Studies show no evidence that adopted children suffer, but many agencies make it all but impossible for white families to adopt black children which has been called by at least one agency "cultural genocide". Ironically, it is socially unacceptable to aid black children by adoption even though this is the only proven method to reliably increase black IQ, but Americans instead are driven to prefer Asian or Latin American children over perhaps more deserving African American children because of racial politics.
@@black 1992 source? In 1972 2500/Yr 1973 1000 Now less than 600 In 1972 a black association called it "a form of genocide". The NAACP "does not endorse" transracial adoption. Studies show no evidence of harm. Rita Sims - I feel richer from knowing both sides. Black social workers says the lose racial identification. Surveys show they ARE aware, comfortable that middle class is not un-black. Usually under age of 2. Alternative is not placed or foster care. Wait time is 2x compared to white children WHITE FAMILY ALLOWED TO ADOPT ONLY AFTER SUING STATE FOR RACIAL DISCRIMINATION IN ADOPTION PRACTICES \clip\96\12\adoption\adoption.htm Texas Interracial Adoption Case Reflects National Debate Sue Anne Pressley Washington Post Staff Writer Thursday, January 2, 1997; Page A01 After more than two heart-wrenching years, the Mullens have finally been allowed to adopt the brothers, but the adoption was approved only after they filed suit charging the Texas Department of Protective and Regulatory Services with racial discrimination in its adoption practices. >>\priv\95\14\adopt1.txt TRANSRACIAL ADOPTION AGENCIES' POLICIES ON RACE DIFFER Seattle Times (SE) - Sunday October 22, 1995 Wash law was changed after somebody sued claiming discrimiation is wrong. Others still make mostly same-race placement. \priv\95\14\adopt2.txt TRANSRACIAL ADOPTION A BITTERSWEET KIND OF LOVE Seattle Times (SE) - Sunday October 22, 1995 sometimes kids don't fit, teacher asks black for black culture that parents don't know. Asians easier to get culture through nanny (?) "I see less of an identity and social problem developing in the future with my Chinese daughter " Internatinal adoption is an alternative \priv\95\14\adopt3.txt TRANSRACIAL ADOPTION MIXING COLOR AND FAMILY CAN WE SUCCESSFULLY INTEGRATE ISSUES OF RACE AND CULTURE WITH ISSUES OF CHILD REARING? A NEW LAW SAYS WE MUST TRY. Seattle Times (SE) - Sunday October 22, 1995 The Multiethnic Placement Act, co-sponsored by Illinois Sen. Carol Mosely Braun and former Ohio Sen. Howard Metzenbaum, was signed last year by President Clinton. The law, which went into effect yesterday, essentially prohibits public and private agencies that receive federal funds from denying or delaying adoptions solely on the basis of the race, color or national origin of the prospective adoptive parents. \priv\95\10\raceadop.htm - cross racial adoption opposed by some blacks, supported by other. "Adoption In Black And White" Time Magazine article August 14, 1995 The National Association of Black Social Workers condemned interracial adoption, eventually branding such placements "cultural genocide." Among the adoptable children, 44% are white and 43% are black. But 67% of all families waiting to adopt are white. 43 states favor race matching. \doc\95\04\blakadop.txt "Storming the Color Barrier" Newsweek March 20, 1995 p. 29 The National Adoption Cener's register showed that in 1991, an estimated percent of children waiting for homes were black, compared to 31% of families seeking children were black. Interracial adoptions are officially or unofficially barred in 43 of the 50 states. d:\priv\95\04\crosadop.txt - trans adoptions on rise in Illinois. Of the 363 DCFS children who currently need a home, 230 are black, 129 are white, three are Latino and one is predominantly Native American. A small percentage in the system at any time are infants, but DCFS does not have exact figures, according to Morgan. \priv\95\03\chinadop.txt - Chinese abandon girls, so only girls are generally available NAW March 4, 1995 doc936:mail.916 - foreign adoptions not kidnapping doc942\colrbind.txt - wrong to adopt blacks? INS yearbook shows adoptions by country, Asian girls, black boys preferred. @@China China is now Americas largest source of adopted infants. Nearly all childrern in orphanages are girls since boys are preferred, and families nay only have one child .... \clip\99\01\chinadop.txt More U.S. Couples Adopting Abroad By Renee Schoof Associated Press Writer Saturday, January 9, 1999 Last year Americans adopted 13,621 foreign children, twice the total 20 years earlier. China is the second most popular place for American adoptions overseas after Russia, followed by South Korea, Guatemala and Romania. China's trying to promote more in-country adoptions Seattle Times Nov 7, 1998 a6 Maggie Farley Los Angeles Times New law lowers min age to 30 from 35, may have children, amd may adopt more than one, fears loopholes would be used to get around . Nearly all childen in orphanages are girls. 4,000 adopted out of china, 96% went to America. Foreign adoptions considered to be embarassment \doc\96\02\chinadop.txt "Give me your squalling masses" Economist Feb 3, 1996 p. 22 More Chinese babies, 2,130, were adopted in 1995 than in the previous 5 years combined. Russia was #2 at 1,896, and South Korea has fallen to third with 1,666. Most are girls abandoned by parents who want boys because of the one-child policy. Some are left to be found in parks or train stations. >>"No Baby Killing in China" Op Ed responses that Chinese do not deliberately kill babies in orphanages. 6,000 have been adopted by Americans. WSJ 1/25/96 f012596 >>\doc\95\14\chinadop.txt Peter Herz notes one-child policy has resulted abandoned girl children up for adoption @@FLDS Ross Institute Polygamy links %%Problems - children missed school for month - infant hospitalized for dehydration - chicken pox - arena is not a housing facility - children had no change of clothes - based on pattern of phone calls, call could easily have been determined to be fraud - no individual handling of child legal cases - under rules, no one in that community is allowed to raise a child, not even infant, boy, or preteen girls because of "pervasive custom of underage marriage" ACLU: "While we acknowledge that Judge Walthers' task may be unprecedented in Texas judicial history, we question whether the current proceedings adequately protect the fundamental rights of the mothers and children of the FLDS," said Terri Burke, executive director of the ACLU of Texas, in a statement. While the ACLU "deplores" crimes against children, Burke said that "constitutional rights that all Americans rely upon and cherish - that we are secure in our homes, that we may worship as we please and hold our places of worship sacred, and that we may be with our children absent evidence of imminent danger - have been threatened" by the state's actions. Lisa Graybill, legal director for the ACLU of Texas, said officials may have violated the U.S. Constitution and state laws in how they conducted the raid and the subsequent custody hearing. "The government must ensure that each mother and each child in its custody receives due process of law in determining the placement of the children and other matters regarding the children's care," she said in the statement. @@Foreign http://www.channelA.com/community/feature/970602/index.html?hmsbt4 channel A July 1997 \clip\97\17\adopt\adopt.htm Foreign Exchange: Foreign Adoptions Place Parents and Children Between Two Cultures. Top sources of Asian Adopted Children 1996 1 China 3333 2 Korea 1516 3 India 380 4 Vietnam 354 5 Phillipines 229 Foreign Adoption Statistics Last year, Americans adopted slightly over 11,000 children from overseas. China is currently the most common country of origin. Percent of foreign adoption by country, 1996. China 29.3% Russia 22.4% Korea 14.0% Romania 4.9% Guatemala 3.7% India 3.4% Vietnam 3.1% Colombia 2.3% Paraguay 2.3% Philippines 2.0% Other 12.6% Source:`U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, U.S. Dept of State @@Foster Care http://encyclopedia.adoption.com/entry/foster-care/144/1.html "Generally refers to the system set up to protect children who are abused, neglected or abandoned or whose parents or primary caretakers are unable to fulfill their parenting obligations because of illness, emotional problems or a host of other reasons.' %%Abuse Real Facts about Foster Care Systemn Anti CPS protest site SERIES OF ABUSES IN 2004 FLDS kids may overload Texas' troubled foster care By Julia Lyon and Brooke Adams The Salt Lake Tribune 04/09/2008 http://www.sltrib.com/polygamy/ci_8859784 The Legislature reformed the state's foster care system after a series of highly publicized abuses in 2004. Still, serious problems remain, according to a September 2007 report prepared for Texas Appleseed, a nonprofit public interest group that researches social service issues. "Since January 2007, nearly 500 children have spent at least one night in a state office building" due to the shortage of foster families. http://www.window.state.tx.us/news/60623statement.html Comp Strayhorn's stmt below ... my investigation about the deaths, poisonings, rapes and pregnancies of children in our state's foster care system. "I found, from information provided by the Texas Department of Family and Protective Services, in Fiscal 2003, 30 foster children died in our state's care; in Fiscal 2004, 38 foster children died; and in Fiscal 2005, 48 foster children died. "Data shows that while the number of foster children in our state's care increased 24 percent from 26,133 in Fiscal 2003 to 32,474 in Fiscal 2005, the number of deaths increased 60 percent. "If you compare the number of deaths of children in our state's population to the number of deaths in our state's foster care system, a child is four times more likely to die in our state's foster care system. "Based on Fiscal 2004 data provided by the Health and Human Services Commission, about 100 children received treatment for poisoning from medications; 63 foster children received medical treatment for rape that occurred while in the foster care system; and 142 children gave birth while in the state foster care system. "As alarming as these cases are, we can only imagine how much worse the Fiscal 2005 data is because Gov. Perry's Health and Human Services Commission has refused to provide the data needed to complete my investigation. "In Fiscal 2004, four-year old twin boys living in the same foster home received medical treatment in the hospital for rape. "A 15-year old girl who was not pregnant when she entered our state's foster care system in May 2002 gave birth Feb 20 Foster-care abuse costs - $3.5 million in 13 months By Mareva Brown Bee Staff Writer (Published Nov. 14, 1999) http://robtshepherd.tripod.com/lawsuits.html In the last 13 months, the state of California has settled or paid claims of more than $3.5 million on behalf of children harmed or killed by their foster parents, state documents show. Housing for FLDS children has issues The Salt Lake Tribune 05/05/2008 some facilities now housing FLDS children have been written up for violations. Kidz Harbor in Liverpool, for example, was cited in February for lack of supervision that allowed two children to engage in sexual activity. Cal Farley failed to report bruises on a child and a critical injury; a staff member also ridiculed a child for not finishing a task. Presbyterian Children's Homes & Services, which operates both foster homes and group shelters, was cited last year for foster parents who held inappropriate conversations in front of children; used discipline that included use of a belt and making a child stand on one foot in a closed closet; and failing to report a 17-year-old girl had run away. Reports on facilities are available at www.dfps.state.tx.us/Child_Care/Search_Texas_Child_Care/ppFacilitySearchResidential.asp http://www.liftingtheveil.org/foster04.htm HOW WIDESPREAD A PROBLEM? 28% children in state care abused in system Baltimore 21% 21 percent of abuse or neglect cases involved foster homes In Louisiana hundreds of foster children had been shipped out of the state to Texas. 57% In Missouri, a 1981 placed in foster care settings that put them "at the very least at a high risk of abuse or neglect." report issued in 1987 found that 25 percent of the children in the Missouri sample group had been victims of "abuse or inappropriate punishment." 25% Kansas City of the children in the sample were the subject of abuse or inappropriate punishment. 12.5%foster children in the State of Arizona ...over 500 of an estimated 4,000 foster children, a figure representing at least 12.5 percent of the state's foster care population, have been sexually abused while in state care. http://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/factsheets/foster.cfm Abuse and Neglect by Foster Parents As reported in Child Maltreatment 2003, 0.5 percent of the perpetrators of abuse or neglect were foster parents (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2005b). http://www.nccpr.org/newissues/1.html * In group homes there was more than ten times the rate of physical abuse and more than 28 times the rate of sexual abuse as in the general population, in part because so many children in the homes abused each other. * A study of foster children in Oregon and Washington State found that nearly one third reported being abused by a foster parent or another adult in a foster home. · A study of cases in Fulton and DeKalb Counties in Georgia found that among children whose case goal was adoption, 34 percent had experienced abuse, neglect, or other harmful conditions. For those children who had recently entered the system, 15 percent had experienced abuse, neglect or other harmful conditions in just one year. * alumni of the Casey Family Program were interviewed, 24 percent of the girls said they were victims of actual or attempted sexual abuse in their foster homes. "Since 1988, the Michigan family preservation program has served more than 100,000 children. During the first two years, two children died during the intervention. In nearly two decades since, there has not been a single fatality. In contrast, when Illinois effectively abandoned family preservation, there were five child abuse deaths in foster care in just one year." FEDERAL SURVEY OF RISK FACTORS IN ABUSE http://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/statsinfo/nis3.cfm#national Child's Sex. Girls were sexually abused about three times more often than boys, under both the Harm Standard and the Endangerment Standard. This Boys were at somewhat greater risk of serious injury (24% higher than girls' risk under both definitional standards), and boys were significantly more likely to be emotionally neglected (boys' risk was 18% greater than girls'). Race. The NIS-3 found no race differences in maltreatment incidence. The NIS-3 reiterates the findings of the earlier national incidence studies in this regard. That is, the NIS-1 and the NIS-2 also found no significant race differences in the incidence of maltreatment or maltreatment-related injuries. The NIS findings suggest that the different races receive differential attention somewhere during the process of referral, investigation, and service allocation, and that the differential representation of minorities in the child welfare population does not derive from inherent differences in the rates at which they are abused or neglected. It is also important to recognize that while there are no overall race differences in the incidence of child abuse and neglect in the NIS-3 findings, subsequent analyses that simultaneously consider multiple characteristics may reveal race differences in maltreatment incidence among specific subsets of children (e.g., for children of certain ages, for one sex but not the other, etc.). income: Compared to children whose families earned $30,000 per year or more, those in families with annual incomes below $15,000 per year were more than 22 times more likely to experience some form of maltreatment under the Harm Standard and over 25 times more likely to suffer maltreatment of some type using the Endangerment Standard; almost 14 times more likely to be harmed by some variety of abuse and nearly 15 times more likely to be abused using the Endangerment Standard criteria; %%African American / Race AFRICAN AMERICANS SPEND MORE TIME IN FOSTER CARE, LESS REUNIFIED OR ADOPTED IN TEXAS http://www.dfps.state.tx.us/Documents/about/pdf/2006-07-01_Disproportionality.pdf July 1, 2006, Disproportionality in Child Protective Services - Policy Evaluation and Remediation Plan In Texas, even when other factors are taken into account, African-American children spend significantly more time in foster care or other substitute care, are less likely to be reunified with their families, and wait longer for adoption than Anglo or Hispanic children. Over 60 percent of child removals in Texas involve families with annual incomes of about $10,000 or less. This is a factor in disproportionality because poverty rates are higher among African-American families. • The statewide analysis does not reveal a significant association between African-American race and a CPS decision to remove a child from the home when controlling for factors including income, age of the victim, type of abuse or neglect allegation, source of report, and region of the state. The analysis did find that Hispanic children are significantly less likely than Anglo children to be removed from the home while Native-American children are significantly more likely. AFAM FAMILIES TWICE AS LIKELY TO REPORT CHILD MALTREATMENT "Data show that African-American families are up to ***twice as likely*** to be reported for child maltreatment than Anglo families." \doc\web\2008\06\TexasCPSRace2004.xls BLACKS 2X REPORTED/INVESTIGATIONS/FOSTER CARE VS WHITES Table 1: CPS Actions per 1,000 Children Texas Population 2004* Reports Investigations Removals Foster Care African-American 65.0 52.9 4.2 6.6 Hispanic 34.6 27.2 1.6 2.3 Anglo 35.5 28.7 1.7 2.2 All Children 39.6 30.3 1.9 2.7 *Based on U.S. Census Bureau 2004 American Community Survey for Texas Figure 1 below shows that while African-American children comprised only 12 percent of the Texas child population in 2004, they comprised 19 percent of the children reported to CPS, Children by Race/ Ethnicity In Texas Population and CPS 2004 AfricanAm Hispanic Anglo Asian/Other Pop 12 43 40 5 reports 19 38 36 7 investigations 21 39 38 2 removals 26 36 36 2 foster care 29 37 33 1 Rate reports -1.76 1.02 0.90 -1.56 investigations -1.66 1.16 1.06 2.64 removals -2.29 1.13 0.95 2.37 foster care -2.64 1.07 0.92 4.58 Blacks removed / foster care at 2.2-2.7 times white rate Hispanics about 7-13% less likely to be removed/foster Asians/Other 3-5 times LESS likely than whites investigated, removed or foster care ==================================== Ranked by foster care rate -2.64 Black 1.00 White 1.07 Hispanic 4.58 Asian/other ==================================== WASHINGTON CLOSES OFFICE FOR BLACK CHILDREN IN WELFARE State closes "flawed" office to help black children in welfare system http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/localnews/2004397221_oaacs07m.html By Maureen O'Hagan The Office of African-American Children's Services — once considered a national model in the way it tried to address the high number of black kids in the child-welfare system — has officially closed. ...The federal government said Washington can't transfer children into programs simply because they're black. According to a 2004 study, African-American kids make up 30 percent of kids in long-term foster care but only 7 percent of King County's population %%Death Child 4 times more likely to die in Texas foster care system http://www.statesman.com/news/content/region/legislature/stories/05/01/0501foster.html quote from the Forgotten Children report (2004) "If you compare the number of deaths of children in our state's population to the number of deaths in our state's foster care system, a child is four times more likely to die in our state's foster care system." %%Financial Incentive States and counties have a financial incentive to place as many children as possible in foster care. Child Abuse is Child Protection is Mental Health Treatment is Drugging Children http://www.wildestcolts.com/safeEducation/cps.html .. a law passed by Congress in 1961. As the National Coalition for Child Protection Reform (NCCPR) points out in a Child Welfare Timeline on their website (www.nccpr.org), this law allowed AFDC payments to follow a child into foster care. As such payments were previously made only to children in their own homes, this made foster care much cheaper for states and localities. This shift in funding facilitated a rapid growth in foster care. Another effect, perhaps unintended, was to undermine any emphasis on family preservation and restoration. ... As Swanson reported, the state of Texas pays treatment centers as much as $101,105 a year per child. ...the key to understanding the shift toward placing ever more children in foster care, and less and less emphasis on family preservation and restoration.,,a county will only continue to receive funding for the period it keeps the child in its care...there is a "perverse financial incentive" to place and retain children in foster care rather than leave them in the home. Incentives are set up for maximum intervention. NCCPR issue paper # 5 informs us that, “The National Commission on Children found that children often are removed from their families ‘prematurely or unnecessarily’ because federal aid formulas give states ‘a strong financial incentive’ to do so rather than provide services to keep families together.” %%Race Child Welfare Information Gateway http://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/factsheets/foster.cfm Point in Time. Of the estimated 523,000 children in foster care as of September 30, 2003, 39 percent were White/Non-Hispanic, 35 percent were Black/Non-Hispanic, 17 percent were Hispanic, and 9 percent were other races/ethnic origins.6 Trends. The percentage of Black/Non-Hispanic children in care as of September 30 dropped 9 percentage points (from 44 to 35 percent) between FY 1998 and FY 2003, while percentages for all other race/ethnicity categories increased slightly. Entries. Of the estimated 297,000 children who entered foster care during FY 2003, 46 percent were White/Non-Hispanic, 27 percent were Black/Non-Hispanic, 17 percent were Hispanic, and 9 percent were other races/ethnic origins. Exits. Of the estimated 281,000 children who exited foster care during FY 2003, 46 percent were White/Non-Hispanic, 29 percent were Black/Non-Hispanic, 16 percent were Hispanic, and 9 percent were other races/ethnic origins. %%Reasons http://encyclopedia.adoption.com/entry/foster-care/144/1.html 1998 study in Pediatrics primary reasons why children entered foster care 749 foster children in the San Francisco area. 30% neglect 25% physical abuse 24% no available caretaker Other children entered care because of a failed placement or sexual abuse. biological parents of the foster children. 30% substance abuse 9% incarceration 5% psychiatric illness Of those who had used illegal drugs 15% had been imprisoned 4% psychiatric problems. %%Statistics http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/stats_research/afcars/tar/report10.htm U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children's Bureau, www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb The AFCARS Report -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Interim FY 2003 Estimates as of June 2006 (10) How many children were in foster care on September 30, 2003? 520,000 SOURCE: Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS) data submitted for the FY 2003, 10/1/02 through 9/30/03. NOTES: Data from both the regular and revised submissions received by June 2006 are included in the information below. Missing data are not used in the calculation of percentages. What were the ages of the children in foster care? Mean Years 10.2 Median Years 10.9 Less than 1 Year 5% 25,169 1 Year 6% 29,717 2 Years 5% 27,979 3 Years 5% 25,426 4 Years 5% 23,911 5 Years 4% 22,360 6 Years 4% 21,118 7 Years 4% 21,012 8 Years 4% 21,046 9 Years 4% 21,711 10 Years 4% 23,346 11 Years 5% 24,705 12 Years 5% 26,964 13 Years 6% 30,029 14 Years 7% 34,152 15 Years 7% 38,540 16 Years 8% 40,696 17 Years 7% 37,749 18 Years 3% 14,767 19 Years 1% 5,848 20 Years 1% 3,755 What were the lengths of stay in foster care? Mean Months 31.2 Median Months 17.6 Less than 1 Month 4% 23,381 1 to 5 Months 18% 93,495 6 to 11 Months 16% 83,742 12 to 17 Months 12% 63,383 18 to 23 Months 9% 45,686 24 to 29 Months 7% 35,691 30 to 35 Months 5% 26,856 3 to 4 Yrs 12% 64,417 5 Years or More 16% 83,349 What were the placement settings of children in foster care? Pre-Adoptive Home 5% 24,806 Foster Family Home (Relative) 23% 121,511 Foster Family Home (Non-Relative) 46% 240,916 Group Home 9% 45,828 Institution 10% 51,549 Supervised Independent Living 1% 5,525 Runaway 2% 10,657 Trial Home Visit 4% 19,206 What were the case goals of the children in foster care? Reunify with Parent(s) or Principal Caretaker(s) 48% 249,549 Live with Other Relative(s) 5% 24,450 Adoption 20% 105,171 Long Term Foster Care 8% 44,006 Emancipation 6% 31,793 Guardianship 3% 15,561 Case Plan Goal Not Yet Established 10% 49,469 What was the race/ethnicity of the children in foster care? AI/AN Non-Hispanic 2% 10,153 Asian-Non Hispanic 1% 3,261 Black-Non Hispanic 35% 183,901 Hawaiian/PI-Non Hispanic 0% 1,524 Hispanic 17% 90,846 White-Non Hispanic 39% 202,992 Unknown/Unable to Determine 3% 13,010 Two or More-Non Hispanic 3% 14,312 NOTE: Using U.S. Bureau of the Census standards, children of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Beginning in FY 2000, children could be identified with more than one race designation. What was the gender of the children in foster care? Male 53% 273,138 Female 47% 246,862 How many children entered foster care during FY 2003? 296,000 What were the ages of the children who entered care during FY 2003? Mean Years 8.4 Median Years 8.3 Less than 1 Year 14% 41,539 1 Year 6% 18,678 2 Years 6% 17,059 3 Years 5% 15,211 4 Years 5% 14,141 5 Years 4% 13,041 6 Years 4% 12,415 7 Years 4% 11,918 8 Years 4% 11,439 9 Years 4% 11,449 10 Years 4% 11,496 11 Years 4% 12,239 12 Years 5% 13,859 13 Years 6% 16,869 14 Years 7% 20,113 15 Years 8% 22,209 16 Years 7% 19,739 17 Years 4% 11,872 18 Years 0% 573 19 Years 0% 116 20 Years 0% 25 What was the race/ethnicity of the children who entered care during FY 2003? AI/AN-Non Hispanic 2% 6,717 Asian-Non Hispanic 1% 2,631 Black-Non Hispanic 27% 80,063 Hawaiian/PI-Non Hispanic 0% 1,093 Hispanic 17% 51,247 White-Non Hispanic 46% 137,471 Unknown/Unable to Determine 3% 7,749 Two or More-Non Hispanic 3% 9,029 @@general adoption "Adoption Gridlock" US News & World Report June 2, 1998 Amanda Spake. 200,000 in foster care Many Americans give up on American adoption, even blacks in favor of foreign adoption. 125,000 total adoptions in 1997 6% public adoptions 35% private adoptions $10,000 to $35,000 13,620 overseas agencies put more importance on race and kin than needs of children adults who grew up in temporary homes - 15-56% never complete hs or get GED. up to 50% spend time on pub assistance, one-third of males commit crimes as adults. 39% of homeless spent time in foster homes. 1977 foster children spent 2.4 yrs in out of home care, now, 3 yrs. 55% of foster care paymnets is federal, $3.5 billion in 1997. Only 38% of foreign adoptees are white, 62% are of color. 55% of US adoptees are minority, 45% white. 40,000 US on track for adoption. 58% of foster kids have serious health problems, 62% at risk due to prenatal exposure to drugs. 57% of foreign have at least one serious health condition. Trans-racial only 4% of adoptions. American University sociologist Rita Simon says she has done the only long-term studies, finds that adoptees undergo adjustments, but learn to fit into both cultures. Richard Barth UC Berkeley found 6 years after foster placement, 11% white, 33% blacks still in system. White 5X more likely than black at same age. OF 90 adoptive families, 40% would be interested in other races if available. African American infant as likely as white preschool, black child at 7 or 8 may never be adopted. @@Kin "Adoption Gridlock" US News & World Report June 2, 1998 Amanda Spake Kin preferred, but they don't adopt, more common in black urban area. Kinship pays as much as public assistance, more than for special needs children. 2/3 are grandparents, 43% dropped out of high school, 58% jobless, 39% in poverty. asian.adoption.opinion @@opinion US News survey said 70% prefer children to be raised by single parents than two-parent adoptive families. \doc\95\02\honorch.txt "Honor Thy Children" US News and World REport Feb 27, 1995 p. 42 @@selling babies \priv\95\17\parababy.txt - Paraguay babies are practically for sale.