. While both orders recommended "affirmative action," neither JFK nor LBJ endorsed specific goals or timetables for desegregating the construction unions.

Contents

Affirmative Action Links

Summary

I'm probably one of the most provocative and outspoken Chinese American critic of Affirmative Action. I believe that the pursuit of equal numbers will lead people to realize that simply increasing the number of underachieving minorities such as blacks does nothing to fix differences in ability, while capping numbers to levels as small as 5 to 10 percent. A focus on equalizing numbers will eventually lead people to realize that if you do that, the next problem is that overachieving minorities such as Asians, Jews, and LBGTs are taking about 40-50 percent of the remaining positions in the most selective universities and schools. An emphasis on "merit" leads to giving most spots to overachieving minorities, not so-called "whites". My halfway fix proposal is to allow prefernces but 1) disclose who gets preferences and why 2) don't cap overachievers and 3) in recognizing that "whites" will be underrepresented, limit preferences so underachieving groups are no better represented than whites. I anticipate that once people understand this, they may be wise enough to dispose of them entirely.

Asian Americans are split on affirmative action. Liberals on the one hand side with under-represented minorities and point out that Asians are under-represented in some fields. They generally do not object to preferences of minorities over Asians as long as there are not preferences of Whites over Asians. They often argue that Affirmative action is not quotas or preferences, though they almost universally object to programs which seek to end quotas / numerical goals and ban racial preferences.

Conservatives observe that in most of the fields that Asians actively seek in elite universities and engineering schools, Asians are better qualified than even white students in terms of math test scores and grades, and thus stand to lose in a game which seeks to equalize outcomes. They have pointed out that many colleges in the 1980's appeared to act to limit numbers of Asians. In the 90's, they started to challenge desegregation decrees such as the one in Lowell in San Francisco which disallowed Chinese in excess of an aribrary 40% figure, and another one in Maryland which disallowed a transfer into a French immersion program because of desegregation concerns.

What Is Affirmative Action? There is no commonly agreed definition. In the absence of one definition, I propose a taxonomy that recognizes the existence of several types of race-based selection.

1) Discriminatory - Race is used to discriminate against a weaker group, such as blacks. Note - when used against a "stronger group" it is called "affirmative action". This was the original definition of what was disallowed in the 1964 Civil Rights Act, it has since been interpreted to allow, and sometimes require preferential treatment of some minorities. In general, discriminating against blacks is bad, but discriminating against whites is ok as long as it helps nonwhites.

2) Race neutral - Act to remove race as a consideration, both positive and negative, common in high tech. This is the standard for CCRI "anti-affirmative action" initiative. Such strategies have been called racist and discriminatory, either on the basis that they are harmful to progress towards equal outcomes, or simply as a deceptive attack.

3) Preferential - Race is a positive, but not the only consideration. Numbers can be increased, but not equal to quotas based on numerical parity. This is the basis of the 1978 "Bakke" Supreme Court standard which was in effect throughout the 80s, but is falling out of favor.

4) Quota - Race is used up to parity to population, or some qualified percentage, regardless of how much standards must differ. Quotas can be caps, as with Chinese at Lowell High School in San Francisco, or floors such as were effectively used at UC Berkeley when blacks and Hispanics met the 8% and 20% population based goals. Quotas are generally not allowed under the 1978 Bakke ruling which first spelled out that racial preferences could be legal, however newer rulings have effectively repealed this doctrine.

5) Maximizing - Preferences are used to increase numbers far beyond parity. Thus San Jose hired two black fire chiefs in a row, and their highest fire department ranks is 25% black in a city that is only 4% black. UC Berkeley admitted up to 12% blacks even though goals called for parity with 8% high school graduate population.

6) Exclusionary - Certain groups like white men are nearly or completely excluded. San Jose hired only one white male out of 22 new firefighters, neighboring Union City hired zero. An oral fire promotion test passed every black, but flunked 75% of whites. Although one would think this would be illegal, such practices were widely accepted, and rarely succesfully challenged. When Seattle Schools came up with 3 finalists for Academic Officer just after passing I200 banning preferences in 2000, all 3 were black women - the same odds as a slot machine since they are only 1 in 20 of the US population.

Hu's Laws Affirmative Action

The Politically Correct Laws of Affirmative Action


Top 10 most stupid defences of affirmative action

1 - Affirmative Action is not racial preference. But they won't
tolerate a ban on prefereces. And if it's unfair to not attack
veterans and alumni preferences, then doesn't that prove that it is
also preferential?


2 - Affirmative Action is not quotas. But the only acceptable
evidence of discrimination is numerical quotas - "minorities are
under-represented". No other criterion - test scores, grades,
experience are acceptable if they don't result in diversity.

3 - Affirmative Action does not lower standards of excellence. But
the only standard of excellence that has any value is skin color and
ethnicity. The same people who say that there are no differences in
standards often refer to MINIMAL, not average standards.

4 - Affirmative Action does not admit unqualified people. But it is
admitting lesser qualified people. This is a circular defintion if
you define minimally qualified by the worst person hired. Minimally
is not equally or best qualified.

5 - Affirmative Action is not reverse discrimination. Some cite that 
only whites can be racist since only they have power. They say
that it is impossible to discriminate against whites, even if a
program completely excludes whites, or causes whites to be
under-represented.  Many admit that affirmative action is preference
for some races, which is by the dictionary defintion, discrimination.

6 - Discrimination still exists. It will always exist. But
discrimination against innocent parties does nothing to eliminate
discrimination against minorities, it only creates more
discrimination, and affirmative action is discrimination sanctioned
by law.

7 - Selection without regard to race amounts to unfair discrimination.
This is the most outrageously and blatant twisting of the word
discrimination, which used to mean selection with race AS a factor.
The definition of discrimination is now unequal outcomes, as opposed
to unequal treatment.

8 - No white man has ever been discriminated against. There are books
and newspapers full of the stuff, but it is rarely reported, and when
it is challenged, they often lose because the courts often rule
discrimination against Whites to be legal.

--------------------------------------------------------
Affirmative Action Spectrum
-----------------------------

WA const contract      w1.00 b-3.53 h-45.18 a-18.72 n-3.23
Berk ugrad dropout     w1.00 b-2.13 h -1.81 a  1.84 n-2.32

@@AADAP

Mailing list for Americans Against Discrimination and Preferences
started by Tom Wood, original author of CA Prop 209. Excellent 
links to diversity and affirmative action articles.

Archives
http://home.ease.lsoft.com/archives/aadap-l.html



  @@accreditation

  doc941:accpc.txt

  @@ACT
  doc924:minact.txt Floors on ACT illegal in Mississippi


@@Adoption

IJ Case Leads Tennesee To End Racematching in Adoption Liberty and
Law March 1998. Case in Maryland used race to award custody to a
child's birth mother, who had previously pled guilty and served time
for murdering another one of her children rather than a white foster
mother that had cared for the child virtually since birth (another
example of Lauria Grace philosiphy that loving white parents are not
appropriate, but black parents liable to murder their children ARE)
The Multiethnic Placement Act of 1994 had a provision that allowed
race to be used as a "factor" in placement. New federal law passed in
Aug 96, effective 1997 prohibits discrimination in placements based
on race. Under settlement, state may only use a "compelling reason"
why a particular child needs a same-race placement, cannot use race,
color, or national origin to delay or deny adoptive placment.
\clip\98\08\adopt1.tif

http://www.ij.org/Publicopinion_folder/press_releases/individual/TNAdopt_02_03_98pr.html
\doc\web\98\05\racemat.txt Tennessee Settles Adoption Case, Agrees to
End Race Matching in Infant Adoptions PRESS RELEASE: February 3, 1998

@@Advance Placement @@AP

AP PREFERENCE = RACIAL DISCRIMINATION?
\clip\99\10\hentoff.txt A Different Kind of Discrimination By Nat
Hentoff Washington Pt
ost Saturday, April 17, 1999; Page A19 Jesus
Rios, 18, ranked in the top 4 percent during his senior year at San
Benito High School in Hollister, Calif. Nonetheless, he was refused
admission to the University of California at Berkeley. The lawsuit
emphasizes that more than 50 percent of applicants admitted to the
Berkeley campus come from only 5 percent of the state's 2,600 high
schools. These are schools that have a number of advanced placement
courses for which the Berkeley admissions office gives extra grade
point credit to an applicant. And these high schools have largely
white enrollments.

@@Advertising

RACE QUOTAS FOR ADVERTISERS??
Advertisers Discriminate Against Minority Radio-Post
http://www.foxnews.com/js_index.sml?content=/news/wires2/0113/n_rt_0113_35
.sml January 13, 1999 Reuters "Advertisers regularly discriminate against
minority-owned radio stations and stations that have large black or
Hispanic audiences, the Washington Post reported Wednesday, quoting a new
study. The study by the Federal Communications Commission, to be released
later Wednesday, found that stations owned by ''majority'' firms collected
about 29 percent more revenue per listener than minority-owned stations
targeting largely minority audiences, the Post said."


@@against


%%Organizations
z63\clip\2003\03\befight.txt
http://chronicle.com/weekly/v49/i30/30a02201.htm
From the issue dated April 4, 2003
Behind the Fight Over Race-Conscious Admissions
Advocacy groups working together helped shape the legal and political debate
The Center for Individual Rights, a Washington-based nonprofit legal
organization with an annual budget of about $1.7-million
The American Civil Rights Institute, a Sacramento-based group with an annual
budget of more than $1.4-million
The Center for Equal Opportunity, which is based in Sterling, Va., and has
an annual operating budget of about $1-million, 


\clip\98\09\building\building.htm ORMS Today - August 96: Affirmative
Action [URL: lionhrtpub.com/orms/orms-8-96/building.html] August 1996
 Volume 23  Number 4. Building Equal Opportunity On Firmer Footing.
A Case Against Affirmative Action. By Arnold Barnett. 

Proposition 1:

It appears that extreme affirmative action is widespread in the
United States.

Last year, The New York Times published mean SAT scores for four
groups of undergraduates admitted to the University of
California-Berkeley in the fall of 1993:
Mean Scores (on scale 400-1600) 
Asians 1293 
Whites 1256 
Hispanics 1032 
Blacks 994 

Using statistics from the Consortium on Financing Higher Education
(COFHE), Herrnstein and Murray reported in "The Bell Curve" [1994]
that, among students entering 26 high-prestige colleges in 1990-91,
the average white-black disparity in SAT scores was 182 points. At
none of the schools was the mean advantage for whites less than 95
points. 

affirmative-action.against.New-Republic "The End of
Affirmative Action" New Republic July 3, 1995 p. 7 "If federal racial
prefernces are ended, and we think they should be ended, this historic
decision should be announced not by Sandra Day O'Connor but by the
Congress of the United States filed 10-9-95

@@Alternate Criterion

%%Class Rank

Texas will require admission of all who are in the top 10% of their
high school class, no matter how good or bad that is. The thinking is
that this will help increase minorities when they have dropped race
as a consideration since many high schools are dominated by blacks.
But even pro-affirmative action people wonder if this will result in
selecting the unprepared. It was to be signed by their republican
governor.  I don't think it's a good idea. Either you go by merit or
you don't, this is kind of nuts. Chronicle of Higher Education May
23, 1997 p. 29


@@Asian against

z68\clip\2003\06\malkum.txt
http://www.townhall.com/columnists/michellemalkin/mm20030625.shtml
Asian-Americans have nothing to celebrate
Michelle Malkin (archive)
June 25, 2003
There was only one thing that disturbed me more than President Bush's
mushy comments praising socially engineered campus "diversity" this
week.

ASIAN AFACT DIRECTOR SUES FOR UNFAIR TREATMENT BY SEATTLE SD
\clip\2000\08\yasu.txt GOOD JOB, BAD JOB Disgruntled Employee Sues
School District Over Racism and Retaliation by Allie Holly-Gottlieb
the former affirmative-action director for the
Seattle School District feels. John Yasutake claims in a July 6
federal lawsuit that the district discriminated and retaliated
against him for doing his job too well. (Yasutake also thinks it
didn't help that he's Japanese.) 

\doc\web\98\06\washdeb.txt 20/049l-062098-idx.html For Asian
Americans, a Barrier or a Boon?  Washington State Debate Over
Affirmative Action Reveals Ambiguities on the Issue By Michael A.
Fletcher Washington Post Staff Writer Saturday, June 20, 1998; Page
A09 With blacks and whites, this issue is a lot more simple. Blacks
benefit from affirmative action and whites don't," said Arthur Hu, a
Seattle engineer and a leader in the Initiative 200 effort. "But
Asians basically break the rules."

http://www.asianweek.com/112097/cover_story.html  Anything for the Cause:
Susan Au Allen has her own ideas about political empowerment BY JAMES
CARROLL AND FRANK WU "But at the Oct. 22 hearing on the nomination,
the committee heard from just one Asian American, and her testimony
was far from supportive of the appointment.  "By and large, Mr. Lee
has devoted his entire career to litigation on behalf of liberal
civil-rights advocacyy groups. "

"Making It In America: Why I Support Prop 209" Lester Lee Nov 1,
1996. Points out that he has experienced housing and business loan
discrimination, but that companies generally have more Asian
engineers, White marketing types and Hispanic shippers, while NFL
players tend to be black, while hockey players are white.He calls the
Lowell quotas a new Chinese exclusion act, and says his daughter was
denied a transfer into Berkeley engineering because it already had
too many Chinese.

  doc90:victory.doc Feb 19, 1990 Quotas over at Berkeley?

  doc913:excelbal.doc,txt - Breaking the Balance
  doc921:scadmit.doc - Asians and admissions for U Santa Clara
  doc923:admit92.doc Filipinos and Santa Cruz
  doc924:berklaw, berklaws.doc : Boalt Hall quotas
  doc935:takagi.doc - The Retreat From Race Harvard, UCLA, Berkeley Hu
  \priv\95\07\ucberk95.txt wall street journal about Berkeley would be
  over 50% Asian on test scores alone

@@Asian benefit

Asians are the least likely to benefit from Affirmative Action

http://www.seattletimes.com/education/affirmative/pretty_good_job.html
City of Seattle:'I guess we're doing a pretty good job' Seattle Times
2/10/98 By Tom Brune Seattle Times staff reporter Asian Americans are
the most underrepresented group, lagging in four of the eight job
categories. 

@@Asians For Affirmative Action

Most Asians advocate affirmative action not because it benefits
Asians but because it benefits other minorities for the same reasons
that liberal whites also support preferences that harm their own
group. Henry Der effectively supported quotas against Chinese at
Lowell by refusing to oppose them. Chancellor Tien of Berkeley staked
his career on preferences for other minorities over better qualified
Asians. The other tack is that "we're under-represented among
contractors and staff", so it's valid as long as any field does not
have "enough" Asians.

CHINESE FOR AFFIRMATIVE ACTION AGAINST REAL CHINESE
z68\clip\2003\06\caanow.txt
http://news.ncmonline.com/news/view_article.html?article_id=7311004374dc3160c1f2869bcb144509
Controversy in the Capital of Chinese America
AsianWeek, Douglas S. Chan, Jun 12, 2003
"in the 1990s that Chinese for Affirmative Action was losing touch
with new Chinese Americans in San Francisco. CAA was perceived to have
been on the wrong side of issues that were important to substantial
segments of the Chinese community, particularly homeowners on the
city's west side. The organization opposed the federal court action
filed against public school quotas by Chinese parents in Ho v. SFUSD.
Several years ago, an acting director of CAA supported the successful
effort at San Mateo County building trade unions to require "project
labor agreements" for S.F.O. construction projects, which, in effect,
reduced participation in airport expansion jobs by minority
contractors"

z63\clip\2003\04\naras.txt
http://www.chron.com/cs/CDA/story.hts/editorial/outlook/1853216
Houston Chronicle
April 6, 2003, 7:52PM
Debunking a myth: Asians for affirmative action
By KAREN K. NARASAKI
Narasaki is the president and executive director of the National Asian
Pacific American Legal Consortium. 

z49\clip\2001\05\asafac.txt Asian Week www.asianweek.com May 2001
Reversed!: U.C.'s Ban on Affirmative
Action Regents decision may improve diversity in school system, but
does not change state law By Neela Banerjee "Fong went on to suggest
that more studies need to be done on Asian American students in
higher education and why exactly their numbers are so high." [Says
Asians are discriminated against in hiring and staff]



ASIAN HARMED BY AF ACT WANTS PREFERENCES TOO, NOT FAIRNESS
\clip\99\06\count.txt Newsweek, February 8, 1999 I Don't Count As
'Diversity' Successful? Sure. But sometimes Asian-Americans need
affirmative action, too.  By Angelo Ragaza

"A Moral Snootful" Wall Street Journal Dec 11, 1997 "we'll enforce a
system that ensures that some of these qualified Asian Americans will
get rejection letters from California's universities, and if they
complain, we'll send them into talk to Beill Lann Lee, who of course,
got his job purely on merit". \images\972\1228\p01.tif

zip#28\images\972\1208\p03.tif "Not Strange Bedfellows" Mitchell Change PhD
Asian Week Dec 4, 1997 p. 9 [says admissions wars was about
anti-asian bias, not affirmative action]

\doc\95\14\forwmove.txt "Forward Movement" Asian Week Oct 20, 1995
J.D. Hokoyama quietly advocates ceiling quotas against Asians "every
group should have equal representation"

\doc\95\11\morelaw.txt "We Need More Lawyers" Asian Week August 4,
1995. Frank H.  Wu (professor Howard University, predominantly black,
Washington D.C.) Under the traditional mode, there would be nothing
wrong when Asians "receive", I would say "monopolize" 35 up to 55
percent of freshmen spots

Wallac Loh, former UWash Law school had S Times full page defence of
AFAC

Dana Takagi says class won't replace race

Henry Der Chinese for Affirmative Action says there is "no evidence"
of discrimination against Chinese as result of a quota.

Chang Lin Tien UC Berkeley - NY Times pits him vs. Ward Connerly,
black conservative against affirmative action

  \priv\95\09\victover.txt Victimized Over-Achievers? Emil Guillermo
  SFC 7/31/95 - says Asians are used as poster children, argues that
  there are too many Asians, and affirmative action allows
  administrators to create their vision of racial perfection.

@@Asians harmed

z48\clip\2001\03\yelmen.txt
http://www.thenewrepublic.com/archive/1996/09/090996/lee090996.html
September 9, 1996 ANGRY YELLOW MEN By Kenneth Lee Exploiting Asian
discontent.  This past March, Bob Dole delivered his only
anti-affirmative action speech of the primaries.  Dole was speaking
in Little Saigon, in the heart of Southern California's
Vietnamese-American community. 

"Life with Prop 209" Emil Guillermo Asian Week Nov 6, 1997 p. 7 Asian
enrollment at UCLA law school was up by 70% when preferential
admissions were dropped.

\clip\96\02\afacasla.txt Date: Fri, 2 Aug 1996 00:45:40 -0400 From:
NewsHound@sjmercury.com (NewsHound) Affirmative Action Study Draws
Criticism From Asians and Latinos OAKLAND, Calif. (AP) -- Asian and
Latino businesses have accused Oakland's race-preference affirmative
action policies as unconstitutional in a lawsuit filed in U.S.
District Court. [favoring blacks and whites, but excluding Asians and
Hispanics]

@@Asians White

z52\clip\2001\09\aswhite.htm
 How the Asians Became White by
Eugene Volokh L.A. Times, April 9, 1998, p. B9 (published under
another title) Asians are now white. [Asians are included when
celebrating diversity, but left out when decrying decline in
minorities. Stephen Thernstrom also noted this]
under the headline "Making Hay With Shifty Labels").
Excerpted in Washington Times, April 10, 1998, at A6. 



@@athletics


BIG ADMISSIONS EDGE FOR ATHLETES
z47\clip\2001\01\collath.txt U.S. News: College Admissions Unfair
1/2001 Former Princeton University President William G. Bowen and
coauthor James L.  Shulman analyzed data from 90,000 students from
the classes of 1951, 1976, and 1989. varsity athletes at the
University of Michigan, were only 3 percent of students. But at
Williams Collegea full 36 percent of the student body.  The winning
edge.  At a "representative coed liberal arts Division III college"
in 1999, a minority applicant had an 18 percent better chance of
getting admitted than the general pool, a legacy student had a 25
percent edge-and a recruited male athlete had a 48 percent better
chance. For female athletes the advantage was even sweeter: 53
percent. 


@@ban

%%against preferences I200 prop 209

UWASH: WE'RE ALL FOR BANNING PREFERNCES AS LONG AS THEY ARE ALLOWED
z68\clip\2003\07\i200tw.txt
http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/opinion/135132761_deans01.html
July 01, 2003
Guest columnists
Affirmative-action ruling suggests tweaks to I-200 
By Denice D. Denton, George S. Bridges, W.H. Knight and Yash Gupta
We urge that I-200 be
revised to codify the Supreme Court standards. It's the smart thing to
do. 

"Breakdown of vote on I-200 by county"
\doc\web\98\10\i200cty.txt

NO MORE PLUS 3 OR PREFERENCES
GOVERNOR'S DIRECTIVE No. 98-01 
\doc\web\98\10\i200imp.txt


Seattle Times map of neighborhood vote Minorities and liberal urban whites
opposed I200, but nobody else did.

\doc\web\98\09\prefbat.txt Subject: kclp: A shorter version of this appeared in today's Wall Street Journal Date sent: Thu, 05 Nov 1998 11:18:04 -0800 The Preference Battle in Seattle by Michelle Malkin Initiative 200 fared well not only among Republicans (80 percent) and Independents (62 percent), but among union members (54 percent), women (about 50 percent), and Democrats (41 percent). \clip\98\16\antiok.txt http://search.tribnet.com/archive/90days/1104a14.htm Initiative 200: Anti-preference measure OK'd Affirmative action battle now will head to courts Tacoma News Tribune November 04, 1998 David Wickert; The News Tribune ; Staff writers Leslie Brown and Mary Schneiter contributed to this report \doc\web\98\09\adp03.txt post election headlines http://www.i200.org/Oct17.html Saturday, October 17: The Seattle Times, which opposes Initiative 200, admitted last week that Gov. Gary Locke and the No!200 campaign are mischaracterizing the effects of the initiative. The article, written by reporter David Postman, includes the following passage: "Locke says: 'Initiative 200 is written to sound good, but it's misleading and full of hidden consequences. It will abolish affirmative action and hurt real people.' In fact, I-200 would not abolish affirmative action. It would prohibit racial and gender preferences in state- and local-government hiring, contracting and education." \clip\98\16\mendit.txt http://www.seattletimes.com/news/local/html98/poll_110498.html Copyright © 1998 The Seattle Times Company Posted at 07:23 a.m. PST; Wednesday, November 4, 1998 Poll indicates I-200 passage was call for reform by Tom Brune Seattle Times staff reporter Washington state voters approved Initiative 200 more to mend affirmative action than to end it. That's the conclusion of a Seattle Times Washington Poll of likely voters, done on the eve of the election. Even in supporting I-200, the poll found, most voters expressed support for affirmative-action programs for minorities and women but said those programs were in need of reform. I200 WINS BY GOOD MARGIN Date sent: Wed, 4 Nov 1998 07:16:36 -0800 From: ADP "Final election results, I-200" http://www.abcnews.com/sections/us/elections98/results/washington.html ISSUES #200: NO AFFIRM ACTN VOTE VOTE TOTAL PERCENT YES 810621 59% WIN NO 571875 41% % of precincts reporting: 98 http://209.43.151.101/vote98/reports/m_statewide.tmpl Initiative 200 (Discrimination/Preferential Treatment) YES 773,439 58.43% NO 550,321 41.57% PETE WILSON I200 KEEPS EQUAL PAY, OUTREACH AS LONG AS ALL HAVE CHANCE \doc\web\98\08\pwilson.txt AFFIRMATIVE ACTION DEGENERATES INTO QUOTAS, UNIFORMITY OF THOUGHT http://www.seattletimes.com/news/editorial/html98/nick_101598.html \clip\98\14\i200yes.txt The Seattle Times Company ; Thursday, October 15, 1998 Guest columnist Affirmative action: A well-intentioned idea that has failed Choe and carlson square off on I-200 Seattle Times Feb 28, 1998 p. A12 Asian Martha Choe vs. white chairman Carlson, sponsored by Seattle P.I. Initiative 200 discussions: What if it passes? Seattle Times 6/15/98 p. 1 one thing they all agreed: I-200 would mean the end of the "Plus Three" hiring program which boosts minorities and women applicants ahead of others to meet affirmative action hiring goals. \clip\98\04\i200vote.txt I-200 lacks lawmakers' votes; it's likely headed for ballot by David Postman and Lynda V. Mapes Seattle Times Olympia bureau 2/10/98 OLYMPIA - There isn't enough support in the Legislature to pass Initiative 200, so the fate of affirmative action in Washington state will likely rest with voters in November. FYI, the Public Disclosure Commission has released and posted contributors for and against Initiative 200. \clip\98\04\200.txt http://www.washington.edu/pdc/95.txt contains a list of contributors who gave more than $100 (in descending order, by size of contribution). http://www.washington.edu/pdc/95b.txt contains an alphabetical list of all contributors. \clip\98\04\carlson.txt http://www.seattletimes.com/news/local/html98/john_020498.html Seattle Times Wednesday, February 4, 1998 Carlson out at KVI over I-200 focus by Barbara A. Serrano Seattle Times staff reporter John Carlson, the Seattle talk-show host who is leading an initiative campaign to roll back affirmative action, was abruptly let go by KVI radio amid concern that he was giving the political cause too much time on the airwaves. Seattle Times Friday, February 6, 1998 Carlson says he lost job over Initiative 200 by Barbara A. Serrano BELLEVUE - John Carlson, ousted from his job at KVI-AM (570) this week, says he disobeyed orders not to talk about Initiative 200 on the air because affirmative action was too important an issue to ignore. Seattle times Editorials & Opinion Michelle Malkin February 10, 1998 Real liberals should lament KVI's dismissal of Carlson "YOU are full of # # # # " \clip\97\29\signa.txt http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/init_121297.html Seattle Times Friday, Dec. 12, 1997 Signature gatherers, their race become issues in Init. 200 effort [opponents to WA anti-pref init claim they are desperately hiring unemployed and deceiving them by claiming it is pro-affirmitve action] SEATTLE IGNORES HOUSTON AFFIRMATIVE ACTION LANGUAGE REJECTION \clip\98\10\houston.txt The Seattle Times Company Michelle Malkin July 07, 1998 Big news from Houston fell through the cracks LAST fall, Houston was The Seattle Times' favorite city. Judge rules that altered language was not the intent of the original anti-preference initiative (eliminate affirmative action) \doc\web\97\09\affirm.txt "Affirming What?" Wall Street Journal Nov 7, 1997 F110797 /images/972/112197/p05.gif Mayor Bob Lanier got the city council to change the wording, so what the voters got was very different from California's prop 209. Most polls show that people support affirmative action, but not preferences, so now who's talking about "deceptive wording"?? The city of Houston awards fixed percentage of city contracts to women and minorities. Altered Proposition A Wording: "Shall the Charter of the City of Houston be amended to end the use of affirmative action for women and minorities in the operation of City of Houston employment and contracting, including ending the current program and any similar programs in the future?" Original Language of Proposition A: "The City of Houston shall not discriminate against, or grant preferential treatment to, any individual or group on the basis of race, sex, color, ethnicity, or national origin in the operation of public employment and public contracting" \clip\97\26\houston.txt 1:18 AM 11/5/1997 Voters keep affirmative action program alive By JULIE MASON Copyright 1997 Houston Chronicle Supporters of Houston's affirmative action contracting program defeated efforts to abolish it Tuesday in a local referendum carrying national implications. Send reply to: "Arnie D. Schulze" From: "Arnie D. Schulze" To: Subject: Re: Houston Chronicle Article Date sent: Wed, 5 Nov 1997 03:42:44 -0600 Damn, Arthur. We almost had it here. Unfortunately, less than 10% voter turnout among whites. The city offered "free metro busing" in the minority communities, to voting locations. Arnie. \clip\97\25\mindown.txt Copyright 1997 Associated Press. All rights reserved. 11/01/1997 21:39 EST Minority College Enrollment Drops " The Association of American Medical Colleges released a study...17 percent fewer minority students applied to their state medical schools in California and in Texas, Mississippi and Louisiana, states covered by the 5th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals decision that affirmative action is unconstitutional. The number accepted in the four states plunged by 27 percent. " http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/john_100997.html \clip\97\23\carl200.txt The Seattle Times Company Thursday, Oct. 9, 1997 Carlson to lead drive for Init. 200 by Florangela Davila Seattle Times staff reporter Hoping to bolster the campaign for a state initiative to end racial preferences, KVI-AM talk-show host John Carlson has agreed to chair the Initiative 200 campaign. MINORITIES UP AT OTHER UC CAMPUSES, NEW "SEGREGATIION" IS MERELY WALKING AWAY FROM QUOTAS. \clip\97\15\newseg.txt From: steve plaut The Wall Street Journal Interactive EditionY June 9, 1997 The 'New Segregation' Blacks are up at UC San Diego and Riverside. \clip\97\11\affirm.txt http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/joel_042597.html Seattle Times Friday, April 25, 1997 Affirming a path toward true equality by J. R. Joelson Special to The Seattle Times My mother told me how it was during the 1920s and '30s when looking for work. Applications would have questions asking your religion and whether you were white, negro or Jewish. \CLIP\97\10\prop209.txt http://www.nytimes.com/yr/mo/day/news/national/affirmative-action.html New York Times April 9, 1997 Federal Appeals Court Upholds California's Ban on Preferences By TIM GOLDEN SAN FRANCISCO -- A federal appeals court here upheld the constitutionality of California's Proposition 209 on Tuesday, ruling that the voters were well within their rights to ban the use of racial and sex-based preferences in affirmative-action programs run by the state. PROP 209 AFFIRMED "Affirming the Voters" Wall Street Journal April 9, 1997 F040997 A federal appeals court affirmed that the voters of California did have the right to ban use of racial preferences in public hiring and admissions, editorial says that courts have gone too far is reversing or opposing the wishes of a majority of voters, and the 30% of black voters who supported Prop 209. DISADVANTAGED SINGLE MOTHER WITH 94TH PERCENTILE WRONG SKIN COLOR FOR UW LAW SCHOOL mirror http://www.arthurhu.com/97/03/sonccri.txt http://www.washtimes.com/opinion/opinion.html Washington Times April 1, 1997 \clip\97\09\sonccr.txt Son of CCRI \clip\96\09\judgblok.txt MSNBC 11/27/96 (note links to Arthur Hu site) SAN FRANCISCO A federal judge Wednesday blocked enforcement of Proposition 209 and said civil rights groups have a strong probability of proving it is unconstitutional. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/digest/daily/nov/27/209.htm \clip\96\09\blok209.txt Californians Sue to Block Proposition 209 By William Claiborne Washington Post Staff Writer Thursday, November 7, 1996; Page A41 ACLU claims that a ban on racial preferences violates the equal protection clause of the constitution?? \clip\96\03\afaclang.txt 12 Aug 1996 Appeals Court Reverses Lower Court's Decision By JOHN HOWARD Associated Press Writer Opponents want to force Prop 209 to say that it will ban affirmative action, but the language will NOT ban affirmative action which does not prefer or discriminate, and state Supreme court agrees. USA Today July 19, 1995 11A Geroge Ready, press secretary to Lyndon Johnson says that affirmative action did not contemplate quotas or force employees to favor minorities. The picture of competent white men being shoved aside for underqualified women and minorities is not accurate. Journal American 7/28/95 - Glen Loury writes that Newt Gingrich would rather wait to find something to replace affirmative action before he bans it entirely. Loury wants conservatives to have an alternative, not nothing. \priv\95\09\bigtorw.txt San Francisco Chronicle 7/28/95 WILLIAM DWYER San Francisco UC, BIGOTRY AND ORWELL - When UC gets rid of racial preferences, it is equating orwellian bigotry with fairness and tolerance with discrimination. EQUAL OPPORTUNITY ACT OF 1995 - END FED RACE PREFERENCES text at http://www.arthurhu.com/97/01/endpref.txt \doc\web\97\02\endpref.txt LET US MARK THE END OF RACIAL PREFERENCES WITH THE BEGINNING OF EQUAL OPPORTUNITY by Carl Cohen A New Visions Commentary paper published March 1996 by The National Center for Public Policy Research, 300 Eye St. NE #3, Washington, D.C. 20002, 202/543-1286, Fax 202/543-4779, E-Mail Proj21@AOL.com. The object of The Equal Opportunity Act of 1995, which the House Judiciary Committee is expected to vote on by the end of April... \clip\96\08\prop209.htm Prop. 209 is based on Dr. King’s ideals Opinion By Niger Innis (Congress of Racial Equality) MSNBC 11/10/96 Thomas Jefferson built the Declaration of Independence around self-evident truths principles so rooted in common sense, only tyrants could oppose them... Comment - it's amazing how anybody who actually takes Dr King at his word is a racist. \clip\96\08\ccriwin.txt AP - CCRI is approved. \doc\96\03\racecard.txt "The Race Card Gets Its Moral Bluss Called" Wall Street Journal April 12, 1996 (Editorial) Polls in the LA Times show CCRI support to be 60%, and 55% even among Democrats. Ward Connerly is of mixed heritage, black,white, and Native American d:\priv\96\03\ccrion.txt CCRI has enough signatures to go on the ballot SFC 2/22/96 \priv\95\04\afacdown.txt - CA bill defeated 3/29/95 \doc\95\02\minfight.txt - Ban on affirmative action would bar jobs on the basis of race "Affirmative-action report: We've got a ways to go" William Raspberry Seattle Times Feb 21, 1995 Raspberry says that blacks are still behind overall, and we're not ready to be colorblind. But he fails to cite instances of quotas like the Clinton Cabinet, or judgements against law schools. \priv\95\03\fletcher.txt - Arthur Fletcher: removing affirmative action would sanction racism and the Ku Klux Klan. It is based only on ancedotal evidence. The right wing doesn't have a case. I haven't seen a single white man not get a job because of his race. \doc\95\02\presadvi.txt Ron Brown says AfAc is only to fight present discrimination, sometimes it's unfair. Bill Bradley says AfAc is not about preferences. (Note, affirmative action does not require proof of present or previous discrimination) d:\priv\95\02\afacattk.doc - It's affirmative action for white males" said Loan Nguyen of the Commision for Asian Affairs. Henry Der: "It would be divisive" Willie Brown: "Name one white man who's had trouble getting a job because he was white?" On TV, he says it's to redistribute ill-gotten gains. Good Morning America Willie Brown - it will lead to another era of discrimination and exclusion. 4/4/95 San Franciso Chronicle %%for PREFERENTIAL IS FAIR, COLOR BLIND IS RACIST \clip\98\10\emm200.txt Seattle Times July 07, 1998 www.seattletimes.com I-200 made for angry white guys Emmett Watson Today I wish to throw a large rock at Initiative 200, the anti-affirmative-action measure we will vote on Nov. 3. If this rock happens to ricochet and hit a few racists, so much the "Students File Affirmative Action Petition" Asian Week Dec 4, 1997 Bert Eljera. UC's Ton Takaki brought up the idea of a counter-initiative so that "the state may consider the race, sex, ethnicity and national origin of qualified individuals to provide equal opportunity promote diversity and combat discrimination" [If that's not a blank check for reverse discrimination, what is?] \images\972\1221\p03.tif \priv\95\09\antidote.txt - DeWayne Wickham says affirmative action is fair, not reverse discrimination, Ginsburgh says there is still discrimination. \doc\95\08\endafac.txt - New Republic supports repeal, new supreme court looks back to address past discrimination, but does not allow goal of further desegregation. "The End of Affirmative Action" New Republic July 3, 1995 p. 7 \priv\95\07\stateban.txt - Mackin in Mass initiative, Scott Smith in Wash \priv\95\04\afacbill.txt - summary of CA bills, hire by "merit" only, or bars consideration of race \priv\95\02\clinafac.txt - President Clinton orders review of affirmative action programs and dumping bad ones. \priv\95\02\wilsafac.txt - Governer Pete Wilson says he will order reduction of race and gender preferences in state. \priv\95\02 STimes 2/20/95 "House measure would ban affirmative action" Washington state bill %%news \priv\95\16\afacstall.txt - Cal initiative stalled for lack of money @@bakke CHAVIS, BAKKE POSTER DOCTOR, DIES IN QUIET SHAME z57\clip\2002\08\chavis.txt http://www.townhall.com/columnists/michellemalkin/printmm20020807.shtml townhall.com Michelle Malkin ~ August 7, 2002 The life and death of Patrick Chavis [who got in ahead of Bakke] "An administrative law judge found Chavis guilty of gross negligence and incompetence in the treatment of three patients. Yolanda Mukhalian lost 70 percent of her blood after Chavis hid her in his home for 40 hours following a bungled liposuction; she miraculously survived." Chavis became the toast of the media elite and the racial preference crowd when he was profiled lavishly by New York Times magazine writer Nicholas Lemann. Chavis, who made the cover of the magazine, was a black physician admitted to the University of California-Davis medical school under a special racial-preference quota. z57\clip\2002\08\chavis2.txt The New York Times August 15, 2002 Patrick Chavis, 50, Affirmative Action Figure, Is Dead By DOUGLAS MARTIN Patrick Chavis... was fatally shot as he returned to his car after buying an ice cream cone in Hawthorne...Kennedy and other proponents of affirmative action suggested, at least implicitly, that Dr. Bakke, .. had achieved less than Dr. Chavis. He was accused of mistreating eight liposuction patients, one of whom died. In 1998, the Medical Board of California revoked his license for "gross negligence, incompetence and repeated negligent acts." He became a rallying point for opponents of affirmative action. His professional difficulties began in 1993, at Long Beach Memorial Hospital, when he was accused of mishandling a delivery, and the hospital began monitoring him. He sued, charging racism. \doc\96\03\landmark.txt Bakke, Brown vs. Board of Ed and other Supreme Court cases are at: The "new" cases are accessible from the base address for Supreme Court materials http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/ or directly at http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/cases/historic.htm \priv\95\10\bakke.txt - Atlantic, issues for Bakke, recommends saving spots for minorities. @@Bid Preference Affirmative action isn't a preference, but that what a bid preference is. The Clinton administration says a bid preference is OK if there is a numerical imbalance, but that's not proof of discrimination that requires a remedy. \priv\98\05\mail0626.txt http://www.nytimes.com/yr/mo/day/news/washpol/clinton-affirm.html June 25, 1998 White House Unveils Market-Based Affirmative Action Policy By DAVID E. ROSENBAUM WASHINGTON -- The White House on Wednesday announced a new affirmative action policy under which minority-owned businesses will be given an advantage when they compete for government contracts, but only in industries where surveys show they do not seem to have a fair share of the market. @@Black doc\94\5\falona.txt - scholarship for falona heidelberg, gets into best colleges in country with SAT scores about average for U Wash \clip\98\09\blakberk.txt Teen Prodigies Like Berkeley, But Mom Doesn't She objects to UC admissions policy San Francisco Chronicle; Saturday, May 30, 1998 Charles Burress, Chronicle Staff Writer Two very bright brothers from West Virginia have accomplished an amazing feat for kids aged 13 and 14 -- they won admittance to the University of California at Berkeley. But their mother says her sons aren't mature enough yet and objects to UC's abolition of affirmative action David scored a perfect 800 on his SAT math test, one of only 11 children in the country under 14 to do so. Joseph is a computer expert, tutoring local college students in computer design and running the Web pages for his mother's business, Legacy Press, a medical software company. (geez what would happen to Asians if all black kids were this smart??) @@Blacks Against \doc\web\97\04\topten.txt In anticipation of President Clinton's scheduled June 14 speech on racial reconciliation, the African-American leadership group Project 21 has released a "Top 10 Acts of the Clinton Administration to Divide Americans By Race and Ethnicity." @@Blacks For %%Brown, Willie Willie Brown was the "speaker for life" of California and a leading voice against prop 209 which banned racial preferences. Yet he in 1962 echoed Martin Luther Kings call to be judged not the color of one's skin. wbrown.txt "I believe that every citizen should be judged not on his color or the texture of his hair" Willie Brown, 1962 campaign speech. %% Clarence Page %% NAACP @@black oppose - Thomas Sowell - Shelby Steele - \priv\95\02\blakregn.txt - black regent opposes d:\priv\95\02\connerly.txt - black regent opposes @@Blind CONNERLY MAKES UC BLACK OUT RACE FROM ADMISSIONS SYSTEM \clip\98\17\maskrace.txt http://www.latimes.com/HOME/NEWS/STATE/t000104904.html Los Angeles Times Wednesday, November 18, 1998 COLLEGE SCENE / KENNETH R. WEISS UC System Tries to Mask Applicants' Racial Identity Leave it to the University of California to come up with a "V-chip" to mask the ethnicity of its applicants. ..the university would have no way of knowing who was applying and how well it was doing in selecting students who reflect the state's population. @@books The Diversity Hoax: Berkeley Law Students Report http://www.gofast.org/TheDiversityHoax.htm Edited by David Wienir and Marc Berley BOOK INTRODUCTION "In his first months as a student at the University of California, Berkeley School of Law (Boalt Hall) in 1997, David Wienir was startled by the lack of intellectual diversity he found among students, professors, and administrator \clip\98\14\indef.txt H-NET BOOK REVIEW Published by H-Teachpol@h-net.msu.edu (October, 1998) Barbara R. Bergmann. _In Defense of Affirmative Action_. New York Basic Books, 1996. ix + 213 pp. Bibliographical references and index. $23.00 (cloth), ISBN 0-465-09833-9; $13.00 (paper), ISBN 0-465-09834-7. According to Bergmann, there are "three motives for affirmative action." These are One, the need to make systematic efforts to fight discrimination that still exists..., two, the desire for integration, and three, the desire to reduce poverty of certain groups marked out by race and gender" (pp. 9-10). \clip\97\06\afiragon.txt Reason magazine AFFIRMATIVE AGONY By Robert R. Detlefsen In Defense of Affirmative Action, by Barbara R. Bergmann, New York: Basic Books, 213 pages, $23.00 "For example, a goal for hiring lawyers of Irish or Jewish ancestry would be desirable for a New England law firm that has "no partners or associates of Irish or Jewish extraction." But Bergmann gives no indication of how many Jews or Irishmen would be enough." How many female truck drivers or firemen would be enough? The Affirmative Action Fraud: Can We Restore the Civil Rights Vision?, by Clint Bolick, Washington, D.C.: Cato Institute, 170 pages, $19.95 Ending Affirmative Action: The Case for Colorblind Justice, by Terry Eastland, New York: Basic Books, 229 pages, $23.00 COLOR BLIND IS UNFAIR AND MARTIN LUTHER KING WAS ONLY KIDDING The New Color Line \doc\web\97\01\colrbind.txt Review of The New Color Line: How Quotas and Privilege Destroy Democracy , by Paul Craig Roberts and Lawrence M. Stratton, Washington, D: Regnery, 247 pages, $24.95 Quotas and set-asides may create the illusion of a just, equal society, but do little to actually implement it. @@Bowen, @@Bok 1998 SHAPE OF THE RIVER PROVES AFFIRMATIVE ACTION WORKS (?) Main authors of highly regarded defence of a affirmative action, 1998 "Shape of the River". Contrary to most defences, they admit that blacks are given massive preferential admissions, and have lower graduation outcomes. But they argue that black progress, higher grad rates than lower schools, and high percentages going on to professional schools (which also practice preferences) is proof that preferences work However, even with high grad rates, the dropout ratio remains 2-4 times regardless of the college, and graduation outcomes are worse even with equal qualifications. Most black high achievers did NOT go to elite colleges, and even if every college admitted at or above parity, it does not fix the national gap of 1/2 of the total pool of blacks who stick around for a 4 year degree, it only "fixes" the gap at the top. link Racial Preferences: What We Now Know Commentary Magazine February, 1999 issue Stephan Thernstrom & Abigail Thernstrom Predominantly black institutions may be even better for blacks than elite white ones given * The number of African-Americans in Congress, boast Bowen and Bok, rose from 4 to 41 between 1965 and 1995. This is a remarkable shift; but less than a fifth of the congressional black caucus in 1995 had attended an elite institution. * historically black colleges, which account for only a sixth of total black college enrollment, produced 43 percent of the 1995 congressional black caucus, 39 percent of the black officers in the U.S. Army according to a 1996 survey, and fully a quarter of black MacArthur "genius" grantees in the last two decades EPSTEIN BLASTS "OMMISSIONS" \clip\99\03\unexplor.htm http://www.reason.com/9902/bk.re.unexplored.html REASON * February 1999 Unexplored Tributaries By Richard A. Epstein MOST BLACK LEADERSHIP AND "GENIUS AWARDS" WENT TO NONSELECTIVE COLLEGES http://www.frontpagemag.com/archives/racerelations/thernstrom12-15-98.htm \clip\98\19\bendriv.txt Another Bend in The Shape of the River by Stephan Thernstrom Washington Post | December 14, 1998 "a quarter of them did not collect their diplomas at the college in which they first enrolled, and 21 percent never earned a degree at all. Their dropout rate was 3.3 times that of their white classmates." "Bowen and Bok admit that the grades of the average black student put him or her at the 23rd percentile of the class" "while 44 African Americans with college degrees have received MacArthur "genius" awards since 1981, they went to 40 different schools, roughly 75 percent of which were basically nonselective. A recently compiled list of the top 50 African American federal officials also reveals that only a handful went to a college that Bowen and Bok would define as elite." \clip\98\15\factgap.txt New York Times book review says bok does not prove affirmative action works, only that going to elite schools work. >New York Times Book Review October 25, 1998 \clip\98\14\edclip05.txt THUMBS DOWN ON BOK BOWEN On the Ropes, Defenders of Quotas Fight Back With Selective Data Richmond Times Dispatch Wednesday, October 14, 1998 Robert Holland A growing number of Americans of all races now understand the Diversity Emperor has no clothes -- that discrimination is discrimination, and it's wrong. \clip\98\14\bok3.txt TUESDAY, OCTOBER 13, 1998 LEARNING, COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES A Case for Race-Sensitive College Admissions Mark Clayton (claytonm@csps.com) Staff writer of The Christian Science Monitor "Why should skin color be considered any different a factor [in admissions] than geography, or alumni parentage, or sports ability?" he asks. "It has become odious because of our nation's history. We can't ultimately resolve this national issue based on data alone. It will depend on values." Black men with a combined verbal and math SAT below 1,000 who attended such schools earned on average $86,700. \clip\98\13\river2.txt "Affirming Affirmative Action": Review of Bok and Bowen's "The Shape of the River" by Ronald Dworkin http://www.nybooks.com/nyrev/WWWfeatdisplay.cgi?1998102291R Affirming Affirmative Action RONALD DWORKIN New York Review of Books, Online, October 22, 1998 The Shape of the River: Long-Term Consequences of Considering Race in College and University Admissions By William G. Bowen and Derek Bok 472 pages, $24.95 (hardcover) published by Princeton University Press In 1978, in the famous Bakke case, the Supreme Court in effect ruled that race-sensitive admissions plans do not violate the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution, which declares that "no state may deny any person equal protection of the laws," so long as such plans do not stipulate fixed quotas for any race or group, but take race into account only as one factor among others.4 \clip\98\13\flawpre.txt From: ADP http://interactive.wsj.com/pages/front.htm Wall Street Journal, October 2, 1998 Commentary: A Flawed Defense of Preferences By ABIGAIL THERNSTROM It's a national coo-in. Editorial writers and columnists across the country are praising William G. Bowen and Derek Bok's new book, "The Shape of the River," for having settled the debate over preferential admissions in higher education. NOT JUST AWARDING POINTS FOR BEING BLACK?? http://washingtonpost.com:80/wp-srv/WPlate/1998-10/02/005l-100298-idx.html New Light on 'Diversity' William Raspberry Friday, October 2, 1998; Page A27 WHITE ADMIT RATE WOULD ONLY RISE FROM 25 TO 27 PERCENT W/O PREFERENCES \clip\98\12\collout.txt http://www.nytimes.com/yr/mo/day/news/national/affirm-impact.html September 9, 1998 Study of Affirmative Action at Top Schools Cites Far-Reaching Benefits By ETHAN BRONNER Bowen and Bok point out that if more than half of the blacks accepted at selective colleges had been rejected, the probability of acceptance for another white applicant would rise only 2 percent, to 27 percent from 25 percent. \clip\98\12\ntlbok.txt The National Review on Bok-Bowen study http://www.nationalreview.com/daily/nr091098.html National Review, September 10, 1998 Preferences in Black and Whitewash Derek Bok and William G. Bowen have just come out with a book, The Shape of the River, defending the racially discriminatory practices in which they engaged as the presidents, respectively, of Harvard and Princeton. "The study, in fact, says that blacks admitted to universities which use preferences have lower grades and graduation rates than most students--which is more than many institutions of higher learning, including Princeton, were willing to say before the passage of Proposition 209." STUDY AFAC BLACKS GOT AHEAD, BUT GRADES, SAT LOWER, AND GPAS WERE LOWER EVEN WITH SAME SAT SCORES \clip\98\12\collout.txt Elite Colleges' Race-Sensitive Policies Opened Doors to Black Success, Says Broad New Study Chronicle of Higher Education, September 9, 1998 http://www.chronicle.com/daily/98/09/98090901n.htm "Black students with the lowest SAT scores had the best chance of graduating if they attended the most-selective colleges." "One chart, for example, shows that black students who scored between 1250 and 1299 on the SAT had a 74-per-cent chance of gaining admission to the five colleges. White students with the same scores stood only a 23-per-cent chance of getting in. The average cumulative G.P.A. for black students who matriculated at the 28 colleges in 1989 was 2.61 on a 4.0 scale, compared with 3.15 for white students. The average black matriculant was ranked at the 23rd percentile -- or the bottom quarter -- of the class. White students with SAT scores above 1300, for example, were ranked in the top 40 per cent, on average, of their classes. Black students with the same scores were in the bottom 40 per cent of their classes. " \clip\98\12\bowstud.txt "They found that the black dropout rate for the elite institutions practicing affirmative action was 25 percent, much lower than the national black dropout average of 60 percent. The more selective the college, the lower the black dropout rate." September 9, 1998 The New York Times Study of Affirmative Action at Top Schools Cites Far-Reaching Benefits by Ethan Bronner @@Bradley Foundation Bradley Foundation is blamed by socialist groups for funding Center for Individual Rights, National Association of Scholars, @@Bush, GW z50\clip\2001\08\bushrace.txt SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER http://seattlep-i.nwsource.com/opinion/35319_page16.shtml Bush does about-face on race Thursday, August 16, 2001 By CLARENCE PAGE SYNDICATED COLUMNIST The Bush administration joins a long line of critics who found affirmative action to be troubling, yet, as a way to open opportunities to those who have been shut out, very hard to replace. @@bunzel, john \clip\96\02\bunzafac.txt 26 Aug 1996 SJ Mercury News Word games By John H. Bunzel It is no secret: The term ``affirmative action'' has taken on a Humpty-Dumpty quality in the last 25 years, to the point where it is now used to mean whatever anyone wants it to mean. Comment Critics try to accuse anyone who opposes racial preferences as opposing all efforts and all affirmative action while pretending that affirmative action is never preferences or quotas when that's what is is 85% of the time. John H. Bunzel, a Democrat, is a past president of San Jose State, a former member of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, and a senior research fellow at Stanford's Hoover Institution. @@Carter, Stephen Stephen Carter recognizes the cost of affirmative action in discrimination and perception of inferiority, but advocates some level of affirmative action as "the only game in town" "A Victim of Preference" Newsweek Sept 30, 1991 p. 56 Carter was turned down for Harvard Law School, but accepted when they found out that he was Black. (F070297) "An Insider's Account of Affirmative Action" Linda Chavez, Wall Street Journal Sept 6, 1991, review of "Reflections of an Affirmative Action Baby" He got the 2nd highest test scores of Ithaca high, among children of professors, but got award reserved for blacks instead of the National Merit Scholarship, is lukewarm towards preferences, would like to see them go away. F061997 @@Caste \priv\95\04\caste.txt - India has affirmative action based on caste. US News 3/27/95 @@Censorship \doc\web\98\10\aia.txt Columbia University Censors Conservative Conference Accuracy in Academia November 18, 1998 Students Forced to Hold Event in Park Columbia University administrators summarily barred John LeoNew York Daily News Nov 18, 1998 on being kept out of Columbia University @@Center for Equal Opportunity They have figures on affirmative action that shows lower standards for various colleges including University of Washington http://www.ceousa.org/warp.html Feedback on Asian preference in law school, UC quotas @@Challenge \priv\96\01\nogoal.txt - " Court lets more file affirmative action suits" SJM 1/17/96 Chief Judge J. Clifford Wallace of San Diego for a 2-1 majority rulsed that a plaintiff need not prove he has been injured to challenge rules that compell discriminatory policies like contracting goals. @@Chaplain "LOW CHURCH" EVANGELICALS CLAIM BIAS IN NAVY CHAPLAIN CORPS \clip\98\15\chaplain.txt The Seattle Times Company Friday, October 16, 1998 Navy chaplain corps biased, evangelical says by Tom Bowman The Baltimore Sun "the suit contends, the chaplain corps violated the constitutional rights of Yourek, who is white, by favoring women and minorities for promotion. @@Cheating (on race) South Africa no longer classifies birth by race, but if the US is to implement high states affirmative action and penalites for giving the "incorrect" race, then we may need to start WOMAN LOSES JOB BECAUSE SHE IS NOT OBVIOUSLY A MINORITY \clip\98\09\areyou.txt http://www.seattletimes.com/news/local/html98/race_052698.html Now, tell the truth: Are you a minority? by Tom Brune Seattle Times staff reporter Elizabeth Lake says she has always thought of herself as a Native American. So two years ago, when filling out a state-government job application that asked her race or culture, she didn't think twice about checking the box labeled "American Indian." The Department of Labor and Industries surveyed 2,600 employees in 1994. In cases in which employees could not - or chose not to - prove they fit into one of the nine affirmative-action categories, the agency changed their classification. More than 10 percent of the employees were changed. About a quarter involved race: -- Twenty-nine changed from Native American to Caucasian. -- Nineteen changed from Asian American to Caucasian. -- Nineteen changed from Hispanic to Caucasian. -- Six changed from African American to Caucasian. @@Christian Sandia Christians cite Christian groups are discriminated worse than Gays and Lesbians Engineers may not use Biblical references when generating creative names for new projects. Granting recognition to the homosexual group while denying the same recognition to the Christian group violates the Christians' constitutional rights to free speech and free exercise of religion, the lawsuit contends. @@College Admissions @@Church CHURCH OF ENGLAND DECREES RACE QUOTAS z46\clip\2000\11\church.txt The Electronic Telegraph ISSUE 2002 Friday 17 November 2000 Call to triple number of black and Asian clergy By Victoria Combe, Religion Correspondent THE Church of England agreed yesterday to triple the number of black and Asian clergy and bishops within 10 years and to recruit more black and Asian teachers to its schools. @@Connerly, Ward Mixed black crusader against race preferences CONNERLY DISCOVERS THE TRUTH BEHIND AFACT z40\clip\2000\03\conner.txt From the issue dated March 10, 2000 http://chronicle.com/weekly/v46/i27/27b00601.htm My Fight Against Race Preferences: a Quest Toward 'Creating Equal' By WARD CONNERLY "If you look at grades in required premed courses and at the scores in the Medical College Admission Test, the average affirmative-action admit ranked in the lowest 1 percent relative to the Asian students and white students admitted." The fact that no white circles appeared in the lower-left part of the square meant that "their people," poor whites who also needed a boost, were never given a break under affirmative action. @@class Affirmative action by class will not deliver "diversity" because there are too many poor Asians with high test scores, and not enough blacks, even rich ones with high scores. ADMISSION BY NEED - RACIAL PREFS BY ANY OTHER NAME? "Need, as a Substitute For Race Preferences Is Just as Hot an Issue" Wall Street Journal April 10, 1997 F041497 San Francisco's Lowell High School judges whites and Asians by income, but not blacks and Hispanics, and some are writing up rules so that there will be no racial losses if preferences are changed to class or economic. \doc\95\10\equacrit.txt New Republic July 17, 1995 p. 25 "Equal Opportunity Critics" Richard D. Kahlenberg Abigail Thernstrom and Nathan Glazer criticize class based affirmative action because Blacks achieve lower even with equal incomes. Kahlanberg notes that other economic factors work such as net worth. @@color-blind %%for Clinton - equality of opportunity, not outcomes 3/1/95 NPR \doc\95\02\notpref.txt - AfAc is color-blind, does not favor groups \priv\95\02\wagegap.txt - Derrick Z. Jackson looks for color-blind employers UCLA - we have not lowered standards, they're as high as they've ever been. %%against see @@ban Many college brocures no longer say "admit without regard to race or gender" and say "we seek to admit a diverse student body" "judge by content of character" is now seen as conservative rhetoric, Martin Luther King was only kidding. US News - we tried color blind 25 years ago, it favors white men \doc\web\98\08\acri.txt American Civil Rights Institute Sept 1998 issue The Egalitarian Clinton's Race Panel Encourages Him to Abandon the idea of Creating a "Colorblind" Society John Hope Franklin: "the idea that we should sapire to a 'colorblind' America is an impediment to reducing racial stereotyping". \doc\95\02\afacpol1.txt USA Today poll "there is still a lot of racism in this country" says Kim Gandy of the National Organization for Women, referring to poll which shows little support for preferences for blacks. @@construction firms Construction firms owned by minorities , US and Chicago 1972 39,875 573 1987 107,650 1,650 Construction firms owned by women 1972 14,884 348 1987 94,308 1,610, 1995 "Blue Collar" News week Affirmative action special @@contracting - See Asian.business.city contract MINORITIES IN WA LESS THAN # OF COMPANIES, BUT IF COMPANIES SMALL? \doc\web\98\06\wacons.wk1 State financed construction Seattle Times Aug 29, 1998 Type of contract Prime sub All White men 89.4% 64.0% 72.7% White wom 6.2% 17.9% 11.9% Black 0.3% 3.3% 4.8% Hispanic 1.2% 5.3% 3.6% Asian 2.1% 5.9% 3.2% NatAm 0.8% 4.1% 3.9% Study commisioned by Office of Minor Women's Business Enterprises by Mason Tillman associates Dollars CompaniesRate Index White men 93.9% 58.2% 1.61 1.00 NatAm 0.9% 1.8% 0.50 -3.23 Black 3.2% 7.0% 0.46 -3.53 Asian 0.5% 5.8% 0.09 -18.72 White wom 1.5% 24.4% 0.06 -26.24 Hispanic 0.1% 2.8% 0.04 -45.18 Blacks & NatAm are best minority WA const contract w1.00 b-3.53 h-45.18 a-18.72 n-3.23 http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/1998/03/30/MN20207.DTL \clip\98\07\getbid.txt Unfairness Alleged In S.F. Contracts Policies failed, minorities say Jason B. Johnson, Chronicle Staff Writer Monday, March 30, 1998 Breakdown of study of construction contracts from 1992 to 1995 by category of owners, total San Francisco contracts available: $1.2 billion Asian Americans 3% White women 1.4% African Americans 1.4% Latino Americans 5.3% White males 88.9% SAN FRANCISCO LEAVES NATIVE AMERICANS OUT OF MINORITY BIDDING They say there aren't enough to include them, but the few Native American firms that do exist say they're getting ripped off. More reason the whole idea ought to be junked and just hire the best qualified. \clip\97\08\noind.txt http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/chronicle/chron.article.cgi?file=MN24525.DTL&directory=/chronicle/archive/1997/03/26 Wednesday, March 26, 1997 · Page A17 ©1997 San Francisco Chronicle S.F. Accused of Bias in Contracting Program City excludes American Indians from bid process Bill Wallace, Chronicle Staff Writer The San Francisco Human Rights Commission discriminates against American Indians in a program designed to help minority businesses win city contracts, Indian contractors say. 6 Jun 1996 17:51:36 -0400 From: NewsHound@sjmercury.com (NewsHound) Suit: US West failed to aid black firms DENVER (AP) -- The National Black Chamber of Commerce today filed a $150 million lawsuit against U S West Inc., alleging the regional phone company has not done enough business with black-owned companies. \priv\96\20\blakuswe.txt (ap) Blacks U S West By DEBORAH MENDEZ Attorneys for the chamber claim in the lawsuit that U S West ``knowingly and deliberately'' excluded African-American businesses from its procurement contract program for companies owned by women and ethnic minorities. The chamber alleges that U S West's spent less than 3 percent and black-owned companies received less than 1 percent. US West says black-owned businesses represent only 1.86 percent of the total number of businesses in the company's 14-state region, 0.3 percent of the company's procurement contracts went to those businesses, which shouldn't be surprising given the high technology content of its needs. Comment - does this mean that any company that can't prove it buys from minority business in proportion with the population, or rate of business ownership is guilty of discrimination? If so, we're all in really big trouble. What if consumers don't spend 10% of their money in black owned supermarkets and discount super-stores? @@Cook http://www.acusd.edu/~e_cook/ Affirmative action and admissions to the University of California Updated August 3, 1998 This site contains the largest set of data ever assembled concerning admissions practices at the University of California Medical and Law Schools. It is apparent that UC has used race based admissions over the years to the extent that checking the box for a preferred race can increase chances of admission by 3 or 4 fold. Likewise, checking another box can result in not being admitted despite superior academic qualifications and hard work. Perhaps most ironic is that while great efforts are made to verify grades and test scores no attempt is made to verify the racial check box selected even though it can be of equal or greater importance than grades and test scores in determining admissions. Is it any wonder that the Supreme Court Bakke Case, the UC Regents vote in 1995 to eliminate racial preferences, and the passage of California Proposition 209 all have their origin in the admission practices of the University of California? http://www.acusd.edu/~e_cook/analysis/law/berkeley/ucb-law-98.html UCB Law 1998. Boalt Law School continues its race-based admissions practices. http://www.acusd.edu/~e_cook/analysis/medical/sanfrancisco/ucsf-med-97.htm l UCSF Med 1997. Wholesale race based admissions. http://www.acusd.edu/~e_cook/analysis/medical/losangeles/ucla-med-97.html UCLA Med 1997. Shows an extreme example of racial preferences. http://www.acusd.edu/~e_cook/analysis/undergrad/uc-98.html UC System Undergaduate 1998. Includes 2nd round admission data not mentioned in a recent New York Times article. http://www.acusd.edu/~e_cook/analysis/undergrad/ut-98.html U Texas Undergraduate 1998 In an attempt to increase "diversity," the University of Texas in 1998 admitted the top 10% of each high school. In a class of approximately 4000 students, this system yielded exactly one additional black admit. Detailed Data and Analysis The analysis section of this site contains detailed information for each UC med and law school by year and gives applicant and admission information. Data Source The data used on this site is available from the University of California information coordinator. http://www.acusd.edu/~e_cook/faq/datasource.html @@Corporations TEXACO GOAL OF 13% BLACK EXCEEDS POPULATION PARITY "New Texaco program aims to expand minority work force" Seattle Times Dec 18, 1996 F121896-3 The proportion of African Americans would rise from 9 perent to 13% by 2000 (but that's above the 12% population level!) @@cost Affirmative Action Fails, 2 Parent Families Work Peter Kirsanow, Michigan Citizen, 15 Jul 1995, c:\clip\97\02\afac2par.txt z39\clipim\99\12\11\robinhood\robinhood.htm http://members.xoom.com/griffedulion/robinhood.htm AFFIRMATIVE ACTION: THE ROBIN HOOD EFFECT In this essay, La Griffe du Lion, models the effect of affirmative action on the income of whites, blacks and Hispanics. It is shown that on average a black worker, between the ages of 25 and 64, earns an extra $9,400 a year because of affirmative action. Hispanics also benefit to the tune of almost $4,000 a year. However, being a zero-sum game, white workers pay an average of about $1,900 annually to foot the bill. [comment - this assumes that IQ is the sole indicator of market value, blacks appear to earn more than their IQ would indicate at low-IQ jobs, so this analysis may be flawed, but still interesting exercise] Cost: Just the annual administrative compliance costs for the nation's employers have been estimated at $5 billion.members of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management estimated the cost of affirmative action and race norming to the national economy at approxim with skin color "diversity IS excellence?" How the heck does her skin color improve her ability to teach and conduct research about wood and paper?? Federal requirements require nondiscrimination, not doing this kind of nonsense just to get as many bodies as possible, regardless of the talen pool, which they admit was only one in the entire country. @@fair outcomes doc936:lowlawk.doc Chinaman's Chance at Lowell Asian Week doc937:chinchan.doc KQED trial doc93b:chinchan.doc AFAC doc911:maas too big under normal rules, and recommended going with a local vendor [of the incorrect race] \priv\96b\01\afaccost.txt Jun 13, 1996 newshound Former Lawmaker Claims $343 Million Annual Cost For Contracting Programs SACRAMENTO (AP) -- Affirmative action programs designed to give women and minorities a share of state contracts cost at least $343 million a year, a former Republican assemblyman claimed Thursday. @@Curriculum San Francisco Sets Minority Book Rule Students Must Read at Least One Nonwhite Author Each Year. By Maria L. La Ganga Los Angeles Times Saturday, March 21, 1998; Page A07. SAN FRANCISCO, March 20-"Confronted by hundreds of angry students, teachers and parents demanding that the school curriculum be diversified, the school board voted unanimously to require that nonwhite authors be taught in the city's high schools." http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/WPlate/1998-03/21/053l-032198-idx.html after weeks of controversy, the board softened the original proposal and adopted a resolution requiring that authors of diverse race, ethnicity and sexual orientation be taught in ninth-, 10th- and 11th-grade classrooms. The new requirement fell short of setting a quota. S.F. High Schools to Get Diverse Authors List Board OKs key mandate, but no quota Nanette Asimov, Chronicle Staff Writer. Saturday, March 21, 1998. "Through a compromise both masterful and lucky, the beleaguered San Francisco Board of Education became the nation's first to require books by diverse authors -- including ``transgendered'' people -- while avoiding a vote on its much-mocked proposal for a quota of nonwhite authors." http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/1998/03/21 /MN62147.DTL \CLIP\98\07\steam.txt http://www.chron.com:80/cgi-bin/auth/story.mpl/content/chronicle/editorial/9 8/03/20/jacoby.0-1.html 3/19/1998 Houston Chronicle Diversity steamroller won't stop with books, history By JEFF JACOBY "Black children learn differently from other children," he said. "It's an environmental impact from where they come from. It's some type of handicap." " SF SCHOOL BOARD GIVES IN TO MOB DEMANDING BOOKS "OF COLOR" \clip\98\07\kowtow.txt http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/1998/03/21 /MN94632.DTL School Board Kowtows To S.F. Mob Reading list debate a chapter worth skipping KEN GARCIA Saturday, March 21, 1998 READING QUOTA FOR AUTHORS OF COLOR IN SF \clip\98\06\bookcolr.txt Now I've seen everything. "Asian Americans are the largest ethnic group in the San Francisco Unified School District, more than 40 percent of the 64,000-student district, followed by Latinos at 18 percent, African Americans at 15.7 percent, and whites at 11.8 percent." So we set up a quota of 70% authors of color, and 50% black with only 16% black students??? And people think this is a good idea???? Asians are the least represented in english literature, so how come they have the best grades and test scores?? AUUUGHHHH! http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/examiner/hotnews/stories/11/morse.dtl You can't tell a book by its color By Rob Morse EXAMINER COLUMNIST Wednesday, March 11, 1998 Under the proposed literary quota system, a kid only gets to read three out of 10 books by whites. Then the kid has to read seven books by "authors of color," five of which would have to be by African American authors. It seems like Asian American authors are getting short shrift in this city of more than 30 percent Asian Americans and 16 percent African Americans http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/1998/03/11/MN94912.DTL Grinches Would Steal The Magic SCOTT OSTLER San Francisco Chronicle Wednesday, March 11, 1998 Dr. Seuss, take your books and remove them from sight! You're like Shakespeare and his ilk, a little too white. ------ S.F. Weighs Race-Based Reading List 40% by nonwhites proposed in schools Nanette Asimov, Chronicle Staff Writer Wednesday, March 11, 1998 ©1998 San Francisco Chronicle URL: http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/1998/03/11/MN101865.DTL Declaring that many San Franciscans are ``tired of the white, European establishment,'' two school board members want 40 percent of required reading for high school students to be written by nonwhite authors. SF Chron: BLACK AUTHORS SPEAK OUT ON LITERATURE Editor -- So the reading list in San Francisco schools suffers from extreme ``whiteness''? I guess I could argue that great literature derives its value from its universal appeal. However, as I am a white male, I am sure the San Francisco Board of Education would immediately dismiss my statements as those which attempt to perpetuate the racist views of a Eurocentric elite. Instead, I will let several prominent Black American authors (from Schlesinger's ``Disuniting of America'') make my case. W.E.B. Dubois once said, ``I sit with Shakespeare and he winces not. Across the color line I move arm and arm with Balzac; where smiling men and welcoming women glide in gilded halls: I summon Aristotle and Aurelius; and they come all graciously with no scorn nor condescension.'' Ralph Ellison said, ``I read Marx, Freud, T.S. Elliot; and Hemingway. Books which seldom, if ever, mentioned Negroes were to release me from whatever `segregated' idea I might have had about human possibilities. It requires real poverty of the imagination to think that this (release) can come to a Negro only through the example of other Negroes.'' Years later, he added, ``You don't write out of your skin, for God's sake, you write out of your imagination.'' Finally, in the anthology of black writing, ``The Negro Caravan,'' published in the early 1940s, anthologists disputed the idea that Black American writers have a particular ethnic viewpoint. They wrote that many contemporary Negro writers are closer to Sandburg, Hemingway and Steinbeck than to each other. ``The bonds of literary tradition seem to be stronger than race.'' PAUL ROSCELLI San Francisco @@crime and justice "Race Prosecution Harder To Prove" Seattle Times 5/14/96 P. A4 Supreme Court rules prosecutors did not have to answer questions that 5 AfAms indicted for selling crack cocaine were selected only because of their race. Rehnquist @@decline in applications \clip\97\25\mindown.txt Copyright 1997 Associated Press. All rights reserved. 11/01/1997 21:39 EST Minority College Enrollment Drops " The Association of American Medical Colleges released a study...17 percent fewer minority students applied to their state medical schools in California and in Texas, Mississippi and Louisiana, states covered by the 5th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals decision that affirmative action is unconstitutional. The number accepted in the four states plunged by 27 percent. " \clip\97\08\appdown.txt New York Times March 19, 1997 Universities Report Less Minority Interest After Action to Ban Preferences "[U Texas] Total undergraduate applications to the campus here fell 13 percent, which officials attribute partly to a new essay required on the application. Applications from blacks fell 26 percent. Applications from Hispanics fell 23 percent. [Law school] saw applications from blacks fall 42 percent this year " "In California, though a record number of students applied to the state university system, minority applicants fell for the second year in a row. Applications rose 1.6 percent over all, but black applications fell 8.2 percent, Hispanic ones fell 3.7 percent and American Indian ones fell 9 percent. " "If society is saying affirmative action isn't the answer, then it's up to us to take ownership of the problem and enlarge the pool. In the end, that's the only answer."" By PETER APPLEBOME @@definition There IS NO COMMON DEFINITION OF AFFIRMATIVE ACTION. Fact is sometimes it IS - quotas, preferences for lesser minorities over better qualified whites and Asians, exclusion of whites, over-representation of minorities, under-representation of whites, and sometimes found to be illegal. In fact many advocates of "affirmative action" maintain that it makes preferences illegal, yet they oppose laws which state that preferences would be illegal. The purpose of affirmative action tends to be either - to eliminate all racial bias or discrimination or preference - to reflect the community proportionally AFFIRMATIVE ACTION MEANS SUPPORTING REPRESENTATION QUOTAS Rafael Ojeda President Hispanic Political Action Committee of Pierce County Seattle Times letters to Editor 4/5/98 According to "Remedies for Racial Inequality: The Public's View" The Southern Regional Council Jan 1997 67 % of those polled, 65% of whites support reserving some college openings for black students for black students when not doing so would result in underreprestation [this is prood that the ral definition of affirmative action is guaranteed quotas] AFFIRMATIVE ACTION MEANS PREFERENCES ARE ILLEGAL. \clip\98\07\stilneed.txt http://www.ohio.com:80/bj/news/ohio/docs/010155.htm Committee says affirmative action still needed COLUMBUS, Ohio (AP) -- Affirmative action programs remain essential to counter persistent discrimination in the United States, a committee of Ohioans concluded in a report released Thursday. "Ms. Ramos said quotas and preferential treatment are illegal under affirmative-action policies." LOTTERY WITH 16X RACIAL ADVANTAGE REPLACES RACIAL QUOTA \clip\98\07\kindlott.txt tip: ADP_List@webcom.com http://www.herald.com:80/usa/digdocs/018940.htm March 31, 1998 Miami Herald Kindergarten admissions plan is challenged "Arlington officials said they adopted the system because they wanted the school's population to resemble the entire district's. " \doc\web\98\04\afacdef.txt Roper Center survey of faculty opinion at the University of California in December of 1995 Which statement comes closest to your own definition of affirmative action?" First statement 37% (Granting preferences to women, minorities) Second statement 43% (Hiring without regard to race) Both 2% Neither 14% DK 4% MINDY CAMERON SEATTLE TIMES SAYS JOHNSON AUTHORIZED RACIAL PREFERENCES Seattle Times April 6, 1997 p. B6 "We Can't Turn Our Backs on Persistent Inequality" Abeline Christian Univeristy http://150.252.25.26/COBA/acu_admissions.html " The university is committed to providing equal educational opportunities for students without regard to race, color, sex, creed, handicap, or national origin" 4/97 http://www.aclu-sc.org/aabrochure.html#how "Before an affirmative action program is instituted, a finding must be made that certain groups have been under-represented. At the federal and state levels, there are several hundred programs to fulfill these goals." (Comment, that's not always true, many programs have been instituted for groups without confirming that the groups are even under-represented, nor do they stop when they become over-represented) ACLU \priv\98\02\afact.txt letter - Prop 200 does not conflict wity original definition of affirmative action - acting without preference to any group. \doc\95\14\kindafac.txt - 4 kinds of affirmative action 1) no preferences - microsoft full time 2) strong preferences, less than parity - MIT, Harvard undergrad 3) strong preferences, equal to parity or quota - Law, Medical schools 4) near or total exclusion of unprotected groups - San Jose Fire, Microsoft HS intern @@Democratic Party Democrats Hit Some Demographic Targets AsianWeek April 20, 2000 p. 13 California Party delegates vs goal: Hispanic 26.2 / 26 Black 16.3 / 16 Disabled 5.7 / 10 API 9.2 / 9 Gay men 4.8 / 5 Lesbian 3 / 5 Am Indian 1.8 / 1 out of 3,400 appplicants. z45\clip\2000\08\demquot.txt http://www.washtimes.com/op-ed/ed-column-2000815172544.htm 8/15/00 Wash. Times (D.C.) A19 The Washington Times Tuesday, August 15, 2000 COMMENTARY OP-ED Quotas spoil the party Bean counters at the Democratic convention Marc Levin f102695 "The Democrat's Quota System" Wall Street Journal April 11, 1995 The Democratic party has quotas for race, gender, and sexuality according to former deputy general counsel to the 1992 Clinton Campaign @@disadvantaged \priv\95\17\taxblak.doc - "Tax Breaks for Being Black" Wall Street Journal Nov 8, 1995 p. A18 Rich black men take advantage of programs designed to help the underfinanced and disadvantaged - What OJ Simpson and Colin Powell have in common. @@disclosure MAKE PREFERENCES LEGAL FOR PRIVATE, BUT REQUIRE DISCLOSURE z54\clip\2002\01\bend.txt Affirmative Action: Don't Mend It or End It--Bend It http://www.brook.edu/press/REVIEW/winter2002/schuck.htm Affirmative Action: Don't Mend It or End It--Bend It by Peter H. Schuck First, affirmative action would be banned in the public sector but allowed in the private sector. Second, private-sector institutions that use preferences would be required to disclose how and why they do so. These reforms would allow the use of preferences by private institutions that believe in them enough to disclose and defend them, while doing away with the obfuscation, duplicity, and lack of accountability that too often accompany preferences. doc931:disclose - questions to ask \doc\95\07\trutafac.txt "The Truth About Affirmative Action" Rupert W. Nacoste (N. Carolina State University) Chronicle of Higher Education April 7, 1995 p. A48 Preferences OK as long as race isn't the main factor, should be disclosed @@discount Defense Federal Acquisitions Regulations give minority firms a 10% bidding advantage. Race(etc) preferences on the line, Wall Street Journal March 14, 1995 p. A19 Tim W. Ferguson \doc\95\03\fedpref.txt affirmative-action.discount - law allows 10% bidding preference @@discrimination \doc\95\07\means.txt - implies opponents want a return to white male preference, but nothing in the proposed changes permit discrimination. @@diversity commitee doc933:PROJDIV XLS Project Diversity isn't very diverse in San Jose blacks and Asian Indians over-rpresented. @@diversity definition SEATTLE: HOLLY PARK'S ETHNIC "MIX OF 90 PERCENT" TO BE "PRESERVED" Comment: Why is it that some people call 90% nonwhite an "ethnic mix" to be "preserved", and others call it "segregation"?? Is this the true meaning of "diversity?" c:\clip\97\02\holypark.txt http://www.seattletimes.com/sbin/iarecord?NS-search-set=/32e4f/aaaa004JRe4fde9&NS-doc-offset=0& Copyright © 1997 The Seattle Times Company Local News : Oct. 21, 1996 Goodbye, Holly Park 10 years from now, you probably won't recognizethe housing project that symbolizes Seattle's poor by Charles E. Brown Seattle Times staff reporter "Morgan and the community council have been successful in negotiating assurances that Holly Park's present population, an ethnic mix of about 90 percent people of color, would not be left out in the cold by redevelopment. "Most of the community at large is people of color, and that's what we will encourage," says Morgan. "We don't think the project will change the nature of that." " @@diversity motive Affirmative action based on diversity has nothing to do with nondiscrimination, but acting to create a certain racial mix for its own sake, often a mix with more minorities and fewer whites than in the general population. DIVERSITY'S DOUBLE-EDGED SWORD It Can Expand Markets. But Also Split Work Forces By Matthew Robinson Investor's Business Daily Feb 20, 1997 p. a1 doc: \clip\97\06\divredge.doc img: \images\97\07\divr*.tif txt: \clip\97\06\divredge.txt \doc\96\06\asiaundr.txt "Asians underrepresented in state government" Seattle International Examiner Sept 4, 1996 p. 6 Roy Stendifer of "Workforce Diversity Program" says that his job is to make the "state workforce look more like the state population [hmmm, nothing about hiring without regard to race here..] @@dominant factor \doc\95\07\trutafac.txt "The Truth About Affirmative Action" Rupert W. Nacoste (N. Carolina State University) Chronicle of Higher Education April 7, 1995 p. A48 Preferences OK as long as race isn't the main factor, should be disclosed @@dormitories \doc\96\03\corninsu.txt F051796 "Cornell's Insult to Brown Decision" Michael Meyers, New York Civil Rights Coaltion. Wall Street Journal May 17, 1996 p. A14 Cornell faces decision on whether to preserve race-theme dormitories which appear to violate principles of desegregation. Proponents have used intimidation and violence to silence blacks who object to segregation, and one young woman said she didn't go to Cornell to become white. @@D'Souza EDUCATION IN AMERICA By DINESH D'SOUZA Preferences won't work when Asian single-birth rates are much lower than blacks. @@dropout Dropout rates for minorities under affirmative action are typically 2 to 1 or greater, regardless of the level of the institution, from high school up to medical school Ratio 2.0 MIT 15 vs 30 2.0 Berkeley 80's 60 vs. 30 @@economic Economic affirmative action (for the poor) won't work because there are too many low-income Asians with excellent test scores and too few affluent blacks with good test scores. The average SAT score of the poorest Asians is higher than blacks over $70,000. If you want to have a quota, you're simply going to have to legalized quotas, and admit that's what you really want. No color-blind policy will result in equal proportions. \clip\97\29\berkinc.txt Thursday, December 18, 1997 · Page A21 ©1997 San Francisco Chronicle Boalt to Reserve Slots for Low-Income Students New policy for diversity Pamela Burdman, Chronicle Staff Writer [I suspect they're in for a rude awakening when they find out there are lots of Asians and whites who are economically disadvantaged. wpapy@2xtreme.net] @@Education/K12 In the early 1990s, I noticed that every school district or college superintendent or president went to a woman, minority, or in the case of Stanford, a white guy dedicated to diversity in the SF bay area. Often there would be a war over not picking a Hispanic or black, but at least the finalists would have one of every group. Seattle in 1999 can't be beat - all of their top 3 finalists, and their winner, June Rimmer, were black women, despite claims that "race and gender had nothing to do with it", that's beating slot machine odds. %%Principal David Blomstrom 5/2000 notes: Chuck Chinn Rules A passage in an article about outgoing Ballard High School Principal Chuck Chinn caught my eye: "He failed seven times applying to be a principal. He failed to qualify for a district affirmative action program for minorities in administration." If he had been black, he would have had a brother and a spouse in the personnel department, who would have hired him before he had his credentials. Sorry, Chuck - life's a bitch. Reference: "Chinn found Ballard High a dump, will leave it a gem," Susan Paynter, Seattle P-I, May 17, 2000 %%Superintendent 4 HISPANIC MEN FOR TEXAS POST San Antonio Express-News Thursday, Mar 30 Edgewood Picks Chief Finalists Four Hispanic men who are top-level administrators in large, predominantly Mexican-American Texas school districts emerged Thursday as the final four contenders for the Edgewood superintendent's job. Thursday, Mar 30 ONLY BLACK WOMEN ARE FINALISTS FOR SEATTLE NUMBER 2 POSITION \clip\99\11\blakwom.txt Please tell me that this job wasn't only open to black women to balance the white male superintendent. Obviously, no Asians were considered, and they certainly didn't ask me about the job. http://www.seattletimes.com/news/education/html98/acad_19990603.html June 3, 1999 3 black women are finalists for Seattle's No. 2 school post mgreen.efx Official response from Seattle Schools Legal counsel PROVIDENCE 2 MINORITY WOMEN \clip\99\12\lam.txt http://www.projo.com/report/news/ Providence search for school chief down The search committee narrows its recommendation to two women, both minorities. By GINA MACRIS Journal Staff Writer PROVIDENCE -- Two women educators with decades of experience in urban schools, both from minority backgrounds, are finalists for the superintendent's job in Providence. They are Diana Lam, superintendent in San Antonio from 1994 to 1998, and June Collins Rimmer, the chief academic officer in Indianapolis for the last four years. @@eeoc \priv\95\06\EEOCSWAM.TXT - eeoc is swamped by cases \priv\95\06\EEOCTEET.TXT \priv\95\06\EEOCTASK.TXT @@equal opportunity \doc\95\10\equacrit.txt New Republic July 17, 1995 p. 25 "Equal Opportunity Critics" Richard D. Kahlenberg Sociologist Christopher Jencks of Northwestern University defined equal opportunity as a situation in which sons born into different families have the same chance of success. Most conservatives define equal opportunity as opportunity without discrimination, not equal outcomes. @@Equally Qualified Candidates If you are given two equally qualified candidates, who do you chose? In fact, affirmative action is who you chose to achieve a desired outcome even if qualifications are widely disparate. Contrary to what Dr. Kissane proposes, we all know that as often as not, if not more, Affirmative Action is NOT about choosing between equally qualified candidates @@european also see white \doc\96\03\upseuro.txt "UPS Student proposes Euro-American Club" Journal American (Bellevue, WA) April 24, 1996 (AP) The editor of the student paper for the University of Puget Sound in Tacoma believes a proposed new European American club is just a front for white supremacy, and suspects that it is linked with racist internet home page of the same name. The proposal would include celebrations of Octoberfest, St. Patrick's day and speakers who would explore European heritiage. @@Examination School Examination schools concentrate the students with the highest test scores and grades from a large urban area to create an elite school. Some argue that these schools must provide equal opportunity with quotas. Henry Der of SF-basd Chinese for Affirmative Action believes if Asians are hit by quotas, then other high schools should be made just as good, but this defeats the definition of creating the best school by selecting only the best scoring students - the students make the school, not the other way around. Such school often rival the best schools from the most affluent communities. \doc\95\05\aselite.txt - summary of NY, SF and Whitney Statistical Summary: White Index is white / population, other races compare to White=1.00 Ranked by Asian population Index Percent W B H A W B H A 92-3 Lowell HS San Francisco 1.2 -5.1 -3.1 1.2 17.5 4.4 7.7 70.4 - 40% cap on Chinese 92-3 Whitney HS Cerritos CA 1.1 -4.3 -3.3 1.5 24.0 1.9 9.2 57.1 - no race restrictions 93-4 Stuyvesant New York 2.2 -15.3-20.5 2.7 39.5 5.4 3.9 51.2 - no race restrictions 93-4 Bronx Science New York 2.4 -5.9 -8.4 1.6 42.0 15.0 10.0 33.0 - no race restrictions 93-4 Academy of Math/Sci LA 14 28 28 29 - no race restrictions 94-5 Illinois Math and Sci 0.7 -1.1 1.3 15.8 53 10 7 28 - "affirmative action" 93-4 Gunn HS Palo Alto .91 .97 .93 1.5 67.0 3.5 5.1 23.2 - no race restrictions 95-6 T. Jefferson VA -3.9 -1.1 7.9 71.3 4.5 4.4 19.1 94-5 Boston Latin School 2.6 -5.6 -6.1 -1.6 50.4 22.4 10.3 16.6 - 35% floor on Black and Hispanic 95-6 Young Magnet Chicago 1.79 -1.9 -4.2 2.79 19.4 52.3 13.0 15.0 W vs. average, others vs. white=1.00 Boston Latin is only school of above where Asians are under-represented compared to Whites. %%Boston Latin, Boston Massachusetts. Boston Latin has enforced a 35% floor quota for Blacks and Hispanics, otherwise competitive. Court turned down request to raise quota to district population levels. Boston Latin is unusual in that it is the only nationally known examination school were Whites are better represented than Asians. This may indicate reliance on verbal scores rather than math scores, where Asians in Boston far outscore whites. Asians and Whites are calling for merit admissions, even Black city council members do not support a racial quota. In Nov 1996, the school district decided to abandon quotas, though they are considering using proportional quotas instead. The final scheme admits the top half by merit, and second half by quota based on composition of the top half of the applicant pool. In Nov 1998, a higher court struck down the quota based scheme and stated that any racial preferences were impermissible as unconstitutional, no matter how noble the intent. Latin minority admissions steady http://www.boston.com/dailyglobe2/083/metro/Latin_minority_admissions_stea dy+.shtml By Beth Daley, Globe Staff, 03/24/99 BOSTON LATIN HIGH Admissions policy under scrutiny "When Boston Latin School was forced to dismantle its most recent affirmative action admissions policy after a bitter court fight, observers predicted the number of minorities admitted to the school would drop dramatically. In the end, it came down to just 10 students. Under a new, race-blind admissions policy, the number of black and Hispanic students admitted to the prestigious school for next September was about the same as in 1998 - the last year of a racial preference policy. Eighty-one black and Hispanic students were admitted to next year's seventh-grade class of 440 students, 10 fewer than last year." IMPROVE ALL SCHOOLS DON'T FOCUS ON LATIN \clip\98\18\edclipl02.txt Latin case focus ignores real education needs, parents say By Beth Daley, Globe Staff, 12/04/98 (yes, but there can only be one best school) U.S. 1st Circuit Court of Appeals: WESSMANN v GITTENS http://laws.findlaw.com/1st/981657.html FULL TEXT OF OPINION. November 19, 1998 United States Court of Appeals "Selya, Circuit Judge. On appeal, we must decide whether the Policy, which makes race a determining factor in the admission of a subset of each year's incoming classes, offends the Constitution's guarantee of equal protection. We conclude that it does." Court Ruling Blocks Affirmative Action At a Public School http://www.nytimes.com/library/national/112098schools-race.html November 20, 1998 By Tamar Lewin New York Times "In the first Federal appeals court ruling on affirmative action in public school admissions, a three-judge panel in Boston yesterday struck down racial preferences at Boston Latin School, the city's most prestigious public high school. FEDERAL APPEALS COURT SAYS RACIAL PREFERNCES ARE UNCONSTITUTIONAL \clip\98\17\bostlatn.txt http://www.foxnews.com/js_index.sml?content=/news/wires2/1119/n_ap_1119_303. sml Boston Latin can't use race in admission, court rules 6.14 p.m. ET (2315 GMT) November 19, 1998 By Alison Fitzgerald, Associated Press BOSTON (AP) - A federal appeals court ruled Thursday that the race-based admissions policy at the prestigious Boston Latin School is unconstitutional. A three-judge panel of the 1st U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ordered Boston Latin to immediately admit 15-year-old Sarah Wessmann Reverse Discrimination - In High Schools Too. Economist Feb 14, 1998 p. 27. Of 90 new students in 1997, there were 44W 24A 21B and 10L. If it was based only on academics, it would be 565W 23A 9B 7L (even Asians would be lower) \clip\98\04\bostlat.txt Boston Globe School admissions policy defended Expert calls racial preferences justified By William F. Doherty, Globe Staff, 02/10/98 William T. Trent, associate chancellor at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign argues that schools are not properly preparing black students, and low scores are caused by prior segregation, therefore admission by race is justified. BLACKS AT BOSTON LATIN DEPEND ON PERCENTAGE OF _QUALIFIED_ MINORITY APPLICANTS \clip\97\01\qualblak.txt A dream team for Boston's schools By Jacqueline Rivers, Boston Globe 01/06/97 The Boston School Committee's decision to adopt an assignment plan that ensures minority representation at the exam schools creates an opportunity and a need. The need is to develop a highly qualified pool of applicants from minority students in the public schools. BOSTON LATIN REPLACES BLACK/HISP QUOTA WITH TOP HALF MERIT, BOTTOM HALF = RACE OF THOSE WHO SCORED IN TOP HALF OF EXAM. BLACKS WANT RETURN TO QUOTAS, REFLECT "ENTIRE SYSTEM" d:\clip\96\12\bostquot.txt AP 19-Dec-1996 13:11 EST REF5682 Boston School Settles Race Lawsuit The new scheme is not as bad a quota, but it's still a quota because it's based on proportionality of a pool that's not the same as those who are "best" qualified. Norm Matloff advocates random selection above a cutoff which would result in even worse average test scores. City Councilor Charles Yancy gives away the true nature of affirmative action by saying that "The complexion of the exam school should reflect the complexion of the entire system," he said. Merit's got nothing to do with it. Blacks said they would sue to restore the old quotas. \clip\96\08\boslat.tx AP 15-Nov-1996 School Drops Racial Quotas Policy Boston Latin decides to drop fight to maintain racial quotas, will decide between proportional and other schemes, perhaps even a lottery. Also various Boston Globe articles, check http://www.boston.com/globe/met/latin/lathome.htm \clip\96\03\decispar.txt Boston Globe Decision sparks varied reactions at Latin School By Jordana Hart, Globe Staff, 08/24/96 When Julia A. McLaughlin enters the eighth grade at Boston Latin next week, she will encounter a range of reactions to her court-ordered admission, according to students and parents interviewed yesterday. \clip\96\02\globlatn.txt Boston Globe Payzant says school will maintain diversity (Friday, August 23, 1996) Ending quotas at exam schools mulled (Tuesday, August 21, 1996) Suit targets Boston Latin racial policy: Lawyer contends his daughter was rejected she's white (Tuesday, August 15, 1995) Father sees suit as action of last resort (Tuesday, August 15, 1995) Latin must admit girl challenging race quotas: Judge says school board failed to justify its policy By Patricia Nealon, Globe Staff, 08/23/96 \clip\96\02\boslatn.txt Date: Thu, 22 Aug 1996 23:25:26 -0400 Federal Judge Orders School to Admit White Girl By JON MARCUS Associated Press Writer BOSTON (AP) -- A white student must be admitted to Boston's top-ranked public school Boston Latin despite a racial quota, a federal judge ruled Thursday, suggesting that the city may have to change its system of preserving diversity at its elite public schools. A quota was set to 35% black and Hispanic, it would be only 15% if it were by merit only. The superintendent said that it would turn back the clock and resume "discrimination against minority students prevalent in the 1970s" Comment - how does choosing without regard to race constitute discrimination? \priv\96\08\latnspli.txt Latin students split over ruling's impact: Some applaud diversity at school; others favor admission by merit only Boston Globe By Karen Avenoso, Globe Correspondent, 04/19/96 Judge decides to let girl challenging 35% B&H quota to attend school while the trial proceeds. Boston Latin Compared to Boston School District Latin Dist Ratio Index w 51 18 2.83 1.00 b 21 48 0.43 -6.58 a 17 9 1.88 -1.50 h 11 24 0.45 -6.28 Table by Arthur Hu Even with quotas, Blacks and Hispanics are less than 1/6 their population relative to whites. Asians are also less represented than Whites, indicating importance of language where Asians are generally superior in math test scores. \doc\95\11\boslatn2.txt - Boston Latin School Notes source: \priv\95\11\boslatn.txt (Boston Globe articles) Case of a parent who is suing because a 32% minority quota prevent his daughter from attending Boston Latin School. Latin Acad: 32B 42W 26 H+A+N Boston Latin: 22B 50W 28 H+A+N Only 44% of students come from Boston Public Schools None in the city council, not even blacks support the concept of quotas. If there were no quota, Whites and Asians would be 87.5%, Blacks and others would be 12.5%. In 1972, it was 92% white. In 1992-93, only 3 Blacks and 3 Hispanics took calculus outside of the exam schools in Boston "No other school so closely resembles the city makeup" (Is that the purpose of an exam school based on merit??) Robert Guen of Boston Asian community also called for merit admissions so that more Asians could be admitted. The headmaster supports quotas for diversity (in the beginning, he was opposed according to his son) Aug 18, 1995 Boston Globe "Suit Targeted" Boston Latin 50.4W 22.4B 16.6A 10.3H System 19W 48B 10A 23H Rate 2.63 -2.14 1.66 -2.33 Index 1.00 -5.62 -1.58 -6.12 Boston Latin is the only nationally known exam school where Whites are better represented than Asians. Despite quotas, Blacks and Hispanics are still represented at only 1/5 to 1/6 the rate of Whites. doc941\lat*.* doc941\priv\latseg.txt latin school 57% white 35% BH 8A latin academy 58% white 35% BH 7A system: 48 black 27 white 25 AH %%New York City doc\94\0\nyexam.xls Bronx Science Stuyvesant Admissions by pure test score, no quotas for under-minorities '93-94 Bronx Science Index W2.4 B-5.9 H -8.4 A1.6 N## Stuyvesant W2.2 B-15.3 H-20.5 A2.7 NA-9.0 %%Palo Alto Gunn is not an examination school, just a highly rated neighborhood school. Index Percent 93-4 Gunn HS Palo Alto .91 .97 .93 1.5 67.0 3.5 5.1 23.2 dist = W73.6 B4 H4.3 A16.8 %%Whitney High School, Cerritos California School report card says that it's 99th percentile in state rankings in every subject doc922\integ.doc Cerritos kids are W36 B8 H13 A50 doc93\lowlawk.doc - mention in Hu's on First doc\94\12\whitney.wk1 HS District Index White 24.0% 22.6% 1.06 Black 1.9% 7.6% -4.25 Asian 57.1% 35.5% 1.51 Filipino 7.1% 7.6% -1.14 Hisp 9.2% 28.8% -3.32 AmInd 0.2% Portugues 0.4% 1.9% -5.76 \doc\94\16\abcdist.wk1 ABC Unified / Whitney High district population March 1993 Percent Hisp Black Asian AmInd PacIs Portugue Filp Artesia 41.1% 8.8% 21.3% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 5.4% Cerritos 10.9% 9.0% 43.4% 0.2% 0.2% 3.3% 6.6% Gahr 25.7% 13.2% 24.2% 0.3% 0.5% 2.3% 7.5% Whitney 7.5% 1.6% 66.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 8.3% Tracy 45.1% 16.0% 4.2% 0.3% 0.0% 1.1% 4.2% Total 23.6% 9.4% 34.1% 0.2% 0.3% 1.7% 6.7% As/PI Non-Min Diverse-Min Artesia 26.9% 22.9% 77.1% Cerritos 50.2% 26.3% 73.7% Gahr 32.2% 26.4% 73.6% Whitney 74.6% 15.8% 84.2% Tracy 8.4% 29.1% 70.9% Total 41.0% 24.1% 75.9% Vs. District Hisp Black Asian AmInd PacIs Portugue Filp Artesia 1.74 -1.07 -1.60 -1.86 -1.49 -7.34 -1.24 Cerritos -2.16 -1.04 1.27 1.15 -1.31 1.92 -1.00 Gahr 1.09 1.41 -1.41 1.26 1.89 1.31 1.12 Whitney -3.16 -5.79 1.94 -1.08 -1.29 -5.66 1.24 Tracy 1.91 1.71 -8.11 1.28 #DIV/0! -1.53 -1.58 Total 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 As/PI Non-Min Diverse-Min Artesia -1.52 -1.05 1.02 Cerritos 1.22 1.09 -1.03 Gahr -1.27 1.09 -1.03 Whitney 1.82 -1.53 1.11 Tracy -4.88 1.21 -1.07 Total 1.00 1.00 1.00 API are 2X while Hispanic are -3X and Black -6X, API are 74% of the school, yet widely heralded as a model of diversity. http://www.arthurhu.com/afact#exclusion @@exclusion Some affirmative action programs deliberately completely exclude whites or white men. ONLY 1 WHITE MALE OUT 43 PROMOTED AT HUD z58\clip\2002\09\cridisc.txt http://nationaljournal.com/taylor.htm When Affirmative Action Is Nothing But Discrimination By Stuart Taylor Jr., National Journal © National Journal Group Inc. Monday, Sept. 23, 2002 Of the 43 people who since 1986 had been hired or promoted by his division, 42 were black or female; only one was a white male. Now the 55-year-old Dennis Worth is the name plaintiff in a nationwide class action against HUD and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. UNION COLLEGE INVITED ONLY BLACK HISPANIC PROFESSORS TO APPLY \clip\99\10\minonly.txt (http://chronicle.com/free/v45/i32/32a01801.htm) Chronicle of Higher Education April 16, 1999 Union College Limits Search for 4 New Faculty Slots to Black and Hispanic Scholars By ALISON SCHNEIDER This year, when Union College set out to fill four new faculty posts, it kept the guest list short and select: Only black and Hispanic professors were invited to apply. during the trial, a tenured professor testified that Mr. Wallace had told him that he would not authorize the hiring of any white men in the business school. Mr. Wallace, who is black, retired last year. SAN FRANCISCO - NO WHITES NEED APPLY The Sacramento-based Pacific Legal Foundation sued the City of San Francisco and its mayor, Willie Brown, for violating Proposition 209 by allowing only minority- or women-owned businesses to bid on certain public contracts WHITES COMPLETELY EXCLUDED FROM SEATTLE FIREFIGHTERS IN 1983 \clip\98\04\harris\harris.htm http://www.seattletimes.com/education/affirmative/harris.html "In 1983, the department hired 16 minorities and women who had successfully completed recruit training -- but not the nine white men who had passed alongside them. The white men sued, but, again, the courts sided with the city. " 100% MINORITY SET ASIDE EXCLUDES WHITES, STRUCK DOWN http://www.pff.org/cir/press/pr032796.html \clip\97\07\nopaint.txt Consent Decree in Henry Painting v. OSU Enjoins The State of Ohio From Continuing 100% Racial Set-Aside State To Pay Plaintiff $368,000 in Damages And Fees Center for Individual Rights March 26, 1996 Ohio State University reserved all painting contracts for minorities because it felt it could not hit 15% in all fields. NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION HAS PROGRAMS NOT OPEN TO WHITES \clip\97\07\nowhite.txt Wall Street Journal March 6, 1997 p. A14 "Whites Need Not Apply" [The National Science Foundation is funding science programs that are not open to whites] STATE DEPARTMENT SEEKS DIVERSITY = EXCLUSION OF WHITE MEN FROM $100,000 SCHOLARSHIPS. \clip\96\10\statedept.txt State Dept Seeks Diversity AP NOv 18, 1996 Copyright 1996. The Associated Press. All Rights Reserved. In an attempt to diversity its ranks, the State Department has awarded 38 $100,000 Foreign Service Fellow scholarships, but only one has been white, a woman, and the program is now in question as to its legality. The Department also wanted to consider exempting them from normal written examinations, \priv\96\05\biaswhit.htm "Bias' against white males JAMES FINEFROCK SF Examiner news services Monday, March 27, 1995 IS IT LEGAL to freeze out white males from a job-training program intended to help women and minorities overcome decades of discrimination? Not allowed janitor training program. >>f121395 "U.S. aid plan favored black Americans" (AP) Seattle Post Intelligencer Dec 13, 1995 p. A5 After employee complaints about discrimination, AID's inspector general found that officials who ran the US aid program to South Africa were enraged to hear that a Chinese-American had won a minority set-aside contract. A document said that contracts should be awarded primarily to blacks, while two supervisors graded employees on how many contracts and grants were given to black Americans rather than all minority groups. another contract was rescinded because it was open rather than set aside for minorities. Agency officials admit mistakes were made, but said no rules were broken since there was no ill intent. filed under affirmative-action.Leo John Leo "The modern victim game: No players left to choose" Seattle Times April 4, 1995. New York chapter of Gay Lesbian Alliance Against Discrimination (GLAAD) has no white men due to complex system of gender and race preferences, even with revision of quota system. Santa Clara County hires six people each year who are not qualified as firefighters to "apprentice them". No white men are hired in this program. (1995) Clinton administration is reconsidering programs that only hired minorities as janitors at one university \priv\95\01\mendisc.txt - Only men were laid off as guards - see San Jose Fire Department @@faculty file:C:\priv\96B\06\EXTRSTEP.HTM Copyright © 1996 The Seattle Times Company July 2, 1996 UW taking that extra step to add minority faculty by Marsha King Seattle Times staff reporter The University of Washington offers $60,000 a year to a black woman who hasn't even finished her degree yet. Her qualification? "Jacobs is the only African-American woman in the country earning a doctorate in Wood and Paper Science" Not the best, just the only one. One "strongly questioned the conditions of Jacobs's employment - her high salary, lack of teaching responsibilities and inexperience. " the UW and most other universities are dedicated to affirmative action in admissions and hiring as a way to improve academic excellence. But isn't this just the same as Berkeley's Tien equating excellence with skin color "diversity IS excellence?" How the heck does her skin color improve her ability to teach and conduct research about wood and paper?? Federal requirements require nondiscrimination, not doing this kind of nonsense just to get as many bodies as possible, regardless of the talen pool, which they admit was only one in the entire country. @@fair outcomes doc936:lowlawk.doc Chinaman's Chance at Lowell Asian Week doc937:chinchan.doc KQED trial doc93b:chinchan.doc AFAC doc911:math.doc fair outcomes, scholarship, truth in preferences AFAC doc911:latcoll - fair outcomes to LA times @@Favish, Allan Claims that UC is deceptive when claiming that they do not discriminate on the basis of race \clip\97\04\favish.txt Wednesday, June 14, 1995 · Page A23 San Francisco Chronicle DEBRA J. SAUNDERS -- UC vs. Your Right to Know http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/chronicle/article.cgi?file=ED15186.DTL&directory=/chronicle/archive/1995/06/14 Allan Favish finds chances of admission with low scores 61 to 1 blacks compared to white at UC DEBRA J. SAUNDERS @@FCC Federal Communications Commission The FCC routinely sets quotas and sets the highest priority on "diversity". The Supreme Court struck down FCC rules that take diversity of staff into account in renewing licence. Washington, D.C.----------------------------1/17/01 "FCC Rules Promoting MinoritiesIn Broadcasting Struck Down" ..."The policy, which required companies to actively seek diverse job candidates, created "a race-based classification that is not narrowly tailored to support a compelling governmental interest," according to the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia." "FCC Chairperson William Kennard disagreed, calling the decision "a defeat for diversity."."... ..."The FCC weighed the number of minority employees while deciding whether to renew broadcasters’ licenses." http://www.diversityinc.com/insidearticlepg.cfm?SubMenuID=330&ArticleID=2336 "Spoils Sports" Reason Jan 1995 p. 46 The FCC is granting licences for entirely new wireless telephone and data-service technologies on the basis of race. FCC Chariman Reed Hundt has said these set-asides are not "affirmative action but affirmative opportunity" d:\doc\94\13\priv\fccquot.txt FCC Adopts Diversity Policy SJM 6/30/94 FCC has set aside 986 of 2,000 mobile telephone licences for women, minorities and small business, and set up bidding discounts for targeted groups. d:\doc\94\17\priv\fccdiv.txt - FCC gives discount to women and minorites bidding on wireless communications licences. JA 8/18/94 FCC rewrites plan for more diversity d:\doc\94\11\priv\mcafact.txt - Mona Charen column on FCC policy "Affirmative Action in Practice" \doc\95\08\endafac.txt - Adarand reverses Metro Broadcasting. "The End of Affirmative Action" New Republic July 3, 1995 p. 7 @@federal \doc\95\10\clintrevw.txt - clinton review of affirmative action in education c:\priv\95\10\audtflaw.txt - audit shows beneficiaries of federal contract awards tend to be multi-millionares, or fronts for non-minorities, Pentagon overspent because it exceeded goals. SFC 8/14/95 @@Filipino Filipinos historically have been included under "affirmative action" programs in California, and many other states. However this appears to be based solely on lower incomes in the 1960 census, when these programs were first created, even in 1960, Filipinos exceeded the state average for college education and attendence. When affirmative action was strengthened in 1984, Filipinos also rose. Filipino over-representation was not "discovered" until the 1990 Karabel report reforms at UC Berekeley. Strangely, after 1990-92, when admission rates were slightly less than that of whites, it full suddenly to worse than 1/2 the rate, worse even than foreign students, which might indicate discriminatory policies were put into place, but no activists have noted or done anything about this except to advocate restoration of racial preferences to 1984 levels. Summary - Admissions rate relative to White ------------------------------------------------ 1.76 UC Berkeley 1984-1989 (Preferential) 1.21 UC Santa Cruz 1992 (Preferential) -1.25 UC San Diego 1991 (Neutral?) -1.30 UC Berkeley 1990-1992 (Neutral?) -1.43 UCLA 1994 (Discriminatory?) -2.22 UC Berkeley 1993-1996 (Discriminatory?) Summary - Filipino Representation vs. white 3.00 Univ Washington Law School 1994 1.50 UC San Diego 1992 1.50 UC Santa Cruz 1992 1.05 UC Berkeley 1996 -1.14 Whitney HS Cerritos CA

Highlighting Filipino admission rates at UC Berkeley Filipino + higher than whites (preferential) - lower than whites (discriminatory) ---- Getting racial preferences Year Index Chart 1981 1.42 ++ 1982 1.19 + 1983 1.16 + ---- 1994-89 Filipinos, other minorities boosted 1984 1.44 ++ 1985 1.58 +++ 1986 1.46 ++ 1987 1.64 +++ 1988 1.53 ++ 1989 1.76 +++ ---- 1990-92 Taken off preferences, slightly < neutral 1990 -1.30 -- 1991 -1.25 - 1992 -1.33 - ---- 1993-96 Discriminatory Rates, worse than foreign admits 1993 -2.07 ----- 1994 -2.28 ------ 1995 -2.24 ------ 1996 -2.22 ------ ---------------------------------------------- UC Santa Cruz Admissions Study Office of Admissions Analysis by Arthur Hu Admit percent Am Indian 1.5% 1.1% Black 3.8% 3.0% Asian 21.5% 18.5% White 51.8% 55.8% Mexican 9.4% 8.6% Spanish 4.8% 4.2% Pilipino 3.6% 2.9% Minority 42.9% 37.4% State population of Filipinos is 2% Sorted Admit Rate 1991 1992 Pilipino 1.45 Pilipino 1.21 Spanish 1.35 Am India 1.14 Am Indian 1.34 Mexican 1.13 Black 1.31 Spanish 1.12 Mexican 1.31 Black 1.07 Minority 1.21 Unknown 1.05 Thai/Other 1.20 Minority 1.02 Asian 1.13 Thai/Oth 1.00 E.Indian/Pa 1.11 White 1.00 Chinese 1.11 Other -1.04 Other 1.07 Asian -1.05 Unknown 1.03 E.Indian -1.06 Japan 1.03 Pac Isla -1.06 White 1.00 Chinese -1.08 Pac Island -1.02 Japan -1.10 Korean -1.06 Korean -1.26 Most Asians >= White in 1991, Most are < White in 1992 Because of this the Minority rate went from 1.2 (net > white) to 1.02 (implies affirmative action balanced by reduced Asians? ) 1.0 = White (-2 means 1/2 or 0.5) WHEN AND WHO DID BERKELEY DISCRIMINATE AGAINST ASIANS AND OTHER GROUPS? Conclusion - UC Berkeley has discriminated (as defined by admissions rates lower than whites, any group higher than whites is "affirmative action", and presumed to be legal) * against non-filipino Asians from 1982 to 1981, * against Asians overall from 1984-1986, 1990 and 1992-95 * against Filipinos from 1990 to 1996 * against "other" races and other Asians almost every year since 1981 when these numbers were made available. Ranked by Fall 1994 UCLA Admission Rate (Higher rates associated with affirmative action preferences) Group Ad Rate Index Am Ind 78.3% 1.59 Chicano 60.9% 1.24 All Latino 58.4% 1.18 African Am 57.7% 1.17 Unknown 55.8% 1.13 Asian Am 53.4% 1.08 Total US 52.2% 1.06 Latino 52.1% 1.06 Total 51.1% 1.04 All As/PI 51.0% 1.03 Caucasian 49.3% 1.00 Other 47.7% -1.03 Pac Islander 36.4% -1.36 Filipino 34.4% -1.43<- Discrimination Internationa 25.7% -1.92 \clipim\98\01\filip.tif Filling the Filipino Pipeline Asian Week Feb 28, 1997 p. 14. Report from the second Pilipino Ameirican Collegiate Conferene Corey Takahashi. Since 1989, the number of Filipino undergraduates at UC Berkley has decilnd from a high of 961 to last fall's low of 485. Berkley's numbes are particularly significant given that Flipinos have becom one of the state's fastest growing groups. Benito de Lumen is Berkeley's only tenure Fil-am professor. doc\94\12\whitney.wk1 HS District Index White 24.0% 22.6% 1.06 Black 1.9% 7.6% -4.25 Asian 57.1% 35.5% 1.51 Filipino 7.1% 7.6% -1.14 Hisp 9.2% 28.8% -3.32 AmInd 0.2% Portugues 0.4% 1.9% -5.76 ABC Unified / Whitney High School magnet school @@Firefighter US Policefire 90 W1.00 B-1.27 A-2.7 Seattle 1996 W1.00 B 1.09 H-1.2 A-2.8 LA Men 1995 W1.00 B-1.88 H-2.7 A-3.0 San Jose 1995 W1.34 B 1.62 H-1.2 A-5.4 Seattle Official 96 W0.92 B 3.01 H 2.3 A 0.0 Seattle Clerical 96 W0.81 B 2.07 H 2.8 A 1.1 -> Note Asians most under, Blacks near parity %%Anaheim Firefighters allege discrimination in suit against Anaheim http://www.ocregister.com/archives/1998/05/01/politics/sue001w.shtml COURTS: The three men say they were singled out and harassed after they spoke out about Fire Department hiring policies. May 1, 1998 By DANIEL CHANG The Orange County Register "Three current or former members of the Anaheim Fire Department have filed a lawsuit in U.S. District Court alleging that they were maligned and discriminated against after complaining about the department's hiring practices. Jimmie Lee Cox, John Lynn Cox and Gregory J. Mowad contend their colleagues and supervisors began harassing them after the three spoke out against the department. The three say they had complained about "granting of unlawful preferences, quotas or set-asides designed to favor unqualified candidates who were perceived to be of minority status based on race or gender." None of the men could be reached for comment on the lawsuit, which was filed Wednesday. Anaheim City Attorney Jack White also could not be reached. Jimmie Lee Cox, a 24-year department veteran, alleges that he was forced to resign as battalion chief in retaliation for criticizing the department and that his colleagues maligned him when he tried to find work with other fire departments. John Cox, a captain with the department, contends he has been wrongfully investigated by the Anaheim Fire Department and given lowly assignments after filing a formal charge of discrimination last year. Mowad, a fire engineer, filed a discrimination charge in August and said he has since been isolated and falsely accused of misconduct by colleagues. The three men are demanding a jury trial and seek unspecified damages for lost wages and benefits, punitive damages and legal costs." %%Atlanta Georgia Committee proposes settlement in suit against Atlanta fire chief http://www.accessatlanta.com/news/1999/01/27/reverse.html January 27, 1999 By Lyda Longa The Atlanta Journal-Constitution "Nine Atlanta firefighters who sued Fire Chief Winston Minor with claims they were bypassed for job promotions because they are white soon may get some relief from the city. Members of the city's Public Safety Committee on Tuesday unanimously agreed to pay the nine men--all captains who were seeking to be promoted to battalion chiefs--$325,000 in settlement of the discrimination lawsuit filed against Minor and two other fire chiefs in 1996. Next week the City Council will consider the proposed settlement." %%Baytown BAYTOWN TX USES EASIER TEST TO FILL MINORITY ONLY SPOT z48\clip\2001\03\baytown.txt http://www.chron.com/cs/CDA/story.hts/metropolitan/846953 March 12, 2001, 9:44PM Baytown may resolve shortage of firefighters with new testing By CINDY HORSWELL Copyright 2001 Houston Chronicle judge ordered to alternate between hiring white and minority applicants until firefighters equals city's work force -- about 30 percent. The Baytown Fire Department's switch to a different civil service examination resulted in a passing rate for recruits jumping from 7 percent to 91 percent. %%Birmingham Alabama - 50% of promotions were reserved for blacks up to 28% blacks overall, appeals court in 1994 ruled in favor of whites, Supreme Court let it stand in 1995. \priv\95\05\birming2.txt - birmingham firefighters %%Camden NJ Firefighter bias case to be heard http://www.phillynews.com/inquirer/99/Jan/13/sj/FIRE13.htm January 13, 1999 By Jon Stenzler Philadelphia Inquirer "A hearing is set to begin today to decide whether Camden's Fire Department rejected applicants because of their race. The 10-day administrative hearing in the Office of Administrative Law near Trenton is scheduled to determine whether the applications of three men were rejected in 1996 because they are white. Ten men filed a civil lawsuit in federal court against the city in 1997, saying the discrimination was so severe that they were denied jobs as firefighters while the city hired, because they are minorities, a convicted felon and a man who was court-martialed in the military." %%Chicago CHICAGO: TEST UNFAIR TO BLACKS? \clip\98\12\firetest.txt Suit alleges fire exam was unfair to blacks http://www.suntimes.com:80/output/news/fire10.html September 10, 1998 By Cam Simpson & Fran Spielman Chicago Sun Times "About 45 percent were white and 36 percent were black. Although a score of 65 on the test was considered a passing grade, the city only allowed applicants scoring 89 or better to move on to the second phase of testing. That left 1,782 applicants in the game, about 76 percent of them white and 11 percent black." Index of Pass Rate: W1.00 B-5.52 "A 1995 exam for would-be Chicago firefighters discriminated against black applicants, a federal lawsuit filed Wednesday alleges. The black applicants who filed suit aren't alleging there was intentional discrimination. Bridget Arimond, another plaintiffs lawyer, said they only need to prove the test had the effect of discriminating. The results are proof of that, she said." %%Cincinnati Whites challenge firefighter selection process on basis of reverse discrimination http://enquirer.com/editions/1999/03/10/loc_whites_challenge.html BY TANYA BRICKING The Cincinnati Enquirer "A decade after a federal judge threw out affirmative-action rules for hiring firefighters, eight white Cincinnati firefighter candidates are challenging the selection process. The men have taken their complaints to city leaders, claiming reverse discrimination and saying they've been passed over for people with lower scores and women with less physical ability. ... The chief says it's his prerogative to skip over candidates. Besides raw scores, he relies on results of background checks, polygraphs and personal history. And he says he's not ashamed that it's a goal of the city to make the fire division more diverse." %%Garland TX U.S. drops part of bias lawsuit against city of Garland http://www.dallasnews.com/metro-dfw-nf/dfw7.htm 03/18/99 By John McCoy / The Dallas Morning News GARLAND - "Part of a federal discrimination lawsuit against the city of Garland has been dropped. However, the Department of Justice is pressing ahead with its main contention that the written examinations used in the police and fire departments' hiring procedures harm minorities." %%hampton, Va \priv\96\20\revrdisc.txt Date: Wed, 12 Jun 1996 Hampton, Va., Affirmative Action Plan Likely Unaffected by Ruling By William Burnham, Daily Press, Newport News, Va. White firefighter won a suit where he claimed he was passed over because he was a white male. Labor experts claim the only problem was that there was no written plan. Comment - or was it really because of the Adarand case which holds that you can't discriminate just because you think you need more people of a certain color? %%Los Angeles Fire Department HU INDEX EXCLUSIVE: HOW TO TURN A 50% QUOTA IN TO A 25% QUOTA FOR WHITES, 12.5% FOR WHITE MEN In the mid 1990s, white men were limited to only 12%, and whites to 25% under a decree which allows up to 50% whites. 50% of white spots were evidently reserved for women, where there was no such quota for other minorities. Although the decree specified that minorities were to be 50%, in fact, whites were limited to only 25% of applications allegedly to insure that there would be at least 50% minorities, when only 25% of actual hires went to whites, it was said to be justified by the fact that only 25% of the applicants were allowed to be white! But the only lawsuits and demand for action are in the "affirmative" direction. Only Arthur Hu noted this on his webpage and emails, this is not documented anywhere else in the world by any media outlet, despite attempts to notify the media. Sex, Fires & Videotape Michelle Malkin National Review West Fall 1995 Female firefighter recruits in Los Angeles are having trouble climbing the job ladder -- literally. An hour-long training video circulated anonymously by the Los Angeles Fire Department earlier this month shows several women candidates in full firefighter regalia, struggling in scene after scene to perform the basic, physically rigorous tasks necessary to save lives. But rather than acknowledge the immense public safety threat posed by gender quotas in the Fire Department, HISPANICS SUE LAFD \clip\97\24\lafire.txt [Los Angeles Times] Tuesday, October 21, 1997 Lawsuit Filed Against Los Angeles City Fire Department for Race Discrimination, Harassment \priv\96b\08\lafire.txt Date: Wed, 17 Jul 1996 01:43:32 -0400 Report: Minorities, Women Feel Racism, Sexism Still Rife LOS ANGELES (AP) -- Women and minorities believe they are isolated and locked out of top posts at the Fire Department, according to a new report. (Comment, but they still ignore the class that was only 25% white, and half of them were women. Too much emphasis on diversity for its own sake) \priv\95\18\laquit.htm SF Chronicle May 03, 1995 L.A. Names Temporary Fire Chief After Surprise Resignation Mayor asks prime proponent of women / minority hiring to quit. >>\priv\95\18\intrprob.htm SFC Mar 16, 1995 Internal Probe Clears L.A. Fire Dept of Bias - women made to look bad in a video. >>\priv\95\18\femrecr.htm Female Recruit Describes Discrimination in Training SFC Mar 29, 1995 \priv\95\18\lafirecf.htm SFC Mar 29, 1995 L.A. Fire Chief Cites Evidence of Bias, disagrees with internal probe \doc\95\05\lafire.wk1 Los Angeles fire department breakdown Los Angeles Fire Department WorkForce Analysis, December 1994 Additional analysis by Arthur Hu April 5, 1995 Only 12.9% of newest firefighters were white men, 50% fewer than black men This is almost completely exclusionary in violation of Supreme Court guidelines which specify that white men cannot be completely excluded, or close white men 1.00 black men -1.88 hisp men -2.70 asian men -2.97 \priv\94\19\asinfire.txt - ACLU finds few Asians in LA fire depts \doc\95\06\firelt.doc letter to editor about LA firefighter hiring \doc\95\05\niles.txt - LA personell not aware of 12% white male, 50% women, they don't have any quotas, unlike Birmingham, they just have goals. Doesn't believe numbers which match goals mean quotas. \doc\95\05\britt.txt - not concerned about 25% white 50% women quotas. \priv\95\04\lafire94.txt - Articles on LA firefighters quotas \priv\94\04\lafire94.txt - won't let more than 25% whites apply to test to meet 50% goal. doc\94\6\priv\firequot.txt Audit because LA not hiring enough women and minorities LA Fire department has 25% quota on white applicants to enforce 50% quota on minorities. They had to apply before 1989 to take the test. Possible legal challenge. City says they are required to do this (but they were not required to limit white men to 13% of new hires!) Council Ruth Galanter gets complaints from white men. \doc\95\05\lafire.wk1 - White men are only 13% of most recent hires, and only 50% of white hires in 1994 %%New York Study Guide for the Entrance Exam for the FDNY: http://www.intellnet.org/documents/600/020/620.pdf Firefighters Statue to Be Erected Despite Criticism http://www.nytimes.com/2002/01/13/nyregion/13STAT.html But the statue will depict one white, one black and one Hispanic. And none will be based on the likeness of a real firefighter; we are not seeking to have an exact replica of the photograph," he said. Of the 343 firefighters killed on Sept. 11, about a dozen were black (3.4%) and a dozen were Hispanic, according to department estimates." http://www.newsmax.com/showinsidecover.shtml?a=2002/1/13/101926 With more than 30,000 votes tallied by Sunday morning, 22,767 respondents - 75 percent - told CNN.com that the three white firefighters depicted in the world-famous photograph of the flag raising shouldn't have been replaced by a more racially diverse trio z54\clip\2001\02\nyfire.txt Looking For A Fire Department That Looks Like New York by Jane Latour 3 December 01 FDNY is 94% white male, only 2.8% black 3.0% hispanic, down from 4.4% black in 1965. Jane Latour manages the Women's Project of the Association for Union Democracy. %%Ottawa Female firefighters to be hired ahead of men, regardless of score Women and minorities to be hired first, regardless of ranking http://www.ottawacitizen.com:80/city/981217/2110662.html Thursday 17 December 1998 Mohammed Adam The Ottawa Citizen women who pass a basic firefighting test would be hired first -- regardless of their ranking on a score sheet. After the women have been hired, qualified male candidates would then be hired according to their test scores. %%pasadena d:\priv\94\19\pasdfire.txt - pasadena black man wins bias case %%portland, Oregon \priv\95\07\palofire.txt - Palo Alto fire chief moves to Portland, "diversity is the greatest challenge" %%San Diego San Jose fire chief Osby who discriminated against white fire fighters moved to San Diego z40\clipim\2000\04\06\osby\obsy.htm http://www.sandiego-online.com/issues/august98/psa.stm Now San Diego’s fire chief, 61-year-old Osby is a native of San Diego and a career fireman. He graduated from Stockton (now Martin Luther King Jr.) Memorial Academy, San Diego High and SDSU. z40\clip\2000\04\sandiego.htm San Diego, Ca.------------------------------4/7/2000 "Reverse-bias suit to cost $225,000 for city to settle" "A San Diego Fire Department engineer would get $225,000 to resolve a reverse-discrimination lawsuit under an agreement scheduled for final City Council review Monday."... ..."Humphries (the fireman) said yesterday that he had hoped his lawsuit would cause formal changes in Fire Department promo- tion policies. That has not happened, he said." "Nevertheless, Humphries said, department officials appear to have informally taken note of his action because recent promo- tions have been more what he would consider reasonable." ...."A Superior Court jury in June awarded Humphries $200,000, plus his attorney's fees, after he contended that he was passed over five times for promotion to the position of engineer because he is a white male." http://www.uniontrib.com/news/uniontrib/fri/metro/news_3m7reverse.html %%san francisco fire department \priv\95\18\sffire.htm SF Chronicle Jun 29, 1995 S.F.'s Still-Troubled Fire Department / Court has forced minority hiring, but discord. Even blacks show concern over lowered hiring standards. \priv\95\18\overfire.htm SF Chronicle May 11, 1995 Overseers Say S.F. Fire Dept. Still Discriminates / They seek 2 more years to fix problem only minority women and Asians are underrepresented, other goals have been attained. (but is it because of discrimination, or lack of qualifications?) \priv\95\07\sfdorder.txt - continues to enforce court order that 55% of hires must be minorities and 10% must be women. doc\census\sffire.wk1 San Francisco B-2.8 H-3.8 A-17 F-9.5

%%San Jose fire department

In the late 1980s, San Jose hired African American chief Robert Osby who deliberately favored the hiring of women and minorities over better qualified white males, culminating in the hiring of a class which had only one white male out of 22 new recruits in 1992. Arthur Hu, software designer and activist discovered this, and helped to recruit the Engler brothers who had been consistently denied jobs despite their qualifications. The city finally relented with this story: The San Francisco Chronicle Wednesday, April 10, 1996 Page A13 "Brothers Finally to Be San Jose Firefighters Settlement ends fight over reverse discrimination" Brothers are given jobs after an 11 year fight over affirmative action.

Osby quit, but was replaced by yet another African American who came from a much smaller city than San Jose, he was fired after a controversy where nearly ever white candidate for promotion failed, but every black candidate passed a test which was allege to have been rigged to favor black candidates. In 2000, they hired a Latino fire chief.


San Jose, Ca.-------------------------3/28/2000
  "Latino named fire chief in San Jose"
...."Alarcon takes over a department that some say is still healing
from racial conflict that stemmed from a controversial 1995 oral
exam given to captains wishing a promotion."
"When all five black candidates passed but most white ones failed,
some of the white firefighters alleged racial bias and sued. A judge
threw that suit out. When three of the black firefighters who passed
were later not promoted, they also filed suit. One jury deadlocked
over the case, but a second exonerated the city last year."
"The controversy over the test split the department along racial
lines and led to the dismissal of Chief Raymond Brooks..."
http://www.mercurycenter.com/breaking/docs/000431.htm

\doc\web\clip\97\26\gremm.txt Jury convicts Gremminger of
manslaughter Published: Nov. 7, 1997 BY SANDRA GONZALES Mercury News
Staff Writer "Gremminger and others filed a 1995 suit against the
former chief and others claiming a promotional exam was compromised
after answers were leaked to certain firefighters. The suit, which a
judge later dismissed, noted that most of the white men who took the
exam failed, while almost all of the minorities passed."

"Burning Issue" San Jose Mercury News June 15, 1997 p. 10 F071197
(not on their web site) "No one doubts the heroism of firefighters.
But why are so many fire departments, like San Jose's torn by charges
of racism?" With angry words, Dudley Bynoe challenged racism in the
San Jose Fire Department. Now his words have gotten him in trouble
and the department is deeply divided Mike Weiss. After San Jose fired
it's 2nd black fire chief for racial divisions, they want to get rid
of his right hand man who has evidently racially harassed many
non-blacks. Funny, the big battle is really over the war over
increasing opportunity for blacks at the expense of whites and
regardless of equity (even the city admitted blacks were well over
parity, and has promised to let off on preferences for blacks)

\clip\97\09\sjfire.txt San Jose Mercury News March 31, 1997 New
charges in firefighter rift Racial dissension: Review of veteran's
suspension triggers allegations questioning the conduct of past and
present chiefs.  BY BARRY WITT Mercury News Staff Writer Opening new
windows into the racial divide plaguing the San Jose Fire Department,
attorneys and witnesses at a Civil Service Commission hearing last
week offered explosive new allegations of misconduct by the city's
former black fire chief.

" Bynoe, a longtime activist within the department, was dubbed by
some white and Hispanic firefighters as Brooks'(black fire chief)
``spy'' and ``henchman.''  The city administration's case against
Bynoe is based on what officials say was his ``abusive behavior''
against department employees and Brooks' refusal to take action
against him.  "

\priv\96\02\unlook.txt "A U.N. LOOK FOR SJFD RECRUITS SHOW ETHNIC
DIVERSITY" San Jose Mercury News April 10, 1992 Page: 1B By: STEVE
JOHNSON. Summary: San Jose hires lots of Asians, women and minorites
in 1992. It does _not_ mention there was only one white male.

  doc923:euram.doc - to dale warner

  doc923:mercfire.doc - letter to SJ mercury

  DOC922:SJFIRE.WK1 San Jose Fire Department 1992

  doc923:sjfire1.doc - 2nd version

\priv\96\02\ethdiv.txt, htm "ETHNIC DIVERSITY IN S.J. HIRING IGNITES
'REVERSE BIAS' OUTCRY" San Jose Mercury News May 6, 1993 Section:
Front Page: 1A By: KEN MCLAUGHLIN, Mercury News Staff Writer Summary:
San Jose Hires Only 1 White Male firefighter out of 22 in 1992

  doc922:FIRECHF.DOC Letter to SJ Fire Chief robert osby

  doc923:firesue.doc San Jose Fire Department 8-13-92 threat to sue

  doc940:sjfirbad.txt San Jose Fire Department in trouble with no chief
  doc\94\6\priv\afact.txt

  d:\priv\94\19\nothired.txt SJFD hired 0 whites out of 15 in 1994?
  (this rumour is evidently not true)

  \doc\95\02\sjfire94.wk1 - Whites were not excluded, but 
   blacks were best represented, Asians least
   summary W1.00 B3.41 H1.17 A-3.49

\doc\95\10\whitefir.txt

\doc\95\10\whitefir.txt (c) San Francisco Chroncile
"White Firefighters Say San Jose Rigged Examination / Suit claims
test favored minorities" SFC 7/28/95 p. A24

"White Firefighters Say San Jose Rigged Examination / Suit claims
test favored minorities" SFC 7/28/95 p. A24

San Jose is a city that is only about 4 percent black in population.
Yet they have had 2 black fire chiefs in a row, 7 percent of the
department and 18 percent of battalion chiefs.

City is being sued  by 11 firefighters who were denied promotions
because of "insufficient diversity"
\priv\95\09\firebias.txt - details of lawsuit

           Candidates  Pass  Fail 
 Whites      37       11  26 
 Blacks      5        5   0 
 Hispanics   4        3   1 
 Asians      1        1   0 
 Total       47       20  27 
 
d:\priv\95\09\sjbrook.txt - brook is embattled, mentions engler
lawsuit SJM 8/4/95

d:\priv\95\09\firetes3.txt

CHART: HOW COLORFUL IS THE S.J. FIRE DEPARTMENT?
 Percent         total  male   female   white  black  Hispan Asian   Indian
 Total force       100%    96%       4%    67%     7%    22%      3%    1%
 Deputy chief      100%   100%       0%   100%     0%     0%      0%    0%
 Battalion chief   100%   100%       0%    53%    18%    24%      6%    0%
 Captains          100%    99%       1%    85%     3%    11%      1%    0%
 Engineers         100%    99%       1%    70%     4%    22%      3%    1%
 Population(90)    100%    50%      50%    50%     4%    27%     19%    1%

 Parity          total  male   female   white  black  Hispan Asian   Indian
 Total force       1.00   1.92   -12.22   1.34   1.62  -1.21   -5.37  1.82
 Deputy chief      1.00   2.00     0.00   2.02   0.00   0.00    0.00  0.00
 Battalion chief   1.00   2.00     0.00   1.07   4.01  -1.13   -3.18  0.00
 Captains          1.00   1.97   -37.75   1.71  -1.33  -2.36  -28.24  0.00
 Engineers         1.00   1.98   -50.25   1.40  -1.11  -1.22   -5.37  1.99

 Blacks are from 75% to 400% of battalion chiefs. Hispanic near parity
 Asians are the only greatly under-represented minority.
           Source: San Jose Fire Department, as reported by SJ Mercury News
 Analysis by Arthur Hu

\priv\95\10\fireexam.txt - retest may be ordered because not enough
applicants passed the test. No "statistical" evidence of bias??

\priv\95\11\judgblok.txt - Judge blocks promotions until test issues
can be resolved.

\doc\95\11\engler2.txt - all white firefighters denied promotions on
the basis of race were promoted by the mayor over objections of the 
chief

\doc\95\12\engler.txt - all applications were marked by race and
picked by numbers rather than compared against each other. City
council opposes fire department denying promotions to whites.

\doc\95\14\engler.txt - the test violated rules that 80% of all races
must pass all levels of test (75% of whites failed the oral exam)

>>\doc\95\14\chiffire.doc - dec, 1, 1995, Englers say chief was
fired, Osby's perjured himself, wants to file against
hiring a foreigner.

\priv\95\18\brkfire.doc The San Francisco Chronicle
Tuesday, November 28, 1995 · Page A1 San Francisco
PAGE ONE -- San Jose Ousts Embattled Chief Of Troubled 
Fire Department San Jose fired its embattled fire chief 

\priv\96\01\sjoust.txt SFC 11/28/95 San Jose Ousts Embattled Chief Of
Troubled Fire Department 

\priv\95\19\sjmfire.txt - San Jose Mercury Articles on
ouster of fire chief

\priv\95\18\expfire.txt City manager explains ouster of fire chief
San Jose Mercury News 12/04/95

\doc\95\14\jensen.txt - Lawyer Jensen representing SJ firefighters
who were not promoted to lieutenant because of diversity, and who
were flunked out of a test that passed all blacks, but flunked the
vast majority of whites. His phone 408-985-7514 in Santa Clara

\DOC\95\15\ENGLER2.TXT - Judge refuses to throw out Engler case in
Dec 95, says there is overwhelming evidence of discrimination and
illegal affirmative action.

>>d:\doc\95\15\commfair.txt - Statement by Commitee on Fair Testing
on San Jose Firefighter test which flunked out nearly all whites, and
passed all blacks.

\doc\95\15\cfft.txt 1/4/95 City offers to merge promotion lists, but
amounts to nothing offer.

\doc\96\01\cfft2.txt - persons testifies that persons were scored
differently with identical answers, warning was given on test
questions to black firefighters.

\doc\96\01\cfft3.txt 1/17/95 - Testimony looks like answers were
leaked.

\doc\96\01\cfft4.txt - Threats that candidates are racists that will
never be promoted.

\doc\web\96\01\cfft5.txt Closing arguments - San Jose says clients
are suffering from racism. Jensen notes blacks are over parity in
almost every position.

\doc\web\96\01\cfft6.txt - Judge concludes test that San Jose fire
promotion test that most flunked whites is valid

\doc\96\02\engtrial.txt - Trial will start in march for Englers

\priv\96\08\englerwn.txt The San Francisco Chronicle *Wednesday,
April 10, 1996 Page A13 "Brothers Finally to Be San Jose Firefighters
Settlement ends fight over reverse discrimination" Brothers are given
jobs after an 11 year fight over affirmative action. City claims it
did nothing wrong, but agrees that minorities should not be favored
when they are over-represented, which they were.

\priv\96\06\decalatr.doc - "Decade later, brothers win jobs: White
firefighters said S.J. showed bias" Mary Anne Ostrom San Jose Mercury
News April 10, 1996 front page.  City officials say that minorities
were not favored, but staffers had to keep hiring goals in mind,
civil rights activists didn't see any evidence of favoritism, or
minority recruiting.


\priv\96b\07\latinex.txt This is a article that appered last week in
the SJ Merc.  EXAM FALLOUT MOUNTS FIREFIGHTER FLAP: LAWSUIT BY LATINA
CLAIMS HARASSMENT.  Tuesday, July 2, 1996 Section: Local Page: 1B A
Latina who offered to testify against a black fire chief (who was
eventually fired) who evidently rigged an exam to fail all the whites
was harassed by minority fire officials.

%%end _san jose fire_

%%torrance

The Civil Rights Division claimed that Torrance was guilty of
discrimination even though the number of blacks matched the city - it
just didn't match greater LA area. No evidence of discrimination
except tests which (surprise) had different pass rates for different
races. It was thrown out by the court, and Bill Lann Lee said he
didn't care how they hire as long as the bottom line (quotas) were
met.


Court finds Civil Rights Division has no case against Torrance
\doc\web\98\06\torranc.txt
Bill Lann Lee doesn't care about how they hire as long as the bottom
line has enough minorities - isn't that the same as a quota?

All evidence is that any test of literacy has different results 
for different minorities, it's not evidence of bias.
 

TORRANCE ACCUSED OF DISCRIMINATION EVEN THOUGH LABOR MATCHES CITY
POPULATION AND NO EVIDENCE OF DIFFERENTIAL STANDARDS.
\clip\96\08\torrtest.txt [Los Angeles Times Archives] Wednesday, May
15, 1996 Home Edition Section: Metro Page: B-5 South Bay; Torrance
Racial Bias Trial Opens; A U.S. Justice Department lawyer argued
Tuesday that the city of Torrance uses a discriminatory written test
to screen Police and Fire Department applicants.  [Comment - this is
the latest in the ridiculous claim by the governemt that Torrance
discriminates despite the total lack of evidence that it in any way
favors whites. The only evidence they have is that their fire
department reflects Torrance rather than Los Angeles County at large]
  

  \priv\95\04\torranc.doc \priv\95\05\torrance.doc excerpt - Torrance
and Fullerton required to hire by quota because they don't have
enough applicants, even though blacks and minorities are not
underrepresented or discriminated against.

%%san jose

DOC922:SJFIRE.WK1 San Jose Fire Department 1992
doc933:FAIRAWK  DOC TXT San Jose Firefighter case, Fairness in Diversity FID
\priv\95\09\whitfire.txt - white firefighter claim test favored minorities
\priv\95\08\mail628.txt - engler trial by jury is 2/16/95 summary 8/31/95
\priv\95\09\engler.txt - names of firefighters who are suing


%%santa clara

  Santa Clara County hires six people each year who are not
  qualified as firefighters to "apprentice them". No white men
  are hired in this program. (1995)


http://www.leconsulting.com/athurhu/index/afact.htm#seattlefire

%%Seattle Eastside

\doc\web\2004\02\eastfire.wk1
Eastside consortium's firefighters by race and gender
            FirefightFemalePercenAfrAm PercenAPI  Pct   Hisp Pct  NatAm Pct
Bellevue          191    11  5.8%     3  1.6%    5  2.6%    8 4.2%     4    2.1%
Kirkland           69     2  2.9%     0  0.0%    1  1.4%    1 1.4%     0    0.0%
Mercer Islan       29     0  0.0%     0  0.0%    0  0.0%    0 0.0%     0    0.0%
Northshore         40     1  2.5%     0  0.0%    2  5.0%    0 0.0%     0    0.0%
Redmond           112     6  5.4%     0  0.0%    3  2.7%    3 2.7%     1    0.9%
Shoreline          76     7  9.2%     3  3.9%    1  1.3%    4 5.3%     0    0.0%
Woodinville        70     4  5.7%     0  0.0%    0  0.0%    0 0.0%     0    0.0%
            Source: city of bellevue
            From Seattle Times chart by Mark Nowlin
            Seattle Times Feb 7, 2004

%%Seattle, Washington

Seattle until recently had a black fire chief. Their upper management
is over-represented by blacks, and blacks are not under-represented
in the entire department. Asians are the only group that are
substantially under-represented. Is this the result of racial
preferences, or a black "Old Boys Network?"

Races ranked by Fire Department representation 1996
                       TOTAL
NatAm                     1.28
Black                     1.09
White                     1.00
Hisp                     -1.18
Asian                    -2.76
Woman                    -4.77


BLACK FIRE CHIEF HARRIS OF SEATTLE: I AM PRODUCT OF AFFIRMATVE
ACTION
\clip\98\04\harris\harris.htm
http://www.seattletimes.com/education/affirmative/harris.html
"Glen Mansfield ran the Board Against Discrimination in Employment,
created in 1949, and became the first official to intercede for
Claude Harris [who became the first black man hired in the city and
state as a firefighter]. "
"As expected, he promoted the men -- both white -- who had finished
first and second on the exam. Then he angered white firefighters by
dipping down to the 22nd-highest finisher: Harris. "
"In 1983, the department hired 16 minorities and women who had
successfully completed recruit training -- but not the nine white men
who had passed alongside them. The white men sued, but, again, the
courts sided with the city. "
"But one thing made him stand out from the others..." Royer said.
"And there was some powerful symbolism in appointing the first black
fire chief." "
"They thought that he was chosen unfairly, that he got there because
he was black. " (Of couse that's true, Royer said so!)
"At the Fire Department, minorities and women are still
underrepresented in relation to the available labor force. "

Arthur Hu responds: response
(Harris should have been hired as firefighter, but not as fire chief,
in my opinion)

Here are the goals for
women in the Fire Department:

Professionals:                  43.5
Uniformed technicians:           7.9
Uniformed Protective Services:   9.7


PENALTY REDUCED FOR "WHITE FIREFIGHTERS" GROUP JOKE
http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/hans_102997.html
\clip\97\25\whitfire.txt Seattle Times Wednesday, Oct. 29, 1997 City
panel overturns written warning given to fire captain

\doc\96\06\seafire.wk1 Seattle Fire Department by Race Parity
Seattle Fire Department by Race

3-Oct-96 http://www.pan.ci.seattle.wa.us/seattle/fire/stat_bud.htm

UNIFORMED AND NON UNIFORMED EMPLOYEES BY ETHNIC ORIGIN/RACE
                                            NATIVE
EEO CATEGORY           WHITE  BLACK  HISPANIAMERICAASIAN  WOMAN  TOTAL

Official &                   1      0      0      0      0      1      1
Admin-Non-Uniformed
Official & Admin-Unifor      7      3      1      0      0      0     11
Professional-Non-Unifor     14      0      0      0      1      7     15
Professional-Uniformed      62      9      2      1      3      3     77
Technician-Non-Uniforme      4      0      0      0      0      2      4
Technician-Uniformed       173     29      8      4     10     17    224
Protective Svcs-Fire Fi    508     77     28     13     43     54    669
Paraprofessional             4      1      0      0      0      5      5
Clerical                    17      5      3      1      4     30     30
Skilled craft                5      0      0      0      0      1      5
Service Maintenance          1      0      0      0      1      0      2

TOTAL                      796    124     42     19     62    120  1,043


Races ranked by Fire Department representation
                       TOTAL
NatAm                     1.28
Black                     1.09
White                     1.00
Hisp                     -1.18
Asian                    -2.76
Woman                    -4.77

Blacks and Native Americans are better represented than whites, not
under-represented. Therefore there is no need for further racial
preferences for these groups. Only Asians and Women are significantly
under parity

Black Representation compared to White, ranked by ratio

EEO CATEGORY           WHITE  BLACK  HISPANIAMERICAASIAN  WOMAN

Official & Admin-Unifor   0.92   3.01   2.30   0.00   0.00   0.00
Clerical                  0.81   2.07   2.84   3.15   1.09   2.45
Paraprofessional          1.15   1.76   0.00   0.00   0.00   1.74
Technician-Uniformed      1.11   1.18  -1.34   1.24  -3.72  -7.32
Protective Svcs-Fire Fi   1.09   1.06  -1.13   1.37  -2.54  -6.76
Professional-Uniformed    1.16   1.02  -1.93  -1.16  -4.44 -14.86
Official & Admin NonUni   1.44   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   1.39
Professional-Non-Unifor   1.34   0.00   0.00   0.00  -3.01  -1.44
Technician-Non-Uniforme   1.44   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00  -1.44
Skilled craft             1.44   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00  -3.60
Service Maintenance       0.72   0.00   0.00   0.00   4.65   0.00

At every level where there are blacks, they are at parity or better
compared to whites.  At the highest official level and clerical, they
are 3 and 2 times better represented compared to whites. Black
representation INCREASES with rank.


c:\clip\96\05\seachief.txt The Seattle Times Company Oct. 3, 1996
What does Seattle need in new chief?  A morale-builder, say some in
fire department [Some white firefighters are concerned that promotion
practices favor blacks. The three top officials, Harris, Dean and the
other assistant chief, Don Taylor, are African American in a
department that is 80 percent white.  "I have appointed five deputy
chiefs and only the last one is black. All the others are white"]
(Comment - San Jose is similar in that the highest concentrations of
blacks are 20% black at the top in a city that is only 4% black)

d:\doc\96\06\firechef.txt "Fire Chief Harris may retire in a week"
Seattle Post Intelligencer Sept 19, 1996. Harris joined the fire
department in 1959 as the city's first black firefighter. In 1977
Harris was promoted from captain to battalion chief over five otehr
captains who scored higher on the eligibility exam. The firefighters
union brought suit against the city, but the voluntary affirmative
action program was upheld at the federal appellate level. He was
criticized over the deaths of firefighters at the Pang warehouse
fire, and firing the safety officer critical of safety procedures.

%%Washington DC

DC FIRE: 54/6 APPLY, BUT 2 BLACK/2 WHITE PROMOTED
z63\clip\2003\02\dcfire.txt February 11, 2003 D.C. fire captains
complain of bias By Matthew Cella THE WASHINGTON TIMES
Two of the promotions went to captains who were black; the other two
captains rewarded were white.  ...were made disproportionately
because 54 eligible captains were white, while six were black.

@@Gay

Some say that nondiscrimination laws for gays could be applied in the
same manner as race discrimination laws which have been interpreted
as permitting or even requiring hiring and admissions preferences.
Z
Clinton Gives "Gays" Special Preferences by Steven Schwalm Family
Research Council June 1998. On May 28, President Clinton signed an
Executive Order that places homosexuals, bisexuals, and the
"Transgendered" to protected classes, effectively implementing
without congressional approval the Employment Nondiscrimination Act,
by adding the term "sexual orientation" to a 1969 executive order
mandating "affirmative action" for race and gender. Enforcement will
be by lesbian labor activist Elaine Kaplan.

1997 Washington State initiative for "nondiscrimination" would
logically extend affirmative action to gays since it is the basis
for racial affirmative action

Public Schools Teaching
Homosexuality as Means of Birth Control to Elementary Schools --
THE WASHINGTON TIMES Dec 3, 1997 --- By Carol Innerst Provincetown
approves hiring preferences for sexual minorities.

@@Glazer, Nathan

Nathan Glazer started in the 60s-70s opposing racial preferences
on the principle of nondiscrimination, in 1998 he argues that the
benefits outweight any unfairness.

GLAZER DEFENDS RACIAL PREFERENCES - 
But affirmative action was and is always framed as "nondiscrimination",
never as preferential treatment. It must be reinstated explicitly as
such, not through the back door.

http://washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/WPlate/1998-11/24/010l-112498-idx.html
\clip\98\17\placpref.txt A Place for Racial Preferences By Nathan
Glazer Tuesday, November 24, 1998; Page A19 I was an early critic of
racial preferences as a result of governmental pressure or
requirement, in employment and in other fields. .. there has been a
remarkable increase, as a result of these preferences, in the number
of blacks playing important roles in American society, gaining higher
incomes, influencing their communities. I am convinced this is good
for American society, and it is hard to see what alternative could
have produced such results.

\clip\98\08\salon.txt
http://www.salon1999.com/feature/1998/05/cov_05feature.html Buying
false racial peace AN UNHOLY ALLIANCE OF GUILTY CONSERVATIVES AND
FATALISTIC LIBERALS IS PROPPING UP OUR DIVISIVE RACIAL SPOILS SYSTEM
-- AND PREVENTING AMERICA FROM FINDING A HIGHER COMMON GROUND.  BY
JIM SLEEPER 

NATHAN GLAZER SWITCHES, WE NEED PREFERENCES TO HAVE SOME BLACKS IN
BEST INSTITUTIONS.  \clip\98\07\glazer.txt From The Chronicle of
Higher Education March 24, 1998 MAGAZINES & JOURNALS A glance at the
April 6 issue of "The New Republic": Long-time foe of affirmative
action tells what changed his views

"Blacks Only?" The New Republic Jan 27, 1997 p. 25 F021297 Nathan
Glazer suggests that racial preferences only apply to African
Americans



@@Graduation Outcomes

@@Goode, John

Black restaurant vendor fired because he would not certify himself
as a minority vendor

http://www.frontpagemag.com/het/levin2-23-99.htm
\zip31\clipim\99\02\24\jgoode.htm

@@Government Model


TRANSNATIONAL PROGRESSIVISM - AFFIRMATIVE ACTION REPLACES DEMOCRACY
z57\clip\2002\08\wclass.txt
June 10, 2002 American Diplomacy
http://www.unc.edu/depts/diplomat/archives_roll/2002_04-06/fonte_ideological/fonte_ideological.html
The Ideological War With The West
John Fonte
The key concepts of transnational progressivism could be described as
follows:
* The ascribed group over the individual citizen.. (racial, ethnic,
or gender) into which one is born.
* A dichotomy of groups: Oppressor vs. victim groups
* Group proportionalism as the goal of "fairness."
If not, there is a problem of "underrepresentation."
* The values of all dominant institutions to be changed to reflect the
perspectives of the victim groups. 
* The "demographic imperative." ... must be changed to a framework
that promotes "diversity," defined as group proportionalism.
* The redefinition of democracy and "democratic ideals." .. from that
of a system of majority rule among equal citizens to one of power
sharing among ethnic groups



@@government

\priv\95\04\wilsafac.txt - wilson studies rollback,
hires less than population with no apologies

TOP 10 DEPT HEADS IN DENVER AGENCY ARE MINORITY Denver, Colo. 3/15/01
"Workers cite bias at city agency" 57 percent of (the Denver Human
Ser- vices Department) employees polled disagreed strongly or
somewhat with the statement that everyone in the de- partment is
treated fairly based on race, age, gender or other factor.. despite
.eight of the top 10 department heads are minor- ities
http://www.denverpost.com/news/news0315f.htm


@@Grade Discount

People are complaining that the University of California and other
selective colleges discount the grades from predominantly black
colleges and 2nd tier state colleges, thereby discriminating against
minorities who are more likely to graduate from these institutions.

Raoul Contrares: The University of California, obviously exercising
self- deluded superiority and in an effort to maintain a White
graduate and professional school enrollment, deliberately discounts
and downgrades grade-point levels from the California State
University System (the old State colleges) by ten-per cent.  The
22-campus State University system (San Diego State, Cal-State Long
Beach, Cal-State Los Angeles, San Francisco State, et al) has, for
decades, been the principal avenue of minorities for a college
education in California.  Thus, fewer minorities qualify for
admission to law and medical schools of the University of California.

1. Black or Mexican A+ is equal to White A- see <<
   Black or Mexican A- is equal to White B- see **

SAT vs. GPA 1995
SAT Math vs. GPA

        Total   White   Black   Mexican Asian   NativeAm
A+ 97-10     547     556     480<<   478<<   540     521
A 93-96      500     513     432**   428**   475     475
A- 90-92     470     484<<   411     410     440     448
B 80-89      408     425**   356     363     382     391
C 70-79      354     372     317     327     337     354
DEF <70      337     362     312     318     320     345
No resp


2. Test score averages are much lower at state colleges and
predominantly black institutions.

SAT Math for some institutions
    UC Berkeley average                            631 
	Morehouse College (98% black)                  523
    Black UC Berkeley                              (combined 994)
    US Average 1995                                482
	San Jose State Univ                            475
	Tuskegee (mostly black)                        410
Black 1995 SAT average                             388                      



@@identification

%%Canada
\doc\95\05\selfid.txt - Ontario legislation asks people to
self-identify their race.

%%Schools
TEACHERS TO GUESS MASS STUDENTS RACE IF THEY DON'T SPECIFY
\clip\99\17\techrace.txt Thursday, August 26, 1999 Teachers forced to
play race card By Nancy C. Rodriguez Eagle-Tribune Writer "Starting
this school year, parents who refuse to give ethnic information about
their children will forfeit that right to teachers, principals and
other school officials.. be expected to use ''their good faith
determination'' to figure out what race a student is and provide that
information to the state, according to the Massachusetts Department
of Education (DOE).  "

@@Illegal


Judge rules properly
http://www.savannahmorningnews.com:80/smn/stories/011299/OPEDone.html
January 12, 1999 OPINION Savannah Morning News "A few years ago, the
decision last Friday by U.S. District Judge B. Avant Edenfield regarding
University of Georgia admission standards would have been a blockbuster.
The judge ruled that a student was denied admission to the university
because he was white and therefore was entitled to damages. However, it
was just another in a growing list of court decisions that have rolled
back race-based admissions."

Federal Judge Rules a Defunct Admissions Policy at U. of Georgia
Unconstitutional
http://www.chronicle.com/daily/99/01/99011101n.htm
January 11, 1999 By Lisa Guernsey Chronicle of Higher Education (Pay Site)
"A federal judge has ruled that an admissions policy used by the
University of Georgia from 1990 to 1995 to grant preferences to black
applicants was unconstitutional. The judge, in rejecting an argument
championed by some groups that the system was needed to promote diversity,
criticized the "stigmatizing, polarizing costs imposed by racial
classifications." The ruling, by U.S. District Court Judge B. Avant
Edenfield, has no practical impact on the university's current admissions
policy, which was changed in 1996. However, Judge Edenfield wrote that he
wanted to rule on the defunct policy anyway, to insure that it was not
reinstated in the future."


@@impermissible

\doc\95\10\affwook.txt and \doc\95\09\imprmiss.txt - It is not permissible
to justify affirmative action because of societal discrimination, or
statistical underrepresentation. "Affirmative action without
congressional OK is in jeopardy" Pete Yost (AP) Seattle Post
Intelligencer June 29, 1995 p. a3

\priv\95\08\afacjail.txt An official states that state and federal
law do not permit a governmental agency to hire based on the racial
makeup of those it serves. For example, courts have ruled against
school districts who hired based on the racial composition of its
students rather than that of the available teachers. AFFIRMATIVE
ACTION GOES TO JAIL  San Jose Mercury News 7/6/95

@@incompetent

AUTHOR OF MISSPELLED BOOK INCOMPETENT AFF-ACT HIRE?
\clip\98\18\badspel.txt Youth programs book touts 'libray' and
'teches' Copyright © 1998 The Associated Press HOUSTON (December 3,
1998 12:39 p.m. EST http://www.nandotimes.com) -- City officials had
to throw out 2,000 full-color booklets about the mayor's youth
programs because they contained spelling and grammatical errors on
almost every page. The 14-page booklet was written by Mayor Lee
Brown's $67,000-a-year director for youth services, May Walker.
  \doc\web\98\10\walker.txt May Walker
recently retired from the Houston Police Department, where she was
president of the Afro-American Police Officer League.  She left for
the promised job offered by Lee Brown (former Chief of Police of
Houston, and other failed jobs).

@@inherited wealth

\clip\96\02\inheweal.txt Date: Fri, 23 Aug 1996 20:40:28 -0400
Minority Contractors Blame Clinton, GOP for Loss of Set-Asides By
Bruce Hight, Austin American-Statesman, Texas. Carol Hadnot says that
color blind isn't fair because of inherited wealth. But she does
admit that racial preferences do exist.  Knight-Ridder/Tribune
Business News

@@internships

\priv\95\12\washpost.txt New Republic 10/02/95 "THE WASHINGTON POST
IN BLACK AND WHITE. RACE IN THE NEWSROOM" By Ruth Shalit 40% of
newspaper interns are from minority races

\priv\95\17\hookhigh.txt - full (c) text
\doc\95\11\hookedon.txt "He's hooked on high tech" Seattle Times
September 2, 1995 p. 1  2/3 of Microsoft interns were African American

@@IRS

WHITE EMPLOYEES FILE SUITE AGAINST BLACK IRS SUPERVISOR FOR
RETALIATION FOR REFUSING TO GIVE PREFERENTIAL TREATMENT FOR
MINORITIES \clip\98\11\irs.txt
http://www.foxnews.com/js_index.sml?content=/news/wires2/0823/n_ap_0823_46
.sml IRS on trial in reverse discrimination case 2.05 p.m. ET (1805
GMT) August 23, 1998 By Jay Hughes, Associated Press OKLAHOMA CITY
(AP) - The Internal Revenue Service is on trial in a case that raises
allegations of vindictive treatment of individuals and iron-fisted
unethical collection tactics.

Jury rejects reverse-discrimination claim by white IRS managers
http://www.foxnews.com/js_index.sml?content=/news/wires2/0827/n_ap_0827_25
6. sml August 27, 1998 By Jay Hughes Associated Press "A federal jury
decided Thursday that a black administrator for the Internal Revenue
Service office here did not discriminate against three managers who are
white. But the jury said the agency did retaliate against one of the
three, supervisor Gary Hoeffken, for complaining repeatedly about how he
was treated. 


@@jail 

\priv\95\08\afacjail.txt Santa Clara to hire a "workforce that
reflects inmate population"  An official states that state and federal
law do not permit a governmental agency to hire based on the racial
makeup of those it serves. For example, courts have ruled against
school districts who hired based on the racial composition of its
students rather than that of the available teachers. AFFIRMATIVE
ACTION GOES TO JAIL  San Jose Mercury News 7/6/95

@@Jewish Admissions

\clip\97\26\jewquot.txt New York Times November 11, 1997 Dartmouth
Reveals Anti-Semitic Past By WILLIAM H. HONAN " In a clipping from a
1945 issue of The New York Post, Ernest M. Hopkins, the president of
Dartmouth, was quoted as saying that a number of Jewish students who
applied for admission were turned down simply because they were Jews."

@@Jewish Opinion

z63\clip\2002\12\jewaf.txt
http://www.forward.com/issues/2002/02.12.27/news3.html
Jewish Groups Seen as Softening Positions on Affirmative Action
By DANIEL TREIMAN
FORWARD STAFF
When California voters in 1996 approved Proposition 209 - which
prohibited the use of racial preferences by the state and local
governments - Jews voted against the measure 58% to 42%, whereas
whites voted 63% to 37% in favor, according to a Los Angeles Times
exit poll. [though Jews were backing Bakke in 1978 challenging 
racial quotas]

@@job performance

USA Today "there is no evidence that test scores bear any
relationship to job performance"

Herrenstein: Bell curve p. 497

Study by Eugene Silberberg comparing blacks hired under court order
as plumbers vs. whites regularly hired, 6x quit rate, 3x termination
rate for cause did not respond to job dispatch 6X.

Differences in Standard Deviation
Quits or no rehire    +.6
Termination for cause +.5
Nonresponse to call   +.6
Hours worked          -.9
GPA in apprentice school -1.3
GPA in on-the-job train   -.8


@@Job Presssure


BLUM COMPLAINS ABOUT PAINE WEBBER
\doc\web\98\06\lostjob.txt
http://www.washtimes.com/opinion/ed3.html
Washington Times, August 7, 1998
Political correctness infests PaineWebber
By Edward Blum

BROKER QUITS/LOSES JOB OVER EDITORIALS ABOUT HOUSTON AFFIRMATIVE ACTION
\clip\98\10\broker.txt
http://search.nytimes.com/search/daily/bin/fastweb?getdoc+site+iib-site+106+
0+wAAA+Ed%7Eblum New York Times, July 10, 1998 Broker Asserts
Political Views Drew Pressure By STEVEN A. HOLMES WASHINGTON -- An
organizer of an unsuccessful ballot initiative against affirmative
action in Houston last year has accused the city's former mayor and
his former employer, the brokerage firm Paine Webber, of trying to
pressure him to curtail his political activities.  [he quit rather
than agreed to stop writing editorials]

@@justice

c:\doc\96\03\judiint.txt "Judicial Intimidation" Wall Street Journal
May 1, 1996 p. A16 The Second Circuite has created a Task Force on
Gender, Racial and Ethnic Fairness that will frame everything in
terms of race


@@Justifcation

z68\clip\2003\06\obsol.txt
Leonard Pitts Jr. / Syndicated columnist
Affirmative action's goal should be obsolescence 
"its original mission was to redress years of systemic racism and
sexism, enabling blacks, Hispanics and women to enter arenas that had
historically been closed to them.  " 
"Take, for example, the low collective test scores of black students.
You can argue that this academic incompetence is the byproduct of the
negative, anti-intellectual self-image those kids are fed from birth,
and I wouldn't disagree."

"Picking Winners" New Republic Dec 1, 1997
\images\972\a112197\p01.gif Spots don't go to those who deserve it,
but whomever will further the "public good", so "diversity" is a
better argument than reparations for past harm, or those with the
most "merit" whether test scores, or race.

@@Harmful to minority

RICHARD SANDER COMPUTES 8% MORE BLACK LAWYERS W/O A/ACTION
LAW SCHOOL D/O TWICE, BAR FAILURE RATE 4X HIGHER
z67\clip\2005\02\sandlaw.txt
http://www.nytimes.com/2005/02/13/weekinreview/13liptak.html?pagewanted=print&position=
February 13, 2005
For Blacks in Law School, Can Less Be More?
By ADAM LIPTAK

a recent study published in The Stanford Law Review by Richard H.
Sander, a law professor at the University of California...
"Black students are twice as likely as whites to fail to finish law
school. Nineteen percent of the black students who started law school
in 1991 had failed to graduate five years later; the corresponding
figure for whites was 8 percent.
About 88 percent of all law students pass a bar exam on the first
attempt; 95 percent pass eventually. For blacks, the corresponding
figures are 61 percent and 78 percent."


@@Herbert, Bob

\clip\97\16\herbert.txt June 20 NY Times Bob Herbert: Racism's Nine
Lives IN AMERICA / By BOB HERBERT Racism is alive and well, Clinton
is attacked for asking or extending racial preferences.

  @@hispanic
  doc922:hispucd.txt Hispanics at UC Davis

@@Hopwood

http://www.pff.org/cir/dr/dr964a.html Center for Indivdual Rights

summary of Hopwood vs. U Texas http://www.pff.org/cir/dr/dr964a.html
c:\clip\97\07\hopwood.txt April, 1996 SEMINAL TRIBE Hopwood, et al.,
v. State of Texas


@@K-12

Parents sue Pasadena schools for admissions lottery based on ethnicity
http://www.sacbee.com/news/calreport/calrep_story.cgi?N186.HTML January
27, 1999 Sacramento Bee "The school district's new lottery-based
admissions policy for some schools that takes into account a student's
ethnicity and gender violates Proposition 209, the state's ban against
using such factors in school admissions, a group of parents claims. The
parents on Monday filed a federal lawsuit against Pasadena Unified School
District claiming that school admissions should be on a first-come,
first-serve basis. The district in December announced a new lottery-type
system aimed at integrating the schools, including Don Benito Fundamental,
Marshall Fundamental Secondary School and Norma Coombs Alternative
School."


@@King, Martin Luther

\clip\98\06\corking.txt
http://www.ohio.com:80/bj/news/ohio/docs/007011.htm From Ohio.com,
March 21, 1998 Briefs from Paducah, Benton, Louisville, Columbia
LOUISVILLE, Ky. (AP) -- Coretta Scott King said America is still
twisted ``in a paralyzing knot'' of racial animosity, and she pointed
a finger at the cause.  ``We must admit in all candor that there is a
gulf of mistrust and hate that keeps us from learning from each
other,'' the widow of Martin Luther King Jr. said Friday. ``It is not
enough to merely pay lip service to diversity.''

\priv\96\04\MISQKING.TXT Editorial says that conservatives misquoted
Martin Luther King as being against racial preferences. But
affirmative action was never founded on quotas and preferences, it is
now. San Francisco Examiner march 18, 1996 A13 "The GOP misquotes
Martin Luther King" Paul Rockwell (Oakland / Midwestern University) 

@@law

\doc\95\03\fedpref.txt - law allows noncompetitive bidding if 2 minority
contractors, or 10% bid preference to meet 5% set-aside goal.

GOALS 200 OR QUOTAS 2000?
\doc\web\98\09\divreq.txt
Just found this gem hiding in US Goals 2000 legislation for
the national skills standards board. It has a "diversity" 
requirement that calls for proportional representation "to the 
extent possible".


@@law review

\priv\95\08\lawrevw.txt New York Times 7/7/95 Law Review Masks
Diversity in New Admission System By LISA ANDERSON Asians are not
preferred.

@@law school

\doc\95\13\lawhire.wk1 - New law school professors are
being hired to parity with 50% women and 26% minority
Puerto Ricans are over-represented, otherwise, Blacks
are the best represented minority among law school
professors.

The percentages of women and minority candidates have been              
considerably lower than the percentages of women and minority new              
law teachers ranging from 30.7 percent in 1990-91 to 35.9 percent              
in 1994-95 for women and from 14.7 percent in 1990-91 to 16.2               
percent in 1993-94 with a high of 16.4 percent in 1991-92 for               
minority.           
              
                           Cand.    New Hire Ratio    Pop
Women                          35.9     47.8     1.33       50
Minority                       16.2     26.9     1.66       26
Nonminority                    83.8     73.1     0.87       74

Index                      Cand.    New Hire Ratio
Women                         -1.58    -1.03     1.53
Minority                      -1.82     1.05     1.90
Nonminority                    1.13     0.99     1.00

@@Lee, Bill Lan

Failed 19979 Clinton Nominee was shot down because of his views that
racial preferences were not only allowable, but mandantory.


@@legacy

Colleges often favor children of alumni, qualification gap is
often as great as that for racial minorities

Admissions rate difference is up to 1.5 to 2 times normal rate,
and covers 20-25% of admissions at ivy leage schools.

legacy may may 2x admit rate but only
30 point sat gap

\clip\98\12\legacy.txt College Admissions Policies Favor Legacies,
Hurt Minorities By Charles Sisk 04/07/98 (U-WIRE) These "legacy
preferences" often favor some White applicants at the expense of
other, equally-qualified minority students. At some Ivy League
schools, the admissions offices bundle up applications of legacies
and send them off to the alumni office to find out: How important it
is to admit these students? Has his or her family donated a large sum
of money to the school? Is his father or mother a prominent member of
the community? At Notre Dame, a quarter of the first-year class is
reserved for legacies.

@@Liability

OHIO COLLEGE OFFICIALS LIABLE FOR MINORITY CONTRACT QUOTAS
\clip\98\16\liable.txt Monday, November 2, 1998 Officials at College
in Ohio Held Personally Liable in Suit Over Affirmative Action The
college's set-aside policy was adopted in 1982 and amended in 1994.
It requires a lead contractor for Cuyahoga to award at least 10 per
cent of he total value of a contract to businesses that qualify as
minority-owned.  The purpose of the policy, according to the college,
is to help minority businesspeople "become more stable, successful,
competitive members of the business community."


@@Lottery (Weighted)

Norm Matloff advocates even weighted lottery, Arlington elementary
uses a lottery with 16 times greater weight for targeted groups.

LOTTERY SHOULD ALSO BE HELD FOR PROFESSORSHIPS, TENURE, AND CAMPUS
ASSIGNMENTS FOR PROFESSORS.  \doc\web\clip\98\01\uclott.txt Letters
to the Editor Tuesday, April 14, 1998 FOR TRUE FAIRNESS, UC NEEDS A
LOTTERY TED STROLL Oakland

LOTTERY WITH 16X RACIAL ADVANTAGE REPLACES RACIAL QUOTA
\clip\98\07\kindlott.txt tip: ADP_List@webcom.com
http://www.herald.com:80/usa/digdocs/018940.htm March 31, 1998 Miami
Herald Kindergarten admissions plan is challenged "Arlington
officials said they adopted the system because they wanted the
school's population to resemble the entire district's. "

@@Loury, Glen


Black leadership and Glenn Loury's ideological shift
http://www.chronicle.com/daily/magmain.htm
January 14, 1999 Chronicle of Higher Education (Pay Site)
"An examination of Glenn C. Loury's ideological shift offers a window into
the state of black intellectual leadership, writes Norman Podhoretz, a
senior fellow at the Hudson Institute and editor-at-large of Commentary.
He asserts that Mr. Loury, a social critic who teaches economics at Boston
University and directs the college's Institute on Race and Social
Division, has abandoned his conservative ideals by buying into the myth
that white society is to blame for black people's woes. A onetime opponent
of affirmative action who called on African Americans to help themselves,
Mr. Loury now champions minority preferences and reprimands white society
for its "callous lack of concern for the sufferings of the black
community," writes Mr. Podhoretz."

GLEN LOURY - DEVELOPMENTAL, NOT PREFERENTIAL AFFIRMATIVE ACTION

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/WPlate/1997-03/21/049L-032197-idx.html
\clip\97\10\GOODROAD.TXT The Good Road to Affirmative Action By
William Raspberry Friday, March 21 1997; Page A27 The Washington Post 

Glen Loury says affirmative action is needed to address inequality, but
it must be to raise black qualifications, not black hiring standards.


@@Lowell High School, San Francisco

The only high school in the nation that legally give preference to
Whites over Chinese with equal test scores. It has been posed as a
question of being for or against desegregation, yet most colleges
preserve diversity with preferences for the under-representation,
none have caps on the over-represented. Desegregation could have been
defined with minimal numbers of under-represented minorities with
equal standards for other groups.

In 1999 the district settled out of court and agreed to not use any
numerical quotas or limits.  Chinese for Affirmative Action has
consistently supported limits on Chinese, as have liberal Asians such
as Emil Guillermo.

EMIL GUILLERMO SAYS QUOTAS FOR "WHINING" CHINESE SHOULD HAVE STAYED
(image) \clipim\99\03\03\bestvict.tif (no url) The Best Victim Emil
Amok Asian Week Feb 25, 1999 p. 4. "Call this one a victory for
Chinese whiners. White males have finally met their match in the
victimhood derby as Loen and company have toppled a federal
desgregation plan that's been in place since 1983". Emil Guillermo is
sorry to see quotas on Chinese go away, he thinks an all Chinese
school is as bad as an all white one.

\clip\99\06\lowell.txt New York Times February 18, 1999
San Francisco Abandons Racial Limits in Public Schools

\clip\99\06\edclip02.txt S.F. school race-bias case trial starts soon
By Julian Guthrie OF THE EXAMINER STAFF Sunday, February 14, 1999
1999 San Francisco Examiner URL:
http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file/examiner/hotnews/stories/14/
decree14.dtl Patrick Wong, Brian Ho and Hilary Chen were turned away
from the San Francisco public schools of their choice for one
undisputed reason: They are Chinese Americans. Chinese for
Affirmative action supports consent decree quotas.

S.F. Schools Give Court `Race-Neutral' Enrollment Proposal
http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/1999/02/
02/MN92761.DTL Nanette Asimov, Chronicle Staff Writer Tuesday,
February 2, 1999 "Beginning in September, ethnic quotas would no
longer be used to desegregate San Francisco public schools, according
to a ``race-neutral'' enrollment plan the school district reluctantly
filed in court yesterday by order of a federal judge. The trial will
decide the fate of the district's desegregation plan, which was
challenged in court in 1994 by Chinese American families that called
its ethic quota system discriminatory and unconstitutional."

\clip\98\09\lowell.txt
http://interactive.wsj.com/edition/current/articles/SB896117853396683500.htm
Wall Street Journal Interactive, May 26, 1998 When Desegregation
Turns Into Discrimination By JOHN C. YOO and ERIC M. GEORGE


@@lower-standards

Controversy - pro-affirmative action often claim there is no such
thing as lowering standards, but anti-affirmative action show that it
is common, if not universal.

Washington Post says they do not lower standards for diversity, it's
"wrong"

UCLA and Berkeley say they have not lowered standards

\priv\95\13\aftrschl.txt Affirmative Counterattack Seattle Times July
31, 1995 Cynthia Tucker In some cases, schools allowed minority
students to enter with lower-than-average entrance-exam scores.

\priv\95\08\lawrevw.txt New York Times 7/7/95 Law Review Masks
Diversity in New Admission System By LISA ANDERSON Some spots are
chosen from lower scores to match diversity.

\doc\95\07\means.txt - Marianne means says there is no proof that 
affirmative action always or often results in lower standards.


@@Malaysia

For the past 3 decades, Malaysia has constructed a society around
quotas to ensure the majority Malay population some semblence of
parity against hyper-competitive Chinese and Indian minorities.

RACIAL PREFERNCES QUOTAS NECCESARY FOR MULTICULTURAL SOCIETY
http://www.vpg.net/boo.htm
Quotas Versus Affirmative Action
—A Malaysian Perspective
a study in multi-ethnic Culture by
Dr Boo, Cheng Hau
One of the most critical books written about Malaysia’s racial quotas. . .

Chapter 4 Malaysian Public Higher Education Centres Abide by
Affirmative Action?  Since 1985, no admission quotas in the public
universities have been publicised on the ground that it is too
"sensitive". There have been studies done unofficial by groups of
students showing that the authorities have not been compliant with any
resolutions and neither the moral principles of "affirmative action"
behind the veil of "official secrecy".
Chapter 12. The Role of Brotherhood in Affirmative Action and
Statehood In conclusion, the author believes affirmative action may
never be gotten rid of in a multiethnic society like Malaysia’s. 


MALAYS TO OWN 30% OF ALL PRIVATE CAPITAL BY 1990
Z68\CLIP\2003\06\MALQUOT.TXT http://www.asiaweek.com/asiaweek/magazine/2000/0915/nat.malaysia.html
SEPTEMBER 15, 2000 VOL. 26 NO. 36 | SEARCH ASIAWEEK Theories of Race
PM Mahathir has hit out at an affirmative-action proposal as the work
of Chinese extremists. Why?  By PENNY CRISP and SANTHA OORJITHAM Kuala
Lumpur In 1969, when UMNO suffered severe setbacks in general
elections (as it did last year), political rallies degenerated into
race riots that left at least 200 dead and triggered a huge Chinese
exodus While Malays are granted special protection under the
Constitution in the areas of employment, education and business, the
NEP set quotas for that protection. In business, for example, the
target was for Malays to own 30% of all private capital by 1990

30% CHINESE, 10% INDIAN, 60% MALAYS AT THE BOTTOM
http://www.yale.edu/iforum/Winter1997/Mahathir.html Mahathir’s
Prescriptions for Malaysia By Lincoln Yeh Under the leadership of
Prime Minister Mahathir, Malaysia's economy has become one of the
fastest growing economies in the world. Malaysia's recent currency
crisis should not obscure the fact that Mahathir has fostered rapid
and equitable industrialization in what was a poor and racially
divided colony 
Of the 20 million people in the country, 30% are ethnic Chinese and
10% are Indians. The remaining 60% of the population are bumiputras,
meaning “sons of the soil” in Malay, who represent the indigenous
people of Malaysia. Yet, despite being the dominant racial group in
Malaysia,the Bumiputras are one of the lowestsocial classes. This
classification stems from their inability to compete with the ethnic
Chinese population

MERITOCRACY REPLACES QUOTAS IN MALAYSIA'S COLLEGES
z68\clip\2003\06\malquo.txt
Subject: AsiaTimes : Malaysia's education system faces tough lessons 
Asia Times 5 June 2002
Malaysia's education system faces tough lessons 
By Anil Netto 
"The system replaces the 55:35:10 quota system in the allocation of
seats among bumiputra (Malay and other indigenous groups), Chinese and
Indian Malaysians respectively. "

3 DECADE OLD AFFIRMATIVE ACTION HAS MADE RACE SOFT, SUBSIDY MENTALITY
z68\clip\2003\06\angmal.txt
From The Straits Times, Singapore
10 June 2002
Angry Malays cry treachery in debate on special rights 
An influential newspaper's call to end the quotas and privileges for
Malays has drawn fierce reaction 
By Brendan Pereira 
MALAYSIA CORRESPONDENT 
"Malaysia's most influential newspaper, Utusan Malaysia, for an end to
the special rights enjoyed by Malays.  It argued that the
three-decade-old affirmative action policies had made the Malay race
soft and fostered a subsidy mentality among the community that was
counter-productive."


@@Malkin, Michelle

Conservative Filipina - Am woman, writes column for the Seattle Times

\clip\98\09\malkpref.txt
http://www.seattletimes.com/sbin/iarecord?NS-search-set=/356af/aaaa005UR6afa
fc&NS-doc-offset=1& Whitewashing Asians out of racial-preference
debate May 26, 1998 Michelle Malkin, Seattle Times MY skin is light
mocha brown.  Growing up in rural South Jersey, it always seemed
darker than it really was. To the pink-necked bigots who couldn't
tell Philadelphia from the Philippines, the light mocha brown skin of
the Maglalang family and the caramel skin of the Patel family and the
deep ebony skin of the Jackson family were indistinguishable. We were
all equal, all right. Equally non-white. Equally "Niggers."

@@matloff, norm

Norm Matloff

affirmative-action.managers
@@managers 

\priv\95\08\statstud.htm SF Chronicle State Study Tracks Diversity /
Affirmative action cited for rise in female, minority bosses Mar 28,
1995

\doc\95\05\glascel.wk1 - USA Today chart and analysis
         Industry Leaders by Race, Ethnicity and Sex

Including executives, managers and administrators in private-industry
fields, 1990

Source:  U.S. Labor Department Glass Ceiling Commision Whites are
non-Hispanic

         As reported in "Glass ceiling report" USA Today March 17, 199
         Analysis by Arthur Hu

         Overall Rate by Industry and Race
                                 White  Black  Hisp   Asian
         Retail Trade             1.07  -2.01  -2.63   1.67
         Finance                  1.09  -1.17* -2.53   1.39
         Insurance                1.09  -1.59  -2.12   1.39
         Wholesale Trade          1.19  -2.23  -9.52   1.22
-------------------------------------------------------------
         Business Services        1.12  -1.20  -3.36  -1.12
         Communications           1.12  -1.06* -3.94  -1.62
         Transportation           1.13  -1.07* -3.98  -1.64
         Utilities                1.18  -2.73  -3.64  -4.29

Asians are not under-represented in about half the categories,
including wholesale, retail trade, and finance. Blacks and Hispanics
are under-represented in all categories, but Blacks are near parity in
communications, transportation, and finance.

\doc\95\05\glasceil.txt
"Women and Minorities Still Face 'Glass Ceiling" New York Times March
16, 1995 p. C22

White men are 95% of senior managers, vice president or above
Women are typically less than 5 percent

In middle management
40% white women
 5% black women
 4% black men
51% white men and other

Wall Street Journal 3/14/95 p. 1 Labor Secretary Robert Reich says 97%
of senior managers of 1,500 country's largest firms are white, about
97% are male

@@medicine 

%%Admissions


UCSD UP TO PRE-NO PREF MINORITIY RATE OF 3%+6%
http://www.uniontrib.com/news/uniontrib/fri/metro/news_7m25medics.html
SAN DIEGO UNION TRIBUNE 9/25/98 Minority enrollment at UCSD medical
school is up this fall Entering class now close to 1996 level of
diversity Of the 122 students who began classes Monday to earn their
medical degrees, three are African-American and six are
Mexican-American,

80% OF MEDICAL STUDENTS ADMITTED SOLEY ON THE BASIS OF RACE
http://www.chronicle.com/che-data/news.dir/dailarch.dir/9804.dir/98040701.htm
Tuesday, April 7, 1998 Chronicle of Higher Education Spurred by
Clinton Panel, 400 Colleges Plan Events This Month on Race Relations
As part of the week's events, the Association of American Medical
Colleges released a study Monday that showed that, without
affirmative action, 80 per cent fewer members of minority groups
would have been accepted into U.S. medical schools in 1996.  "If we
had been unable to use the tool of affirmative action, only 2 per
cent of all medical students would be minorities, approximately the
same dismal rate that entered medical school in the 1960s," said
Jordan J.  Cohen, president of the association. 

Jerry Cook's  College
Admissions expose - law, medicine, undergraduate, with probability
calculator.

•U of Michigan 97 Med School. It is obvious why they are
being sued for discrimination. •U of Washington 97 Med
School. In case you are interested. •US News is now offering an
admissions simulator for the University of Michigan. •UCSF 97 Med
School data shows wholesale race based admissions. •UCLA 97 Med
School an extreme example of racial preferences. •UCSD 97 Med School
shows why you should attend a private school. •UCD 97 Med School
admissions differ profoundly from those at UCI 97 Med School.


%%Quality


STUDY CLAIMS AFFIRMATIVE ACTION DOCTORS ARE JUST AS GOOD
http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/docs_100997.html
\clip\97\23\lower.txt The Seattle Times Company Thursday, Oct. 9,
1997 Study: Lower criteria, but equal doctors by Jane E. Allen
Associated Press LOS ANGELES - Affirmative-action students admitted
to a California medical school with low grades and test scores became
just as good doctors as the higher-scoring applicants, researchers
say. [undertaken by two UC doctors in favor of racial preferences]
94% vs. 98% graduation rate (but that's 3 times failure rate), lower
grades and honors rates, equal board test passing after multiple
tries.

WSJ: GOOD ENOUGH ISN'T THE SAME AS JUST AS GOOD F101597-1 Doctored
Affirmative Action Data Gail Heriot (prof law University of San
Diego) Wall Street Journal Oct 15, 1997. Contrary to the JAMA claim
that affirmative action doctors were just as good, grades were much
lower, regular admits were 3 times more likely to join the honors
society, 8 times more likely to fail the National Board of Examiners
medical exam. Failure rate is low, but 3 times higher for minorities.
1994 JAMA study shows 51.1% of blacks vs.  12.3% of white med
students failed part I, students with comparable credentials scored
about as well. Doctors who take 3 attempts aren't as likely to keep
studying to stay on top. Study found little difference in likelihood
to serve minorities.

\clip\96\01\minjeap.txt Date: Mon, 29 Jul 1996 06:38:40 -0400 From:
NewsHound@sjmercury.com (NewsHound) Minority Health in Jeopardy White
doctors less likely to treat blacks, Latinos; medical school
affirmative action helps, study says. New York foundation and
Stanford University study found that minority doctors are more likely
to serve minority populations. Comment - the idea is that affirmative
action helps increase the number of minority doctors. However the
type of affirmative action practiced by the top medical schools
generally involves admitting as many students who would otherwise
still be accepted by lesser schools up to some level approximating
the national population of 12% black and 9+% Hispanic. It does not
increase numbers, but only redistributes them into schools with
fancier reputations.

"Posturing, politics aside, group identity still matters" William
Raspberry May 28, 1996. Raspberry says the LA Sentinel reports only
970 black doctors graduated last year, 6.2 percent, up only slightly
from 5.5 percent in 1976, and wonders if they will fall if the Fifth
Circuit decision is upheld (A. Hu comment - numbers will only fall in
the schools which select the top 5% of students, it only moves
students up to the best schools, it does not increase total numbers,
and may actually increase the failure rate due to mismatching)

\doc\96\03\minodoc.txt San Francisco Chronicle May 17, 1996 · Page
A26 "Support for Training Minority Doctors" Sabin Russell, Chronicle
Staff Writer Study by A team of researchers led by Dr. Miriam
Komaromy of San Francisco General Hospital published in New England
Journal of Medicine says minority doctors more likely to serve areas
with minorities (5X for black, 3x for Hispanic) and affirmative
action increases numbers of under-represented doctors.  They noted
blacks are 7% of doctors vs. 12% of population, and Latinos are 5 vs.
9 population

"No Exit" New Republic Feb 7, 1995 - Clinton health plan
proposed that training in coveted specialties would be assigned by
race according to representation rather than merit or ability

@@Medved, Michael

WallStreet Journal Dec 22, 1997 Black? White? Asian? How About
American? [argues for doing away with all racial classifications]
\images\972\1228\black.tif

@@military

%%Hispanic

MILITARY MAY RELAX HS GRAD FOR HISPANICS
\clip\98\08\milhisp.txt
http://www.latimes.com:80/CNS_DAYS/980430/t000040613.html Thursday,
April 30, 1998 Military May Seek to Boost Latino Ranks By PAUL
RICHTER, Times Staff Writer

%%Contracting

\priv\95\14\pentbid.txt -  PENTAGON TO REPEAL MINORITY BID RULES
WHITES COULDN'T BID ON SOME CONTRACTS Seattle Times (SE) - Sunday
October 22, 1995. The rule of two struck down, allows selecting
minority if at least two minority firms are available.

\doc\95\05\pentbudg.txt - Pentagon goal is 5%, but 50-100% of
construction at some sites is reserved for minorities.


%%General

The story is that Colin Powell didn't show on a first list of
potential promotions, but showed up when they were sent back for a
more diverse set. That's a racial preference, and says that Powell
was NOT selected strictly on merit.

%%Marines

KRULAK SHOULD BE FIRED
\clip\98\14\marquot.txt http://www.desnews.com:80/edt/yt0rlw2l.htm
Race, gender quotas amount to handouts that devalue military Last
updated 10/07/1998, 12:01 a.m. MT By Walter Williams Black and
Hispanic officers should be at the forefront of the protest against
Krulak's quota program, or risk having their achievements seen as
handouts. More importantly, Krulak should be fired.

\CLIP\98\13\nypost.txt 9/28/98 Subject: New York Post editorial:
http://www.nypost.com/editorial/6126.htm
Quotas in the Marine Corps "As one Marine pilot pointed out, tying
Marine promotions to a de facto quota system makes no more sense than
forcing NFL teams to look like America.  And promoting unworthy
officers just because of their skin color is a policy that could be
paid for in blood.  "

\clip\98\13\marine.txt
Washington Times: Marines aim for minority officers
http://www.washtimes.com/news/news2.html Washington Times, September
23, 1998 An internal memo on the evolving policy, a copy of which was
obtained by The Washington Times, says that by 2003 the Corps'
contingent of officers will be 12 percent black and 12 percent
Hispanic. Another 5 percent should be of other ethic origins such as
Asian American, Pacific Islanders, American Indian and Alaskan
Native.  The document says that while the enlisted ranks surpass
"12-12-5," the officer corps stands at 6-4-2 -- 6 percent black, 4
percent Hispanic and 2 percent "other."

%%Pilot

NAVY DID HAVE LOWER STANDARDS FOR NAVY F14 PILOTS
http://www.concentric.net/~Issues/dblstd.sht \clip\98\11\dblstd.txt
Double Standards [Reprinted from Issues & Views, Fall 1997] It all
began in 1995 when the Center for Military Readiness (CMR) published
a report that contained 105 pages of records related to women s
training in the Navy. The CMR, headed by Elaine Donnelly, was formed
in 1993, to monitor and measure the impact of new social policies
that were imposed on the military to satisfy the demands of feminist
and homosexual interest groups. Lt. Kara Hultgreen was killed in
October 1994, while trying to land her F-14 Tomcat fighter plane. The
other woman pilot, Lt. Carey Lohrenz, was dismissed from further
aviation training after her flying performance was described by
instructors as "unsafe, undisciplined, and unpredictable." 

"Blue Angels leader quits over 'personal difficulties' Seattle Times
(Washington Post) May 29, 1996 p. A8 f052996 Dmdr Donnie Chochran was
the first African American to join the Navy's elite Blue Angels as a
pilot and the first to become its leader in Nov 1984. White pilots
"had grumbled about his skills as an aviator and had said he got the
job because he is black - an assertion the Navy denied". Last
September he suspended performances because he believed he made to
many mistakes that would endanger lives. Comment - he might be a good
guy, but how can a guy that makes this many mistakes be allowed to
head such an elite outfit with so much competition to get in? Maybe
race WAS a factor in his promotion.

%%women

@@Military Academy

RACE PREFERENCES AT ACADEMY MAY BE UNCONSTITUTIONAL SAY BUSH LAWYERS
z87\clip\2005\02\milacad.txt
http://aad.english.ucsb.edu/docs/untitled-18.html
Military Academy Admissions Scrutinized 
Tue Apr 1, 6:54 PM ET 
By ANNE GEARAN, Associated Press Writer 
WASHINGTON - The Bush administration's top Supreme Court lawyer said
race-conscious admissions policies at the nation's military academies
may be unconstitutional. Ê The Naval Academy, West Point and the Air
Force Academy all take race into account when selecting students,
Theodore Olson said during Tuesday's arguments on affirmative action
cases before the court.

MILITARY NEEDS DIVERSITY
http://www.thebatt.com/news/2003/02/17/Opinion/Military.Academies.Need.Affirmative.Action-514716.shtml
The Battalion - Opinion 
Issue: 2/17/03 
Military academies need affirmative action
By BY BRIEANNE PORTER 
In a time when affirmative action programs are under fire from the
public and the Bush administration, there is one group of schools that
admits to proactive minority recruitment and has not become a target
of public scrutiny. The United States Military Academy at West Point
Va., the Naval Academy in Annapolis, Md., and the Air Force Academy in
Colorado Springs, Colo. admit to actively targeting minority students
for recruitment into the academies and West Point openly says that it
wants black students to make up 10-12 percent of the class, according
to The New York Times.

\clip\2005\02\OPPREF.TXT
http://www.nationalreview.com/comment/comment-purdy052803.asp
May 28, 2003, 10:00 a.m.
Operation Racial Preferences
What the U.S. military doesn’t need.
By R. Lawrence Purdy
" Ending preferences in college and university
admissions need not result in declines in minority officers, much less
declines in minority enrollments at the schools and service academies"

@@minimal standards

University of California skirts issue of lesser qualifications by
saying none are "unqualified" if they meet mininum UC requirements.
Yet critics say that VIP admits are "unqualified" even if they meet
minimal standards.

\priv\96B\06\RACERACK.HTM Wall Street Journal July 1, 1996
Bureaucratic Carpet Bombing By JAMES BOVARD The Office of Federal
Contract Compliance Programs, a little known but extremely powerful
branch of the Department of Labor, is America's premier racial
racketeering agency. Officials expect every minority eligible to be
promoted to be promoted. Another says that a minimally qualified
minority must be hired even if there is a better qualified non
minority.


@@Mismatch

BLACK STUDENTS EARN MORE IF THEY GRADUATE FROM LESS SELECTIVE COLLEGE
VS.  DROPPING OUT OF BETTER ONE.  \clip\98\08\mismatch.txt
http://www.washtimes.com:80/opinion/ed3.html Washington Times April
17, 1998 The Truth About Admissions By Ward Connerly

under [Berkeley's] old preferential policies, 42 percent of all
African American students dropped out before earning their degree, as
opposed to only 16 percent of white students. A 1995 study by two
Tufts University economists, Linda Datcher Loury and David Garman,
demonstrates the unfortunate facts. An African American student with
a combined SAT score between 851 and 1000 has a 77 percent chance of
graduation if he attends a college where the average SAT score is
900, but if the average is 1000, chances fall to 51 percent...found
that drop-outs from more selective schools earn an average of $106
per week less than those who attended less selective schools, but
stayed until they earned their degree.

@@MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology

see MIT


@@Most Qualified

WHO IS LYING?
The big lie about affirmative action
http://www.boston.com:80/dailyglobe/globehtml/131/The_big_lie_about_affirmat
ive_actio.htm Boston Globe; Editorials/Opinions. By Robert M.
Saltzman, 05/11/98.  The opponents of affirmative action make the
following assertion and characterize it as fact: The unavoidable
result of a school's use of affirmative action is the admission of
less qualified minority applicants in place of more qualified
nonminority applicants. That is false. In fact, the opposite is true:
A school's appropriate use of affirmative action results in admission
of the most qualified applicants."


@@newspaper


GANNET NEWS FORCES MINORITY VIEWPOINT QUOTAS AS "MAINSTREAMING"
\clip\99\09\color.txt Brill's Content March 1999 Just Add Color If
you're a minority, The Greenville News would like to quote you. In
fact, including minority voices is a rule throughout the Gannett news
empire. Is that progress -- or political correctness run amok?  by
Jennifer Greenstein

THE SEATTLE TIMES CONTINUES ITS COMMITMENT TO RACIAL QUOTAS
\clip\99\03\fancher.txt Seattle Times January 17, 1999 A23 INSIDE THE
TIMES Lack of racial diversity Ameirca's newsrooms can look within to
find it Michael R. Fancher Times executive editor. ASNE says that
newspapers must match the proportinal representation of the
poplation, Seattle Times has many programs "primarily" or evidently
exclusive to minority candidates and employees, which may be illegal.
"To cover communities fully to carry out their role... the nation's
newsrooms mustreflect the racial diversity of American society by
2025 or sooner.. every newspaper should reflect the diversity of its
community"

Why newspapers are dying
http://www.worldnetdaily.com/bluesky_btl/19990120_xcbtl_why_newspa.shtml
January 20, 1999 OPINION World Net Daily "Now, to be honest, there's a
grain of truth in what Woods and his agenda-driven collaborators at Editor
& Publisher have to say about diversity. One of the reasons newspapers are
dying is because they are not reflective of the communities or the nation
they cover. But it's not a question of having enough black or brown faces
in the newsroom. It's a question of philosophical and ideological
diversity. There is none. In most newsrooms today, everyone thinks alike
-- white, brown, black, red, yellow or mixed. The only kind of affirmative
action program that might have a chance of succeeding in the modern
corporate newsroom would be one in which conservatives, libertarians,
Christians, Republicans and other endangered species in the media world
were actively and respectfully recruited. It will never happen. Most news
agencies would rather close down -- and they will."


Quoting by quota
http://www.usnews.com:80/usnews/issue/980629/29john.htm
June 29, 1998 OPINION By John Leo US News & World Report
"Mark Willes, publisher of the Los Angeles Times, said something remarkable
last month. He told the Wall Street Journal that he intends to set specific
goals for the numbers of women and minorities quoted in his newspaper. This
is an ominous idea, sure to compromise the integrity of any paper that
tries it. 

\priv\95\12\washpost.txt New Republic 10/02/95 "THE WASHINGTON POST IN
BLACK AND WHITE. RACE IN THE NEWSROOM" By Ruth Shalit

highlights - 
40% of newspaper interns minority races
5.76% of newspaper jobs in 1985
10.25% in 1993 (more than double reagan / bush)
18% of Washington post
10.5% of college grads
32.3% of metro washington = hiring goal
10/38 = 26% of 1994 Wash Post hires 
25% = goal of hiring "at least"
National Association of Black Jouralists found
66% of black journalists feel managers not committed
  to promoting and retaining minorities vs. 6% of managers
59% of bj says black held to higher standards vs. 92%
  of managers who say equal

\doc\95\13\washpohi.wk1 response Oct 16, 1995 p. 14 hiring goal of 50%
women, 25% minority new hires in past nine years, they have hired:
         all      women    Pct
minority       98       45     45.9%
white         232      109     47.0%
total         330      154
%minority    29.7%    29.2%
they've exceed the minority, nearly equaled women goals

@@No bias

\clip\98\04\nobias.txt
http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/examiner/hotnews/stories/13/affirmative.dtl&type=printable
     Study finds no bias in S.F. contracting By Chuck Finnie OF THE
EXAMINER STAFF Friday, February 13, 1998 ©1998 San Francisco Examiner 


@@noncompetitive
\doc\95\03\fedpref.txt
affirmative-action.noncompetitive - contract awarded noncompetitively to
minority if at least 2 minority firms apply

@@NSF
\doc\96\01\nsfrex.txt "NSF Re-Examines Preferences Based on Race and
Gender" The Chronicle of Higher Education Nov 10, 1995 p. A31 filed
affirmativ-action.nsf


@@none
\doc\95\07\blacexec.txt - Richmond contracts fell from 30% to 8% after
plan was struck down


@@Officials, Public

DON'T PICK SCHOOL OR POLICE OFFICIALS BY RACE
http://www.latimes.com/sbin/my_iarecord.pl?NS-doc-path=/CNS_DAYS/970504/t000040277.html&NS-doc-offset=5&NS-collection=970504&NS-search-set=/var/tmp/336fe/aaaa0037B6fe22b&
\clip\97\12\ethchief.txt Los Angeles Times Sunday, May 4, 1997 THE
SPIN / BILL BOYARSKY Don't Let LAPD Candidates Do 'Tryouts'--and
Leave Ethnic Politics Out By BILL BOYARSKY [S] ome City Hall
politicians want to have the candidates for Los Angeles chief of
police do tryouts at public hearings, just as the aspirants for
school superintendent did last month.

@@ontario


>>\priv\95\19\ontafac.txt - The Harris Ontario Government will get
rid of the Equality in Employment Law. Critics say this will legalize
discrimination, but supporters say it will restore hiring without
regard to quotas and group membership.

http://www.arthurhu.com/afact.htm#opinion

@@opinion

Ranked by black support
-----------------------------------------------
For Affirmative Action / Preferences
(3)End afact now     W1.00 B13.00
Vote CCRI/Prop209    W1.00 B 4.57 H 3.81 A 1.97
(1)College Quotas OK W1.00 B 2.30
(1)Hiring Quotas OK  W1.00 B 2.20
(1)Pref less qual    W1.00 B 2.20
Poll CCRI 1995       W1.00 B 1.54 H 1.62 A 1.62
US Teen for          W1.00 B 1.09 H 1.02 A 1.17
(1)Pref equal qual   W1.00 B 1.09
-------------------------------------------------
(1)USA Today Gallup 1995
(2)USA Today Teen Poll 1995
(3)NY Times CBS Poll 1997
College Admission Quotas B70% W30%  

Most polls show Asians favor racial preferences, though usually not
as strong as other minorities.

Numbers, not comparison

Asians Against
Detroit News         no  Asian  33%
Cal Policy Seminar - no  Asian  66%
CNN/USAT 1996 -      no  Total  83%
UMass Mass 1998      less Asian 17%
--------------------------------------------------------

%%College Faculty

\doc\web\99\05\das.txtDelaware poll finds most 
faculty opposed to race preferences

%%General

\clip\98\16\nopref.txt MICHIGAN VOTERS OPPOSE PREFERENCES ON RACE,
BUT INCOME OK http://www.freepress.com/news/education/qaffirm30.htm
Colleges shouldn't prefer on race gender, poll finds But helping
low-income applicants is OK October 30, 1998 The telephone poll of
600 adults found only 27 percent in favor of U-M's use of affirmative
action in admissions; 47 percent were opposed, and 26 percent were
undecided. 


POLL SUPPORTS DIVERSITY, BUT HALF THINK IT IS LIBERAL FEEL-GOOD INCLUSION
\clip\98\14\multpoll.txt
Washington Times: Poll reveals mixed multicultural messages
http://www.washtimes.com:80/nation/nation1.html
Washington Times, October 7, 1998
Poll reveals mixed multicultural messages
" More than half (58 percent) of the respondents agreed that
diversity education always "seems to have a liberal political agenda"
and more agreed than disagreed (47 percent compared with 46 percent)
that "diversity education teaches multicultural elements of history
and literature just to make some students feel included."  "
By Kim Asch THE WASHINGTON TIMES

U.S. Citizens Believe in Ethnic Diversity, Poll Shows
http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/1998/10/07
/MN69553.DTL
October 7, 1998 San Francisco Chronicle
"Americans believe strongly in the value of ethnic diversity in the United
States, but feel the nation is becoming more divided along racial lines
than less, a new study released yesterday shows. The study conducted by the
DYG Inc., a New York polling firm, for the Ford Foundation avoids any
mention of affirmative action, which tends to draw strong negative
reactions. Instead, researchers asked voters to disclose their feelings
concerning the broader and less sensitive topic of diversity on college
campuses. Seventy-one percent of respondents say, for example, that college
students should learn more about other ethnic groups as a way of bringing
the nation closer together. However, three in five questioned say they
believe that the nation is growing apart rather than together."

69% of Americans Favor Teaching of Cultural Diversity, Poll Finds
http://www.chronicle.com/daily/98/10/98100703n.htm
October 7, 1998 By Joshua Rolnick Chronicle of Higher Education
"Sixty-nine per cent of American voters support courses and campus
activities that teach students about cultural diversity, says a poll
released Tuesday. The Daniel Yankelovich Group (DYG Inc.), an independent
polling firm, conducted the telephone survey of 2,011 registered voters
this past summer, asking them about their attitude toward diversity
education. DYG defined diversity education as "formal coursework and campus
activities aimed at teaching the differences among people in terms of
culture and background." The polling firm cited as examples "issues of
race, ethnic background, social class, and gender." The poll, which was
sponsored by the Ford Foundation, found that many Americans "believe
diversity is tremendously beneficial to students," said Alison R.
Bernstein, the foundation's vice-president for education, media, and
culture. She called the results "stunning in depth and uniformity.""


"UMass Poll Offers Insights on Asian Americans" UMass Poll of 300
nonwhite residents, 114 Asian residents of Massachusetts spring 1998.
U Massachusetts Boston Institute for Asian American Studies,
Institute News Summer 1998 p. 1 Asians affirmative action 31% more
33% ok, 17% less

Asians nearly as favorable as other minorities!
"Two Thirds..." Detroit News May 26, 1998 Age 15-25 who
favor affirmative action or racial preferences

79B
71Mex
69OtherHisp
69NativeAm
66A
54W



72% IN OHIO OPPOSED TO HIRING OR ADMISSIONS PREFERENCES FOR BLACKS
\clip\98\06\ohpoll.txt
http://www.ohio.com:80/bj/news/ohio/docs/003812.htm March 23, 1998
Poll: Ohioans oppose preferential hiring, college admissions for
blacks CINCINNATI (AP) -- In Ohio, Seventy-two percent of respondents
to the telephone poll opposed preferences in employment for blacks,
18 percent said they favored such practices and 10 percent did not
know. And 72 percent said they opposed preferences in admission to
colleges and universities for blacks.


\clip\97\29\divrpoll.txt Copyright 1997 Associated Press. All rights
reserved.  12/14/1997 02:06 EST Views on Diversity Polled (New York
Times- CBS News) "Asked whether affirmative action programs should be
ended now, phased out or continued, just 12 percent of those polled
-- 13 percent of whites and less than 1 percent of blacks -- said
they should be ended now. Forty percent (45 percent of whites, 17
percent of blacks) favored phasing out the programs, and 41 percent
(35 percent of whites, 80 percent of blacks) said they should be
continued. "

------------------------------------------------------------


POLL SHOWS ASIANS AMONG STRONGEST OPPONENTS TO PROP 209

\doc\web\97\01\prop209.txt
"Affirmative Reaction" Connie Rice The Nation Jan 13/20 1997

In 1995, most groups were FOR prop 209 Blacks 55, Hisp 70, Asian 78
In the final polls, they were against Blacks 74 Hisp 70, Asian 78
In Los Angeles County, Asians were 76% NO, and even among GOP
Asians it was 73% No.


EMIL GUILLERMO SUPPORTS QUOTAS AGAINST ASIANS, NOTES ASIANS
OPPOSED PROP209 / CCRI

d:\doc\96\07\proppoll.txt Emil's Amok Northwest Asian Weekly
(Seattle) Nov 1996 p. 14 Voter News Service Poll

Vote on Prop 209 Racial Preferences / Affirmative Action

           Yes   No  Ratio  Index
White     60     40  1.6    1.00
Black     26     74  0.35  -4.57
Hispanic  30     70  0.42  -3.81
Asian     45     55  0.81  -1.97
Total     55     46  1.19  -1.34
---------------------------------
Index W1.00 B-4.57 H-3.81 A-1.97

Source: Voter News Service, Analysis by Arthur Hu


CNN/USA Today Gallup Poll April 25-28 1996: 83% of the public is
against racial preferences in jobs and education.

c:\doc\96\06\angryell.txt "Angry Yellow Men" The New Republic Sept 9,
1996 p. 11 In a 1993 poll by the California Policy Seminar, 2/3 of
Asians opposed affirmative action. In 1989, several disgruntled Asian
Americans filed complaints with the federal Office of Civil Rights
[Arthur Hu was the sole disgruntled Asian, the case was dismissed as
having no merit in 1996, even though most of the "demands" were in
fact implemented by the time the studies were carried out years after
the actual complaint]


\priv\95\19\matloff.txt - Notes to matloff that Asians according to
field poll and USA Today are least likely to oppose racial preferences
for blacks, even though they do not favor it for themselves.

\doc\95\11\teenprej.wk1 - USA Today Poll of Teen Prejudice     
Summary: Asian teens were the least likely to oppose
Affirmative action, but69% -  most likely to say they
had experienced racial discrimination.

Source: USA Weekend Aug 18-20 1995 p. 10       

Poll of 248,000 teens in United States 
       
FACTOR: "Should race be a factor in hiring and college 
admissions to correct for past bias - NO"      
DISCRIM: "Have you personally experienced racism in the past year?"    
SEG: "Do students mainly hang out with students of the same    
race?  
           FACTOR       DISCRIM SEG
White      92%     1.00 39%     
Black      84%     1.09 61%     73%
Hispanic   90%     1.02 48%     
Asian      78%<-   1.17 69%<-   74%
All        90%     1.02 64%

44% of students said that students hanging out with the same   
race contributes to racial tension.    

Note that Asians are least likely to oppose affirmative action, and
the most likely to have experienced racism first hand.

\priv\95\04\latafac.txt - LA Times affirmative action summary, race
breakdowns, university, says asians have taken spots from whites.

\priv\95\04\latpoll.txt - LA times poll

\priv\95\04\afacpoll.txt - field poll broken down
by race

  \doc\95\05\afacvo3.wk1 - CA Affirmative Action Initiative Poll by Race

  Source: Field Poll, Chart San Jose Mercury News March 7, 1995 p. 10A

  Summary: Most minorities split 40/60 against the initiative, but
  white men and white women are for banning preferences by 2 to 1
  However, this is a survey of registered voters, not the general
  population. This may explain why Asians aren't much different
  from other minorities, even though Asians rarely benefit from
  affirmative action, if registered voters are more likely to be liberal
  compared to the near-majority of Asians who don't vote.

  How California Voters Would Vote on Affirmative Action Initiative

                                      Ranked by Repeal Rate
  Group          Repeal   Keep        Group        Repeal
  Statewide            60      35     Republicans         75
  Democrats            44      51     Others              66
  Republicans          75      20     NH Whites           65 1.00
  Others               66      29     Men                 61
  Men                  61      35     Statewide           60
  Women                59      36     Women               59
  NH Whites            65      29     Democrats           44
  Hispanic             40      58     Asian/Other         43 1.62
  Black                42      53     Black               42 1.54
  Asian/Other          43      57     Hispanic            40 1.62

 Approval for Preference for Groups
  For Hiring or Promotion
                          Don't
  Women          Grant    Grant
  Statewide            32      63
  Men                  33      62
  White men            26      69
  Non White men        55      39
  Women                32      64
  White women          25      71
  Non-white wom        55      40

  Preference for Blacks
  Statewide            28      65
  Blacks               81      17
  Others               25      67

  Preference for Hispanics
  State                27      67
  Hispanics            46      43
  Others               24      70

  Preference for Asian
  State                22      71
  Asians               37      57
  Others               21      72

                Self     State
  Women                32      32
  Blacks               81      28
  Hispanics            46      27
  Asian                37      22

  Only a majority of Blacks support preferences for their own group.
  Less than one-third of the state supports preferences for women,
  with decreasing support for Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians, in
  that order.


\priv\95\04\afacpoll.txt - Field poll in California broken down by
race. San Jose Mercury News March 7, 1995 p. 1A

Support / Oppose ban on racial preferences

Republicans   75 / 20
Conservatives 71 / 23
Whites        65 / 29
Hispanics     40 / 58
NonWhites     42 / 56
NonWhite Wom  34 / 64

Preferences for women in hiring  oppose  64 / 32 
                      in college oppose  64 / 33
White women           in hiring  oppose  71 / 25
Black women           in hiring  support 40 / 55

Blacks for black preference     support 73 / 23
Hispanics                       support 51 / 40
Asians / Other                  oppose  45 / 55

(1)
\doc\95\04\usatafpl.txt USA Today affirmative action poll
USA Today / CNN / Gallup nationwide telephone poll of 1,20 adults
March 17-19 1995 
USA Today 3/24/95

Favoring:
generally favor affirmative action B72% W53%

Favors Hiring Quotas B66% W30% 2.2 1.0

College Admission Quotas B70% W30%  

Preferences for equally qualified B51% W47%

Preferences for less qualified B22% W11%  2.2 1.0

USA Today Gallup 1995

Roughly the same percentage of blacks that favors affirmative action
also favors quotas, but they are split on preferences for the equally
qualified, only 22% favor preferences for the less qualified.

This implies the belief that quotas do not require lower standards.

Believe was passed over or not offered job or admission in
favor of 

Blacks 70%
Women  34%
Whites 22%
Men    17%

Blacks and women still believe that they are the mostly likely to be
the victims of discrimination, whites and men are the least

Job discrimination 
Ranked by perception of problem:

Black men    41%
Black women  41%
Hispanics    38%
Asians       22%
White women  19%
White men    16%

NYTPOLL.txt   Newsweek poll  of 752 adults
Only 27% of women felt any direct benefit of affirmative action 53%
felt abolishing it would make no difference.
Only 25% of minorities felt direct benefit, only 39% thought abolishing
afac would make things worse.

\priv\95\04\ccripoll.txt
CCRI Field Poll
 Of the 62 percent aware of the initiative, 31 favor 18 oppose 13 undec
 When proposition was read to sample, 60 favor, 35 against 5 undecided
    telephone between Feb. 23 and March 1 and has a margin of error
    of plus or minus 3.8 percentage points.

\doc\95\02\afacpol1.txt USA Today poll
"Preferences for women OK", "Affirmative action debate skips women"
Kevin Johnson and Desda Moss, USA Today Feb 28, 1995 p. 1A, 6A
Only 50% favor for women, 40% for minorities, only 10/13 with quotas
Only 41% believe programs are still needed at all.

affirmative-action.opinion
Most adults would favor eliminating affirmative action
only slightly more so among white men
"Clinton Is Still Struggling"
Wall Street Journal Jan 24, 1995 p. A24

Wall Street Journal / NBC News poll
"Do you favor or oppose eliminating affirmative action
based on race or gender..."

       White men     All adults
Favor    68%        61%
Oppose   28%        32%

@@Orfield, Gary

Desegregation advocate

GARY ORFIELD DEFENDS PREFERENTIAL POLICIES FOR LATINOS
\clip\97\29\orfield.txt Los Angeles Times Monday, December 15, 1997
http://www.latimes.com/sbin/my_iarecord.pl?NS-doc-path=/CNS_DAYS/971215/t000113469.html&NS-doc-offset=4&NS-collection=971215&NS-search-set=/var/tmp/3495c/aaaa000jt95c63c&
PERSPECTIVE ON CIVIL RIGHTS Latinos Rights Is the Big Loser The
overturning of equal opportunity laws and programs leaves the
soon-to-be majority minority bereft.  By GARY ORFIELD

@@organizations

Pacific Legal Foundation
2151 River Plaza Drive
Suite 305
Sacramento CA 95833
http://www.pacificlegal.org

Takes on freedom issues, affirmative action and private property


@@Origins

JOHNSON - EQUALITY OF RESULTS KING - PREFERENTIAL TREATMENT
z68\clip\2003\07\slowtor.txt
http://www.blackcommentator.com/49/49_cover.html
The Black Commentator Editorial
The Slow and Tortured Death of Affirmative Action
Redress of racial wrongs no longer public policy

affirmative action can be dated to President Lyndon Baines Johnson's
June 4, 1965 address to the graduating class of Howard University.
..Public policy would affirmatively address the legacy ("chains") of
slavery, by instituting programs designed to achieve equality for
Black people "as a result."

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., in his 1964 book, "Why We Can't
Wait".."Whenever this issue of compensatory or preferential treatment
for the Negro is raised, some of our friends recoil in horror. The
Negro should be granted equality, they agree; but he should ask for
nothing more. On the surface, this appears reasonable, but it is not
realistic. For it is obvious that if a man is entering the starting
line in a race 300 years after another man, the first would have to
perform some impossible feat in order to catch up with his fellow
runner."

4/97 ACLU web page: http://www.aclu-sc.org/aabrochure.html "Thus, in 1965,
President Lyndon Johnson issued Executive Order 11246 prohibiting
federal agencies from contracting with firms that were not committed
to equal opportunity "affirmative action" that is, conscious and
deliberate efforts to bring qualified people of color and women into
jobs and educational opportunities from which they had been
traditionally excluded. " [that's really stretching the truth]

"The contractor will take affirmative action to ensure that
applicants are employed and that employees are treated during
employment without regard to their race, color, religion, sex, or
national origin" President Lyndon B. Johnson Executive Order 11246
Sept 24, 1965 Seattle Times Feb 1, 1998 vs. Shall government entities
be prohibited from discriminating against or granting preferential
treatment to individuals or groups based on race, sex. color,
ethnicity or national origin? Initiative 200 Propsal ballot title.

KENNEDY: AFFIRMATIVE ACTION TO HIRE WITHOUT REGARD TO RACE
Christian Science Monitor June 24, 2003 "Race in Admissions..."
President Kennedy first used the term in Executive Order 10925 in 1961
to "take affirmative action" to insure that hiring in government and
by their contractors was free from discrimination.



http://www.eeoc.gov/35th/thelaw/eo-10925.html

z68\doc\web\2003\06\exafact.htm

President Kennedy's 1961 Executive Order 10925

The contractor will take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed, and that employees are treated during employment, without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin.

The contractor will, in all solicitations or advertisements for employees placed by or on behalf of the contractor, state that all qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, creed, color, or national origin.

Note that it states NOTHING about diversity, leveling the playing field, reversing the injustices of slavery, or eliminating under-representation. It is about equality of opportunity, not equality of outcomes.

KENNEDY AND JOHNSON BOTH SUPPORTED "WITHOUT REGARD TO RACE"

From http://www.discriminations.us/archives/000432.html

Executive Order 11246, signed by President Johnson on September 28, 1965, was almost identical. Under "Contractors' Agreements," it specified:

(1) The contractor will not discriminate against any employee or applicant for employment because of race, creed, color, or national origin. The contractor will take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed, and that employees are treated during employment, without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin. (Emphasis added)
Thus, even if MLK had affirmatively supported "affirmative action," it would not have meant what support for affirmative action means today, which is racial preferences. Ampersand is correct in pointing out that MLK supported programs targeted specifically at blacks, but it does not follow that he supported whites and blacks being judged by different standards, a practice that is at the core of preferential admissions.



Actual Text of
executive order 11246 My copy "It is
the policy of the Government of the United States to provide equal
opportunity in Federal employment for all qualified persons, to
prohibit discrimination in employment because or race, creed, color,
or national origin, and to promote the full realization of equal
employment opportunity " (What the heck is equal opportunity???)

Government
Employment and Employment with Federal Contractors Tries to
explain how 11246 directs the government to increase minorities, but
it was color-blind in language. Says that conservatives are twisting
language, but what's twisting to say that it's fair to hire without
regard to race and without racial preferences????
\clip\97\11\govern.htm

EXECUTIVE ORDER 11246 _PROHIBITS_ NOT MANDATES PREFERENTIAL TREATMENT
AFFIRMATIVE ACTION _IS_ COLOR-BLIND AND BANS PREFERENCES original |  local  Office of Federal Contract
Compliance Programs clarification of Executive Order 11246
specifically states NO quotas, NO preferences of lesser over better
qualified applicants, NO proportional representation is allowed in
affirmative action programs.

"the Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs recognized that
some might _misunderstand_ goals to be quotas which must be achieved
through race-based and gender -based preferences.  "

"Despite these long-standing efforts by the Office of Federal
Contract Compliance Programs to ensure that numerical objectives
under the Executive Order are not confused with unlawful preferences
and quotas, criticism that they involve such preferences emerge
periodically.  This Administrative Notice seeks to help address that
criticism and reaffirm the characteristics of affirmative action
program goals under the Executive Order. "

"b.  Prohibition against Quotas and Preferential Treatment. The
numerical goals component of affirmative action programs is not
designed to be, nor may it properly or lawfully be interpreted as,
permitting unlawful preferential treatment and quotas with respect to
persons of any race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. The
regulations at 41 CFR 60-2.12(a), 60-2.15 and 60-2.30, specifically
prohibit discrimination and the use of goals as quotas. "

"c. Goals are Neither Set-asides nor a Device to Achieve Proportional
Representation or Equal Results."

"prohibits discrimination against any person on the basis of race,
color, or national origin in programs or activities receiving Federal
financial assistance"

Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

CONSTITUTION GUARANTEES EQUAL PROTECTION OF THE LAW
http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/constitution.amendmentxiv.html
Amendment XIV
Section 1. ...nor shall any state deprive...nor deny to any person
within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. 

@@outcome see graduation


@@outreach


@@underrepresentation

Many forms of affirmative action are based solely on the concept of
"underrepresentation", which is NOT a direct measurement of
discrimination, and not neccesarily even a good measure of
"diversity".


CA BILL WOULD PERMIT "FOCUSED" OUTREACH IF GROUP IS UNDER-REPRESENTED
PRO-209 SAY MINORITY OUTREACH ONLY OK AS PART OF GROUP-NEUTRAL WHOLE
\doc\web\98\06\outreach.txt State Senator Richard Polanco.  His bill,
SB 1735, would have the Legislature declare that Prop. 209--now Art.
I, Section 31 of the state constitution--permits "focused" outreach
for women and minorities. 


@@overrepresentation

%%Jewish

TOO MANY JEWS AND ASIAN AT U MICH?
\clip\99\07\overrep.txt
http://aa.mlive.com/news/index.ssf?/news/stories/umcamp.frm Some at
U-M not too worried about overrepresentation Sunday, February, 28,
1999 By SUSAN CARNEY NEWS STAFF REPORTER "That's about 16 percent of
the student body. About 2 percent of the U.S. population is Jewish."


%%Minority

2005 REPORT ON OVERHIRING - OVERREPRESENTED SHOULD NOT BE FAVORED
http://adversity.net/fed_stats/OPM2005/default.htm
Z87\CLIPIM\2005\07\feorp2004.pdf
"Blacks are, and have been, overrepresented and should no longer
receive any hiring preference"

"According to OPM's FY 2004 report, 7 of the 22 independent federal
agencies exceeded their racial quotas for hiring Asian/Pacific
Islanders by up to 177%."

"5 of the 22 independent federal agencies exceeded their racial quotas
for hiring Hispanics by 14% to 97%"

"all 22 independent federal agencies exceeded their racial quotas for
hiring blacks.. from 41% to 830%"

2003 REPORT ON OVERHIRING
http:/www.adversity.net/fed_stats/OPM2003/opmreport_2000-2001.pdf Adversity.net notes 
The U.S. Office of Personnel Management released its FY 2000 (Oct. 1,
1999 to Sept. 30, 2000) report titled "Annual Report to Congress:
Federal Equal Opportunity Recruitment Program". 

(1) There is apparently no upper limit on the "diversity hiring
goals".  For example, according to Adversity.Net's computations
(using OPM's numbers), the EEOC hired 625% more blacks than their
proportion in the relevant civilian population.  Similarly, GSA hired
293% more blacks than their proportion in the relevant civilian
population. [NSF and some other agencies are over 50% black!]
(2) no mention of under-represented groups such as ... whites???

At the University of Washington, from 1990 to 1994 Blacks have
increased from 12% to 23% of graduate and professional students, in
state that is only 3% black. Some departments are 50% black. 1995
minority study. Whites are under-represented in many departments,
such as the school of law, which was 43% minority in a state that
is only 15% minority.

\doc\95\14\dennhire.txt Denny's strives to end racial Bias. Seattle
Times 11-12-95 p. F2 Denny's expects to fill 46 percent of new
management positions or 325 by 2000 at an average salary of $42,000 a
year

@@parity


%%beyond

CHALLENGE TO CREATE DIVERSE WORKFORCE IN 92% WHITE SPOKANE?
Developing diversity
http://www.spokane.net:80/news-story-body.asp?Date=070598&ID=s416818 July
5, 1998 By Becky Kramer The Spokesman-Review "When Vickie Countryman asked
her boss if she could visit Buddhist temples and African-American churches
in her search for new employees, some eyebrows shot up at American Express
Financial Advisors. It wasn't a standard recruiting practice. But
Countryman isn't a typical recruiting manager. Bruce Bushman, field vice
president of the Spokane office, agreed to let her try. He had hired
Countryman, a social worker, away from the YWCA. ``And he was willing to
let me take risks,'' she said. Creating a diverse work force is a challenge
in Spokane County, where about 92 percent of the population is white. But
American Express Financial Advisors views it as vital to the company's
success. The company provides financial planning services, and it sees a
huge, underserved market among women, minorities and gays and lesbians."


%%equal

\doc\96\04\truepari.txt Brown's Town Northwest Asian Weekly Week Feb
3, 1996 Emil Guillermo says goal should be parity with 30% Asian
population of San Francisco.

\doc\95\06\pepper.txt - boycott of Dr. Pepper unless it hires more
black vice presidents. Want's "economic parity" with customer base,
no quotas.

@@pay

Nevada Supreme Court ruled that it is OK to pay differently on the basis of
race as long as it is for affirmative action purposes.

@@Photo

U WISCONSIN FAKES PHOTO TO SHOW BLACKS IN CROWD
z45\clip\2000\09\phonint.txt Altered photo forces UW to reprint
100,000 brochures By Sharif Durhams of the Journal Sentinel staff
Sept. 20, 2000 The University of Wisconsin-Madison will spend $64,000
to reprint 100,000 application brochures to replace ones in which the
cover photo was digitally altered to put a black student's face into
a photograph of an all-white crowd of Badger football fans.

@@Poll

I200 POLL TELLS VOTERS TO OPPOSE I200
\doc\web\98\06\i200poll.txt

%%University of Nevada / Farmer

SUPREME COURT MAY GET AFFIRMATIVE ACTION CASE The United States
Supreme Court may get another chance soon to rule on whether
employers may still use race as a hiring factor in the workplace.
Lawyers for a white sociologist who formerly worked for the
University of Nevada say they will ask the high court next month to
hear her anti-discrimination lawsuit. Her case had been put on hold
pending the outcome in the closely-watched Piscataway, New Jersey
case, which ended last week after African American leaders
contributed $308,500 of a $433,500 settlement that was paid to a
white teacher to drop her anti-bias lawsuit. Earlier this year, the
Nevada Supreme Court ruled against the sociologist 3-2, saying that
the university can give hiring preferences and higher salaries to
minority faculty members.  David G. Savage, Los Angeles Times "Court
may get another test of racial preference" as published in The
Seattle Times, November 26, 1997, A6 

YVETTE FARMER PAID LESS THAN AFRICAN IMMIGRANT FOR AFF ACTION
http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/malk_120297.html
\clip\97\29\farmer.txt Seattle Times Company Tuesday, Dec. 2, 1997
Michelle Malkin: Standing up for fairness is not a spectator sport by


@@police

Many police departments are under decree to mirror their populations
racially, or even stop the hiring of whites. Some question whether lowering
standards for affirmative action hires actually serves to increase crime

%%bad

Bruce Crawford John et al, This is the exact point I made in a letter
to the editor of the main edition of the LA Times about 2-3 months
ago. The LA police dept. is in the midst of a huge corruption problem
right now. A disproportionate number of the officers involved are
minorities who were hired under affirmative action. Some even had
criminal records and were hired anyway to make the quotas.  BC "John
Shepard (by way of Fred Battey )" wrote: From the September 2000 The
American Enterprise magazine, p. 33 From the section, the Digest,
edited by Martin Morse Wooster Summaries of important new research
from the nation's universities, think tanks, and investigative
publications. 
More Cops, More Crime? 
John R. Lott, Jr., "Does a Helping Hand Put Others at Risk?
Affirmative Action, Police Departments, and Crime," in Economic
Inquiry (April 2000), Oxford University Press journals, 2001 Evans
Road, Cary, North Carolina 27513. 
Rising numbers of urban police departments have been placed under
"consent orders" by the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ), which
require then to lower acceptance standards in order to increase the
percentage of minorities and women on the force. But as Yale Law
School scholar Lott observes, strong evidence shows many crimes
increase in cities with mandatory affirmative action policies. "With
the exception of manslaughter,.........................

%%boston

z63\clip\2003\03\bosfire.txt Judges rule BFD need not consider race
in hiring Boston Herald by J.M. Lawrence Friday, March 28, 2003
http://www2.bostonherald.com/news/local_regional/bfd03282003.htm
"At long last,
however, that objective has been achieved with respect to the BFD,''
First Circuit Judges Bruce M. Selya and Norman H. Stahl wrote.
The 1974 decree ordered the racial composition of fire departments in
scores of communities to reflect the population in those
municipalities."


Panel says white officers deserved promotions
http://www.boston.com:80/dailyglobe2/352/metro/Panel_says_white_officers_d
es erved_promotions+.shtml By Tatsha Robertson, Globe Staff, 12/18/98
"In another blow to the city's affirmative action efforts, the state
Civil Service Commission ruled this week that six white Boston police
officers were unfairly denied promotions because of their race and
should be bumped to the top of the list for higher rank. [1980
consent decree asking for preferential hiring outdated]

http://www.boston.com/globe/search/ stories $1.50-$2.95
ARSONISTS Published on 10/09/98. Article 1 of 191 found.  SOURCE: By
Derrick Z. Jackson, Globe Staff Far from laying claim to fairness in
the Boston Fire Department, a handful of angry white people would
rather torch the city with wasted emotion, pour ignorance over the
flame, and howl in celebration as the ashes of progress waft into the
sky.  Yesterday the City Council held a hearing on affirmative
action. The hearing was called by the council's president, James
Kelly, who is already immortalized as a foe of school busing in South
Boston in the 1970s. Kelly has contended that thousands of white p

AFFIRMATIVE ACTION BACKED FIRE, POLICE HIRING POLICY DEFENDED AT
TENSE BUT ORDERLY COUNCIL HEARING Published on 10/09/98. Article 2 of
191 found.  SOURCE: By Tatsha Robertson, Globe Staff About 300
people, most of them black, jammed into the council chambers at City
Hall yesterday, with all but a few voicing support for Boston's
controversial affirmative action policy in the police and fire
departments.  City Council President James Kelly, who initiated the
public hearing, opened the unusual meeting by saying he firmly
opposes the two court-sanctioned consent decrees that allow some
minority applicants preference over white applicants who score higher
on the civil service examination

City Council president James Kelly held hearings opposing consent
decrees that allow some minority candidates preference over white
with higher test scores. Most supported the controversial policy.
the decree mandates that they must consider one minority for every
white candidate. Officals for both departments can request an end to
the requirements only when their departments reflect the city's
racial breakdown, now 44% minority, police at 29.8, fire at 29% Kelly
hopes the hearing may encourage a lawsuit that might challenge the
decrees.
 
HEARING'S CIVILITY OFFERS NEW HOPE Published on 10/09/98. Article 3
of 191 found.  SOURCE: By Alan Lupo, Globe Staff The discussion in
the Boston City Council chambers was of race, and among some, both
white and black, there was evident discomfort. But what was missing
was the palpable tension that has historically accompanied matters of
race and ethnicity in this city.  Whatever results from Council
President James Kelly's decision to reopen the raw wound of
affirmative action in a public council meeting, the atmosphere in
City Hall yesterday suggested that, just maybe, Boston may have
matured enough to debate 

Published on 10/09/98. Article 4 of 191 found.  OMISSION: A Page One
story in yesterday's Globe on the affect of affirmative action on the
lives of two one-time applicants for jobs at the Boston Fire
Department should have identified the public office for which one of
the applicants, Larry Mackin, is now a candidate. Mackin is a
candidate for sheriff of Norfolk County.


SOME FEAR COUNCIL DEBATE COULD BRING SIMMERING TENSION TO A BOIL
Published on 10/08/98. Article 5 of 191 found.  SOURCE: By Jennifer
Babson, Globe Correspondent and Tatsha Robertson, Globe Staff More
than two decades after a federal court decree forced Boston to
integrate its police and fire departments, the City Council intends
to revisit the issue in an unusual and potentially explosive hearing
today.  Hoping to end a controversial hiring practice he says
discriminates against white police and fire department applicants,
council president and vocal affirmative action critic James M. Kelly
called for the hearing, which threatens to rekindle one of the city's
most racially divisive issues 
                                                                                                                                                                       
2 MEN'S STORIES EMBODY DISPUTE ON BOSTON HIRING COUNCIL HEARING SET
FOR TODAY Published on 10/08/98. Article 6 of 191 found.  SOURCE: By
Tatsha Robertson, Globe Staff One would be hard-pressed to find two
men more different: James Whitted, short, soft-spoken and
African-American; and Larry Mackin, tall, talkative, and Caucasian.
What both men do share is a belief that the courses of their lives
have been drastically altered by one of the nation's most
controversial civil rights policies -- affirmative action.  

\clip\96\01\bostcadt.txt Boston Globe Police cadet system failing
minorities By Geeta Anand and Matthew Brelis, Globe Staff, 07/25/96 A
cadet system which bypasses decree rule of 50% minority hires to
increase minorities appears to favor whites in appointments.

Boston Globe 06/24/96 Since its christening 20 years ago by Mayor
Kevin White as the protector of city buildings and parks, the Boston
Municipal Police Department has become a haven for patronage and a
costly training ground for future police cadets who take advantage of
its exemption from civil service and affirmative action requirements,
many observers say. 13% are minority, 3 of 130 are women. Many are
relatives. 30% of Boston police are minorities
file:C:\priv\96B\03\MUNIPOLI.HTM


%%chicago

\priv\95\07\chicgrad.txt - new chicago police, of 118, 52 black, 11 Hispanic
1 Asian, 54 white

\priv\95\05\chicpolc.txt - unfair not to hire enough minorities in
Chicago police

\priv\95\05\copprom.txt\ Illinois bill requires cities to hire in
order of seniority and test scores

\priv\95\05\chicpol.txt - Clarence Page observes that of "merit"
promotions by mayor, 5 white, 5 black, and 3 hispanic, OK to have
"blatant affirmative action" and favoritism over test scores. Only
five minorities scored in the top 114 for promotion.

%%Houston

1 SWAT POSITION WAS TURNED INTO BLACKS ONLY MAY APPLY
\doc\web\98\10\houscop.txt

HOUSTON MAYOR BROWN'S RACIST POLICE HIRING POLICIES AS POLICE CHIEF
\clip\98\18\brown.txt
A recent "accomplishment" of the Houston Police Department was to
have an academy class comprised of only of minorities. [San Jose
hired one with only one white male, this is even worse]

Qualifications for swat positions are:
     1. Applicant must be black.


WHITE FIRED, BLACK RETAINED FOR CHEATING, ONLY BLACKS INVITED FOR SWAT
TRYOUT.
Houston White Officers Association Newsletter Aug-Nov 97
http://home.sprynet.com/sprynet/schulze/aug97.html
\clip\97\27\aug97.htm During the first year there was the "Academy
Incident" – two cadets were caught cheating on a test. No problem, we
had a system in place to deal with the problem – fire both. However,
one of the cadets was white, the other was black – Brown ordered the
academy to fire the white and retain the black. This established a
beginning of a blatant double standard in the department. 

This incident was followed by the "SWAT Incident." Tryouts were open
to all officers. Applicants were rated in order of their scores on
several tests. When none of the black officers made the "cut-off"
point – Brown ordered that test invalid. The officer who ranked #1,
and was told he had the assignment, was told oops, they changed their
mind. This was followed by a department circular signed by Brown
stating another tryout would be held for SWAT – but only blacks could
attend.


\doc\95\15\houspoli.txt "Houston Police Seek Diversity" Asian Week
Sept 8, 1995. 90 of 5000 officers in Houston are Asian, with 10
expected to graduate from the academy. Five years ago it was only 10.
The Vietnamese come from a country where people did not trust a
corrupt communist police force.


\clip\96\05\hpddiv.txt HPD more diverse than most forces By RAD
SALLEE Copyright 1996 Houston Chronicle Houston's police force is
more diverse than most in this country but slightly less so than
others in the biggest cities, according to a recently released survey
and Houston Police Department data.

HPD White men 60% B17.8 H16 women 11.7%


%%Los Angeles

LAPD PILOT WINS REVERSE BIAS SUIT \clip\98\10\dyer.txt Investor's
Business Daily - Viewpoint (08/12/98) Legal Trench Warfare Against
Quotas By FREDERICK R. LYNCH "the unit's captain vowed that ''three
of the next four pilot openings would be filled by minority
officers.''  "

\clip\98\10\lacop.txt
http://www.latimes.com/HOME/NEWS/STATE/t000061525.html Los Angeles
Times Friday, July 3, 1998 Judge Rules Against LAPD in Reverse Bias
Suit Court: Department officials improperly selected a minority
candidate for promotion over more qualified white officers, jurist
finds.  by MATT LAIT, Times Staff Writer

LAPD ADDS ASIANS AND FULL PARITY FOR WOMEN COPS TO LIST OF
QUOTA/GOALS
\clip\96\08\lapd.txt [Los Angeles Times Archives] Saturday, October
19, 1996 Home Edition Section: PART A Page: A-1 Plan Calls for More
Women, Asians in LAPD; By: JIM NEWTON and JODI WILGOREN TIMES STAFF
WRITERS. LAPD instead of dropping quotas plans for complete parity by
promising to try to hire Asians and women equal to the labor force
despite a lack of qualified and interested applicants.

WHITES NEED HIGHER SCORES FOR LAPD, MEANWHILE ACTIVISTS INSIST
DECLINE TO 13.8% BLACKS IS "NOT ENOUGH" FOR A CITY 13% BLACK.

\doc\96\07\divlapd.txt
"Diversity Still an Issue in LAPD" Asian Week Oct 11, 1996 F102196-1
Blacks in the LAPD have dropped from 14% in 1992 to 13.8% (How in the
world can this be an issue when blacks are not under-represented at
less than 13% of the population?) Critics say that blacks are being
ignored because Hispanics are only 29% of the force compared to 39%
of the population. The Los Angeles Times cited unidentified sources
that the LAPD hired every black candidate with a 70 out of 100 point
score in an oral exam, while white males typically needed a perfect
score. Hispanics, women, and Asians are also typically hired with
lower scores.

LAPD HIRES EVERY BLACK OVER 70, BUT TURNS DOWN WHITES WITHOUT
PEFECT SCORES EVEN THOUGH BLACKS ARE OVER HIRING GOALS.

\clip\96\08\chefwalk.txt [Los Angeles Times Archives] Sunday, October
6, 1996 Home Edition Section: PART A Page: A-1 Chief Walks a Narrow
Path on LAPD Diversity; Asians and Hispanics complain blacks get an
edge, Blacks complain their numbers are down, Women complain they
don't have rank. Williams says it is vital to keep hirng blacks _even
if they are over hiring goals_ "a new fear also is building: that the
LAPD, by making special allowances to hire black officers, may be
setting itself up for a lawsuit, since the department already has
more blacks than the consent decree requires." Sources say white men
routinely must get perfect oral scores, every black over 70 has been
hired, other groups are also lower than whites.  Comment - black
outrage proves that the real purpose of affirmative action is to
promote blacks regardless of parity, and test scores prove that the
only bias is against white men, the new consent decree proves that
the true goal of affirmative action quotas based on proportionality,
not qualifications or interested applicants.


\clip\96\08\raoul10.txt Contrares on new consent decree to hire a
force which reflects the general labor force with respect to women
and Hispanics. Claims white are "less qualified" than blacks.

\priv\96b\03\lapdhire.txt 6/22/96 Lower Ratio of Black Police Hires
in LAPD Probed LOS ANGELES (AP) -- Several City Council members and
the police chief are questioning why the proportion of blacks among
police recruits dropped last year.

Officials in LA are shocked that black hiring has dropped from a 15%
quota equal to city population down to 7%. But it's illegal to hire
by quota, and they've already exceeded parity. It's crazy to assert
that there aren't enough blacks when they exceed their population,
and hiring more at the bottom won't fix numbers at the top. SJ fire
had _more_ blacks at the top than at the bottom. Why not just hire
the best qualified instead of the "most diverse" people? People
should be up in arms when the police force is hired as an exact
mirror of the census, not when hiring falls to a level which reflects
the qualified applicant pool.


"Policing the Cops" The Economist May 11, 1996 p. 26 average pay for
cops in Philadelphia is $36,140, $39,104 in New York.  Los Angeles
pay starts at $47,632 (Comment, that's much better than the average
liberal arts college graduate for a position that does not require a
4 year degree)


\priv\96\19\firestrat.txt
WHEN LAPD OFFICERS CAN'T SHOOT STRAIGHT; Saturday, May 4, 1996 Page:
A-1 By STEPHANIE SIMON TIMES STAFF WRITER 
Summary: Too many LAPD cops can't shoot straight. Many women aren't
even strong enough to pull the trigger on pistols commonly used, and
have to use special exercises to properly fire their weapons. The
department claims there is nothing wrong with the quality of
candidates, but could affirmative action be forcing the hiring of
women who aren't physically qualified to use firearms?


"LAPD Training Practices Are Slipping, Report Says" Los Angeles Times
April 18, 1996 p. 1 Jim Newton. Test scores for new recruits dropped
dramatically after 1988, scoring below instead of above state
average. Authors of the report suspect staffing shortfalls and
overworked trainers. Quality of the applicants and trainers are also
in question. Affirmative action was NOT mentioned as a possible
factor, althought the LAPD appears to be hiring according to racial
population proportions, rather than for the best skilled, since 1994
new recruits exactly match 1990 census proportions for the city for
every race. (see http://www.arthurhu.com/index/afact.htm)
paper: f052996 summary: \doc\96\04\lapdtrain.txt full article on web
on LA Times search, my copy at priv\96\19\LAPDTR~1.HTM

"To other possible contributing factors which should be considered
are: (1) the overall quality of applicants being selected for the
academy..."

http:/www.arthurhu.com/index/afact.htm#lapdhire94


1994 hires match 1990 census proportions - see
\doc\95\05\lapolic.wk1 spreadsheet
\doc\96\07\lapolic.prn text file

\doc\95\05\lapolic.wk1 - Los Angeles Police 1994 by Race

Summary: Latest batch of police hired almost exactly in 1990 census
proportions This is in violation of 1991 Civil rights act ban on
race-norming, or quotas

Blacks are not under-represented, despite affirmative action status
Analysis by Arthur Hu

Los Angeles City Police Department Work Force Analysis 12/1994

             Male
             White   Black   Hisp    Asian   AmInd   Filp
Police Off 1     233      92     270      51       3      16
Police Off 2    1005     360     656      89       4      19
Police Off 3     844     246     387      48       2       6
All Dept        3693     939    1695     248      16      49

             Female
             White   Black   Hisp    Asian   AmInd   Filp    Other   Total
Police Off 1     107      33      77      14       0       4       4     904
Police Off 2     246     105     134      19       2       3       0    2642
Police Off 3     151      53      59      11       2       0       0    1809
All Dept         639     234     328      45       6       8       5    7905

             Both Sexes
             White   Black   Hisp    Asian   AmInd   Filp    Other
Police Off 1     340     125     347      65       3      20       4
Police Off 2    1251     465     790     108       6      22       0
Police Off 3     995     299     446      59       4       6       0
All Dept        4332    1173    2023     293      22      57       5

Percent
             Male
             White   Black   Hisp    Asian   AmInd   Filp
Police Off 1    25.8%   10.2%   29.9%    5.6%    0.3%    1.8%
Police Off 2    38.0%   13.6%   24.8%    3.4%    0.2%    0.7%
Police Off 3    46.7%   13.6%   21.4%    2.7%    0.1%    0.3%
All Dept        46.7%   11.9%   21.4%    3.1%    0.2%    0.6%
Los Angeles '   18.7%    6.5%   20.0%    3.4%    0.2%    1.2%

             Female
             White   Black   Hisp    Asian   AmInd   Filp    Other   Total
Police Off 1    11.8%    3.7%    8.5%    1.5%    0.0%    0.4%    0.4%      1
Police Off 2     9.3%    4.0%    5.1%    0.7%    0.1%    0.1%    0.0%      1
Police Off 3     8.3%    2.9%    3.3%    0.6%    0.1%    0.0%    0.0%      1
All Dept         8.1%    3.0%    4.1%    0.6%    0.1%    0.1%    0.1%      1
Los Angeles '   18.7%    6.5%   20.0%    3.4%    0.2%    1.2%          0.997

             Both Sexes
             White   Black   Hisp    Asian   AmInd   Filp    Other
Police Off 1    37.6%   13.8%   38.4%    7.2%    0.3%    2.2%    0.4%
Police Off 2    47.4%   17.6%   29.9%    4.1%    0.2%    0.8%    0.0%
Police Off 3    55.0%   16.5%   24.7%    3.3%    0.2%    0.3%    0.0%
All Dept        54.8%   14.8%   25.6%    3.7%    0.3%    0.7%    0.1%
Los Angeles '   37.3%   13.0%   39.9%    6.7%    0.3%    2.5%
             Note hires almost exactly equal to 1990 census

Population Ratio
             Male    Male    Male    Male    Male    Male
             White   Black   Hisp    Asian   AmInd   Filp
Police Off 1   138.2%  156.6%  149.7%  167.7%  221.2%  143.3%
Police Off 2   204.0%  209.6%  124.5%  100.1%  100.9%   58.2%
Police Off 3   250.2%  209.2%  107.2%   78.9%   73.7%   26.9%
All Dept       250.5%  182.7%  107.5%   93.2%  134.9%   50.2%

             Female  Female  Female  Female  Female  Female
             White   Black   Hisp    Asian   AmInd   Filp
Police Off 1    63.5%   56.2%   42.7%   46.0%    0.0%   35.8%
Police Off 2    49.9%   61.1%   25.4%   21.4%   50.5%    9.2%
Police Off 3    44.8%   45.1%   16.3%   18.1%   73.7%    0.0%
All Dept        43.3%   45.5%   20.8%   16.9%   50.6%    8.2%
             Total   Total   Total   Total   Total   Total
             White   Black   Hisp    Asian   AmInd   Filp
Police Off 1   100.8%  106.4%   96.2%  106.8%  110.6%   89.6%
Police Off 2   126.9%  135.4%   74.9%   60.7%   75.7%   33.7%
Police Off 3   147.5%  127.1%   61.8%   48.5%   73.7%   13.4%
All Dept       146.9%  114.1%   64.1%   55.1%   92.8%   29.2%
             Most recent group is nearly identical to '90 city population (quotas?)
Ranked by All Department RepresentatiRanked by Police 1 Represenation
                     All Dept                Police 1
Male         White     250.5%Male    AmInd     221.2%
Male         Black     182.7%Male    Asian     167.7%
Total        White     146.9%Male    Black     156.6%
Male         AmInd     134.9%Male    Hisp      149.7%
Total        Black     114.1%Male    Filp      143.3%
Male         Hisp      107.5%Male    White     138.2%
Male         Asian      93.2%Total   AmInd     110.6%
Total        AmInd      92.8%Total   Asian     106.8%
Total        Hisp       64.1%Total   Black     106.4%
Total        Asian      55.1%Total   White     100.8%
Female       AmInd      50.6%Total   Hisp       96.2%
Male         Filp       50.2%Total   Filp       89.6%
Female       Black      45.5%Female  White      63.5%
Female       White      43.3%Female  Black      56.2%
Total        Filp       29.2%Female  Asian      46.0%
Female       Hisp       20.8%Female  Hisp       42.7%
Female       Asian      16.9%Female  Filp       35.8%
Female       Filp        8.2%Female  AmInd       0.0%

%%Philadelphia

PHILADELPHIA MUST HIRE SAME %BLACK AS TAKES THE TEST
\clip\98\14\polquot.txt
http://www.phillynews.com/daily_news/98/Oct/15/local/GERI15.htm
Locked into quotas, police force isn't hiring finest October 15, 1998
OPINION Philadelphia Daily News

"The fatal flaw is the city's agreement to hire the percentage of
African-Americans who take the police exam, regardless of how many
pass it. If half of the test takers are black, then half the next
police academy class must be black.  That racial quota, which the
city consented to in order to settle a 1990 race discrimination
lawsuit, makes the police exam meaningless.  Non-black applicants who
score high must wait for years while the city gives test after test,
desperately trying to fulfill the mandatory black quota."

%%Washington State

WA I200'S SMITH WAS NOT HIRED BECAUSE OF MISTAKE, NOT AFACT?
http://www.seattletimes.com/news/editorial/html98/aneced_082498.html
August 24, 1998 Editorial Affirmative action foes tout a false parable

King-5 Seattle March 15 95 compton report: R-Scott Smith proposed
legislation because he ranked 18 vs. 276 for his wife on a civil service
exam for King Co police, but his wife got the job.

WASH STATE PATROL DROPS PHYSICAL STRENGTH TEST FOR WOMEN
\clip\98\16\howwork.txt
http://www.seattletimes.com/education/affirmative/in_government.html
How it works in government By Tom Brune Seattle Times staff reporter
"in 1996, the agency dropped a physical-strength test because it was
screening out too many women.
"But if an agency has an affirmative-action goal to fill, it can
request the names of the top three qualified candidates needed to
fill the goal, whether it be for a specific minority group, women,
veterans or disabled persons."


@@Portuguese

Many affirmative action program include Portuguese origin persons as
a version of "Hispanic", but many don't.

PORTUGUESE IN FEDERAL SBA, BUT NOT KING COUNTY AFFIRMATIVE ACTION
\clip\98\13\portug.txt
http://www.seattletimes.com/news/local/html98/mino_100598.html
October 5, 1998 Minority status not so simple to determine by Tom
Brune Seattle Times staff reporter "to this day, DOT and the SBA
includes Portuguese Americans in the definition of minorities."  Most
Portuguese Americans want little to do with being defined as
minorities. "In a disparity study, we found no evidence that European
Hispanics had been discriminated against."



@@preference

Is affirmative action preferential? Is not giving preferential
treatment the same as discrimination? Al Gore and Gary Locke say
affirmative action is not quotas or preferences.

%%General

z68\clip\2003\07\leoquot.txt
http://www.uexpress.com/johnleo/?uc_full_date=20030713
John Leo: WHAT HAVE ZIMBABWE'S LAWS TO DO WITH OURS?
Here's a useful rule of thumb about international conventions, U.N.
documents and the findings of foreign courts..
In a concurring opinion, Justices Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Stephen
Breyer cited the International Convention on the Elimination of All
Forms of Racial Discrimination.  "shall in no case entail as a
consequence the maintenance of unequal or separate rights for
different racial groups after the objectives for which they have been
taken have been achieved." So Caucasians will be unequal under the law
only until exact group equality breaks out or until hell freezes over,
whichever comes first.


GOVERNMENT MAY NOT DISCRIMINATE ON THE BASIS OF RACE ... USUALLY
z68\clip\2003\06\constcol.txt
http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/opinion/135103800_whitworth27.html
Friday, June 27, 2003
Guest columnist
Is the Constitution colorblind? 
By Julia K. Stronks
Special to The Times
"The equal-protection clause suggests that government may not
discriminate against people on the basis of race. However, for over
150 years, ...no provision of the Bill of Rights or the 14th Amendment
grants any absolute right... may limit many of our constitutional
rights as long as the law or the government action involved passes an
appropriate test.  "

UK PROPOSES PREFERENTIAL POLICE HIRING z46\clip\2000\11\ukpol.txt The
Electronic Telegraph ISSUE 1983 Sunday 29 October 2000 Police told to
promote black staff above white by David Bamber.Home Affairs
Correspondent Ministers have recognised that there is a problem
recruiting ethnic minority officers into the police and have set
quotas for each force to reflect the racial make-up of its area.
fast-track promotions would be based on affirmative action schemes
widely implemented in the US, where ethnic minority candidates are
given preferential treatment 

STANFORD NONDISCRIMINATION = PREFERENCES OR COLOR BLIND?
http://www.latimes.com/CNS_DAYS/990321/t000025300.html
\clip\99\09\stanford.txt Sunday, March 21, 1999 THE NATION,
DISCRIMINATION Stanford's Hiring Quandary By JOHN H. BUNZEL Two sets
of criteria with quite different genealogies govern affirmative
action.  One draws on the tradition, embodied in the Civil Rights Act
of 1964, that equal protection under the law means equal rights for
all without regard to race or gender. The other asserts that equal
protection makes racial or gender identification permissible and
necessary. In this view, preferential treatment based on race or
gender is a rational means of remedying past

ADP shows that the concept of
preferences is well defined in civ rights act of 64 and court cases
as not being required, and lesser qualified is a preference

%%Not

I200 supporters insisted that affirmative action was not preferential.
Even after the U Michigan case, they want to take the terminology
away.

IT'S A RACIAL JUSTICE PROGRAM, NOT A PREFERENCE PROGRAM
z68\doc\web\2003\07\keith.txt
Luther Keith: Anti-affirmative action side scored semantic coup
http://www.detnews.com/2003/metro/0307/07/a02-210901.htm
... they have successfully implanted the clearly subjective and
racially divisive phrase "racial preferences" as a legitimate
reference or description for any program that promotes diversity and
inclusiveness for minorities....as if it were a neutral
characterization...the same people who say they oppose racial
preferences say they will support programs to achieve diversity.
"It would not be correct to call it a racial preference program," he
said. "It is a program to increase diversity."

race-based remedies say they are a legitimate tool to
correct years of historical discrimination and are appropriate to
correct systemic institutional obstacles that have kept minorities
running behind the rest of America

WRONG TO JUDGE ON BASIS OF COLOR, THEREFORE, PREFER SOME RACES.
Wendy McElroy: The PCspeak of Diversity
http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,91265,00.html Newspeak in George
Orwell's (search) classic novel 1984, forms an effective barrier.
First, there is the introduction of doublethink.  Doublethink occurs
when someone simultaneously accepts two contradictory beliefs as true.
A common argument for affirmative action: It is wrong to judge people
on the basis of skin color or gender; therefore, universities and
employers should give preference to people based on skin color and
gender. Second, euphemistic "doublespeak" makes doublethink positions
acceptable. The term "affirmative action" (search) strongly implies a
positive and correct action. Third, language is controlled to define
the ensuing debate." 



@@preschool

Reverse Discrimination - In High Schools Too. Economist Feb 14, 1998
p. 27. Last year, a federal judge in Arlington Virginia decided that
11 minority preschool students should be replaced by 11 white children
who were denied admission because of their race.


@@port

PORT OF SEATTLE AT 88% PARITY
http://www.seattletimes.com/topstories/browse/html97/port_021397.html
\CLIP\97\04\PORTAFAC.TXT Seattle Times Company Feb. 13, 1997 Port of
Seattle gets around to drafting affirmative-action plan Some question
why agency took so long "About 34 percent of Port employees are women
and 22 percent are people of color. The Port's target for its female
work force is 40 percent, and 23 percent for people of color.  "
(Seattle was 26% minority in 1990)


@@Plus Three

System used in Washington State governement allows hiring of any of
top ten, with 3 drawn from top of affirmative action pools. Although
it is said that this proves that there is no preference, this system
in fact guarantees that up to 30% minorities may be hired, no matter
how low their ranking is in the total pool. Although such individuals
may not be "unqualified", they certainly are not the "best" qualified.

PLUS 3 PROMOTES WHITE WOMEN #1, WHITE MEN  #2
\clip\98\16\plus3.txt
http://www.seattletimes.com/news/local/html98/plus_020998.html
Copyright © 1998 The Seattle Times Company February 9, 1998 Nearly
half of all affirmative-action hires are white by Tom Brune Seattle
Times staff reporter" Over the five years, the state hired 7 percent,
through the Plus Three program.  Last year, the state used the Plus
Three program to give jobs to 48 white men, 45 white women, 40
African Americans, 36 Asian Americans, 29 Latinos and 16 Native
Americans."

plus three program: how does it work?  Seattle Times Feb 9, 1998 p.
A7 An agency normally asks for the top 7 candidates. But to fill out
the rest of the top ten, 3 are taken from the top of an affirmative
action pool, such as blacks or disabled. The agency may select from
any of the top ten, even though the best black might not even be in
the top 100 or 1000 best candidates overall. 

http://www.seattletimes.com/education/affirmative/in_government.html
"By law affirmative
action requires employees to hire and promote the best person for the
job, regardless of hiring goals". Yeah, right.


@@preference 

There are two common, conflicting defences of affirmative action, one
is that is is not a preference, the other is that preferences are
neccesary to be racially neutral.


%%New York

New York finds most women can't
do as well as male firefighters in gripping fire hose There was an
unintentionally hilarious article in the New York Times recently
about New York City's efforts to hire female firefighters.  There's
been an enormous effort but they have been able to get only a few,
and that only with extra training offered free with a professional
trainer. There is a maneuver the firefighter must perform, feeding a
hose filled with water.  Most men can do it hand over hand, but most
women's hands and foremarms make it impossible to manage the hose
with one hand while the other hand is moving ahead.  They have to
have lots of building up, and even then few seem to manage it.

%%not

\clip\97\07\pudding.txt Puddington, Arch, What to do about
affirmative action by Arch Puddington [Commentary, 1 Jun 1995] "the
charge was soon made that Title VII of the pending civil-rights
bill--the section dealing with discrimination in the workplace--would
lead to the widespread practice of reverse discrimination. This in
turn provoked a series of statements and speeches by stalwart
liberals like Senators Hubert Humphrey, Joseph Clark, and Clifford
Case, adamantly and unequivocally denying that the bill could be
interpreted to permit racial preference."

\priv\95\12\washpost.txt New Republic 10/02/95 "THE WASHINGTON POST IN
BLACK AND WHITE. RACE IN THE NEWSROOM" By Ruth Shalit
- diversity does not conflict with standards
- "ready" standards are "subjective"
- parity in Metro by "simply hiring the best people in every
job"
- evidence that this is misleading or wrong

Asian Week 6/9/95 California Assemblywoman Barbara Lee, an African
American said "they are desperate to return our society to one that
limits access to a select few" and "supporters of this effort [CCRI]
pretend that minorities are being given preferences when it comes to
jobs and contracts and admissions to our educational institutions.
They will never admit that affirmative action is based on providing
opportunities to the most qualified individual" (But that's exactly
what the CCRI calls for, no preferences!) 

NPR 6/12/95 Brenda Hare of the NAACP Legal Defence Fund says of
setaside programs struck down by Supreme Court "these are not
preferential programs, they are carefully tailored to eliminate
discrimination"

\doc\95\05\glasceil.txt - Labor Secretary Robert Reich says afac is
not about preferences or quotas

Komo-4 Town Meeting Mary Ruth Mann (civil rights attorney) and Nat
Jackson (Olympia) concluded by saying that affirmative action is
absolutely not preferences.

King-5 Seattle Mar 15 1995 Compton Report: President Johnson issued
executive order 11246 to "take affirmative action to ensure that
applicants are employed without regard to race, creed, color, or
national origin". The "affirmative" word was the start of race
preferences. It was later amended to include women.

\doc\94\15\eeocquot.txt - Civil Rights act forbade preferential
treatment, but largely ignored by current EEOC

NAACP - McNeil Lehrer 1/14/95 - It is riduculous to think that
affirmative action is in any way a racial preference or harms whites.

Seattle Times 1/14/95 Elizabeth Schroeder, associate director of the
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) of Southern California. "Maybe
they (white males) are scared when they see qualified minorities and
women able to get jobs and they know they have to compete on an equal
footing.  But affirmative action is still one of the best means we
have to correct historical discrimination," Schroeder said. (In response
to Calif Civil Right Initiative which bans preferences, but not
affirmative action)

%%for preference (against color-blind)


\clip\96\03\afaclang.txt 12 Aug 1996 Appeals Court Reverses Lower
Court's Decision By JOHN HOWARD Associated Press Writer Opponents
want to force Prop 209 to say that it will ban affirmative action,
but the language will NOT ban affirmative action which does not
prefer or discriminate, and state Supreme court agrees. This is an
open admission that affirmative action DOES prefer or discriminate.

San Francisco Chronicle June 3, 1996 California Regents Called Hasty
on Affirmative Action. The American Association of University
Professors concluded that preferences based on race and sex in
admissions, hiring and contracting should not be abolished until its
impact on diversity and education was reviewed with consultation of
faculty and administration. \priv\96\17\calregt.htm

\doc\95\12\whithelp.txt "Whites get help too, says report" Michael
Paulson WA state program allows inclusion of 3 if none made the top 7

\doc\95\03\fedpref.txt 10% bidding preference merely levels the playing field.
Woman on Town Meeting KOMO - "I deserve preferences after hundreds of
years of oppresion"

Wallace Loh claims that color-blind policies have a disparate impact
(Seattle Times)

NAACP says we tried color-blind and it favors whites (U.S. News)


%%is a preference

San Francisco Chronicle June 28, 1990 "High Court Upholds FCC Racial
Preference Policy"

```any preference based on racial or ethnic criteria must necessarily
receive a most searching examination,''' Wygant v. Jackson Board of
Ed., 476 U. S. 267, 273-274.

@@parody

doc932:barneyx,barnent.mxt,barneyx.mxt


@@proportional representation

Many believe that society should strive to place all groups in equal
proportion with their population rather than simply judging without
regard to race, or believe that there is no conflict between the two
goals. But while there are many, many studies that show that there is
no relationship between disproportionality and discrimination, there
are none that show that eliminating discrimination will result in
equal proportionality. None. It's always "obvious" but unproven.

The justification for racial preferences comes from equating "equal
representation" with "ending discrimination", thus we have the nearly
universal situation of seeking to "end discrimination" by actually
favoring certain minority groups.

THE REAL LAWS OF GROUP PROPORTIONALITY AND UNDER-REPRESENTATION

Affirmative Action's unwritten law of proportionality

1. In the absense of discrimination, all races and genders will be
hired, promoted and admitted in the same proportion as their
population. 

2. Any difference can be explained entirely by current or historical
discrimination.

3. All evidence of discrimination can be easily and instantly
remedied by hiring in the "correct" proportion. 

- No evidence has ever been presented to
demonstrate this is true, nor has any academic ever committed this
assertion to paper as a fact, only a theory.

Arthur Hu's 3 law of proportionality and discrimination

1. In the absence of discrimination, no two groups which are
different will be equally represented in anything. This is
demonstrated by proportions of races at every college or company or
government which does not enforce quotas.

2. The higher the degree of skill or qualification, the greater the
differences will be. This is also demonstrated by proportions of
minorities at selective institutions who meet average standards.

3. The only way to achieve equal representation is to discriminate
and favor by group, and the degree of disparity needed to maintain
equality goes up with the level of selectivity. Every institution
that can demonstrate equal numbers uses preferences or quotas to do
this.

------------------------------------------------------------------

GOAL IS TO MEET POPULATION QUOTA
z63\clip\2003\04\newsrace.txt Minority Numbers Rising in Newsrooms By
THE ASSOCIATED PRESS New York Times April 8 2003 survey by the
American Society of Newspaper Editors: Blacks, Asian-Americans,
Hispanics and Indians made up 12.5 percent of newsroom staff in 2002
-- one-half of a percentage point above the previous year, but well
behind the national level of 31.1 percent of the population. ...to reach
our goal of parity by 2025.

z57\clip\2002\08\propthes.txt
http://www.right-now.org/articles/rn3602.htm
RN36 July - Sept 2002 | close window
The proportionality thesis
Ezra Mishan asks if quotas will really make the world a better place
..many media commentators succumb
to the temptation to dabble in the proportionality thesis - generally
to wax indignant on discovering marked discrepancies, within any
organisation or occupation, of the proportion of persons associated
with a 'minority group' compared with their numbers in the population
at large.

SEA TIMES: BASED ON THEORY OF EQUAL PROPORTIONS
"Affirmative action is based on a theory: In the absence of
discrimination, a public agency would employ minorities and women in
proportions roughly equal to their percentage in the labor force,
which includes everyone working, or looking for work [actual process
takes some additional factors into account]" Getting Ahead at the
State Patrol, Seattle Times Feb 9, 1998 p. A8

S. AFRICA TO FORCE EQUAL REPRESENTATION OR FINES, BUT NO QUOTAS???
South Africa moves to make work forces represent racial mix
http://www.foxnews.com/js_index.sml?content=/news/wires2/0821/n_ap_0821_19
2. sml August 21, 1998 By Andrew Selsky Associated Press "The work
forces of large and medium-sized companies will reflect the diversity
of South Africa's population under legislation passed Friday by the
National Assembly. The bill does not call for a quota system."
Seattle times 8/22/98 - W15/B80 population but 3/87 unemployed. 92%
of executive or senior managers are white.  National Party says it is
reverse discrimination and makes provision for preferential treatment.

Affirmative Action and the Misuse of
Statistics Francis J. Beckwith (fbeckwith@whittier.edu) The
Covenant Syndicate June 12, 1997, vol. 1, no. 21

AFACT ASSUMES STATISTICAL DIFFERNCES PROVES BIAS
"Affirmative Action: Logic vs. Sentiment" Thomas Sowell, Wall Street
Journal April 23, 1996 p. A18. Sowell contrasts Basic Books "Ending
Affirmative Action" by Terry Eastland which is "tightly written and
rightly reasoned", with "In Defense of Affirmative Action" gby
Barbara Bermann". Bergman confuses statistical differences in end
results with biased processes, and assumes that such disparity would
not exist without bias or discrimination. Yet minorities are
disproportionally over or under-represented around the world at the
hands of less than favorable host nations.

\priv\96b\01\bostmara.txt Date: Tue, 18 Jun 1996 09:00:53 -0400 From:
NewsHound@sjmercury.com (NewsHound) Thomas Sowell: Does the Boston
Marathon discriminate?  By Thomas Sowell All the winners were from
Kenya.  All who stole 100 or more bases were black. It has nothing to
do with discrimination.

affirmative-action.proportional
\doc\96\01\racemake.txt "Linking College Enrollment to State Racial
Makeup Urged" Sue Ellen Christian Los Angeles Times Jan 2, 1991 p. A7
Proposes national mandate for proportinal representation.

\doc\96\01\afacneed.txt "Editorial: Affirmative Action Needed"
Northwest Asian Weekly May 27 - June 2, 1995 p. 2 filed
affirmative-action.proportional	 Affirmative action logic is based on
proportional representation.


\priv\95\12\washpost.txt New Republic 10/02/95 "THE WASHINGTON POST
IN BLACK AND WHITE. RACE IN THE NEWSROOM" By Ruth Shalit Getler 90
page study says "the concept of diversity begins with the idea that a
newspaper's staff and coverage should reflect the racial, gender, and
ethnic makeup of its market" but this policy is probably illegal.

\priv\95\08\afacjail.txt Santa Clara to hire a "workforce that
reflects inmate population"  An official states that state and
federal law do not permit a governmental agency to hire based on the
racial makeup of those it serves. AFFIRMATIVE ACTION GOES TO JAIL  San
Jose Mercury News 7/6/95

Texas NAACP, calling for Dr. Pepper boycott until they hire blacks as
vice presidents: "We're not looking for quotas, just economic parity"

Northwest Asian Weekly (Seattle) Editorial "Affirmative Action Needed"
May 27, 1995 "The logic behind affirmative action was / is that if a
society is truly equal, then racial minorities and women will hold
positions comparable to their population"

\priv\95\09\ontequit.txt - SFC article on Ontario employment act
which specified that targeted groups must be hired in proportion with
population.

MIGRATION NEWS Vol. 4, No. 12 December, 1997 \clip\97\28\mignews.txt
Ontario has abolished several anti-racism programs, repealed its
employment-equity law and drastically cut budgets of groups aimed at
helping immigrants.

\doc\95\06\ontaact.txt - Ontario affirmative action law is based on
principle of proportional representation. The Ontario Law, Bill 79,
The Employment Equity Act, 1993 was passed some time ago and came into
effect on Sept. 1, 1994.

\doc\95\04\civrjour.txt - affirmative action needed becuase equality
means equal education, jobs, and incomes. Bernice Powell Jackson

California vetoed legislation authored by Willy Brown that would have
required proportionality in hiring, and graduation in state colleges.
(WSJ)

King-5 Seattle March 15, 1995 Compton Report D-Dawn Mason says that
affirmative action is about giving entry to the excluded, and is
needed to achieve "equity" or "parity" in the workplace.

NPR 2/22/95 Black congressman says that tax breaks that prefer sales
to minorities must be kept "Let's not talk about preferences, the
media must reflect the community"

Watson doc941\watsquota.txt Diane Watson proposes racial and gender
parity in state commisions

\doc\95\01\justall.txt supreme court justice believes 51%
of judges should be women, and institutions should reflect
population.

New York's police force should resemble the city it patrols. " NY
Times  7/17/94 d:\doc\94\15\nypolice.txt

\doc\94\16\priv\minnew.txt - minority newspaper editor William
Hilliard, ASNE president and editor of The (Portland) Oregonian. ``A
newspaper that does not look like a cross-section of the community it
serves will not - and cannot - serve that community as it wants to be
served,'' Hilliard said in a speech this week at ASNE's annual
convention. 

\doc\94\17\minmedia.txt - Questioning proportinality in news sources

Henry Der, Chinese for Affirmative Action believes in the principle
that in the absence of discrimination, all minorities would be
distributed equally as their population

  [perot]
  doc923:perot1.txt Ross Perot on affirmative action (against preferences)

  @@preference
  AFAC preference: doc913:afpref.txt Is it preference?


@@Race Based 


%%Not

SILBER SAYS MA AFFIRMATIVE ACTION IS NOT BASED ON RACE
\clip\98\16\notrace.txt
Silber defends public colleges' policies
Associated Press, 11/04/98 05:46
BOSTON (AP) - Affirmative action programs at state colleges and
universities in Massachusetts are not based on race, said state Board of
Education Chairman John Silber, and therefore should not be abandoned.



@@Race Definition

OMB SAYS PEOPLE BORN IN EGYPT ARE WHITE EVEN WHEN THEY ARE BLACK \clip\97\18\racedef.txt Race Insanity Washington Times June 22, 1997 Mostafa Hefny says he has darker skin than retired Army Gen. Colin Powell and Detroit Mayor Dennis Archer. He also says his hair is kinkier and his features more African than theirs. Still, the US government - the modern guardian of racial purity - identifies him as a white man because he was born in Egypt. Directive 15 of the Office of Management and Budget, drafter in 1977, dictates that people born there are white. National Review Extra http://www.savers.org/nationalreview/extra/061697x.html June 16, 1997 The problem for Mostafa Hefny, an Egyptian immigrant who professes Nubian ancestry and has skin darker than Colin Powell's, is that the Census Bureau classifies descendants of "the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa" as "white." That means no affirmative action when applying for jobs, grants, scholarships, and loans. So Mr. Hefny is suing for his preferential treatment, demanding that the Federal Government change his racial classification to "black." Since Afrocentrists insist that all mankind has its roots in black Africa, Mr. Hefny may well have grounds for a class-action suit. We're all Nubians now. \clip\97\18\hefny.txt http://www.cnn.com/US/9707/16/racial.suit/index.html Black or white? Egyptian immigrant fights for black classification July 16, 1997
@@Reality The assumption is - In the absence of discrimination, all group will be selected proportionally - The absense of parity is proof of discrimination. The truth is - No two groups are equal in anything unless they are the same - The only way to get equality is to apply discrimination - The more selective the institution, the more discrimination is needed - The presence of parity is proof of quotas or preferences. YOU CANNOT ACHIEVE PARITY WITHOUT DISCRIMINATION COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY STATEMENT OF KINGSLY R. BROWNE SUBCOMMITTEE ON THE CONSTITUTION U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES DECEMBER 7, 1995 (H.R. 2128) http://www.house.gov/judiciary/227.htm Why will the top portion of the pool be disproportionately white? Because educational achievements of blacks and whites are not equal, as Secretary William Coleman pointed out in his testimony before this Subcommittee in October. Secretary Coleman acknowledged that, without race consciousness, parity in outcomes will not occur anytime soon: @@reporting \doc\96\03\whatrace.txt "Is 'What's Your Race' a Trick Question? More College Applicants Now Say It is" Wall Street Journal April 24, 1996 B1 Last year, 94,000 of SAT takers declined to disclose their race, compared to 78,000 5 years ago. 5% of applicants to the California State university system declined, 28.5% more than 1994. Asians are concerned that their race will be used against them, many are thought to be white. Officials worry that it will make it difficult to "insure diversity" @@reverse discrimination Reverse discrimination is applied when it is implied that discrimination only occurs against blacks. no evidence: Seattle Times Aug 9, 1995 Clay Foster says July 24 that there is no evidence of reverse discrimination when they themselves said that African Americans had received "special" consideration. evidence: Pittsburgh, Pa. ---------- 10/20/99 "City must pay for police not hiring white men." "The city of Pittsburgh has lost its appeal of a federal court ruling that nine white men were denied police jobs in 1992 because of their skin color." "Michael Hopp and eight others had filed suit against the city and its Civil Service Commission, charging they were denied jobs in order to make room for minority candidates." http://triblive.com/news/phopp1020.html Sacramento police bias-suit win stirs citywide fairness debate http://www.sacbee.com/news/news/local02_19990408.html By Pamela Martineau and Cathleen Ferraro Bee Staff Writers "Was it backlash or a step forward for civil rights? That was the question many community leaders wrestled with Wednesday in the wake of a federal jury verdict this week that found former Sacramento Deputy Police Chief Fred Arthur and former Capt. Michael Shaw were forced out of the department for being white and middle-aged. "Departments throughout the country are trying to move forward into a new type of law enforcement and they may be pushing a little too far to get there," said Darryl Petersen, president of the Sacramento County Deputy Sheriffs' Association. "That's not to say that the goal is incorrect, but maybe the tactics they employ are overzealous."" http://www.angelfire.com/fl/cerrones/REVERSEcases.html \clip\98\19\reverse.txt Atlanta white win lawsuits Miami hires police because they are black San Francisco leaked exam San Jose most whites flunked, all blacks passed (warning, site is openly pro-white) $2.75 MILLION FOR SF STATE REFUSING TO HIRE WHITE PROFESSOR \clip\99\10\sfstate.txt SF State hit with huge bias penalty By Victoria Colliver OF THE EXAMINER STAFF Tuesday, March 30, 1999 A San Francisco State University lecturer has been awarded $2.75 million in a reverse discrimination case in which a college dean allegedly said he would hire "a white guy over my dead body." Howard E. McNier, a 51-year-old white teacher was denied tenure in S.F. State's College of Business. \priv\95\04\whitrop.txt - $243,000 paid in reverse discrimination case among Illinois troopers. Chicago tribune. April 6, 1995 \priv\95\04\revrbias.doc - 100 out of 3,000 federal discrimination cases are reverse discrimination, only six cases were successful. (but it's often legal) City settles police bias case by naming white chief \clip\98\14\citysett.txt http://www.foxnews.com/js_index.sml?content=/news/wires2/1007/n_ap_1007_69.sml October 7, 1998 Associated Press EAST ORANGE, N.J. (AP) "The city has settled a federal lawsuit by agreeing to the forced resignation of its first black police chief and the appointment of a white man who claimed he was the victim of discrimination. @@Quota - also see race norming, which is one form of quotas Most affirmative action advocates no longer support quotas directly. But before Bakke, they were all for them. When today, the only acceptable measurement of fairness is numerical parity, that still means the ultimate goals is fulfilling a quota. And many are bold enough to state that equality of outcomes, which is also a quota is the real goal, and this is also the stated goals of some other nations such as Malysia (which abandoned quotas) to Brazil (which is considering adopting them) Opponents of anti-preference laws say that quotas are illegal, but they are often approved by the government in various forms. Even worse than quotas, some systems aim for 100% minority representation, which exceeds proportional quotas. %%approved %%Brazil BRAZIL CENSUS FORMS HAVE OVER 100 CATEGORIES FOR SKIN COLOR z68\clip\2003\06\afacbraz.txt The result is a country in which census forms contain more than 100 classifications focused on skin color; one category is "coffee with cream." Only 6 percent of the population chooses the darkest classification, "black," but nearly half of all Brazilians identify themselves as either black or pardo, the term used here for mixed race. University administrators say that 14 percent of applicants who declared themselves "white" when they took the entrance exam, declared themselves either black or pardo when they submitted their applications to the university. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A62685-2003Jun15?language=printer Affirmative Action Debate Forces Brazil to Take Look in the Mirror By Jon Jeter Washington Post Foreign Service Monday, June 16, 2003; Page A01 BRAZIL GOES FOR NAKED QUOTAS, NO "WHAT QUOTA" HERE. z52\clip\2001\10\brazquot.txt New York Times October 2, 2001 Multiracial Brazil Planning Quotas for Blacks By LARRY ROHTER In last year's census, only 6 percent of the population identified themselves as black [40% mixed] ... would require blacks or mixed-race actors to compose 25 percent of the cast of any entertainment offering, rising to 40 percent in commercials. .. only 2.2 percent of Brazil's 1.6 million college students are black, even though Brazilians of African descent may constitute half the population. [quota of 20% of university and government jobs and election candidates] 2003 RACIAL EQUALITY STATUE WILL REQUIRE QUOTAS IN EVERYTHING IN BRAZIL z63\clip\2003\04\brazquo.txt http://www.nytimes.com/2003/04/05/international/americas/05BRAZ.html?tntemai l0=&pagewanted=print&position=top April 5, 2003 Racial Quotas in Brazil Touch Off Fierce Debate By LARRY ROHTER RIO DE JANEIRO, April 4 - The Brazilian government, responding to demands to improve the lot of the black population, has begun imposing racial quotas for government jobs, contracts and university admissions. z38\clipim\99\11\13\art1.efx The Q Word Charade Newsweek : Depsite the growing debate, quotas are a fact of life. June 3, 1991 Law school - the 10% floor is a quota, its' amazing nobody sues us. Corporations have goals which are used as quotas. Test cases: How race norming works. OHIO COLLEGE OFFICIALS LIABLE FOR MINORITY CONTRACT QUOTAS \clip\98\16\liable.txt Monday, November 2, 1998 Officials at College in Ohio Held Personally Liable in Suit Over Affirmative Action The college's set-aside policy was adopted in 1982 and amended in 1994. It requires a lead contractor for Cuyahoga to award at least 10 per cent of he total value of a contract to businesses that qualify as minority-owned. The purpose of the policy, according to the college, is to help minority businesspeople "become more stable, successful, competitive members of the business community." OKLA SCHOLARSHIP FOR TOP % OF EACH RACE IS QUOTA \clip\98\15\racesch.txt http://www.chronicle.com/daily/98/10/98102301n.htm Chronicle of Higher Education, 10/23/98 Student's Lawsuit Challenges Race and Sex Categories of Oklahoma Scholarship Program By DOUGLAS LEDERMAN The law also allows different categories of students to qualify for the grants if they score in the top 0.5 per cent among members of their own group. Washington Bulletin: National Review's Internet Update for 10/14/98 http://www.nationalreview.com/ The Quota Congress Congress has approved what may be the most onerous kind of racial preference imaginable: a graduation quota. Buried in a $3.5 billion health education authorization is a provision mandating that participating nursing schools not only admit and retain the members of certain prescribed racial minorities at certain rates, but also graduate them by quota. In other words, schools accepting federal funds under this authorization would have to lower standards when they admit students, hold them low throughout their schooling, and keep them low upon exit. PHILADELPHIA MUST HIRE SAME %BLACK AS TAKES THE TEST \clip\98\14\polquot.txt\ http://www.phillynews.com/daily_news/98/Oct/15/local/GERI15.htm Locked into quotas, police force isn't hiring finest October 15, 1998 OPINION Philadelphia Daily News "The fatal flaw is the city's agreement to hire the percentage of African-Americans who take the police exam, regardless of how many pass it. That racial quota was city consented to in order to settle a 1990 race discrimination lawsuit \doc\web\98\07\quota.txt ACRI educational ad on I-200 (courtesty of ACRI) 9/24/98 The Supreme Court has made clear that some quotas are not prohibited by the U.S. Constitution. United States v. Paradise, 480 U.S. 149 (1987), for instance, upheld "a 50% promotional quota in the upper ranks" of the Alabama Department of Public Safety. Boston Globe Oct 9, 1998 Affirmative Action Backed Tatsha Robertson Officals for Bostong fire and police departments can request an end to the requirements only when their departments reflect the city's racial breakdown %%contracting \clip\96\05\dadeset.txt Date: Sun, 22 Sep 1996 17:25:34 -0400 From: NewsHound@sjmercury.com (NewsHound) Dade County, Fla.'s Set-aside Plan for Minorities Rejected By Teresa Burney, St. Petersburg Times, Fla. Knight-Ridder/Tribune Business News Sep. 21--A federal judge has struck down Metro-Dade's groundbreaking law that sets aside government contracts for blacks, Hispanics and women. [and said that race and gender could NOT be considered in handing out contracts, which is the traditional meaning of "without regard to race or gender" before the supreme court twisted it around] Hillsborogh revised its goals from 25% to a level which reflected the number of companies which might actually participate in contracts, down to 20% with 16 to 18% actual participation. [Goals are fine as long as they do NOT LEAD TO RACIAL PREFERENCES] \clip\96\02\massquot.txt 7 Aug 1996 NewsHound@sjmercury.com (NewsHound) Massachusetts gets new minority contract plan BY DORIS SUE WONG Boston Globe. Massaschusetts drops 12-yr policy of fixed set asides to new "goals" based on actual market participation, anticipated to reduce number of contracts awarded (Comment - this proves the people who say that affirmative action is never about setting quotas, that's exactly what Massachusetts did) %%Elementary School \images\972\1228\quota.tif "Say no to I-200: Keep affirmatve action quotas in place" If you sign, and you are a minority, you may lose your rights... [explicitly calls for quotas!] F122897 UCLA ELEMENTARY SCHOOL SELECTS STUDENTS ON BASIS OF STATE RACIAL QUOTAS Pacific Legal Foundation At Issue May 2, 1997 Corrine A. Seeds University Elementary school %%For Quotas %%Preschool San Jose Mercury News, mid 1990s, mentions at least one preschool recuits by racial quota to maintain a racial mix %%San Jose Tech Museum NPR 8/9/94 San Jose Tech Museum intentionally filled up half of spots first with girls @@race normal \doc\95\04\utenn.txt Marketplace NPR Mar 15, 1995 Robert Woolen National Center for Neighborhood Enterprise market@usc.edu The University of Tennesee adds 35 points to black test scores so that they can compete \doc\94\17\priv\coptest3.txt - Chicago Tribune 7/27/94 - Chicago used to hire by race norming, but it is now illegal under 1991 civil rights act. \doc\94\17\priv\racenorm.txt USNews 8/14/94 Chicago drops race norming AFAC doc913:racenorm.txt @@race-only scholarships \priv\94\19\blakonly.txt \priv\94\19\racescho.txt @@Raspberry, William Black Washington Post columnist seems to be sitting on the fence between the goal of equal proportions (good), and the policy of lowering standards and using racial discrimination to enforce these goals (bad). Overall, I think this guy is honest and I like him. AFACT: IS UCLA BEST OR SOMETHING LESS TOUGH? \clip\98\09\goodone.txt http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/WPlate/1998-05/18/012l-051898-idx.html Good for One vs. Good for All By William Raspberry Monday, May 18, 1998; Page A17 The youngster, a star on my then-11-year-old son's soccer team, was so good he was encouraged to "go select." LANI GUANIER SAYS THE SAT IS THE PROBLEM http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/WPlate/1998-05/15/065l-051598-idx.html The Canary's Message By William Raspberry Friday, May 15, 1998; Page A27 \CLIP\98\09\canary.htm SAVE AFFIRMATIVE ACTION OR BE COMPETITIVE IN ABILITY? http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/WPlate/1998-05/11/009l-051198-idx.html \clip\98\09\wrongq.txt We Are Asking the Wrong Question By William Raspberry Monday, May 11, 1998; Page A23 Black Americans made a mistake 25 years ago when we decided to put so much of our political, economic and social capital into integrating the public schools. Are we about to repeat the mistake now with regard to higher education? @@SAT doc921:lowsat.doc @@San Jose Mercury SJ MERC doc934:sjmetro.doc SJ Mercury newspaper interns doc934:nodiver.doc SJ Mercury newspaper interns, SJ pattern doc936:persdiv.doc KQED inclusion to exclusion doc934:sjmrace.txt - hired no white interns out of 5 doc93A:newspsj.txt - EEOC breakdown on newspaper in SJ by race doc93A:newspapr.* - EEOC breakdown doc93A:newspbay.* - EEOC breakdown doc940:amjourn.doc - High anxiety response doc940:sjreply.txt - reply it's OK for diversity @@SBA Small Business Administration SBA loans more likely to help the prosperous. Seattle Times 2/27/99 B4 Mike Magner Newhouse News Service. 3/4 of SBA low-interest loans went to upper income areas and affluent suburbs like Bloomfield Hills Mich. Low income areas only received 3% from 1993-97, 205 for moderate income areas. 1999, SBA will back $15 billion in loans to 50,000 businesses, and spend $150 million to cover defaults. SBA: NONWHITE + "UNDER-REPRESENTED" = DISADVANTAGED BID PREFERENCE \clip\98\11\sbapref.txt http://interactive.wsj.com/ The Wall Street Journal Interactive Edition -- August 24, 1998 Rule of Law: More Preferences For Minority Businesses By JOHN SULLIVAN and ROGER CLEGG "fewer than 1% of the firms in the existing program are owned by whites. " The Small Business Administration will today begin accepting applications from companies wanting to participate in the federal government's program for "small disadvantaged businesses." @@scholarships %%Gates Gates Scholarships strangely do include Chinese and Japanese, but exclude non-citizens which excludes needy refugee populations and many Hispanics. %%General \priv\96b\06\packscho.txt Return-Path: Date: Mon, 1 Jul 1996 06:36:04 -0400 Star scholars continue to do Packard proud FOR THE fourth time, the young David and Lucile Packard Scholars for Chemistry, Physics and Math met in the serene setting of the Monterey Bay Aquarium. These scholars -- 42 attended this year -- are a part of a privileged group. They are all African-American, all in graduate school pursuing Ph.D. degrees in science - This is fine and good, but doesn't it exclude Hispanics, Pacific Islanders, and other deserving groups? %%Race Based "Oregon ends race-based scholarship policy" Seattle Times March 22, 1998 Responding to federal pressure, Oregon's public universities no longer will offer scholarshiups based soley on race or ethnicity. A federal review determined that the previous policy was discriminatory. The system is 1.6 African American, 1.4 Native Am, 3.2 Latino, 6% Asian Am. Schools can design their own guidelines, as long as they don't make minority status the only factor. OKLA SCHOLARSHIP FOR TOP % OF EACH RACE HAS RACE-SPECIFIC STANDARDS \clip\98\15\racesch.txt http://www.chronicle.com/daily/98/10/98102301n.htm Chronicle of Higher Education, 10/23/98 Student's Lawsuit Challenges Race and Sex Categories of Oklahoma Scholarship Program By DOUGLAS LEDERMAN The law also allows different categories of students to qualify for the grants if they score in the top 0.5 per cent among members of their own group. The law divides students into the following groups: male, female, non-Hispanic black, American Indian, Hispanic, Asian-Pacific Islander, and non-Hispanic white. Each year, the scholarship cutoff levels change for each group based on how its members scored. In 1998, for instance, a white male student needed a cumulative score of 131 or higher on the four sections of the ACT, or 1490 on the SAT, to qualify for a full scholarship. For a black student, the minimum requirements were lower: a cumulative 115 on the ACT, or 1350 on the SAT. @@secret Service z45\clip\2000\08\secrquot.txt The Washington Times www.washtimes.com Security for Gore linked to race quota Jerry Seper THE WASHINGTON TIMES Published 8/30/00 A ceiling has been placed on the number of black U.S. Secret Service agents who can serve on Al Gore's security detail - a decision the vice president's campaign staff failed to address even after complaints by the agents, according to a Washington attorney. "The vice president's staff was specifically told of the racial quota for the security detail, but has been silent," he said. @@setasides "Affirmative action's mixed patronage, muddled goals" Terry Tang Seattle Times March 8, 1995 1st federal setaside was 1977, congress passed a 10 percent set-aside without a hearing and little opposition. @@South Africa National Racism Barometer @@Steele, Shelby @@Steele, Shelby link Black ex-english professor at San Jose State, now Hoover Institution fellow is critical of black attitude of victimhood, believes that blacks are just as capable as whites, but are tied up in buying into the status of inferiority as much as whites put them there. He is married to a white woman, his daughter got into a fancy college without affirmative action. @@supreme court %%adarand \priv\95\08\adarand.zip - text of opinions \priv\95\07\noaffirm.txt AP 6/95 Adarand Vs. Pena Supreme Court overtunes Fullilove and says congressional programs must stand same strict scrutiny as states and local authorities. \doc\95\07\pena.txt - summary of Adarand vs. Pena minority subcontractor case %%brown affirmative-action.supreme-court.brown \priv\95\08\borwboar.txt "Not Even Brown Vs. Board is Sacred Anymore" New York Times July 2, 1995 By DAVID J. GARROW %%missouri \priv\95\08\missouri.zip - text of opinions @@Random Selection See Norman Matloff's proposals \clip\97\27\leomerit.txt Date: Tue, 18 Nov 1997 22:54:44 EST U.S. News & World Report Let's attack merit! BY JOHN LEO Requiring good marks is an "artificial barrier" to nursing progress, according to the state's community-college chancellor, so admission to the program is now by lottery. @@Riggs amendment would prohibit race prefernces in colleges \doc\web\98\07\riggs.txt "Riggs Amendment to Higher Education Act" @@takagi, dana y TAKAKI VS. CONNERLY http://www.seattletimes.com/news/local/html98/cali_092498.html September 24, 1998 Will I-200 vote resolve affirmative-action debate? by Tom Brune Seattle Times staff reporter \clip\98\13\taka.txt "We Should Not Make Class a Proxy for Race" Chronicle of higher education May 5, 1995 A52 @@Taxman, Sharon @@teacher The school board in Piscataway N.J. had to lay off a teacher in 1989. The one that was laid off was picked because they decided to favor the black teacher even though there was no prior discrimination, and there was no under-representation of black on the staff. The brings forth the question if racial preferences are valid when there is no under-representation or discrimination to remedy. NY allegedly promotes and retains minority, but not white teachers who fail proficiency exams. Taxman Settlement Shows Preference Proponents Are Running for the Hills CIVIL RIGHTS GROUPS SETTLE WITH TAXMAN RATHER THAN RISK DEFEAT Settlement avoids legal defeat for affirmative action The Seattle Times Company Saturday, Nov. 22, 1997 \clip\97\27\settle.txt http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/afir_112297.html by Washington Post and Knight-Ridder Newspapers Sharon Taxman, the white teacher laid off in 1989, lodged a complaint with the government that eventually became a lawsuit filed by the U.S. Justice Department under President Bush SUPREME COURT IGNORES CLINTON, GOES AHEAD ON TAXMAN \clip\97\16\taxman.txt From: Dave Chiang 06/27/1997 18:03 EST Court Takes Affirmative Action Case SUPREME COURT TO DECIDE TO RECONSIDER IF IT'S OK TO FIRE A TEACHER BECAUSE SHE'S WHITE http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/WPlate/1997-01/25/007L-012597-idx.html \clip\97\02\taxman.txt Black and White and Equal Saturday, January 25 1997; Page A18 The Washington Post \priv\95\03\taxman.doc - fired teacher because she was white Seattle Times March 6, 1995 @@Test Adjustment Wrong is Right in Suffolk County’s Racially "Adjusted" Test http://www.nypost.com/editorial/3057.htm New York Post Editorial "Suffolk County is preparing to administer a new police test to replace a scandal-tainted 1996 exam. A new consultant, Landy-Jacobs Inc., has been hired to develop the new test. It makes the following statement on its website: ''We have developed sophisticated procedures for reducing adverse impact against ethnic minority applicants on written examinations, and female candidates on physical ability exams. These procedures include training programs, practice examinations and special-ized testing methods that provide partial credit for eliminating clearly wrong answers to questions.'' (Italics added.) In other words, you may think that 2 + 2 = 5, but as long as you don't say that 2 + 2 = 6, we'll give you partial credit. According to the testing company, wrong is partly right - as long as you're a minority or a woman. This horribly patronizing approach is as harsh a condemnation of affirmative-action thinking as we can imagine." @@Test Ban At least a rule like this would put an end to ridiculous tests like the WASL which are even more biased against minorities than norm-referenced tests. CLINTON EDUCATION OFFICE PROPOSES TO BAN "BIASED" TESTS LIKE SAT National Review Updated 5/19/99 6:30 PM WITHOUT MERIT The success of the campaign against racial preferences has forced the civil-rights movement to change tactics: If they can't have double standards, they'll have no standards at all. The Clinton administration is beginning the assault by moving to restrict the use of standardized tests in the admissions processes of colleges and universities. Under new guidelines proposed by the Department of Education's Office of Civil Rights, "The use of any educational test which has a significant disparate impact on members of any particular race, national origin, or sex is discriminatory." @@test cheating sftest.doc @@Test Preparation BLACKS GIVEN TEST PREP SCORE EQUAL TO WHITES ON LSAT??? http://magazines.enews.com/magazines/tnr/current/trb041398.html \clip\98\07\examques.txt The New Republic April 13, 1998 TRB FROM WASHINGTON: EXAM QUESTION By Charles Lane " Princeton Review recently offered a $375 lsat prep course to a small group of students at historically black Florida A&M. Those who went on to take the lsat achieved scores equal to the national average for whites." [so we give more test prep to minorities? Asians have LOWER incomes to afford test prep than whites, yet their test scores are HIGHER] @@Test Requirements COLLEGEs DROPPING RELIANCE ON SAT? \clip\97\23\notest.txt http://www.tribnet.com/news/top/a1/1009a15.htm Times Tribune (Tacoma WA) Nov 10, 1997 Standardized tests yielding to other admissions criteria With affirmative action under assault in many states, colleges look for other ways to keep their student bodies diverse Elsa C. Arnett; Knight-Ridder Newspapers SAT scores: University of California in 1995 1300 Asian 1290 White 1040 Hispanic 960 Black Texas top 10% of high school rule is official @@Thernstrom \clip\98\07\toebill.tif Going Toe To Toe With Bill Abigail Thernstrom Newsweek Dec 15, 1997 p. 35 [Powell WAS given special consideration] @@Title IX Originally meant to outlaw gender discrimination in college sports, is now interpreted as enforcing gender quotas, and may ultimately be used to enforce gender quotas in nursing, education, engineering, and science. 2003: BYE BYE TITLE IX SEX QUOTAS! z68\clip\2003\07\sexquot.txt The Washington Times www.washingtontimes.com Title IX rules abandon sex quotas in athletics By George Archibald Published July 12, 2003 The Bush administration announced yesterday that colleges and universities no longer must prove "substantially proportionate" participation of men and women in sports programs as the main way to comply with the federal Title IX sex-discrimination ban. U.S. Education Department's Office of Civil Rights abandoned a 1996 Clinton administration ruling that "proportionality" — equal numbers of men and women in college sports programs — was the most important component of a three-part test for compliance with Title IX. QUOTAS VIOLATE TITLE IX? Judge Blocks Cal State Campus From Cutting Wrestlers to Comply With Title IX http://www.chronicle.com/daily/99/03/99030102n.htm Chronicle of Higher Education (Pay Site) Monday, March 1, 1999 By DENISE K. MAGNER "A federal judge in California has issued a preliminary injunction prohibiting California State University at Bakersfield from cutting the number of men on its wrestling team. The judge's order came in a lawsuit filed by wrestlers who claim that the university's plan to eliminate their team amounts to sex discrimination. ... In granting the injunction, U.S. District Court Judge Robert E. Coyle ruled that the wrestlers had "demonstrated a likelihood of success on the merits." He wrote, "The court concludes that relying on proportionality to cap the men's athletic teams at CSUB in order to comply with the Consent Decree constitutes implementation of a quota based on gender in violation of Title IX."" IT'S NOT A QUOTA - BUT ATHLETES MUST MATCH STUDENT BODY PERCENTAGE! Schools hit with Title IX complaints http://www.ocregister.com/sports/title011a1.shtml December 11, 1998 By Scott Reid The Orange County Register "The state's branch of the National Organization for Women ...NOW said UCLA fails to meet the requirement that a school's percentage of female athletes should be equal to the percentage of women in the student body. NOW also charges that funding and salary differences between men's and women's sports at UCLA are in violation of Title IX." \clip\98\07\gendquot.txt Outlook 3/23/98 ON SOCIETY BY JOHN LEO Gender police: 'Pull over!' (see US News and World Report) Seattle Times 3/17/98 Title IX's perverse drift from its original meaning John Leo. The lae states that preferenyial treatment is not required.in 1970 Sen Birch Bayh said gender quotas were to be prohibited. Government regulations in 1970 and policy interpretation in1980 came up with 3 tests, one was proportionality among athletes, show expansion, or prove all interestsand abilities are met. This has turned into quotas, extending to all other programs will lead to math and science quotas @@Top 10% Rule @@x% solution TOP 10% ENCOURAGES KIDS TO STAY IN LOUSY SCHOOLS z38\clip\99\21\xperc.txt Yes, There Are Easy Answers! By: Mickey Kaus Slate.com Posted Wednesday, Dec. 1, 1999, at 7:39 p.m. \doc\web\99\01\izumi.txt ap Ideas January 12, 1999 Davis' Four Percent Non-Solution Lance Izumi blasts 4% rule as lowering standards. TOP 10 RULE HELPS ASIANS THE MOST \clip\98\08\top10.txt http://nt.excite.com:80/news/u/980408/14/news-highered UPI, Updated 2:37 PM ET April 8, 1998 Asians benefit from new admissions law [compared to before the top 10 admissions law, only 1 more black student, 7% more white, 7% more Hispanic, 16 more Asians, more than any other group admitted to U Texas this fall] TEXAS TOP 10% CLASS UT ADMISSION LAW TAKES EFFECT \clip\98\07\top10.txt http://www.chronicle.com/che-data/articles.dir/art-44.dir/issue-30.dir/30a02 901.htm April 3, 1998 Admissions Law Changes the Equations for Students and Colleges in Texas. Students are admitted from top 10% of class no matter how poor the school is, or how low your test scores are. @@underrepresentation Many forms of affirmative action are based solely on the concept of "underrepresentation", which is NOT a direct measurement of discrimination, and not neccesarily even a good measure of "diversity". CA BILL WOULD PERMIT "FOCUSED" OUTREACH IF GROUP IS UNDER-REPRESENTED PRO-209 SAY MINORITY OUTREACH ONLY OK AS PART OF GROUP-NEUTRAL WHOLE \doc\web\98\06\outreach.txt State Senator Richard Polanco. His bill, SB 1735, would have the Legislature declare that Prop. 209--now Art. I, Section 31 of the state constitution--permits "focused" outreach for women and minorities. for the purposes of the bill underrepresentation shall be determined by comparing the minority group or number of women at the governmental agency with that group's representation in the current civilian labor force in the jurisdiction of the governmental agency. An analogous definition of underrepresentation is provided for student admissions at the California State University and the University of California. @@unimportant >>\priv\95\18\loursept.txt Glen Loury says: The remarkable way in which black women have closed their gap in pay and occupational distribution with white women (in 1960 some 30% of black working women were domestics) is unrelated to affirmative action. Studies of college going (Tom Kane at Kennedy School/Brookings) show that major factor driving black progress in this area is educational and income improvements of parents, more important than financial aid or admissions criteria. Vast majority (85%) of students go to admit-all-comers colleges, at which affirmative action cannot (by definition) impact access. @@Veterans Preferences Washington State includes Veterans status equal to racial preferences in its Plus Three affirmative action program [includes up to 3 people from preferrred groups even if they were not in top 10 scores] http://www.seattletimes.com/news/local/html98/vets_041298.html \doc\web\98\05\i200wo.txt I-200 wouldn't touch job aid for some veterans Seattle Times Tome Brune April 12, 1998. Most veterans prefernces go to white men, and it would not be removed by i-200 "affirmative action ban". Comment AHU: But most Washington residents are white, and veterans preferences are _preferences_. Affirmative action for race is NOT supposed to be preferential. @@vote HOUSTON KEEPS AFFIRMATIVE ACTION 11/5/97 Here's a summary of yesterday's results for the various initiatives on the ballot, followed by an RNC press release on the gains made by the GOP yesterday: ** Ballot Propositions ** Houston, TX: Repeal of city affirmative action programs For repeal - 136,302 (45.4%) Against repeal - 163,651 (54.6%) http://www.arthurhu.com/index/afact.htm#white @@white Whites, or European Americans are sometimes excluded, or under-represented as a result of affirmative action. Some have questioned whether under-representation of whites might be used to justify racial preferences for the overall group. Others such as Resisting Defamation note that European Americans are actually a diverse group. Much as Asians are quick to point out the existence of disadvataged Asian ethnic groups in the face of the "model minority", many Euromerican ethnic and religious groups are much less represented than Euromericans as a whole. Gypsies have been included as an affirmative action category by Seattle, some other locations have included persons of "Appalacian" origin. %%Eligible White Christians as disadvantaged minority? %%Exclusion BLACK COLLEGE SEEKS TO REPLACE WHITE PROFESSORS WITH BLACK \clip\98\13\prof.txt Former professors awarded $1 million each in bias case Seattle Times Sept 26, 1998 Philadelphia - Two former professors at Cheney University ner Philadelphia have been awarded more than $1 million each after a federal jury foun the historically black school had discriminated against them because they were white. BELLEVUE REPLACES WHITE STUDENTS WITH 50% MINORITY LINE-UP FOR COMMISION.

Seattle Times 10/21/97 Bellevue City Manager replaces white students on board with 50% minorities for "diversity" Also see "Bellevue teens rebel over board change" Eastside Journal Oct 24, 1997 p. A1 F102497. Chinese American Conrad Lee approves of the manager's action. "Teens Talk, City Listens" Seattle Times Nov 7, 1997 Eastside Extra (Bellevue Youth Link, mentions selection controversy) MALKIN - BELLEVUE RACIST IN FIRING ELECTED WHITE STUDENT BOARD Nov. 18, 1997 Protect the next generation from diversity do-goodism Lowell High, Maryland exclusion by race, Bellevue fires whites elected to city youth board

MOIRA WONDERS ABOUT IRISH UNDER-REPRESENATION \doc\web\97\02\irisundr.txt \priv\96b\10\moira.txt Notes that Irish Americans are under- represented in many fields of study in San Jose State. \doc\96\07\whitgoal.txt Study Finds Affirmative Action Dangerous to Minorities in California's Civil Service: State Departments Are Setting Goals for Whites and Men San Francisco-- A study of affirmative action efforts in the California State Civil Service released today finds that women and most minority groups are overrepresented in government jobs when compared to the private sector labor force. A good faith effort to make the state's work-force match the ethnic proportions of California's civilian labor force could cost African Americans as many as 10,000 jobs and women more than 7,000 jobs. As a result, women and minorities seeking government jobs stand to benefit from Proposition 209, the California Civil Rights Initiative e-mail: PRIPP@aol.com for copies of the study by the Pacific Research Institute \priv\96b\10\dalewar2.txt From: DaleWarner@aol.com In the University of California, Celtics are 16% of California population, but only 4% of UC Berkeley admissions. Two white groups take 50% of white admissions. The contacts were with undergrads, not just entering freshman. \priv\96b\10\dalewarn.txt This figure was based on responses from a survey of 280 undergraduate students at Berkeley. \clip\96\05\revrdisc.txt Wall Street Journal Oct 3, 1996 Reverse Discrimination Works Both Ways By MICHAEL LYNCH. In some fields, whites and men are underrepresented, and government will have to justify making goals and preferences for lesser qualified white men. \priv\96\01\lawhite.txt L.A. COUNTY SHERIFF'S SERGEANT FORMS WHITE MALE OFFICERS CLUB \doc\95\15\euroquot.txt - Dale Warner demands parity for all Euro-American ethnic groups, my response 12/14/95 \priv\95\17\affifact.doc "Affirmative action supported by facts”" Seattle Post Intelligencer Nov 19, 1995 p. E2 Whites also benefit from lower standards. \doc\95\12\whithelp.txt "Whites get help too, says report" Michael Paulson. About half of preferential spots go to whites through women, veterans, and disabled. d:\priv\94\19\whitmin.txt why not Pennsylvania Germans? %%underrepresenation Maldistribution Of The "White" Quota www.ResistDef.org Newhouse News Service 02/22/99 Fair Play in Admissions at Elite Schools a Tough Issue Unlike Jews, Asians are more visually identifiable and are officially counted in school and government records. Together, says Arthur Hu, a Kirkland, Wash., software engineer and writer who has become a sort of Internet pamphleteer on issues of diversity and representation, the combined Jewish and Asian presence on campus has become ``just too big to ignore.'' Almost. ``This huge sleeping monster, the Christian right, is the most underrepresented group and they don't know it,'' says Hu. But, Hu says, it is now only a matter of time until the least represented begin sounding the mantra of diversity. (The issue I first publicized in the MIT Tech in 1986 finally hits the national news - underrepresentation of non-jewish whites) Ling Chi comments on overrepresentation HIRING GOALS FOR EVERY SHORTAGE GROUP EXECPT WHITE MEN AT LEVIS STRAUSS http://www.ddc.net/ygg/ms/ms-44.htm ("white" activist) Here is a short quote from the Wall Street Journal of Nov. 11, 1996 p A14, entitled "Race Still Matters to California Companies." "Thus California corporations will continue to hire and promote based on race and sex. San Francisco-based Levi-Strauss, for example, hires employees based on their ability to fill a specific demographic gap in its work force. The company's drive for proportional representation has one exception: Only 13% of Levi-Strauss's employees are white males, but the company has yet to undertake a campaign to redress this demographic imbalance." NON-JEWISH WHITES MORE UNDER-REP THAN BLACKS AT HARVARD \clip\98\19\ms-45.htm http://www.ddc.net/ygg/ms/ms-45.htm 1996 Yggdrasil. "White" advocate notes that non-Jewish Whites are much more under-represented than blacks at places like Harvard. " Whenever minorities lobby for diversity efforts in college admissions or in employment, whites imagine that they mean "proportionate to their share of the population." But the minorities themselves mean that the proportion of whites must be driven down to something like 10%. ...white gentiles are on their way out." BUCHANAN NOTES WHITE CHRISTIAN UNDER-REPRESENTATION AT HARVARD http://www.mostnewyork.com:80/1998-12-18/News_and_Views/Opinion/a-14017.asp \clip\98\19\buchsem.txt New York Daily News Friday, December 18, 1998 Pat Buchanan's Anti-Semitism Is Loud and Clear "50% of Harvard's student body is drawn from about 5% [Asian and Jewish] of the U.S. population!" He went on: "When one adds foreign students, students from our tiny WASP elite and children of graduates, what emerges is a Harvard student body where non-Jewish whites - 75% of the U.S. population - get just 25% of the slots. Talk about underrepresentation! Now we know who really gets the shaft at Harvard - white Christians."" UNZ: WHY NOT QUOTAS FOR UNDER-REPRESENTED NONJEWISH WHITES? \clip\98\17\unz.txt http://interactive.wsj.com/archive/retrieve.cgi?id=SB910996519185599500.djm November 16, 1998 Commentary Some Minorities Are More Minor than Others By Ron K. Unz, a Silicon Valley software developer and the author of Proposition 227, the successful California initiative to dismantle bilingual education. "it seems likely that non-Jewish white Americans represent no more than a quarter of Harvard undergraduates, even though this group constitutes nearly 75% of the population at large, resulting in a degree of underrepresentation far more severe than that of blacks, Hispanics or any other minority groups" DIVERSITY: SEATTLE CITY COUNCIL LACKS MIDDLE AGED WHITE GUYS \clip\97\01\mawg.txt Copyright © 1997 The Seattle Times Company Jan. 8, 1997 Ross Anderson: City's maligned MAWGs must reclaim righful place by Ross Anderson Seattle Times editorial columnist (Seattle has blacks, Asians, and lots of white women, but no middle-aged white guys instead of 2 or 3) http://www.seattletimes.com/topstories/browse/html97/ink_010897.html \priv\96b\08\baylatin.txt Date: Tue, 16 Jul 1996 09:21:47 -0400 From: NewsHound@sjmercury.com (NewsHound) Bay Area Latino clout lags -- State survey: Most local government bodies have poor Hispanic representation. Of 272 Bay Area individuals who serve on water boards, transportation agencies and county planning commissions, only 22 are Latino -- 12 of them from Santa Clara County. Whites and men underrepresented in San Mateo County labor force. @@Wilson, Pete 6/97 Gov Pete Wilson asks Clinton to drop initiatives threatening withdrawal of funds without racial preferences. @@women %%against WOMEN DON'T NEED AFFIRMATIVE ACTION \doc\web\98\08\sexafac.txt 10/13/98 Sex and Affirmative Action: What You Suspected But Didn't Know Diana Furchtgott-Roth American Enterprise Institute (202) 862-5940 Professor Jane Waldfogel of Columbia University, in a study published last year, compared the gap in wages between men and women with the same experience and education for mothers and women without children. She found that in 1991 women without children made 95 percent of men's wages, all other factors accounted for, but mothers made 75 percent of men's wages. This finding appears again and again in economic studies. %%for EU ALLOWS PREFERENCE FOR EQUALLY QUALIFIFED WOMEN, BUT NOT QUOTAS OR AUTOMATIC PRIORITY \clip\97\26\euwomen.ttx 07:50 AM ET 11/11/97 EU court allows job preferences for women By Gillian Handyside BRUSSELS, Nov 11 (Reuters) - The European Court of Justice on Tuesday ruled in favour of a German state law giving women priority for promotions to public sector jobs in categories where there are fewer women than men. \clip\97\02\womnafac.txt Women Don't Need Affirmative Action - Heritage Commentary By Sally C. Pipes and Michael Lynch July 25, 1996 Note: This essay by Sally C. Pipes, president of the Pacific Research Institute, and Michael Lynch, a public policy fellow at the Institute, is adapted from their article in the latest issue of the Heritage Foundation's magazine Policy Review: The Journal of American Citizenship. @@World PREFERENCES BOGUS IN MALAYSIA, INDIA, NIGERIA z75\clip\2004\04\afworld.txt http://www.commentarymagazine.com/article.asp?aid=11704075_1 Commentary April 2004 Groupthink Affirmative Action Around the World: An Empirical Study by Thomas Sowell Yale. 231 pp. $28.00 Reviewed by Carl Cohen Next, Malaysia, where Chinese laborers were first brought to the peninsula to work the rubber plantations, Indian laborers to work the tin mines The Chinese, adopting a frugal style and investing heavily in the education of their children, pulled themselves from the plantations and built businesses across the country; they have come to dominate retail establishments in Malaysia, of which they owned 85 percent by 1980. Corporate ownership by Chinese has also soared. Chinese incomes are double those of Malays. In 1965, Malaysians willingly divested ....powerful Chinese by expelling Singapore... it did not stop the intellectual advance of the Chinese who remained. In 1 ...not designed to pull an oppressed minority from the depths; their purpose was to protect the relatively less competent majority from the intellectual and economic advances of more competent ethnic minorities.