Hu's Index of Diversity | Index Home


Asian children are among the most popular inter-racial adoptions. Korea used to lead but now China is number 1. Korea has pulled back over embarrassment. Asian adoptions tend to be girls, who aren't as popular for keeping among Asians.

Studies show no evidence that adopted children suffer, but many agencies make it all but impossible for white families to adopt black children which has been called by at least one agency "cultural genocide". Ironically, it is socially unacceptable to aid black children by adoption even though this is the only proven method to reliably increase black IQ, but Americans instead are driven to prefer Asian or Latin American children over perhaps more deserving African American children because of racial politics.


1992 source? In 1972 2500/Yr 1973 1000 Now less than 600 In 1972 a
black association called it "a form of genocide". The NAACP "does not
endorse" transracial adoption. Studies show no evidence of harm. Rita
Sims - I feel richer from knowing both sides. Black social workers
says the lose racial identification.  Surveys show they ARE aware,
comfortable that middle class is not un-black. Usually under age of
2. Alternative is not placed or foster care. Wait time is 2x compared
to white children

\clip\96\12\adoption\adoption.htm Texas Interracial Adoption Case
Reflects National Debate Sue Anne Pressley Washington Post Staff
Writer Thursday, January 2, 1997; Page A01 After more than two
heart-wrenching years, the Mullens have finally been allowed to adopt
the brothers, but the adoption was approved only after they filed
suit charging the Texas Department of Protective and Regulatory
Services with racial discrimination in its adoption practices. 

RACE DIFFER Seattle Times (SE) - Sunday October 22, 1995 Wash law was
changed after somebody sued claiming discrimiation is wrong. Others
still make mostly same-race placement.

Times (SE) - Sunday October 22, 1995 sometimes kids don't fit,
teacher asks black for black culture that parents don't know. Asians
easier to get culture through nanny (?)    "I see less of an identity
and social problem developing in the future with  my  Chinese
daughter "  Internatinal adoption is an alternative

Sunday October 22, 1995       The  Multiethnic  Placement  Act,
co-sponsored by Illinois Sen. Carol Mosely  Braun  and former Ohio
Sen. Howard Metzenbaum, was signed last year by   President   Clinton.
The  law,  which  went  into  effect  yesterday, essentially
prohibits  public  and  private  agencies that receive federal funds
from  denying or delaying adoptions solely on the basis of the race,
color or national origin of the prospective adoptive parents.

\priv\95\10\raceadop.htm - cross racial adoption opposed by some
blacks, supported by other. "Adoption In Black And White" Time
Magazine article August 14, 1995 The National Association of Black
Social Workers condemned interracial adoption, eventually branding
such placements "cultural genocide."

Among the adoptable children, 44% are white and 43% are black. But 67%
of all families waiting to adopt are white. 43 states favor race

"Storming the Color Barrier" Newsweek March 20, 1995 p. 29 The
National Adoption Cener's register showed that in  1991, an estimated
percent of children waiting for homes were black, compared to 31% of
families seeking children were black.

Interracial adoptions are officially or unofficially barred in 43 of
the 50 states.

d:\priv\95\04\crosadop.txt - trans adoptions on rise in Illinois.

Of the 363 DCFS children who currently need a home, 230 are black, 129 are
white, three are Latino and one is predominantly Native American. A small
percentage in the system at any time are infants, but DCFS does not have
exact figures, according to Morgan.

\priv\95\03\chinadop.txt - Chinese abandon girls, so only
girls are generally available NAW March 4, 1995

doc936:mail.916 - foreign adoptions not kidnapping

doc942\colrbind.txt - wrong to adopt blacks?
INS yearbook shows adoptions by country, Asian girls, black boys preferred.


China is now Americas largest source of adopted infants. Nearly all
childrern in orphanages are girls since boys are preferred, and
families nay only have one child


\clip\99\01\chinadop.txt More U.S. Couples Adopting Abroad By Renee
Schoof Associated Press Writer Saturday, January 9, 1999
Last year Americans adopted 13,621 foreign children, twice the total 20
years earlier. China is the second most popular place for American
adoptions overseas after Russia, followed by South Korea, Guatemala and

China's trying to promote more in-country adoptions Seattle Times Nov
7, 1998 a6 Maggie Farley Los Angeles Times New law lowers min age to
30 from 35, may have children, amd may adopt more than one, fears
loopholes would be used to get around .  Nearly all childen in
orphanages are girls.  4,000 adopted out of china, 96% went to
America. Foreign adoptions considered to be embarassment

\doc\96\02\chinadop.txt "Give me your
squalling masses" Economist Feb 3, 1996 p. 22 More Chinese babies,
2,130, were adopted in 1995 than in the previous 5 years combined.
Russia was #2 at 1,896, and South Korea has fallen to third with
1,666. Most are girls abandoned by parents who want boys because of
the one-child policy. Some are left to be found in parks or train

>>"No Baby Killing in China" Op Ed responses that Chinese do not
deliberately kill babies in orphanages. 6,000 have been adopted by
Americans. WSJ 1/25/96 f012596

>>\doc\95\14\chinadop.txt Peter Herz notes one-child policy has resulted
abandoned girl children up for adoption


Ross Institute Polygamy links


- children missed school for month
- infant hospitalized for dehydration
- chicken pox
- arena is not a housing facility
- children had no change of clothes
- based on pattern of phone calls, call could easily have been determined to be fraud
- no individual handling of child legal cases
- under rules, no one in that community is allowed to raise a child, not even
infant, boy, or preteen girls because of "pervasive custom of underage marriage"

ACLU: "While we acknowledge that Judge Walthers' task may be
unprecedented in Texas judicial history, we question whether the
current proceedings adequately protect the fundamental rights of the
mothers and children of the FLDS," said Terri Burke, executive
director of the ACLU of Texas, in a statement.  While the ACLU
"deplores" crimes against children, Burke said that "constitutional
rights that all Americans rely upon and cherish - that we are secure
in our homes, that we may worship as we please and hold our places of
worship sacred, and that we may be with our children absent evidence
of imminent danger - have been threatened" by the state's actions.
Lisa Graybill, legal director for the ACLU of Texas, said officials
may have violated the U.S. Constitution and state laws in how they
conducted the raid and the subsequent custody hearing.  "The
government must ensure that each mother and each child in its custody
receives due process of law in determining the placement of the
children and other matters regarding the children's care," she said in
the statement.

channel A July 1997 \clip\97\17\adopt\adopt.htm Foreign Exchange:
Foreign Adoptions Place Parents and Children Between Two Cultures.

Top sources of Asian Adopted Children
1  China       3333
2  Korea       1516
3  India        380
4  Vietnam      354
5  Phillipines  229

Foreign Adoption Statistics
Last year, Americans adopted slightly over 11,000 children from overseas.
China is currently the most common country of origin. Percent of foreign
adoption by country, 1996.

China	 29.3%
Russia	 22.4%
Korea	 14.0%
Romania	   4.9%
Guatemala 3.7%
India	   3.4%
Vietnam	   3.1%
Colombia	   2.3%
Paraguay	   2.3%
Philippines 2.0%
Other	  12.6%

Source:`U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, U.S. Dept of State

@@Foster Care
"Generally refers to the system set up to protect children who are
abused, neglected or abandoned or whose parents or primary caretakers
are unable to fulfill their parenting obligations because of illness,
emotional problems or a host of other reasons.'


Real Facts about Foster Care Systemn Anti CPS protest site

FLDS kids may overload Texas' troubled foster care By Julia Lyon and
Brooke Adams The Salt Lake Tribune 04/09/2008
The Legislature reformed the state's foster care system after a
series of highly publicized abuses in 2004. Still, serious problems
remain, according to a September 2007 report prepared for Texas
Appleseed, a nonprofit public interest group that researches social
service issues.  "Since January 2007, nearly 500 children have spent at
least one night in a state office building" due to the shortage of
foster families. Comp
Strayhorn's stmt below ... my investigation about the deaths,
poisonings, rapes and pregnancies of children in our state's foster
care system. 

   "I found, from information provided by the Texas Department of
Family and Protective Services, in Fiscal 2003, 30 foster children
died in our state's care; in Fiscal 2004, 38 foster children died; and
in Fiscal 2005, 48 foster children died. 

   "Data shows that while the number of foster children in our state's
care increased 24 percent from 26,133 in Fiscal 2003 to 32,474 in
Fiscal 2005, the number of deaths increased 60 percent. 

   "If you compare the number of deaths of children in our state's
population to the number of deaths in our state's foster care system,
a child is four times more likely to die in our state's foster care

   "Based on Fiscal 2004 data provided by the Health and Human
Services Commission, about 100 children received treatment for
poisoning from medications; 63 foster children received medical
treatment for rape that occurred while in the foster care system; and
142 children gave birth while in the state foster care system. 

   "As alarming as these cases are, we can only imagine how much worse
the Fiscal 2005 data is because Gov. Perry's Health and Human Services
Commission has refused to provide the data needed to complete my

   "In Fiscal 2004, four-year old twin boys living in the same foster
home received medical treatment in the hospital for rape. 

   "A 15-year old girl who was not pregnant when she entered our
state's foster care system in May 2002 gave birth Feb 20

Foster-care abuse costs - $3.5 million in 13 months By Mareva Brown
Bee Staff Writer (Published Nov. 14, 1999) In the last 13 months,
the state of California has settled or paid claims of more than $3.5
million on behalf of children harmed or killed by their foster
parents, state documents show.

Housing for FLDS children has issues The Salt Lake Tribune 05/05/2008
some facilities now housing FLDS children have been written up for
violations.  Kidz Harbor in Liverpool, for example, was cited in
February for lack of supervision that allowed two children to engage
in sexual activity. Cal Farley failed to report
bruises on a child and a critical injury; a staff member also
ridiculed a child for not finishing a task.  Presbyterian Children's
Homes & Services, which operates both foster homes and group shelters,
was cited last year for foster parents who held inappropriate
conversations in front of children; used discipline that included use
of a belt and making a child stand on one foot in a closed closet; and
failing to report a 17-year-old girl had run away.  Reports on
facilities are available at
28% children in state care abused in system Baltimore
21%  21 percent of abuse or neglect cases involved foster homes In Louisiana
     hundreds of foster children had been shipped out of the state to Texas.
57%  In Missouri, a 1981 placed in foster care settings that put them "at
     the very least at a high risk of abuse or neglect."[4]
     report issued in 1987 found that 25 percent of the children in
     the Missouri sample group had been victims of "abuse or inappropriate
25%  Kansas City of the children
     in the sample were the subject of abuse or inappropriate punishment.
     children in the State of Arizona ...over 500 of an estimated 4,000
     foster children, a figure representing at least 12.5 percent of the
     state's foster care population, have been sexually abused while in
     state care.
Abuse and Neglect by Foster Parents As reported in Child Maltreatment
2003, 0.5 percent of the perpetrators of abuse or neglect were foster
parents (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2005b).

* In group homes there was more than ten times the rate of physical
abuse and more than 28 times the rate of sexual abuse as in the
general population[2], in part because so many children in the homes
abused each other.[3]

* A study of foster children in Oregon and Washington State found
that nearly one third reported being abused by a foster parent or
another adult in a foster home.[4]

· A study of cases in Fulton and DeKalb Counties in Georgia found that
among children whose case goal was adoption, 34 percent had
experienced abuse, neglect, or other harmful conditions.  For those
children who had recently entered the system, 15 percent had
experienced abuse, neglect or other harmful conditions in just one

* alumni of the Casey Family Program were interviewed, 24 percent of
the girls said they were victims of actual or attempted sexual abuse
in their foster homes.

"Since 1988, the Michigan family preservation program has served more
than 100,000 children. During the first two years, two children died
during the intervention. In nearly two decades since, there has not
been a single fatality.[12] In contrast, when Illinois effectively
abandoned family preservation, there were five child abuse deaths in
foster care in just one year."

Child's Sex. Girls were sexually abused about three times more often
than boys, under both the Harm Standard and the Endangerment Standard.

Boys were at somewhat greater risk of serious injury (24% higher than
girls' risk under both definitional standards), and boys were
significantly more likely to be emotionally neglected (boys' risk was
18% greater than girls').

Race. The NIS-3 found no race differences in maltreatment incidence.
The NIS-3 reiterates the findings of the earlier national incidence
studies in this regard. That is, the NIS-1 and the NIS-2 also found no
significant race differences in the incidence of maltreatment or
maltreatment-related injuries. The NIS findings suggest that the
different races receive differential attention somewhere during the
process of referral, investigation, and service allocation, and that
the differential representation of minorities in the child welfare
population does not derive from inherent differences in the rates at
which they are abused or neglected. It is also important to recognize
that while there are no overall race differences in the incidence of
child abuse and neglect in the NIS-3 findings, subsequent analyses
that simultaneously consider multiple characteristics may reveal race
differences in maltreatment incidence among specific subsets of
children (e.g., for children of certain ages, for one sex but not the
other, etc.).

income: Compared to children whose families earned $30,000 per year or
more, those in families with annual incomes below $15,000 per year

more than 22 times more likely to experience some form of maltreatment
under the Harm Standard and over 25 times more likely to suffer
maltreatment of some type using the Endangerment Standard; almost 14
times more likely to be harmed by some variety of abuse and nearly 15
times more likely to be abused using the Endangerment Standard

%%African American / Race

July 1, 2006, Disproportionality in Child Protective Services - Policy
Evaluation and Remediation Plan

In Texas, even when other factors are taken into account,
African-American children spend significantly more time in foster care
or other substitute care, are less likely to be reunified with their
families, and wait longer for adoption than Anglo or Hispanic

Over 60 percent of child removals in Texas involve families with
annual incomes of about $10,000 or less. This is a factor in
disproportionality because poverty rates are higher among
African-American families.

• The statewide analysis does not reveal a significant association
between African-American race and a CPS decision to remove a child
from the home when controlling for factors including income, age of
the victim, type of abuse or neglect allegation, source of report, and
region of the state. The analysis did find that Hispanic children are
significantly less likely than Anglo children to be removed from the
home while Native-American children are significantly more likely.

"Data show that African-American families are up to ***twice as
likely*** to be reported for child maltreatment than Anglo families."

Table 1: CPS Actions per 1,000 Children
Texas Population 2004*

Foster Care
All Children
*Based on U.S. Census Bureau 2004 American Community Survey for Texas

Figure 1 below shows that while African-American children comprised
only 12 percent of the Texas child population in 2004, they comprised
19 percent of the children reported to CPS,

Children by Race/ Ethnicity In Texas Population and CPS 2004                            
                AfricanAm       Hispanic        Anglo   Asian/Other
Pop             12      43      40      5
reports         19      38      36      7
investigations  21      39      38      2
removals        26      36      36      2
foster care     29      37      33      1

reports         -1.76   1.02    0.90    -1.56
investigations  -1.66   1.16    1.06    2.64
removals        -2.29   1.13    0.95    2.37
foster care     -2.64   1.07    0.92    4.58
Blacks removed / foster care at 2.2-2.7 times white rate                                
Hispanics about 7-13% less likely to be removed/foster                          
Asians/Other 3-5 times LESS likely than whites investigated, removed or foster care

Ranked by foster care rate
-2.64 Black
 1.00 White
 1.07 Hispanic
 4.58 Asian/other

State closes "flawed" office to help black children in welfare system
By Maureen O'Hagan The Office of African-American Children's Services
— once considered a national model in the way it tried to address the
high number of black kids in the child-welfare system — has officially
closed.  ...The federal government said Washington can't transfer
children into programs simply because they're black.  According to a
2004 study, African-American kids make up 30 percent of kids in
long-term foster care but only 7 percent of King County's population


Child 4 times more likely to die in Texas foster care system
quote from the Forgotten Children report (2004)
"If you compare the number of deaths of children in our state's 
population to the number of deaths in our state's foster care system, a 
child is four times more likely to die in our state's foster care system."

%%Financial Incentive

States and counties have a financial incentive to place as many
children as possible in foster care.

Child Abuse is Child Protection is Mental Health Treatment is Drugging
..  a law passed by Congress in 1961. As the National Coalition for
Child Protection Reform (NCCPR) points out in a Child Welfare Timeline
on their website (, this law allowed AFDC payments to
follow a child into foster care. As such payments were previously made
only to children in their own homes, this made foster care much
cheaper for states and localities. This shift in funding facilitated a
rapid growth in foster care. Another effect, perhaps unintended, was
to undermine any emphasis on family preservation and restoration.  ...
As Swanson reported, the state of Texas pays treatment centers as much
as $101,105 a year per child.  ...the key to understanding the shift
toward placing ever more children in foster care, and less and less
emphasis on family preservation and restoration.,,a county will only
continue to receive funding for the period it keeps the child in its
care...there is a "perverse financial incentive" to place and retain
children in foster care rather than leave them in the home. Incentives
are set up for maximum intervention. NCCPR issue paper # 5 informs us
that, “The National Commission on Children found that children often
are removed from their families ‘prematurely or unnecessarily’ because
federal aid formulas give states ‘a strong financial incentive’ to do
so rather than provide services to keep families together.” 


Child Welfare Information Gateway Point in Time.
Of the estimated 523,000 children in foster care as of September 30,
2003, 39 percent were White/Non-Hispanic, 35 percent were
Black/Non-Hispanic, 17 percent were Hispanic, and 9 percent were other
races/ethnic origins.6

Trends. The percentage of Black/Non-Hispanic children in care as of
September 30 dropped 9 percentage points (from 44 to 35 percent)
between FY 1998 and FY 2003, while percentages for all other
race/ethnicity categories increased slightly.

Entries. Of the estimated 297,000 children who entered foster care
during FY 2003, 46 percent were White/Non-Hispanic, 27 percent were
Black/Non-Hispanic, 17 percent were Hispanic, and 9 percent were other
races/ethnic origins.

Exits. Of the estimated 281,000 children who exited foster care during
FY 2003, 46 percent were White/Non-Hispanic, 29 percent were
Black/Non-Hispanic, 16 percent were Hispanic, and 9 percent were other
races/ethnic origins.

1998 study in Pediatrics
primary reasons why children entered foster care
749 foster children in the San Francisco area.
30% neglect
25% physical abuse
24% no available caretaker
Other children entered care because of a
failed placement or sexual abuse.

biological parents of the foster children.
30% substance abuse
9%  incarceration
5%  psychiatric illness

Of those who had used illegal drugs
15% had been imprisoned
4%  psychiatric problems.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children's Bureau,

The AFCARS Report


Interim FY 2003 Estimates as of June 2006 (10)

How many children were in foster care on September 30, 2003?  520,000

SOURCE: Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System
(AFCARS) data submitted for the FY 2003, 10/1/02 through 9/30/03.

NOTES: Data from both the regular and revised submissions received by
June 2006 are included in the information below. Missing data are not
used in the calculation of percentages.

What were the ages of the children in foster care?
Mean Years 10.2  
Median Years 10.9   
Less than 1 Year 5% 25,169 
1 Year 6% 29,717 
2 Years 5% 27,979 
3 Years 5% 25,426 
4 Years 5% 23,911 
5 Years 4% 22,360 
6 Years 4% 21,118 
7 Years 4% 21,012 
8 Years 4% 21,046 
9 Years 4% 21,711 
10 Years 4% 23,346 
11 Years 5% 24,705 
12 Years 5% 26,964 
13 Years 6% 30,029 
14 Years 7% 34,152 
15 Years 7% 38,540 
16 Years 8% 40,696 
17 Years 7% 37,749 
18 Years 3% 14,767 
19 Years 1% 5,848 
20 Years 1% 3,755 

What were the lengths of stay in foster care?
Mean Months 31.2  
Median Months 17.6 
Less than 1 Month 4% 23,381 
1 to 5 Months 18% 93,495 
6 to 11 Months 16% 83,742 
12 to 17 Months 12% 63,383 
18 to 23 Months 9% 45,686 
24 to 29 Months 7% 35,691 
30 to 35 Months 5% 26,856 
3 to 4 Yrs 12% 64,417 
5 Years or More 16% 83,349 

What were the placement settings of children in foster care?
Pre-Adoptive Home 5% 24,806 
Foster Family Home (Relative) 23% 121,511 
Foster Family Home (Non-Relative) 46% 240,916 
Group Home 9% 45,828 
Institution 10% 51,549 
Supervised Independent Living 1% 5,525 
Runaway 2% 10,657 
Trial Home Visit 4% 19,206 

What were the case goals of the children in foster care?

Reunify with Parent(s) or Principal Caretaker(s) 48% 249,549 
Live with Other Relative(s) 5% 24,450 
Adoption 20% 105,171 
Long Term Foster Care 8% 44,006 
Emancipation 6% 31,793 
Guardianship 3% 15,561 
Case Plan Goal Not Yet Established 10% 49,469 

What was the race/ethnicity of the children in foster care?

AI/AN Non-Hispanic 2% 10,153 
Asian-Non Hispanic 1% 3,261 
Black-Non Hispanic 35% 183,901 
Hawaiian/PI-Non Hispanic 0% 1,524 
Hispanic 17% 90,846 
White-Non Hispanic 39% 202,992 
Unknown/Unable to Determine 3% 13,010 
Two or More-Non Hispanic 3% 14,312 

NOTE: Using U.S. Bureau of the Census standards, children of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Beginning in FY 2000, children could be identified with more than one race designation.

What was the gender of the children in foster care?
Male 53% 273,138 
Female 47% 246,862 

How many children entered foster care during FY 2003?    296,000
What were the ages of the children who entered care during FY 2003?

Mean Years 8.4  
Median Years 8.3  
Less than 1 Year 14% 41,539 
1 Year 6% 18,678 
2 Years 6% 17,059 
3 Years 5% 15,211 
4 Years 5% 14,141 
5 Years 4% 13,041 
6 Years 4% 12,415 
7 Years 4% 11,918 
8 Years 4% 11,439 
9 Years 4% 11,449 
10 Years 4% 11,496 
11 Years 4% 12,239 
12 Years 5% 13,859 
13 Years 6% 16,869 
14 Years 7% 20,113 
15 Years 8% 22,209 
16 Years 7% 19,739 
17 Years 4% 11,872 
18 Years 0% 573 
19 Years 0% 116 
20 Years 0% 25 

What was the race/ethnicity of the children who entered care during FY 2003?
AI/AN-Non Hispanic 2% 6,717 
Asian-Non Hispanic 1% 2,631 
Black-Non Hispanic 27% 80,063 
Hawaiian/PI-Non Hispanic 0% 1,093 
Hispanic 17% 51,247 
White-Non Hispanic 46% 137,471 
Unknown/Unable to Determine 3% 7,749 
Two or More-Non Hispanic 3% 9,029 

@@general adoption

"Adoption Gridlock" US News & World Report June 2, 1998 Amanda Spake.
200,000 in foster care Many Americans give up on American adoption,
even blacks in favor of foreign adoption.  125,000 total adoptions in
1997 6% public adoptions 35% private adoptions $10,000 to $35,000
13,620 overseas agencies put more importance on race and kin than
needs of children adults who grew up in temporary homes - 15-56%
never complete hs or get GED. up to 50% spend time on pub assistance,
one-third of males commit crimes as adults. 39% of homeless spent
time in foster homes. 1977 foster children spent 2.4 yrs in out of
home care, now, 3 yrs. 55% of foster care paymnets is federal, $3.5
billion in 1997. Only 38% of foreign adoptees are white, 62% are of
color. 55% of US adoptees are minority, 45% white. 40,000 US on track
for adoption. 58% of foster kids have serious health problems, 62% at
risk due to prenatal exposure to drugs. 57% of foreign have at least
one serious health condition. Trans-racial only 4% of adoptions.
American University sociologist Rita Simon says she has done the only
long-term studies, finds that adoptees undergo adjustments, but learn
to fit into both cultures. Richard Barth UC Berkeley found 6 years
after foster placement, 11% white, 33% blacks still in system. White
5X more likely than black at same age. OF 90 adoptive families, 40%
would be interested in other races if available. African American
infant as likely as white preschool, black child at 7 or 8 may never
be adopted.


"Adoption Gridlock" US News & World Report June 2, 1998 Amanda Spake
Kin preferred, but they don't adopt, more common in
black urban area. Kinship pays as much as public assistance, more
than for special needs children. 2/3 are grandparents, 43% dropped
out of high school, 58% jobless, 39% in poverty.  


US News survey said 70% prefer children to be raised by single
parents than two-parent adoptive families.  \doc\95\02\honorch.txt
"Honor Thy Children" US News and World REport Feb 27, 1995 p. 42

@@selling babies

\priv\95\17\parababy.txt - Paraguay babies are practically for sale.