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Hu's Index of Education

Note: if you're looking for specific race admissions comparison, it's been dumped into the affirmative action page. This section concentrates on college going rates and population

Asians go to and graduate from college at the highest rates, are the most over-represented at elite colleges, and get the highest math test scores, and combined SAT scores. Asians are causing whites to be under-represented, while quota-based affirmative action goals are causing blacks to be better represented than whites at some of the most selective campuses.

No nation on earth except Canada (which is basically part of the US anyway :) ) graduates 25% and sends 50% of its young adults to higher education which you'll never hear anybody celebrate



Frequently Asked Questions

Which Groups Go to College at the Highest Rates?

Contents

General Reference

@@college asian Asian.College Asian College Spectrum 1998 LA Times Survey of US Colleges Undergraduate enrollment of Asians \clip\98\10\ascoll.txt http://www.latimes.com/HOME/NEWS/STATE/t000064679.html Los Angeles Times, Tuesday, July 14, 1998 The Changing Face of Higher Education Trends: Asian Americans' numbers and influence now mark all segments of college life. 58% UC Irvine 97 43% UC Riverside 97 41% UC Berkeley 97 40% UCLA 97 28% Massachusetts Institute of Technology 27% Cal Tech 97 24% Stanford 97 23% Wellesley 97 22% New York University 97 19% Harvard 97 18% Northwestern 97 17% Columbia 97 17% Yale 97 15% Brown 97 13% Princeton 97 12% Duke 97 Source: UC Berkeley Office of Student Research; Los Angeles Times survey of other universities. Degree Rates ---------------------------------------------- US 4yr deg 25-29 1998 W1.0 B-2.0 H-3.0 A1.7 Representation Spectrum vs US or state population -------------------------- 20.00 Chin MIT undergrad 1990 20.00 Jew grad UC Berkeley 98 11.24 Chin biological BA UC Berk 98 10.00 Jew undergrad UC Berk 98 10.00 Asian MIT undergrad 1990 8.59 Chin engineering UC Berk 98 8.51 Indi chemistry UC Berk 98 7.42 Chin undergrad UC Berk 98 6.89 Indi business UC Berk BA 98 6.22 Indi biological sciences BA 98 5.14 Indi engineering UC Berk BA 98 5.00 Indi undergrad UC Berk 98 3.65 Indi graduate UC Berk 98 2.76 Chin humanities UC Berk 98 2.44 Chin graduate UC Berk 98 2000 Census? z87\clip\2005\03\censusEducation.pdf Egyptian1 64.0 Asian 49.8 Lebanon1 39.0 Palestin1 38.0 NHWhite 30.0 White 27.6 Black 17.3 Hispanic 11.4 1 3/2005 Census report on Arab Americans Earnings in 2002 by educational attainment and race HsGrad Bach Advanced NHWhite $28,756 $53,185 $74,122 Black $16,516 $42,285 $59,944 Asian $24,900 $46,628 $72,852 Hisp $24,163 $40,949 $67,679 Black some college $27,626 ~= $28,756 white hs grad Foreign 4 Year College Rate spectrum ------------------------------ http://www.arthurhu.com/index/acollege.htm#college90 1990 Census \doc\95\12\asiark90.txt 4 or more years of college, over 25 Group Rate Index White=1.00 IndImm 58.5 Gay 58.3 2.71 (Overlooked Opinions) Indian 58.1 2.70 ChinImm 51.0 Russian 48.0 2.23 Jewish 47.0 2.18 (LA Times poll) IndiaImm 44.0 FilipImm 42.3 OthAsian 41.7 1.94 Chinese 40.7 1.89 Filipino 39.3 1.83 Asian 37.7 1.75 AsianPI 36.6 1.70 Japnese 34.5 1.60 Korean 34.5 1.60 Evangelical(1)33.0 Thai 32.8 1.53 FilAmBorn 22.4 White 21.5 1.00 US 20.3 -1.06 Vietnam 17.4 -1.24 OtherPI 15.8 -1.36 Hawaiian 11.9 -1.81 Black 11.4 -1.89 PacIsl 10.8 -1.99 Polynes 10.8 -1.99 Micrones 10.2 -2.11 Guamanian 10.0 -2.15 Hispanic 9.2 -2.34 Samoan 8.0 -2.69 Melanesian 7.5 -2.87 Tongan 5.8 -3.71 Cambodia 5.7 -3.77 Laotian 5.4 -3.98 Hmong 4.9 -4.39 1 - Creationism Washington Post Oct 5, 1999 Proportions of Americans who have completed college by self-identified ancestries (2) Hispanic 9.2 Black 11.4 French-Canadian 16.7 percent Dutch 18.5 Italian 21.0 Irish 21.2 German 22.0 Finnish 24.2 Norwegian 26.0 Danish 27.4 Swedish 27.4 Scotch-Irish 28.2 English 28.4 Welsh 31.8 Scottish 33.6 Asian 37.7 Russian 49.0 2. U.S. Census data reported by Andrew Hacker, "Caste, Crime and Precocity," p. 105 in Steven Fraser (ed.), The Bell Curve Wars (New York: HarperCollins, 1995). Rates by city ------------- @@administration Many picks for administration are obviously attempts to be politically correct, with final candidates being in some cases, one of each group and each gender. \doc\96\04\sjhead.txt NewsHound@sjmercury.com Jun 12, 1996 Illinois college official to head S.J./Evergreen By Laura Kurtzman A white woman was chosen as chancellor of the the San Jose/Evergreen Community College District, but she was opposed by two trustees who felt she lacked "diversity" experience as a white person. \doc\95\10\uwregent.txt - Of UWashigton 9, 1 Asian, 1 Black, 3 women "Lowry names two women to UW Board of Regents" Seattle Times June 27, 1995 @@admissions See Affirmative Action @@admissions requirements THE VIEW FROM HIGHER EDUCATION: PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES RESPOND TO EDUCATIONAL REFORM MDS-913 Alexander C. McCormick Martha Naomi Alt Sonya Geis MPR Associates National Center for Research in Vocational Education http://ncrve.berkeley.edu/MDS-913/MDS-913-FINDING.html One state, Kansas, had neither curriculum requirements nor strong recommendations since in-state high school graduates are automatically eligible to attend any public four-year institution.[9] @@advanced placement exams \priv\96\04\apexam.txt 25-50% of students in Germany England and Wales take AP exams, 20-30% of students pass In the US 8% take the test, 5% passed. @@All Common wisdom is that everybody must complete 4 years of college with college prep education or be a failure. 4/22/2001 Opposition to state tests grows louder Education officials say concerns about meeting new standards are misplaced Debby Abe; The News Tribune Steve Mullin, vice president of the Washington Roundtable, a public policy group of corporate executives. "What used to be good for the college-bound [WASL test] is now required for every student if they are going to have the opportunities and options in life we all want for them." @@athlete \priv\96b\05\athlgrad.txt Date: Fri, 28 Jun 1996 01:18:18 -0400 From: NewsHound@sjmercury.com (NewsHound) Graduation Rates Up for Basketball Players While Women's Rates Decline By CRAIG HORST. Source: NCAA as cited in Graduation Rates Up for Basketball Players While Women's Rates Decline By CRAIG HORST ap 6/28/96 Ranked by rate Freshmen entering in 1989 percent group 70white female athletes 67women athletes 67white football 61white non-athletes 59women nonathletes 58athletes 1989 58black female athletes 57other students 1989 54other students 1985 53white male basketball 52athletes 1985 46black football 44black male basketball 44male basketball 43black non-athletes Comment - whites and women generally graduate at higher rates. @@Bias z90\clip\2005\10\biasfund.txt http://www.bostonphoenix.com/boston/news_features/other_stories/multipage/documents/04998793.asp Issue Date: September 30 - October 6, 2005 Ideologues are paying big bucks to influence the college experience but you wont hear that from your school BY DAVID S. BERNSTEIN _________________________________________________________________ Who Gives Top conservative funders of colleges, with other sample grant recipients: Walton Family Foundation $15,788,166 Charter schools nationwide, National Tax Limitation Foundation Richard and Helen DeVos Foundation $6,635,384 Focus on the Family, Heritage, Right to Life of Michigan John M. Olin Foundation $6,217,384 National Right to Work Legal Defense, Institute for Justice Smith Richardson Foundation $5,232,959 American Enterprise Institute, Linda Chavez, Manhattan Institute Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation $3,613,950 Cardinal Newman Society, US English, Manhattan Institute Richard Lounsbery Foundation $2,252,917 Science & Environmental Policy Project, Independent Institute Randolph Foundation $2,126,000 Americas Future Foundation, English-Speaking Union Sarah Scaife Foundation $1,678,000 Accuracy in Media, Pacific Legal Foundation, Tax Foundation Earhart Foundation $876,648 Frontiers of Freedom Institute, Ave Maria School of Law Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation $870,759 National Review Institute, Heritage, Intercollegiate Studies Institute Top liberal funders of colleges, with sample grant recipients: John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation $27,322,842 Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Conservation Fund Ford Foundation $26,542,242 ACLU, National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, Conservation Fund Ahmanson Foundation $9,854,500 LA Gay & Lesbian Community Services, environmental groups Charles Stewart Mott Foundation $6,915,177 Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, World Wildlife Fund Chicago Community Trust $6,747,532 NAACP, Nature Conservancy, Planned Parenthood Open Society Institute $5,505,637 Funders for Lesbian and Gay Issues, Human Rights Watch Tides Foundation $2,896,945 Abortion Access Project, Feminist Majority Foundation Charles H. Revson Foundation $1,817,800 The American Prospect, Childrens Defense Fund, Tides Center Otto Bremer Foundation $1,489,291 Outfront, Jobs Now Coalition, ACLU Philadelphia Foundation $750,010 AIDS Fund, International Planned Parenthood, LAMDA Source: Compiled by the Boston Phoenix from most foundations most-recent available annual reports to the Internal Revenue Service. Harvard University $9,219,333 Conservative foundations: $2,057,554 Program on Constitutional Government, Davis Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies Liberal foundations: $7,161,779 Edward S. Mason Program in Public Policy and Management Civil Rights Project Pluralism Project @@Black Best http://www.nytimes.com/library/national/120998blacks-college-guide.html December 9, 1998 By William H. Honan New York Times "A new guide ranking the 50 top colleges and universities where African Americans are most likely to succeed will be published next month as a 10-page feature in the monthly business magazine, Black Enterprise. Stanford on top black college list http://www.hotcoco.com/news/nation/stories/bon83855.htm December 9, 1998 By Nichole Monroe Cox News Service "The Top 10: 1. Spelman College, Atlanta 2. Morehouse College, Atlanta 3. Florida A&M University, Tallahassee 4. Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta 5. Howard University, Washington, D.C. 6. Xavier University, New Orleans 7. Hampton University, Hampton, Va. 8. Tuskeegee University, Tuskeegee, Ala. 9. North Carolina A&T University, Greensboro 10. Stanford University, Palo Alto --Source: Black Enterprise Magazine. Stanford was the only predominantly white college on the list. @@black general see the original report at home page http://www.patterson-uncf.org/dbook.html \clip\97\06\websum.pdf (acrobat) MORE BLACKS GRADUATE FROM COLLEGE, BUT STILL BEHIND WHITES (YEAH, BUT WHITES ARE BEHIND ASIANS!) http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/educ_022797.html \clip\97\06\afamcoll.txt Copyright © 1997 The Seattle Times Company Thursday, Feb. 27, 1997 More black women going to college; black enrollment overall lags whites 219% AfAm women 1st professional degrees past 10 years 55% AfAm women bachelor degrees past 20 years Black White 30% 14% Receive remedial training Blacks are 10% of undergrads, but only 6% of bachelor degees Twice as likely to be unemployed as whites on graduation 5% of college faculty are black @@black, historically black \CLIP\97\06\BLAKCOL2.TXT Times Tribune 2/27/97 Blacks trail in higher education, study finds / Despite some impressive achievements, they are underrepresented at undergraduate level Black enrollment at historically black schools increased by 21 percent between 1976 and 1994. They awarded 28.5 percent of all bachelor's degrees to black students. \doc\95\06\soutcoll.txt "College degree and race" USA Today May 18, 1995 Southern Education Foundation found in 12 southern states: In 10 of 12 states, 60% of black first-time freshmen attended historically black colleges or community colleges @@California State University The University of California is chartered to take the top 15%, the California state system takes the top 1/3 according to timlee@netcom.com: However, about half of California State University freshmen are placed into remedial (high school level) English courses. Also, about half of CSU freshmen are placed in remedial math courses. Given that CSU takes students from the top one third of high school graduates, the fact that so many CSU freshmen are still doing high school level work in college is disturbing. @@Catholic Catholics are equal to average in everything, and college is not exception, see @@Religion for details. One fellow who disagrees: Moira The most under-represented group at Stanford are Irish Catholics. In the Ivy League schools, Italian Americans are the most under-represented, followed by Irish Americans. I heard the breakdown from an interview on C-Span. There was a conference of the National Italian American Foundation and the President was talking about a study they did. The Italian Americans were THE MOST under-represented group in the Ivy League colleges. @@Census http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/c2kbr-24.pdf Issued August 2003 Educational Attainment: 2000 Census 2000 Brief Sex 25 and over HS Some Bach Advanced Men. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87,077,686 80.1 52.5 26.1 10.0 Women. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95,133,953 80.7 51.1 22.8 7.8 Race and Hispanic or Latino Origin White alone... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143,085,659 83.6 54.1 26.1 9.5 Black or African American alone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19,858,095 72.3 42.5 14.3 4.8 American Indian and Alaska Native alone . . . . . . . . . 1,350,998 70.9 41.7 11.5 3.9 Asian alone . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6,640,671 80.4 64.6 44.1 17.4 Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone . . 206,675 78.3 44.6 13.8 4.1 Some other race alone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7,611,121 46.8 25.0 7.3 2.3 Two or more races. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,458,420 73.3 48.1 19.6 7.0 Hispanic or Latino (of any race).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 18,270,377 52.4 30.3 10.4 3.8 White alone, not Hispanic or Latino.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 133,786,263 85.5 55.4 27.0 9.8 http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/c2kbr-24.pdf Issued August 2003 Educational Attainment: 2000 Census 2000 Brief Adults 25 and over HS Some Bach Advanced Ranked by advanced degree HS SC BA AD Asian alone . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80.4 64.6 44.1 17.4 Men . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80.1 52.5 26.1 10.0 White alone, not Hispanic or Latino.. . . . 85.5 55.4 27.0 9.8 White alone... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83.6 54.1 26.1 9.5 Women. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80.7 51.1 22.8 7.8 Two or more races. . . . . . . . . . . . 73.3 48.1 19.6 7.0 Black or African American alone . . . . . 72.3 42.5 14.3 4.8 Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander 78.3 44.6 13.8 4.1 American Indian and Alaska Native alone . . 70.9 41.7 11.5 3.9 Hispanic or Latino (of any race).. . . . . 52.4 30.3 10.4 3.8 Some other race alone . . . . . . . . . . . 46.8 25.0 7.3 2.3 HS = high school completed SC = some college BA = bachelor degree AD = advanced degree Based on Census 2000 sample data, the proportion Hispanic was 8.0 percent for Whites, 1.9 percent for Blacks, 14.6 percent for American Indians and Alaska Natives, 1.0 percent for Asians, 9.5 percent for Pacific Islanders, 97.1 percent for those reporting Some other race, and 31.1 percent for those reporting Two or more races. @@City 2002: SEATTLE, SAN FRANCISCO, RALEIGH TOP IN BACH DEGREE MA HAS HIGHEST RATE OF ENGINEERING GRADS Seattle Post Intelligencer May 11, 2004 "In science and math" dan richman us census 2002 survey 48.8% of Seattle bachelor degree vs 25.9 national Raleigh and San Francisco are nearly as high By State: ma 35.5 highest state in USA wa 29.7 11th highest state In WA, 48% of hs students take 4 yrs of math #1 college engineering graduates ~62% MA mi co va md ca ga tx wa 25% WA DC, ATLANTA, SAN FRANCISCO, OAKLAND, SEATTLE TOPS IN COLLEGE 50 largest cities Residents with college degrees 2000 1 Washington 81% 2 Atlanta 68% 3 San Francisco 63% 4 Oakland CA 62% 5 Seattle 54% 6 Austin TX 52% 7 Boston 49% 8 Denver 48% 9 New Orleans 48% 10 Dallas 48% Bottom 10 41 St. Louis 28% 42 Fresno CA 28% 43 Oaklahoma Cy 28% 44 Milwaukee 25% 45 Philadelphia 24% 46 Mesa Ariz. 24% 47 Jacksonville 24% 48 Las Vegas 22% 49 Cleveland 16% 50 Detroit 15% Source: Broookings Institution Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy / Census As citied in Seattle Times 11/11/03 "Fight for the Future" \clip\97\19\howsmart\howsmart.htm "How Smart Is Your City?" Fortune Aug 18, 1997 http://www.pathfinder.com/@@eg9CVgcAXfQnH1mF/fortune/1997/970818/fir1.html Best Educated Cities (as ranked by Moran Stahl & Boyer, consulting in business location selection) 20.0% 1. Iowa City, Iowa 17.8% 2. Champaign Ill 17.6% 3. Stamford Conn. 17.2% 4. Bloomington Ind 17.2% 4. Bryan Texas 17.0% 6. Gainesville Fla 16.7% 7. Lawrence Kan. 16.4% 8. Boulder Colo. 16.2% 9. Columbia Mo. 15.8% 10. Santa Fe. N.M. 15.8% 10. Washington DC 14.9% 12. Charlottesvill Va. 13.8% 13. Danbury Conn. 13.5% 14. Madison Wisc 12.8% 15. San Francisco %%dc Census Finds Area Getting More Educated By D'Vera Cohn Washington Post Staff Writer Thursday, July 10, 2003; Page A01 Forty-two percent of adults in the region hold at least a college degree, far higher than the national share of 24 percent. @@Community College %%Open Admissions \clip\98\02\newscli2.txt New York Times Editorial Hold On to Open Admissions " New York City's open admissions policy is the norm, not just around the state but throughout the country. The policy as practiced in every state allows any student with a high school diploma or the equivalent to enter community college. The aim is to provide students with a chance to bolster their skills enough to get into four-year colleges." @@Computer ONLY 41% AT BLACK COLLEGES VS 80% USE COMPUTERS \clip\99\03\collcomp.txt http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/01/biztech/articles/25frosh.html New York Times January 25, 1999 College Freshmen's Internet Use a Way of Life, but Disparities Emerge By WILLIAM H. HONAN A huge 82.9 percent of new freshmen -- more than 4 out of 5 students -- say they are using the Internet for research or homework. Nearly two-thirds, 65.9 percent, report that they communicate by e-mail. students entering elite private colleges say 80.1 percent use computers regularly, and those attending traditionally black public institutions, 41.1 percent of whom say that. @@Cost http://collegepuzzle.stanford.edu/?p=225 College Costs Soar Over Past Twenty Years The US Education Department’s Digest of Education Statistics reports that between 1976-77 and 2007-08 average undergraduate tuition, fees, room and board increased from $7,914 to $15,665 after adjusting for inflation. Federal financial aid did not come close to matching these cost increases over that period. Obama’s increases in Pell grants will help, but I suspect more students will opt for less expensive community colleges in the coming decade. http://www.air.org/news/pr/DEStatPR.aspx Between 1976–77 and 2007–08, average undergraduate tuition, fees, and room and board increased from $7,914 to $15,665, after adjusting for inflation (table 331). full table http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/ here is the table, in constant 2006-07 dollars http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d08/tables/dt08_331.asp in "current" dollars rise from $2,275 to $16,245 MIT/Stanford not for profit 4 yr universities $4,715 to $40,640 Seattle Times Oct 17, 2000 College Board 2000: $3,510 tuition $4,960 room and board public college $16,332 $6,209 private @@course preparation \doc\95\06\soutcoll.txt "College degree and race" USA Today May 18, 1995 Southern Education Foundation found in 12 southern states: Blacks are: 25% of college-age population 16% full-time freshmen 10% bachelor degrees Percentage of test-takers who had taken college prep courses: White 67% Black 53% @@

Degree

BLACK MAY BE 12% OF POPULATION, BUT ONLY 3% OF PHD, 6.7% OF BACHELORS DEGREES. Degrees Earned by Race and Ethnicity, USA National Center for Education Statistics (1996 Statistical Abstract of US, table no. 305) Breakout by Arthur Hu Percentages of Degrees Awarded in US 1993 White Black HispanicAsian NativeAmNR Alien Associate 79.9 8.3 5.9 3.3 0.9 1.8 Bachelors 81.7 6.7 3.9 4.4 0.5 2.8 Masters 75.6 5.4 2.9 3.8 0.4 12 Doctorate 63.5 3.2 2 3.8 0.3 27.3 First Professional 81.1 5.5 4 6.9 0.5 2 Note that most colleges seek to hire college faculty, administrators, and admit professional degree students in proportions matching the population which is nearly 12% black nationally and predominantly black in some cities, but only 7% of bachelor degrees, 5% of professional degrees and 3% of doctorates are black. Also for those who believe we don't need any more skilled immigrants, 27.3% of doctorates were earned by foreign students, many of whom eventually stay. Source: See
US Statistical Abstract Education see page 45, table 305 colldeg.wk1 Web citation http://www.arthurhu.com/acollege.htm#degree @@discrimination Chinese expelled from U Texas Med Schools, now 20% Asian graduates. http://www.chron.com/content/chronicle/metropolitan/97/01/05/asians.3-0.html \clip\97\06\medbias.txt 1/4/1997 Two Asian students allege bias Supporters call for probes into UT By ERIC HANSON Copyright 1997 Houston Chronicle Supporters of two Asian medical students said the men were discriminated against by University of Texas Medical School system officials and are calling for federal and state investigations into the matter. \doc\95\06\sjsdiver.txt "SJS diversity breeds discord" San Jose Mercury News April 30, 1995 Asian students have not complained much about discrimination, although they tend to socialize and study among themselves, although Blacks and Hispanics have complained of racial incidents @@dropout, graduation rate, completion Summary: Asians graduate at highest, blacks at lowest rates nationwide and at most campuses. Racism may explain low rates for blacks, but how to explain high rates for Asians? They study harder? Naaaah. ACT figures that 26% drop out of 4 yr, 45% drop outof 2 yr college after 1st year. College Grad spectrum Ranked by Asian --------------------- US 1994 W1.00 B-1.75 H-1.37 A 1.09 Texas 6yr 1998 W1.00 B-1.96 H-1.61 A 1.05 Princeton 1994 W1.00 B-3.50 H-1.50 A-1.75 UC Berkeley 90 W1.00 B-2.00 A ??? Z75\clip\2003\12\blcograd.txt The New York Times Dec. 30, 2003 http://www.nytimes.com/2003/12/30/education/30BLAC.html? pagewanted=print&position= Colleges Struggle to Help Black Men Stay Enrolled *Women outnumber men at most colleges, but the gap is especially large among black students. Nationally, barely a quarter of the 1.9 million black men between 18 and 24 - prime college-going years - were in college in 2000, according to the American Council on Education's most recent report on minorities in higher education. By comparison, 35 percent of black women in the same age group were enrolled.. *Only 35 percent of the black men who entered N.C.A.A. Division I colleges in 1996, for example, graduated within six years, compared with 59 percent of the white men, 46 percent of the Hispanic men, 41 percent of the American Indian men and 45 percent of the black women who entered the same year. ONLY 1/3 RENEW GA HOPE COLLEGE SCHOLARSHIP \clip\99\10\hope.txt Many Freshmen Lose Eligibility for Hope Scholarship. Chronicle of Higher Education April 20, 1999 Only 36% of merit based Georgia HOPE scholarship (mostly minority) students renew or are qualified their 2nd year. It is for B high school students, they must maintain B average in college. ACT survey shows 26% drop out of 4 yr, 45% drop out of 2 yr colleges after their first year. "Linking College Enrollments to State Racial Makeup" Los Angeles Times Jan 2, 1991 p. A7. A UC study of doctorate granting instiutions showed only 24% of blacks and 25% of Latinos graduate nationwide compared to 45% for whites A task force cited Berkeley as one of few making progress, with 45% black graduation rate mirroring the nationwide average for whites. 57% Latino, 71% Asian. (But lower than whites and Asians at same campus) \clip\99\04\edclip11.txt College graduation parity a long way off, report suggests Minorities to lag without aid, it says 01/30/99 By Jayne Noble Suhler / The Dallas Morning News=20 AUSTIN - It will take at least 80 years for black and Hispanic students to graduate from college at the same rate as their white peers unless changes are made, a state demographer warned this week. About 55 percent of whites enrolled in college graduate within six years, according to board reports. About 28 percent of black students graduate within six years, compared with 34 percent of Hispanics,= 38 percent of American Indians and 58 percent of Asian-Americans. Texas 6yr 1998 W1.00 B-1.96 H-1.61 A1.05 \doc\95\05\filgrad.txt - UCLA Filipino 83=40% 93=Fil 60% As 85% Wh 78% \doc\94\20\mineng.wk1 - Increase in minority engineer enrollment Survey: Minority enrollment on rise Electronic Engineering Times June 10, 1991 p. 107 Figures from National Action Council For Minorities in Engineering Retention rates - percent who get 4 year degrees in engineering Black Hisp Women 33% 50% 66% "Minority grads hit high" Electrial Engineering Times Jan 23, 1995 p. 69 - Two of three minority freshmen who enroll in engineering do not graduate, double the one in three for nonminorities. - One of two vs. 9 of 10 Whites or Asians graduate from freshman to sophomore year. \doc\94\19\edrace94.wk1 US 6 yr college graduation rates W1.00 B-1.75 H-1.37 A1.09 \doc\94\19\princdrp.wk1 - Dropout Rate at Princeton - Asians somewhat higher than whites. 6 Year Dropout Rate: W1.00 B3.50 H1.50 A1.75 The Princeton Sentinel April 1994 p. 11 MIT early 80's 15% white 30% black 2:1 MIT early 90's 10% white 25% black 2.5:1 5/16/94 phone conversation with MIT admissions office. check rimano or vicki diaduik in registrar doc\94\5\priv\college.txt US News survey UC Berkeley black rate 2X white rate @@Earnings Advantage http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703822404575019082819966538.html?mod=WSJ_hp_mostpop_read FEBRUARY 2, 2010 What's a Degree Really Worth? Mary Pilon A college education may not be worth as much as you think. College Board touted the difference in lifetime earnings of college grads over high-school graduates at $800,000, a widely circulated figure. Other estimates topped $1 million. The problem stems from the common source of the estimates, a 2002 Census Bureau report titled "The Big Payoff." The report said the average high-school graduate earns $25,900 a year, and the average college graduate earns $45,400, based on 1999 data. The difference between the two figures is $19,500; multiply it by 40 years, as the Census Bureau did, and the result is $780,000. The problem stems from the common source of the estimates, a 2002 Census Bureau report titled "The Big Payoff." The report said the average high-school graduate earns $25,900 a year, and the average college graduate earns $45,400, based on 1999 data. The difference between the two figures is $19,500; multiply it by 40 years, as the Census Bureau did, and the result is $780,000. Mark Schneider, a vice president of the American Institutes for Research, a nonprofit research organization based in Washington, calls it "a million-dollar misunderstanding They don't take into account deductions from income taxes or breaks in employment. Nor do they factor in debt, particularly student debt loads, which have ballooned for both public and private colleges in recent years. In addition, the income data used for the Census estimates is from 1999, when total expenses for tuition and fees at the average four-year private college were $15,518 per year. Dr. Schneider estimated the actual lifetime-earnings advantage for college graduates is a mere $279,893 in a report he wrote last year. He included tuition payments and discounted earning streams, putting them into present value. He also used actual salary data for graduates 10 years after they completed their degrees Kelly Dunleavy, who graduated in 2007 from the University of California, Berkeley, with $60,000 in loans. She now works as a reporter for a small newspaper in the Bay Area and earns $34,000 a year .. The report's author, Sandy Baum—an emeritus Skidmore College economics professor who didn't write the promotional text on the Web site—says that $450,000 is actually a more reasonable estimate .. - College Board has removed the $800,000 figure William Mitchell replied: Christopher Kuhn's comment about the time value of money is exactly right. I ran this calculation last October with the College Board's own data. Result: negative lifetime ROI for more than half of private college attendees. I then inquired with a private college trustee, and he confided that yes, this is a big problem. My calculation here: http://nostradoofus.com/2009/10/19/has-college-become-a-bad-investment/ Edward Joback replied: our community organizer in chief is making college into an entitlement. We will now further tax coal miners and other non-degreed people to subsidize those that go on to, what is for many, a 4-6 year vacation or postponement of adulthood. Further government intervention only exacerbates the cost of higher education as the whole supply/demand dynamic is distorted @@English Graduation Requirement "Reading, Writing, and Graduation" Wall Street Journal June 10, 1997 ed. F061997 Dorothy Rabinowitz. \clip\97\15\cuny.txt New York Times June 5, 1997 CUNY May Bar 200 Diplomas at 3 More Colleges Over Test By KAREN W. ARENSON NEW YORK -- The furor over City University standards spread to three more community colleges on Wednesday, as university trustees threatened to withhold diplomas from hundreds of graduating students who had not passed a newly required English test. @@enrollment population \doc\web\97\04\enrostat.wk1 1995 Enrollments by State Total AmInd Asian Black HispanicWhite Foreign CA 1817042 21139 314877 138218 357893 905116 79799 WA 285819 5225 22451 10599 10197 228386 8961 USA 14261781 131304 797359 1473672 109383910311243 454364 Total AmInd Asian Black HispanicWhite Foreign CA 100.0% 1.2% 17.3% 7.6% 19.7% 49.8% 4.4% WA 100.0% 1.8% 7.9% 3.7% 3.6% 79.9% 3.1% USA 100.0% 0.9% 5.6% 10.3% 7.7% 72.3% 3.2% complete report is at http://www.ed.gov/NCES/pubs97/97440.html \clip\97\14\collenro.pdf Table 1-3. Percent distribution of total enrollment in institutions of higher education, by race/ethnicity and student level: 50 states and the District of Columbia, fall 1995 Student level Total number White Black Hisp Asian NAm Alien All students ..................... 14,261,781 72.3% 10.3% 7.7% 5.6% 0.9% 3.2% Undergraduate............... 12,231,719 72.0 10.9 8.3 5.7 1.0 2.2 First-time, first-year... 2,168,831 71.1 11.6 8.8 5.6 1.1 1.9 Other undergraduates 10,062,888 72.2 10.7 8.2 5.7 1.0 2.3 First-professional........... 297,592 75.0 7.2 4.6 9.9 0.7 2.5 Graduate ....................... 1,732,470 74.0 6.8 3.9 4.4 0.5 10.4 NOTE: Because of rounding, percents may not add to 100. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Fall Enrollment survey, 1995. The best law and medical schools shoot for full population representation of blacks of about 12%, but they are only 7% of first professional degree students. @@enrollment rate Percentage of US 20-24 year old population enrolled in school: 1993 30.8% *************** 1945 3.9% ** source: National Center for Education Statistics, cited in Wall Street Journal April 24, 1995 \doc\95\06\incmineq.txt In 1990 60% of high school graduates went on to college compared to 49% in 1980 \doc\95\06\soutcoll.txt "College degree and race" USA Today May 18, 1995 Southern Education Foundation found in 12 southern states: Blacks are: 25% of college-age population 16% full-time freshmen 10% bachelor degrees asian.college.taiwan A's for effort have Taiwan up in arms San Jose Mercury News Aug 6, 1993 p. 18A Of 125,000 who took the 1993 college exam, only 40% will gain places in the nation's 48 universities and colleges. (By comparison, over 50% of American youth will start college, and many don't take any exams) \doc\95\02\cens301.txt One-third of African American 18- to 24-year-old high school graduates and 42 percent of comparable Whites were enrolled in college in 1993. Asian.College.Enrollment d:\doc\95\01\coll60.txt 60% go to college, wages down for HS grad Dollar gap tells the tale: Get a college degree Seattle Post Intelligencer 1/7/94 p. C4 L.M. Sixel d:\doc\94\19\edrace94.wk1 HS graduates enrolled in college 1973 W1.00 B-1.25 H-1.03 1993 W1.00 B-1.27 H-1.17 \priv\95\04\mincoll.txt - minorities grow slowly, The actual number of minorities going to college rose slightly in 1993 -- up 1.3 percent for blacks, 3.6 percent for Hispanics and 3.9 percent for*Asian*Americans over 1992. Just 33 percent of all 18-to-24-year-old black high school graduates and 36 percent of Hispanic graduates enrolled in college in 1993, compared with nearly 42 percent of whites, the study said. @@Europe COLLEGE IS TOUGHER IN EUROPE MAYBE TOO TOUGH \clip\98\09\edeuro.txt THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, BOSTON - TUESDAY, MAY 12, 1998 LEARNING, COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES REFLECTIONS ON AMERICAN VS. EUROPEAN EDUCATION By John Miller All my friends want to come study in America because it's so easy," my Belgian friend Nicolas told me last week. @@Export US $8 BILLION AHEAD IN COLLEGE EDUCATION TRADE BALANCE \clip\97\07\export.txt From: dchiang@juno.com American Education exports strong Nation has huge advantage in teaching international students Correspondent Irv Chapman December 11, 1996: 5:27 p.m. ET NEW YORK (CNNfn) United States is $8 billion ahead in foreign college students compare to those it sends abroad. @@faculty - see hiring @@Filipino Filipinos were, and on some campuses, still are given admissions preferences at the University of California, however, there is no evidence that Filipinos historically were ever under-represented. In the 90's, Filipinos were officially removed from affirmative action at Berkeley and UCLA, however they had the LOWEST admission rates, even lower than the foreign students, which indicates that they may have been the object of illegal discrimination, and they were under-represented in Berkeley for the first time. Campus Stud Pop -------------------------------------- University of Washington 2% 0.9% FILIPINOS ARE ONLY 2% OF UNIV WASHINGTON.. BUT THEY WERE ONLY 0.9% OF THE POPULATION! "Filipinos hold Bigayan Benefit Carey Guidici Northwest Asian Weekly Dec 7, 1996 p. 1 Tom Colonese Asst. Vice President of University of Washington Office of Minority Affairs notes that Filipinos are only 2.4% of the student body at the UW, and they are less than one percent of the dental students. (Note - in 1990, Filipinos were only 0.9% of the state population, so they are actually OVER represented) \doc\95\14\caethnic.wk1 California Education by Ethnicity Oct 30, 1995 Ethnic Groups in California Education: 1987 Source: California Postsecondary Education Commision staff analysis (this table shows that filipinos are at or over parity at most levels of higher education in California) @@financial aid %%discount COLLEGE COSTS NOT REALLY GOING UP, MOST PAY LESS THAN 50% z56\clip\2002\06\colldisc.txt http://slate.msn.com/?id=2066353 The Socialist Economics of College Tuition Why elite universities charge $38,000 per year, and why they don't expect you to pay it. By Peter Scheer May 30, 2002 Middle-income families paid a discounted tuition of $10,794 in 1988 (in year 2000 constant dollars); the same families in 2001 paid $11,024, an increase of just 2 percent in 13 years. Low-income families actually experienced a reduction in tuition, from a 1988 net of $7,667 to $5,907 in 2000. Only families paying the sticker price saw a big increase in tuition in real terms. But even their tuition cost represented about the same share of family income in 2001 as in 1988, according to Winston and Hill. %%race \doc\94\19\collaid.wk1 - College Financial Aid Aid Amount W1.0($2,927) B-1.16($2,527) H-1.05($2,800) A1.38($4,032) Percent Receiving Aid W1.0(50%) B 1.16(58%) H-1.02(49%) A1.08(54%) Pell Grants W1.0 B 2.17 H 1.58 A1.33 Loans W1.0 B 1.36 H1.07 A1.14 Employer Assistance W1.0 B-1.46 H-1.58 A-2.11 Asians nearly most likely to receive aid, receive the most aid, 40% higher than whites (because they get into better schools?) Asians more likely to get loans, least likely to get employer assistance Source: "Half of college students now need financial aid" Seattle PI Oct 26, 1994 p. A8 @@foreign %%Cost Frank Forman says that Regards how much we are subsidizing the education of foreign students: I cooked up some estimates in 1987, 2 1/2 years after I came to the U.S. Department of Education. Upshot is that foreign students pay a sixth of the total cost of instructing them. Based on some very thorough accounting work done by Gordon Winston, of Williams College, I calculated that EVEN IF foreign students enrolled in public universities were to pay sticker-price tuition (including the out-of-state tuition at UCLA, for example), the average subsidy per foreign student is $10,000 a year. There are almost 300,000 foreign students enrolled in public universities today. We are subsidizing them around $3 billion a year! [George Borjas] %%General FOREIGN STUDENTS BRING IN $13B IN 1998-99 The Institute of International Education reported in Open Doors 1998/99 that a record 491,000 foreign students were enrolled at US colleges and universities-three percent of US college students. According to IIE, the foreign students had a $13 billion impact on the US economy, bringing 75 percent of the funds used to pay for tuition and housing from outside the US. For more information: http://www.opendoorsweb.org US FALLS FROM 40 TO 32% OF WORLD FORN STUD MARKET \clip\98\13\fostud.txt For Many Foreign Students, U.S. Colleges Cost Too Much By WILLIAM H. HONAN The New York Times, Sunday, September 27, 1998 Most popular nation for foreign students 1 458,000 USA 2 170,000 France Unesco US flat since 93 "ONLY" 48% OF FOREIGN PHD IN SCI AND ENG STAYED NSF study in 1994, "More Science Grad Students" Business Week Mar 5, 2001 p. 30 Foreign students up by 7.7%, US citizens, perm residents down -0.5%. Note that though foreign students were up, it was not at the expense of blacks, who are ALSO up. MOST FOREIGN STUDENTS ARE FROM ASIA, IN ENGINEERING, MANY WILL STAY TO HELP US INDUSTRY \clip\97\03\forstud.txt http://www.techweb.com/se/directlink.cgi?EET19970203S0143 EE Times February 03, 1997, Issue: 939 "Foreign students move in" By Robert Bellinger This citation http://www.arthurhu.com/index/ Top Majors 33% engineering / science 16% business 8% social science Top countries 1995-96 453,787 Total 45,531 Japan 39,613 People's Republic of China 36,231 South Korea 32,702 Taiwan Foreign Students 1996 57.3 Asian 14.8 European 48% Undergraduate 42% Graduate "on average, Japanese and Korean engineering students have returned home because they have thriving industries and jobs waiting for them. Indians and Taiwanese have tended to seek jobs in the United States." \doc\95\14\immgcoll.txt David Chiang notes why so many Asian students go to engineering schools in the USA. \doc\95\10\asiastud.txt - all top 5 nations with foreign students are from Asia %%Recruit z56\clip\2002\06\recr.txt http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/local/57903_green12.shtml Community college plans dorms in bid for foreign students Tuesday, February 12, 2002 By RUTH SCHUBERT SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER REPORTER "Few Washington community colleges provide on-campus housing. But more are considering the move, largely as a means of attracting international students, who pay nearly four times the tuition Washington students pay -- money that stays with the college and doesn't return to the state. " @@Free Tuition UK ENDS FREE COLLEGE http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/educ_072497.html \clip\97\18\freecoll.txt Copyright © 1997 The Seattle Times Company Thursday, July 24, 1997 Britain to end free college educations by Robert Seely Associated Press Note - those who claim the UK is better because college is free miss the fact that far more Americans can actually, and do go to college than those that go for "free" in the UK.

@@Freedom of Speech

PROFESSOR TERMINATED FOR CONSERVATIVE COLUMNS http://www.eagleforum.org/educate/1997/july97/er_jul97.html \DOC\WEB\97\06\proffire.txt July 1997 Education Reporter No Academic Freedom for the Politically Incorrect FRAMINGHAM, MA - The refusal of Framingham State College to re-hire English Professor Eugene Narrett has called attention to the double standard that exists on many campuses regarding academic freedom and First Amendment rights.
@@Goal The ultimate goal is college for all. z48\clip\2001\03\ukgoal.txt book review by the former Chief Inspector of Schools, Chris Woodhead, which shed some light on all this. It appeared in the Sunday Telegraph of 18 March 2001. The New Idea of a University by Ian Robinson and Duke Maskell (Haven Books, £18.50) The Prime Minister wants 50 per cent of the population to go to university. Why? Because Britain needs this number of graduates if we are to be "globally competitive" in the "knowledge economy" of the "new millennium". @@Grade Inflation MINORITIES STILL GET LOTS OF LOW GRADES. z56\clip\2002\06\collgrad.txt Study Finds Many C's Still Awarded, With Black Students Earning Lower Grades on Average News bulletin from the Chronicle of Higher Education, 2.6.27 http://chronicle.com/daily/2002/06/2002062702n.htm [45]By CATHERINE E. SHOICHET The report, "Profile of Undergraduates in U.S. Postsecondary Education Institutions: 1999-2000 14.5 percent of students received mostly A's, more than a third of students received grades mostly at or below the C mark. 48.9 percent of African-American undergraduates received these grades "The big disparity that we should be concerned about is that the privileged are incredibly prepared to go to college. " Race One race FCD BC B AB As White 30.3 16.2 25.3 11.7 16.5 Not Hispanic or Latino 32.4 16.4 24.7 11.3 15.2 Asian 32.2 17.7 26.4 10.1 13.6 More than one race 34.0 15.8 25.8 11.9 12.5 Hispanic or Latino 41.8 16.7 23.7 8.3 9.6 Other race 39.3 17.8 24.3 9.5 9.0 Native Hawaiian/ Other Pacific Islander 39.6 19.7 22.3 9.7 8.7 American Indian/Alaska Native 41.8 16.9 23.3 9.7 8.3 Black or African American 48.9 16.0 20.3 7.5 7.3 Note Asians also slightly trail whites. The report, "Profile of Undergraduates in U.S. Postsecondary Education Institutions: 1999-2000 Dept of Ed http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2002/2002168.PDF \clip\99\10\inflat.txt http://www.frontpagemag.com/archives/academia/wilson04-13-99.htm The Phenomenon of Grade Inflation in Higher Education In Levine and Cureton's new book, When Hope and Fear Collide you find GPAs as reported by undergraduate students in three different years: 1= 969, 1976, and 1993. The percentage of Cs and As students received reversed itself from th= e early year to the later year. In 1969, 7% of all students received grades of A- or higher= By 1993, this proportion had risen to 26%. In contrast, grades of C or less mov= ed from 25% in 1969 to 9% @@hiring See California education, shows Asian under-represented among faculty and staff. 2001: BLACKS, HISPANIC, WOMEN UNDER, BUT ASIANS OVER HIRED FOR PROFESSORS z87\clip\2005\tenure.txt Percent Tenured professors vs Tenure Tract Ivy League 1993 / 2003 Black TT Hispanic TT Women TT White Men TT 2003 2 3 1 3 20 34 60 40 1993 2 3 1 2 14 31 Popul 12.3 12.5 50 35 parity -8.5 -5.6 -21.0 -7.0 -4.2 1.7(1.00) Doctoral Degree Program Enrollment 2001 Ivy National Black 3.7 8.9 less Hispanic 3.1 5.3 less Asian/Pacific Islander 7.1 5.1 more American Indian / Alaska Native 0.3 0.6 less International Scholars 34.7 13.1 more Women 46.0 58.2 less More Asians and International at Ivy than national Approx from chart Ivy League New Faculty Hires 2003 A B C D E F G Under Minority 5 6 8 6 11 22 48 Asian/PI 7 10 13 Int Scholar 7 21 20 Women 21 36 40 White men 60 40 35 White 71 82 70 45 A=Tenured B= Tenure Track C=Non-Ladder E=Faculty F=Managerial G=Secretarial & Clerical H=Service and Maintenance Asians also less likely to be Tenured than white if hired, but more likely than whites on average to be hired. report at http://www.yaleunions.org/geso/reports/Ivy.pdf z87\clip\2005\03\Ivy.pdf EDUCATION | March 1, 2005 Little Advance Is Seen in Ivies' Hiring of Minorities and Women By KAREN W. ARENSON According to a report, in 2003, Ivy League campuses hired 433 professors into tenure-track jobs, but only 14 were black and 8 were Hispanic. Women received 150 jobs. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/03/01/education/01college.html ?ex=1110344400&en=003396a11f466369&ei=5070 March 1, 2005 Little Advance Is Seen in Ivies' Hiring of Minorities and Women By KAREN W. ARENSON Minorities and women have made little progress in breaking into the faculty ranks of the Ivy League, according to a new report. ASIANS UNDER-REPRESENTED AMONG NEW COLLEGE FACULTY .txt asfac.wk1 zip36\clip\99\17\prof.txt Chronicle of Higher Education September 3, 1999 Survey finds more older scholars and more women, but ethnic diversification is at a standstill By DENISE K. MAGNER the proportion of professors who are white has increased slightly -- from 90.4 per cent to 91.7 per cent -- while the proportion who are black declined from 4 per cent in 1989 to 2.6 per cent last year. ProfessoPop Rate Index AmIndian 2.1 0.7 3.00 2.33 white 87.9 68.3 1.29 1.00 asian 4.0 4.0 1.00 -1.29 black 3.7 12.0 0.31 -4.17 hispanic 3.1 15.0 0.21 -6.23 \priv\95\17\faculty.txt DC 10/11/95 Faculty Panel Tells Why Affirmative Action Works - Asians under-represented among graduates and faculty \doc\95\14\mitafac.htm MIT affirms affirmative action, notes that in hiring staff, all groups are under-represented unlike over-represented Asian students. @@Hispanic HISPANIC ADULTS MORE LIKELY TO BE IN COLLEGE - BUT AS 2 YR OR ADULT ED z58\clip\2002\09\lated.txt Education Study Finds Hispanics Both Gaining and Lagging http://www.nytimes.com/2002/09/08/education/08HISP.html Higher Education Public WNH Hisp 7 10 High school grads in college 46 35 18-24 in college 44 30 18-24 in 2 year programs Interest Research Group...census data from 1997 to 2000 HISPANICS IN WA STATE AT 2YR COLLEGE PARITY, BUT OTHER MINORITIES ARE USUALLY HIGHER http://www.seattletimes.com/topstories/browse/html97/hisp_021297.html c:\clip\97\04\hispup.txt Seattle Times Company Feb. 12, 1997 Hispanic students up by 25% (comment - blacks are probably over-represented because whites and Asians are over-represented in 4 yr institutions) The most dramatic statewide enrollment increase in community and technical colleges this year was among Hispanic students, whose numbers increased by nearly 2,000, or 25 percent. http://www.rand.org/publications/IP/IP152/ \clip\97\04\hispan\hisped.htm Rand report on increasing Hispanics in higher education @@History Alice Freeman Palmer: The Evolution of a New Woman by Ruth Bordin http://www.press.umich.edu/bookhome/bordin/ch3.html In 1870, according to census figures, over 11,000 women were enrolled in some kind of higher education, mostly in classical academies and teacher training institutions. Women were 21 percent of all students. However, actual numbers were small. Only 0.7 percent of American women eighteen to twenty-one years of age attended college. 6 By 1900, nearly 3 percent of college-age women were receiving training beyond high school, and women made up 40 percent of the total students in tertiary institutions. 7 http://encarta.msn.com/index/conciseindex/4e/04e49000.htm?z=1&pg=2&br=1 Source: Encarta / MSN 2000: IV. Higher Education Percent of Americans 18-24 enrolled in college Percent colleges students 4 yr degree 1900 2% 1,000 157,000 <1%? 2000 60% 3,500 14,000,000 28% @@income Common wisdom is that minorities do poorly because of low incomes, but in fact the do poorly even when incomes are high. THE MOST LIBERAL COLLEGES HAVE THE HIGHEST PARENT INCOMES \doc\web\99\11\collsurv.wk1 Special Report: Opinion on Campus National Review Educational Supplement 1999 p. 33 Class of 1998 (interviewed in 1995) 12 colleges and universities Parent's combined annual income: (freshmen) A. Less than $15,000 B. $15-30,000 C. $30-50,000 D. $50-75,000 E. $75-100,000 F. More than $100,000 a b c d e f g Liberty 7 15 27 25 11 13 0 Citadel 1 10 16 27 16 28 0 Marquette 1 12 20 22 19 21 3 UC Irvine 9 29 21 14 14 13 0 Indiana 10 19 26 17 10 17 1 UCLA 1 14 13 30 21 29 0 U. Wisconsin 3 9 23 28 14 20 1 Dartmouth 0 4 9 17 28 40 0 U. Michigan 3 6 13 17 21 33 5 Stanford 0 6 14 15 20 43 0 Yale 0 6 7 13 26 46 0 Brown 1 7 8 16 19 47 0 BLACKS DO POORLY EVEN WITH COLLEGE PARENTS AND HIGH INCOMES \clip\98\09\racecolr.txt http: //www.examiner.com/980607/0607race.shtml June 7, 1998, San Francisco Examiner How race colors learning By Annie Nakao OF THE EXAMINER STAFF It's a fact of education that few feel comfortable discussing: race matters when it comes to academic achievement. Studies show that the most well-off African American youngsters -- children of middle- and upper-income families that have come the farthest since the civil rights movement -- generally perform worse than Asian and white children from lower-income families. ------------------------- "Heavy immigration from Asia over the past 30 years has led to a large increase in the number of top students, which has helped intensify the competition for admission to selective universities. " California SAT scores for 1995 White Asian 750+ 39% 46% 600+ 46% 30% College-bound students with at least one parent who had a graduate degree, the 1997 mean combined SAT verbal and math score 1165 Asians 1130 whites 1014 Mexican Americans 951 blacks A UC analysis last year of 1995 SAT scores in California found that blacks from California families earning $100,000 or more per year had a mean math score of 498, 1 point less than whites from families earning less than $10,000 and only 7 points more than Asians whose families made less than $10,000. BLACK COLLEGE STUDENTS TWICE AS LIKELY TO BE POOR Over one-half of African Americans enrolled in bachelor’s degree programs have socioeconomic status in the lowest quarter of American socioeconomic status (compared to less than one-quarter of whites) and African Americans are almost three times as likely to have incomes below $20,000. Source: United Negro College Fund THE AFRICAN AMERICAN EDUCATION DATA BOOK, VOLUME 1: HIGHER AND ADULT EDUCATION (1997) Index Bottom 25% income W1.00 B-2.00 @@indian, American \priv\96b\01\oregindi.txt - Oregon Indians are improving, but still lag in grade point and test scores, and drop out Only 7 percent of Indians who entered one of Oregon's public, four-year colleges and universities in 1988-89 had a degree four years later, compared with 26 percent of all students. After six years, 41 percent of Indians had graduated, compared with 62 percent overall. Blacks were the only group to fare worse. While 9 percent graduated after four years, only 29 percent had after six years. asian.college.integration @@integration d:\priv\95\02\campseg.txt - campus segregation Campus Racial Lines... Boston Globe April 5, 1994 p. 1 Alice Dembner Nationally representative sample of students report: According to the study, 49 percent of black students reported studying frequently with members of another racial or ethnic group, compared to 60 percent of Asians, 72 percent of Chicanos and only 15 percent of whites. Fifty-five percent of blacks, 69 percent of Asians, 78 percent of Chicanos and 21 percent of whites reported dining with someone of a different race. According to the study, 49 percent of black students reported studying frequently with members of another racial or ethnic group, compared to 60 percent of Asians, 72 percent of Chicanos and only 15 percent of whites. Fifty-five percent of blacks, 69 percent of Asians, 78 percent of Chicanos and 21 percent of whites reported dining with someone of a different race. asian college integration doc942\priv\minmix.txt U Mich study SJ Mercury / Detroit News 4/4//94 @@Jewish Jewish Mothers, Brace Yourselves Chronice of Higher Education, 2.6.5 http://chronicle.com/weekly/v48/i43/43a00703.htm PRIME NUMBERS Jewish Mothers, Brace Yourselves By RICHARD MORGAN A new survey has found that when Jewish students schlep off to college, they are likely to move a lot farther from home than non-Jewish students and more likely to drink alcohol and have sex once they get there. 1999 data that was averaged with 30-year trends collected by the Graduate School of Education and Information Studies at the University of California at Los Angeles. @@Job Prospects / Earnings On the one hand, there are those that say every American must go to college to keep out of poverty. On the other hand, most PhD's can't find academic or often industry jobs, and 20% of those with college degrees will work in jobs that don't require a degree. \clip\97\28\lowskill.txt Preferred Citation: David Howell, "The Skills Myth," The American Prospect no. 18 (Summer 1994): 81-90 (http://epn.org/prospect/18/18howe.html) According to the U.S. Labor Department, throughout the 1980s about 20 percent of college graduates were working at jobs that don't normally require a degree, and this is expected to increase to 30 percent at the end this decade. The share of black and Hispanic college graduates with poverty-level wages rose dramatically in this decade, from about 9 percent to just under 15 percent. \clip\97\23\vocat.txt www.seatimes.com (top stories search vocational) "The Squeeze" Seattle Times Oct 7, 1997 p. D1 Market demand by degree (by percent) ---------------------------------------------------- Percentage of employers who had difficulty finding hires with degree, higher is in more demand ---------------------------------------------------- No high school 35% High school diploma 35% GED 35% Some college 56% Associate 62% Vocational Certificate 81% Vocational Degree 81% BA/BS 58% Graduate/Prof 69% Sources: State Board of Community and Technical Colleges; Worforce Training and Education Coordinating Board (based on Seattle Times chart) Vocational and Grad/Professional are in the most demand. Bryan Wilson, State Work Force Training and Education Coordinating Board: 30% of available jobs require 2 yrs of college, only 19% require a 4 year degree. Over the next 4 years, the state will produce 28,000 jobs per year requiring 2 or 3 years of training beyond HS, but community colleges and vocational schools will only produce 20,700 graduates per year, many employers have to hire out of state. \clip\97\18\collearn.txto Business Week Updated July 17, 1997 by bwwebmaster SHEEPSKINS ARE GOLDEN FLEECES How degrees ratchet up earnings 4-yr 52% more than high school only, 2-yr grad school is much more. Masters or other postgraduate 46% in 1973 to 73% in 1993. Less than 4 yr degree only up from 15% to 19%. Bachelor's degree is 28% more than 1st year of college only, postgrad 45% more. \clip\97\18\worker\sheep.htm \clip\97\15\bawort.txt By THOMAS GEOGHEGAN New York Times 6/3/97 HICAGO -- It may be a good year in the job market for new college graduates, but in the 1990's a surprising number of them have found that a B.A. is not all that it's cracked up to be. WE DON'T NEED MORE COLLEGE GRADS \CLIP\97\10\EDBUBB.TXT http://search.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/WPlate/1997-03/30/076L-033097-idx.ht ml The Education Bubble And a saturated job market. By George F. Will "The market for PhDs is glutted: only two in five get academic jobs. There are a million PhDs without academic employment" "the market for college graduates is saturated: an estimated 20 percent work in jobs that do not really require a degree. Says Matthews, "A third of Domino's pizza-de\livery drivers in the Washington, D.C., area have BAs."" Sunday, March 30 1997; Page C07 The Washington Post 90% OF NEW JOBS REQUIRE COLLEGE DEGREE? Wall Street Journal 3/14/97 "Public Rates Local Schools Higher Than National Ones" By ELLEN GRAHAM Staff Reporter of THE WALL STREET JOURNAL "But 90% of the jobs that will be created between now and 2000 will require a college degree, according to David Haselkorn, president of Recruiting New Teachers Inc., a nonprofit group in Belmont, Mass." COLLEGE GRADS EARN TWICE AS MUCH AS HS GRAD Wall Street Journal 3/14/97 "Education Seen as Essential To Living a Successful Life By ALBERT F. HUNT "Today, the average weekly earnings of college graduates are almost twice that of high-school graduates; in 1980, earnings were about one-third larger. " ONLY 20% OF NEW JOBS REQUIRE A COLLEGE DEGREE "Have degree, will travail" Today's Careers (Seattle Wa) March 7, 1997 F013797 Through the year 2010, Washington state will have almost 6,000 more college graduates per year than jobs requiring a four year degree, and Oregon is similar. The U.S. Department of Labor shows that only 20 percent of job openings require a college degree but 25 percent of people looking for jobs every year have a degree, so 20 percent of job seekers will have to take jobs they are over-educated for. There is growth in the region, but it is mostly in electronics, manufacturing and high-tecAsians, who have generally been overrepresented in higher education relative to their numbers, made up about 0.7% of the U.S. population in 1970, but only 0.4% of third-year students in law schools in 1971-1972. By 2000, Asians made up 3.8% of the U.S. population but 6.7% of first-year law students. FRANK HOBBS & NICOLE STOOPS, U.S. BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS IN THE 20TH CENTURY 77 fig.3-4 (2002); Am. Bar Ass’n, Legal Education and Bar Admissions Statistics, 1963-2002, at http://www.abanet.org/legaled/statistics/le_bastats.html (last visited Nov. 22, 2004); Am. Bar Ass’n, Minority Enrollment 1971-2002, supra note 10 h industries. (Norman Matloff maintains that there are no jobs in software that even require a bachelor's degree, and that job prospects are dismal for computer software programmers) @@Law School %%Asian Also see LSAT scores ASIAN LAW STUDENTS 1/2 POP IN 1970, BUT NEARLY 2X IN 2000 z76\clip\2005\02\sander.pdf Asians, who have generally been overrepresented in higher education relative to their numbers, made up about 0.7% of the U.S. population in 1970, but only 0.4% of third-year students in law schools in 1971-1972. By 2000, Asians made up 3.8% of the U.S. population but 6.7% of first-year law students. FRANK HOBBS & NICOLE STOOPS, U.S. BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS IN THE 20TH CENTURY 77 fig.3-4 (2002); Am. Bar Ass’n, Legal Education and Bar Admissions Statistics, 1963-2002, at http://www.abanet.org/legaled/statistics/le_bastats.html (last visited Nov. 22, 2004); Am. Bar Ass’n, Minority Enrollment 1971-2002, supra note 10 as cited in http://www1.law.ucla.edu/~sander/Documents/Sander%20FINAL.pdf A SYSTEMIC ANALYSIS OF AFFIRMATIVE ACTION IN AMERICAN LAW SCHOOLS Richard H. Sander* ASIANS FOR AFFIRMATIVE ACTION, UNDERREPRESENTED OR NOT http://www.abanet.org/minorities/goalix/si-napaba.html NAPABA Defines Its Position on Affirmative Action (File Format: text/html) Summary: Others have looked at the statistics where Asian Pacific Americans are the largest minority group on many private and public campuses and have argued that Asian Pacific Americans no longer should benefit from affirmative action programs because we may now be "overrepresented." Preferential TABLE 6.2: BAR PASSAGE RATES IN THE UNITED STATES FOR WHITES AND BLACKS, 1991-1996 Proportion of Bar-Takers Failing on the First Attempt (for the Entire United States) Index Range Whites Blacks 400-460 52% 71% 460-520 34% 55% 520-580 26% 47% 580-640 19% 34% 640-700 13% 26% 700-760 9% 12% 760-820 5% 12% Bar-Takers in Sample 19,112 1346 Source: LSAC-BPS Data, supra note 133. The actual bar results closely follow the empirical “prediction” from the regression model. At a given index level, blacks have a much higher chance of failing the bar than do whites—apparently, entirely as a result of attending higher-ranked schools and performing poorly at those schools. Indeed, the consequences of affirmative action—in terms of passing the bar—seem to be roughly equivalent to subtracting 120 points from the academic index of the typical black student: blacks in the index range of 580 to 640 have the same bar passage rate as whites in the index range of 460 to 520; blacks in the range of 760 to 820 pass at the same rate as whites in the range of 640 to 700 Jan 2004 conference in Philadelphia - Asians over-represented among law students, but least likely to be promoted to partner at highest levels. %%Oversupply TOO MANY LAWYERS PRODUCED BY LAW SCHOOLS (2010) http://www.slate.com/id/2272621/pagenum/all/#p2 A Case of Supply v. Demand Law schools are manufacturing more lawyers than America needs, and law students aren't happy about it. By Annie Lowrey Posted Wednesday, Oct. 27, 2010, at 4:14 PM ET Between 2007 and 2009, the number of LSAT takers climbed 20.5 percent. Law school applications increased in turn. He is one of dozens of law students who have gone public, very public, to chastise the schools they elected to attend for leaving them older and poorer. One popular medium is the "scam blog," where indebted, unemployed attorneys accuse law schools of being little better than tuition-sucking diploma mills. (Sample blog title: Shilling Me Softly.) The author of one popular, if histrionic, such blog describes his law school as a Ponzi scheme. @@Legacy Admissions David Chiang notes that Harvard legacy applicants had twice the normal admission rate and 35% lower test scores than other applicants in a Ed, Dept study of anti-Asian bias at Harvard. @@level The report, "Profile of Undergraduates in U.S. Postsecondary Education Institutions: 1999-2000 Dept of Ed http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2002/2002168.PDF White undergraduates were more likely to attend 4-year institutions than Black stu-dents (48 percent versus 40 percent), while Black students were more likely to attend less-than-2-year institutions (5 versus 2 percent; table 1.1).19 (But Asians most likely to attend 4 year) Race ----------------------------------------------------- One race lt 2 2yr 4yr more than 1 White 2.0 43.6 48.3 6.1 Asian 2.9 42.9 47.6 6.6 More than one race 4.3 42.1 46.3 7.3 Hisp/Latino 5.7 47.6 41.5 5.2 Black or African American 5.2 48.5 40.3 6.0 Other race 4.9 47.4 40.3 7.4 American Indian/Alaska Native 2.1 57.0 34.7 6.2 Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander 5.0 55.6 33.0 6.4 Race One race FCD BC B AB As White 30.3 16.2 25.3 11.7 16.5 Not Hispanic or Latino 32.4 16.4 24.7 11.3 15.2 Asian 32.2 17.7 26.4 10.1 13.6 More than one race 34.0 15.8 25.8 11.9 12.5 Hispanic or Latino 41.8 16.7 23.7 8.3 9.6 Other race 39.3 17.8 24.3 9.5 9.0 Native Hawaiian/ Other Pacific Islander 39.6 19.7 22.3 9.7 8.7 American Indian/Alaska Native 41.8 16.9 23.3 9.7 8.3 Black or African American 48.9 16.0 20.3 7.5 7.3 @@Liberal Arts Latin vs a Lexus? Matthew Brelis Boston Globe Oct 11, 1998 Today 3/4 grads in fields like accounting, business, nursing, computer science, like vocations. 1968, half in ats or sciences In 1900, 75% of college grads from lib arts schools, now 5% @@Major http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2000/digest99/ Here's the list of tables: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2000/digest99/listoftables.html The degrees by racial/ethnic group start: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2000/digest99/d99t269.html and run on till table 280. http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2000/digest99/d99t270.html Alas, non-resident aliens are not broken up by race. stats which break down college/university degrees for ethnic/racial groups by majors http://nces.ed.gov/pubs98/condition98/c9829d01.html @@Medical School http://www.vdare.com/rubenstein/050425_nd.htm M.D. Candidates Registered Fall 2002 2005: White 20.5M, 24.5F 45%, Asian Americans are 25% B 13.4, H 5.1 Foreign 4.0 Native Am 2.0 of Harvard Medical School admits (http://www.hms.harvard.edu/orma/enrollment.html)...and that's on the low end of elite medical schools. Stanford & UCSF are around 35% IIRC. And if you look at the numbers (MCAT/GPA), Asians are the *most* discriminated against of all groups when it comes to admissions \doc\web\2005\04\Harvmed.wk1 2002 Harvard Medical School Admissions Too many minorities, not enough whites National age 18 population by Arthur Hu: 18: W 63.1% B14.7% H15.3% A3.9% N1.1% (http://www.hms.harvard.edu/orma/enrollment.html) White 20.5M, 24.5F 45%, Asian Americans are 25% B 13.4, H 5.1 Foreign 4.0 Native Am 2.0 White Black Hisp Asian NatAm 45.00% 13.40% 5.10% 25.00% 2.00% National 63.10% 14.70% 15.30% 3.90% 1.10% 0.71 1.28 0.47 8.99 2.55 Asians are 9 times more represented than whites Whites are less than half of Harvard Medical School students, and most of them are women due to preferences. Blacks are near parity, and better represented than whites Only Hispanics are below parity. Native Americans are double numbers, perhaps due to no checking of ethnic credentials ASIANS 5X POPULATION IN MED SCHOOLS IN 2000 Medical Schools - USA -------------------------9/22/2000 "U. medical school applications up. But field is still not racially diverse, researchers find." ..."While schools in the past decade have begun pro- grams to increase racial diversity, attacks on affirmative action programs in some states have created a more hostile climate for minorities in medicine, the researchers suggested." "One study found that the number of black, Hispanic and American Indian applicants fell by nearly 7 percent last year, from 4,487 in 1998 to 4,181. Of last year's first- year class, 7.9 percent were black, 6.9 percent were Hispanic, 19.4 percent were Asian or Pacific Islander and 0.7 percent were American Indian." The U.S. population is 12 percent black, 12 percent Hispanic, 4 percent Asian/Pacific Islander and 0.7 percent American Indian." (NOTE-- the Asian/Pacific Islanders seem to enjoy a percentage almost five-times greater than their popula- tion percentage. http://www.deseretnews.com/dn/view/0,1249,195015968,00.html? @@military d:\priv\95\10\citdrop.txt - sharon faulker dropped out of citadel, along with 5% of other men. @@New Hampshire %%University of New Hampshire UNHcaves in to demands from Black Student union to set targets / quotas for black students and faculty that probably exceed state population of blacks. @@phd MOST PHDS EMPLOYED IN R&D ONLY 4% IN COMPUTER APPLICATIONS As cited in Electrical Engineering Times April 28, 1997 p. 127 "PhD numbers". F050897 Source: The American Association of Engineering Societies newsletter Doctoral scientists and engineers employed in the US: 463,000 41% R&D 22% Teaching 18% Management / Sales / Administration 4% Computer Applications 15% Other Professional Services \priv\95\07\immphd.txt - Do immigrants displace US Phds? \doc\95\05\forphd.txt - Foreign students in PhD programs have more than doubled in past decade, are 57% of students. "Study: PhDs get jobs, but it takes some work" Electrical Engineering Times May 1, 1995 p. 89 Source: "Reshaping Graduate Education Report" 1993, PhDs granted to Students with temporary visas: 57% Over one-third granted to physics, computer science and mathematics In engineering, university financial support went to 76% of students with temporary visas 73% with permanent visas 61% US citizens Half of foreign born PhDs return home. @@plans d:\doc\94\19\edplans.wk1 - Educational plans of sophomores Index All White Hispanic Black Asian Four-year college 1.00 1.00 -1.39 1.24 1.52 Two-year college -1.17 1.00 -1.04 -2.00 -2.33 Vocational/Technical Tr 1.17 1.00 1.67 1.17 -1.20 Military Service 1.40 1.00 2.20 1.60 -2.50 Work Full Time 1.17 1.00 1.67 1.00 -3.00 Full-time Homemaker 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Other / Don't Know -1.06 1.00 1.00 -1.42 -1.31 Asians least likely to choose military, most likely to choose 4 yr college Blacks more likely to choose college, but ony 13% of black grads actually entrolled Report was entitled "Course Enrollment Practices of High School Students in California" @@politics %%liberal bias COLLEGE FACULTY PREDOMINANTLY LIBERAL, BUT PUBLIC CONSERVATIVE "Most college profs lean left, study says" Howard Kurtz Washington Post Robert Lichter George Mason professor, Stanley Rothman Smith College, Neil Nevitte University of Toronto, 1,643 faculty at 183 four-yr schools 1999 data North American Academic Study Survey funded by conservative Randolph Foundation. 72% at US univ and colleges describe themselves as liberal vs 15% conservative, 50% Democrats, 11% Republicans. At elite colleges 87l/13c split. Last major survey by Carnegie Foundation for Advancement of Teaching found 39% liberal in 1984. Harris Poll of public 33% conservative, 18% liberal. 84% in favor of abortion rights, 67% accept gay rights. Humanities 81%, social sciences 75% engineering 51/19, business 49/39. @@population Undergraduate 51.5% Mission College Santa Clara CA 1994 31.0% San Jose State College CA 1994 28.0% MIT 2000 24.0% Caltech 2000 17.0% Harvard 2000 15.0% Yale 2000 12.0% Princeton 2000 3.9% Smith College 1995 [[Mission College 408-988-2200 "most diverse college in S. Bay" is actually predominantly Asian d:\doc\94\18\misscoll.wk1 - Mission college Santa Clara is 51% Asian/PI W28.5% B4.7% H13.8% A51.5% NA0.6% \doc\95\07\smith94.wk1 - Smith College W1.04 B-4.24 H-3.07 A3.90 N1.00 Also high Asians UCLA UC Berekeley Harvard MIT UC Irvine Hawaii UC San Francisco Low Asians - Fitchburgh State MA 8/25/94 phone call [[San Jose State University \doc\95\06\sjsdiver.txt "SJS diversity breeds discord" San Jose Mercury News April 30, 1995 Ethnic distribution: Faculty 1993 W79 B3 H6 A10 Other 2 Students 1995 W40 B4 H13 A31 Other 1 Unknown 11 [[National Statistics USA News for 2000 reports: undergrad. body of the top 5 schools: Asian-Am % Princeton 12%, Harvard 17%, Yale 15%, Caltech24%, MIT 28%. z47\clipim\2000\01\ethcoll1.gif *2.gif, *3.gif Fact file: 1995 enrollment by race at 3,300 institutions of higher learning Chronicle of Higher Education May 23, 1997 p. A39+ Ranked by Asian UC Irvine 47.9A 32.0W 2.5B 12.9H UC Berkeley 34.3A 40.0W 5.5B 12.2H UC Riverside 34.9 38.7 4.9 17.6 UC LA 33.8A 39.5W 6.1B 14.6H Irvine is a predominantly Asian campus Berkeley was called "diverse" when Asians were included, but now called "segregated" when they are not counted. [[University at Stony Brook The University at Stony Brook is the State University of New York's leading research institution. It is also nationally renowned for its Asian-American studies programs. Approximately one quarter of its students are of Asian heritage. @@Quality of College @@Ivy @@Name Brand Going to a college with high SAT scores is nice, but it's the test score of the student that matters. This is also true of high schools, a student with high test scores will be just as good whether he is in a high school with high or merely average test scores. STUDENTS DONT DO ANY BETTER AT BIG NAME SCHOOLS IF THEY WENT ELSEWHERE BUT WERE ACCEPTED z49\clip\2001\04\namecoll.txt Better Than Famous There's increasing evidence that, for many students, the biggest-name college may not be the best way to go By Jay Mathews The Washington Post Sunday, April 8, 2001; Page W24 z42\clipim\2000\06\07\ivy.rtf z42\clipim\2000\06\07\ivy.efx Just a Piece of Paper? Lenora Chu Alan Krueger and Mellon Foundation researcher Stacy Berg "they found that students enrolled in colleges with SAT 1200 earned in 1995 $76,800 vs. $77,000 for those accepted but chose lower ranked colleges. 44% of 1.1M over 700 on verbal graduated from Barrons 33 most competitive schools. Firms conduct 70% of interviews at the top 25 schools. z39\clip\2000\01\ivyval.txt The Chronicle of Higher Education From the issue dated January 14, 2000 Measuring the Value of an Ivy Degree By BEN GOSE "A new study, which examines the earnings of those who were accepted by elite colleges but attended less-selective institutions, finds that students do not enhance earnings by graduating from colleges where the average of SAT scores is high. The students who spurned the elites and attended the less-selective colleges actually earned more money. " SOWELL: IVY NO BETTER THAN STATE U IF SAT SCORES THE SAME Content-Location: "http://www.frontpagemag.com/archives/g uest_column/sowell/sowell12-27-99.h tm" FrontPage Magazine Is Ivy Worth the Green? by Thomas Sowell Creator's Synicate | December 24, 1999 "the National Bureau of Economic Research found that young men with combined SAT scores of 1200 who entered colleges whose average SAT scores were at that same level had achieved an average annual income of $93,000 twenty years later. However, young men with that same SAT level who entered colleges whose average scores were 200 points lower, also ended up averaging $93,000 in annual income... it's not the school, it's the student that matters " Note - this is also true of high schools. It is more important to be a student with high test scores than to be in a school with high test scores. @@Race From Digest of education statistics 1999 http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2000/digest99/d99t209.html \doc\web\2000\07\racecoll.wk1 IMMIGRANTS DO NOT DISPLACE BLACKS FROM COLLEGE Table 209.--Total fall enrollment in institutions of higher education and degree-granting institutions, by type and control of institution and race/ethnicity of student: 1976 to 1997 Blacks in college up by 50% Blacks Hispanics up 3X and Asians 4x | ||Degree-granting || Percentage distribution of students\2\ | Institutions of higher education, in thousands Increase ||institutions, in ||___________________________________________________________ Type and control of institution | ||thousands\1\ || Institutions of higher education ||Degree-granting and race/ethnicity of student | 76-97 || || ||institutions\1\ |___________________________________________________________ ||___________________||__________________________________________||_______________ | 1976 | 1980 | 1990 | 1995 | 1996 | 1997 || 1996 | 1997 || 1976 | 1980 | 1990 | 1995 | 1996 | 1997 || 1996 | 1997 ___________________________________|_________|_________|_________|_________|_________|_________ ||_________|_________||______|______|______|______|______|_______||______|________ 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 || 8 | 9 || 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 || 16 | 17 ___________________________________|_________|_________|_________|_________|_________|_________ ||_________|_________||______|______|______|______|______|_______||______|________ All students | | | | | | || | || | | | | | || | Total ............................|10,985.6 |12,086.8 |13,818.6 |14,261.8 |14,300.3 |14,345.4 131%||14,367.5 |14,502.3 ||100.0 |100.0 |100.0 |100.0 |100.0 | 100.0 ||100.0 | 100.0 White, non-Hispanic ...............| 9,076.1 | 9,833.0 |10,722.5 |10,311.2 |10,226.0 |10,160.9 112%||10,263.9 |10,266.1 || 84.3 | 83.5 | 79.9 | 74.7 | 73.9 | 73.2 || 73.8 | 73.1 Total minority ....................| 1,690.8 | 1,948.8 | 2,704.7 | 3,496.2 | 3,609.3 | 3,723.2 220%|| 3,637.4 | 3,771.2 || 15.7 | 16.5 | 20.1 | 25.3 | 26.1 | 26.8 || 26.2 | 26.9 Black, non-Hispanic .............| 1,033.0 | 1,106.8 | 1,247.0 | 1,473.7 | 1,499.4 | 1,532.8 148%|| 1,505.6 | 1,551.0 || 9.6 | 9.4 | 9.3 | 10.7 | 10.8 | 11.0 || 10.8 | 11.0 Hispanic ........................| 383.8 | 471.7 | 782.4 | 1,093.8 | 1,152.2 | 1,200.1 313%|| 1,166.1 | 1,218.5 || 3.6 | 4.0 | 5.8 | 7.9 | 8.3 | 8.6 || 8.4 | 8.7 Asian or Pacific Islander .......| 197.9 | 286.4 | 572.4 | 797.4 | 823.6 | 851.5 430%|| 828.2 | 859.2 || 1.8 | 2.4 | 4.3 | 5.8 | 6.0 | 6.1 || 6.0 | 6.1 American Indian/Alaskan Native ..| 76.1 | 83.9 | 102.8 | 131.3 | 134.0 | 138.8 182%|| 137.6 | 142.5 || 0.7 | 0.7 | 0.8 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 || 1.0 | 1.0 Nonresident alien .................| 218.7 | 305.0 | 391.5 | 454.4 | 464.9 | 461.3 211%|| 466.3 | 465.0 || --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- || --- | --- @@ranking \clip\96\02\monytop.txt AP 15-Aug-1996 Money Magazine Ranks Top Colleges The top 100 colleges in the United States as ranked by Money magazine, based on an analysis of cost and academic quality. The ranking appears in the September issue. 1. California Institute of Technology 2. New College of the University of South Florida 3. Rice University (Texas) 4. Truman State University (Missouri) 5. College of New Jersey 6. University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill 7. Spelman College (Georgia) US DOMINATES NOBEL PRODUCING COLLEGES 62/100 ANGLO WORLD IS 3/4 Date: Thu, 11 Dec 2003 09:24:35 -0000 From: "jstrocch" jstrocch bigpond.net.au Subject: Academic Ranking of World Universities - 2003 - US creams RoW Back to human diversity for a change. The US dominates insititutions of higher learing in the world, accounting for a ~ 62 of the top 100, a staggering ~ 2/3 ratio. This is pretty impressive given that the US produces about 1/5 of global GDP, measured on a PPP basis. The UK is the next best performer, with 9 out of the top 100. When adding the Aust, NZ and Canadian results that gives the Anglo world around 3/4 of the world's top universities - with ~400 mill pop. ie 7% of the world's pop. This means that the Anglos are punching about 10 times their per capita weight in the top 100. This study was commissioned by Shanghai university, Academic Ranking of World Universities - 2003 Shanghai Jiao Tong University Institute of Higher Education http://ed.sjtu.edu.cn/rank/rank-2003.mht Rank Institution Country Overall Score Score on Nobel Score on HiCi Score on N&S Score on SCI Score Per Faculty 1 Harvard Univ USA 100 100 100 100 100 68.7 2 Stanford Univ USA 83.5 76.2 88.2 73.8 72.2 80.5 3 California Inst Tech USA 76.3 72.9 68.0 64.1 52.0 100 4 Univ California - Berkeley USA 74.0 75.0 70.3 76.1 72.8 51.8 5 Univ Cambridge UK 73.4 91.1 58.0 56.4 69.3 68.7 6 Massachusetts Inst Tech USA 70.6 79.4 67.3 66.3 63.9 53.5 7 Princeton Univ USA 62.5 60.5 60.7 51.9 47.0 72.4 8 Yale Univ USA 61.1 49.2 57.1 58.1 63.5 58.2 9 Univ Oxford UK 59.5 53.3 45.9 57.2 66.2 55.6 10 Columbia Univ USA 59.1 64.5 49.2 50.9 68.5 43.4 11 Univ Chicago USA 57.0 87.1 43.5 45.3 54.2 36.6 12 Cornell Univ USA 56.9 57.3 57.1 46.0 66.6 39.2 13 Univ California - San Francisco USA 55.3 41.6 57.1 60.1 60.9 39.2 14 Univ California - San Diego USA 54.4 14.2 58.0 59.8 67.5 55.2 15 Univ California - Los Angeles USA 53.8 37.3 58.0 48.0 78.0 30.3 16 Univ Washington - Seattle USA 50.3 34.4 57.1 46.6 76.7 20.5 17 Imperial Coll Sci Tech Med UK 50.1 42.2 41.0 37.4 66.9 46.9 18 Univ Pennsylvania USA 50.0 39.8 41.0 43.1 71.4 38.5 19 Tokyo Univ Japan 49.4 18.3 22.9 52.6 91.1 46.2 20 Univ Coll London UK 48.9 28.5 45.9 42.0 66.8 45.8 21 Univ Michigan - Ann Arbor USA 48.8 21.4 61.5 45.7 75.9 23.8 22 Washington Univ - St. Louis USA 47.8 30.5 41.0 43.1 54.7 54.3 23 Univ Toronto Canada 45.8 21.7 32.4 41.1 76.3 42.9 24 Johns Hopkins Univ USA 45.7 21.8 50.2 53.3 72.0 16.6 25 Swiss Fed Inst Tech - Zurich Switzerland 45.6 39.9 34.0 44.8 51.9 42.7 26 Univ California - Santa Barbara USA 45.3 32.7 47.0 40.3 42.5 49.4 27 Univ Wisconsin - Madison USA 45.0 24.6 50.2 47.4 68.0 20.4 28 Rockefeller Univ USA 44.8 64.0 32.4 44.1 27.2 41.9 29 Northwestern Univ USA 44.4 21.4 48.1 36.7 56.1 45.4 30 Kyoto Univ Japan 43.6 24.7 27.1 35.8 75.5 40.8 31 Univ Colorado - Boulder USA 40.9 33.0 42.3 37.0 46.8 32.3 32 Vanderbilt Univ USA 40.4 33.4 35.5 20.8 48.7 50.9 32 Duke Univ USA 40.4 0.0 42.3 44.6 60.8 41.6 34 Univ Texas Southwestern Med Center USA 39.5 41.4 29.0 40.6 40.5 33.5 35 Univ British Columbia Canada 38.2 21.4 30.8 31.8 59.1 35.8 36 Univ California - Davis USA 38.1 0.0 52.3 34.6 65.1 26.4 37 Univ Minnesota - Twin Cities USA 37.8 0.0 54.3 36.4 71.1 15.1 38 Rutgers State Univ - New Brunswick USA 37.2 22.5 34.0 35.4 47.2 34.8 39 Karolinska Inst Stockholm Sweden 36.8 30.9 34.0 23.1 49.6 34.4 40 Pennsylvania State Univ - Univ Park USA 36.5 0.0 54.3 39.0 59.1 18.5 40 Univ Utrecht Netherland 36.5 23.6 27.1 28.2 57.6 34.2 40 Univ Southern California USA 36.5 30.2 37.0 23.4 53.0 27.0 43 Univ Edinburgh UK 36.0 18.9 29.0 37.9 49.1 33.7 44 Univ California - Irvine USA 35.9 27.6 29.0 27.6 45.0 38.8 45 Univ Illinois - Urbana Champaign USA 35.2 20.1 35.5 34.1 58.5 16.8 45 Univ Zurich Switzerland 35.2 30.2 20.5 32.4 48.7 33.0 47 Univ Texas - Austin USA 35.0 18.9 45.9 31.8 51.7 15.7 48 Univ Munich Germany 34.1 23.2 14.5 33.5 56.7 32.0 49 Brown Univ USA 33.9 15.3 29.0 28.5 40.8 45.1 49 Australian Natl Univ Australia 33.9 14.2 44.7 25.6 42.4 31.7 51 Case Western Reserve Univ USA 33.2 12.9 22.9 24.8 46.3 48.3 52 Univ North Carolina - Chapel Hill USA 33.1 0.0 34.0 34.0 60.0 27.0 53 Osaka Univ Japan 33.0 0.0 20.5 31.4 71.8 30.9 53 Univ Pittsburgh USA 33.0 0.0 37.0 26.8 65.1 25.5 55 Univ Arizona USA 32.7 0.0 35.5 37.9 55.9 23.8 55 Univ Bristol UK 32.7 20.2 32.4 21.2 48.6 30.6 55 New York Univ USA 32.7 15.9 37.0 35.4 51.9 12.6 58 Univ Heidelberg Germany 32.2 31.4 17.8 21.4 49.9 30.1 59 Uppsala Univ Sweden 32.1 34.4 0.0 33.1 52.8 30.1 60 Tech Univ Munich Germany 31.3 26.7 22.9 20.1 47.5 29.3 61 Rice Univ USA 31.2 24.8 17.8 24.3 28.0 51.1 61 Carnegie Mellon Univ USA 31.2 33.4 20.5 18.6 38.1 35.1 63 Univ Oslo Norway 31.1 37.7 20.5 16.5 41.6 29.1 64 Tohoku Univ Japan 30.5 0.0 17.8 26.8 69.7 28.6 65 Univ Paris 06 France 30.3 20.3 14.5 23.6 55.2 28.4 65 Univ Copenhagen Denmark 30.3 31.4 14.5 19.9 47.7 28.4 67 Univ Virginia USA 30.0 0.0 38.4 23.0 52.5 26.4 68 Nagoya Univ Japan 29.7 18.3 14.5 22.4 55.8 27.8 68 Univ Sheffield UK 29.7 15.9 20.5 28.7 45.9 27.8 70 Univ Roma - La Sapienza Italy 29.6 17.5 14.5 23.1 55.9 27.7 70 Texas A&M Univ - Coll Station USA 29.6 0.0 34.0 23.5 53.2 27.7 72 Univ Rochester USA 29.5 10.0 10.3 25.5 45.8 46.6 72 Univ Paris 11 France 29.5 20.4 22.9 19.5 47.5 27.6 74 Univ Helsinki Finland 29.3 20.2 10.3 23.4 56.0 27.5 75 Univ Maryland - Coll Park USA 29.2 0.0 35.5 31.5 51.4 18.4 75 Univ Florida USA 29.2 0.0 29.0 23.0 66.0 18.7 75 King's Coll London UK 29.2 25.9 20.5 18.5 44.4 27.3 78 Univ Leiden Netherland 28.9 17.5 22.9 21.3 46.3 27.0 79 McGill Univ Canada 28.4 0.0 25.1 24.0 57.4 26.6 80 Purdue Univ - West Lafayette USA 28.3 18.9 29.0 17.7 50.9 16.0 81 Ohio State Univ - Columbus USA 28.1 0.0 35.5 23.0 61.8 11.3 81 Univ Utah USA 28.1 0.0 29.0 30.7 48.1 23.7 83 Tufts Univ USA 27.9 18.9 17.8 19.3 39.1 35.5 84 Univ Vienna Austria 27.8 17.5 10.3 21.6 54.7 26.0 84 Univ Groningen Netherland 27.8 22.5 14.5 21.1 45.8 26.0 86 McMaster Univ Canada 27.7 21.4 20.5 16.8 45.0 25.9 87 Michigan State Univ USA 27.5 0.0 37.0 28.5 50.8 12.5 88 Univ California - Riverside USA 27.3 0.0 30.8 26.2 34.8 36.0 89 Univ Manchester UK 27.1 21.4 14.5 17.5 48.0 25.4 90 Univ Iowa USA 27.0 0.0 32.4 24.1 52.9 17.0 91 Univ Gottingen Germany 26.9 22.5 17.8 18.8 41.8 25.2 92 Univ Melbourne Australia 26.8 15.9 14.5 17.0 52.9 25.1 93 Lund Univ Sweden 26.5 0.0 22.9 20.9 55.3 24.8 94 Hebrew Univ Jerusalem Israel 26.2 0.0 20.5 29.1 48.6 24.6 95 Free Univ Berlin Germany 26.1 24.2 10.3 18.6 44.5 24.4 96 Univ Basel Switzerland 26.0 19.2 20.5 22.6 35.2 24.4 96 Univ Illinois - Chicago USA 26.0 0.0 32.4 20.4 48.4 20.3 98 Boston Univ USA 25.9 0.0 29.0 28.0 52.3 11.8 99 North Carolina State Univ - Raleigh USA 25.7 0.0 37.0 19.0 47.0 17.5 99 Univ Ghent Belgium 25.7 17.5 20.5 10.7 47.6 24.1 99 Emory Univ USA 25.7 0.0 30.8 19.3 49.4 20.6 @@rate - college attendence rates z67\clip\2003\05\univ.txt Sunday, May 11, 2003 http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/localnews/134716863_highered11m.html Universities can't handle growing state population By Andrew Garber Seattle Times staff reporter 18-24 year olds enrolled in public 2 and 4 year colleges in 2000 At 4 year colleges At 2 year 1 Vermont 41.5 1 Wyoming 23.5 2 Rhode Island 40.4 2 Washington 22.1 3 North Dakota 34.7 3 California 20.0 4 New Hampshire 34.4 4 Arizona 18.9 5 West Virginia 33.9 5 New Mexico 17.9 Top 5 Bottom 5 46 Washington 16.7 46 West Virginia 5.2 47 Texas 16.1 47 Indiana 5.0 48 Wyoming 15.2 48 Montana 4.8 49 California 15.0 49 Vermont 4.5 50 Nevada 12.5 50 Alaska 1.8 Overall 2 and 4 yr 1 Rhode Island 49.9 2 Vermont 46.0 16 Washington 38.7 48 Alaska 27.7 49 Georgia 26.1 50 Nevada 25.8 WA Natl Four-year public 33.9 52.5 2- year public 66.1 47.5 Source: U Wash Office of Institutional Studies @@rate - college graduation rates Graduates Chase Jobs, Culture To Big Cities Cities In Northeast, Midwest Attract Fewer College Graduates April 11, 2006 Top 5 College Graduate Cities: Bachelor / hs diploma 1. Seattle: 51/90 2. San Francisco: 51/84 3. Raleigh, N.C.: 50/91 4. Washington, D.C.: 48/84 5. Austin, Texas: 45/84 by The Associated Press Census 4 yr college rates by city -------------------------------------- 69.0% Wash DC White 1990 vs. 50.9 Asian 69.5% Cupertino CA Asian 1990 68.5% Tenafly NJ Asian 1990 61.0% Denver CO 1990 white 60.8% Mercer Island WA 1990 white 59.9% Mercer Island WA 1990 Asian 56.0% Tenafly New Jersey 1990 56.0% Hillsborough CA 1990 54.1% Bellevue WA 2000 2.1 l.t. 9th 50.4% Cupertino CA Black 1990 50.0% Seattle WA 2000 adults over 25 49.0% Fairfax County White VA 1990 48.0% Cupertino CA White 1990 44.0% Fairfax County Asian VA 1990 42.0% Mercer Island 1990 Black 41.8% Seattle WA 1990 white vs. 37.9 Asian 40.7% College Park MD 2000 38.0% Redmond WA Black 1990 (Microsoft) 31.7% Bellevue WA 1960 9.6 l.t. 9th 20.2% Prince George County black VA 1990 HI=51K, vs. Bellevue 44k 15.3% Wash DC Black 1990 8.7% Patterson NJ, mostly black 1990 Asians usually the highest, except in Seattle and DC. Nearly half of Asian men over 25 have bachelor degrees. Blacks, Hispanics and Pacific Islanders$fall at about half white rates, Camodian and Hmong refugee populations fall at one-quarter. Indians, Chinese and Filipinos fall at double White rates. The only other comparable groups are gay or Jewish / Russian whites, up to 40%-50% depending on Asian ethnicity For people age 25 and over, 41.7 percent of Asians have a college degree, compared with 23.6 percent of the general population. AP 12/09/1997 "Asian-Americans Better Educated" US Census. Spectrum --------------------------------------- US 4 yr deg 1998 W1.0 B-2.0 H-3.0 A1.7 %%City [[Seattle www.seattletimes.com 2000 Census: Top 10 cities ranked by percentage of people 25 and over with graduate or professional credentials: For comparison: Washington state: 9% 1. Pullman (not shown on map): 33% 2. Mercer Island: 32% 3. Medina: 31% 4. Clyde Hill: 29% 5. Bainbridge Island: 26% 6. Lake Forest Park: 21% 7. Sammamish: 21% 8. Bellevue: 19% 9. Seattle: 17% 10. Redmond: 17% %%State COLORADO 2ND TO WASH DC IN COLLEGE GRADUATES Lots of degrees, dropouts State has 2nd-highest rate of college degrees, one of lowest percents of high school graduates By Holly Yettick, Rocky Mountain News Staff Writer April 15, 2002 http://www.rockymountainnews.com/drmn/education/article/0,1299,DRMN_957_1088275,00.html More than one third of Coloradans over age 25 have bachelor's degrees, according to a report this year by the American Electronics Association and the Nasdaq Stock Market. Only the District of Columbia ranks higher. %%United States z39\clip\2000\02\morego.txt http://www.hotcoco.com/news/education/stories/minorities_20000210_srvt.htm February 10, 2000 More blacks, Latinos are going to universities By Arlene Levinson ASSOCIATED PRESS College attendance at any time among all high school graduates ages 18 to 24 reached a record high of 45 percent in 1997. Among whites, the figure was 45 percent, up from 41 percent in 1991; blacks, a record 40 percent, up from 32 percent in 1991; Latinos, 36 percent, vs. 33 percent in 1994. Enrollment for blacks, Latinos, Asian-Americans and American Indians rose 4 percent between 1996 and 1997, the study found. Between 1994 and 1995, their numbers climbed by just under 3 percent. ASIANS HAVE MORE COLLEGE IF THEY ARE IMMIGRANTS mattnf@@aol.com notes: Educational attainment for ages 25-44, 1990 census (born 1946-1965) % College degree Russian (mainly Jewish) 63.1 Asian Indian 61.1 Chinese 49.7 % with college degrees by nativity Native-born Foreign-born Asian Indian 44.0 58.5 Chinese 51.0 38.7 Filipino 22.4 42.3 (I excluded Jews from this analysis because Jews are at a different stage in terms of the immigrant experience) I'm not sure how wise it is to use Russians for Jews, but most "Russian-Americans" are Jewish, and the vast majority of Jews are of Polish or Russian ancestry. I'm sure Polish Jews don't differ much from Russian Jews. But it explains why the census figures for Polish-Americans are deceiving - many are Jewish. HIGHEST COLLEGE RATE - 1 IN 2 http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/cb98-177.html college 4 yr percent ratio race age 25-29 ----------------- 50 1.7 asian 29 1.0 white 14 -2.0 black 11 -3.0 hispanic 1/4 OF TECHNICAL DOCTORATES FOR 4% OF POP 1996 %doctorates 12 overall 26 engineering 22 math 22 computer science 20 physical sciences astronomy, physics chemistry, biological sciences NOTE-these would be higher if foreign students, most of whom stay were counted JEWS LEAD CHINESE IN COLLEGE IN CANADA MattNF#aol.com In Canada, the South Asian population is proportionately much larger than the American (2.4 vs. 0.5 percent), but not nearly as successful as its American counterpart. The proportion of Canadians aged 25-34 with university degrees by ethnicity (Jews, Chinese lead), this is from the 1991 census. Jewish 53% Chinese 33% Filipino 25% South Asian (est.) 25% Greek 22% Polish 19% Italian 19% Ukrainian 17% All groups 16% British 14% German 13% French 13% Black 11% Portuguese 5% Aboriginal 2% RUMBAUT IMMIGRANT STUDY SAYS FEW MEXICANS SEEK ADVANCED DEGREES "Only 24 percent of Mexicans said they would like to earn an advanced degree, contrasted with 63 percent of Asians, 52 percent of non-Mexican Latinos and 47 percent of Vietnamese." \clip\97\15\rumbaut.txt http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/lang_061697.html The Seattle Times Company Monday, June 16, 1997 Immigrants' children do well in school OVER 25 COLLEGE RATE APPROACHING 25% IN 1996 Business Week F060497 "Halls of Ivy Beckon" June 2, 1997 p. 8 Chart shows that those over 25 with 4 years of college or more increased from 17% in 1980 to nearly 25% by 1996 after a brief peak of 21% in the late 90s. ACE ANNUAL - BLACK CATCHING UP IN DROPOUTS Percentage of race 25-29 completed 4 years of college in 1995: Index 42% Asian 1.61 26% White 1.00 15% Black -1.73 9% Hispanic -2.88 http://www.arthurhu.com/index/acollege.htm#incollege Source: American Council on Education, US Census 1990 Census Data, Percent 18-24 in college % Group 66.5 Chinese 61.9 Asian Indian 60.3 Korean 55.1 All Asian / Pacific Islander 53.1 Thai 49.3 Vietnamese 47.1 Filipino 36.3 Cambodian 34.4 US Average 31.7 Hmong 30.6 Guamanian 29.7 Samoan 28.9 Hawaiian 26.3 Laotian They're trying to prove that Asians really aren't that well off but even the poor refugee groups like Cambodians and Hmong send their children to college at rates equal to the national average Chronicle of Higher Education May 23, 1997, American Council on Education. F052397 BLACKS HISPANICS ONLY 7.2%, 4.3% OF BACHELOR DEGREES In 1994, Blacks and Hispanics were 10.7% and 7.9% of undergraduates, but only 7.2% and 4.3% of 4 yr degrees. (Chronicle of Higher Education May 23, 1997, American Council on Education F052297) ASIANS OVER-REPRESENTED IN BRITAIN TOO \clip\97\05\unequal.txt The Economist February 8, 1997 Race relations Integrated but unequal Research by the Institute of Employment Studies has found that 12% of British university students are from ethnic minorities, more than double their representation in the overall population (4.9% in workforce). (This is despite the fact that Britain has no ``affirmative action'' policies of the sort that have raised the numbers of non-white students in America.) HIGHER EDUCATION IS ALREADY HIGHEST IN WORLD, WHY ADD MORE FEDERAL MONEY? \doc\web\97\02\collhigh.txt "Is an Education Crusade Needed? Funds, Pupils Going to College At All-Time Highs" Investors Business Daily Feb 11, 1997 p. 1 f021197-1 According to the Department of Education * 79% of high school graduates wanted to go on to college * 75% of those who wanted were enrolled by 1994 * 20% of those over 25 haven't even completed high school * 1995, 61.9% of high school grads were enrolled, exceeded since 1960 only twice, and in this decade * In 1995 34.4% of 18-24 yr olds, beaten only twice since 1964 * 14 to 35 enrolled was 5.7 in 1965, now 12.4 million, doubled in 30 years * Colleges up by 11% in 10 years. * US is at or near #1 in world in higher education (but pundits say we lag other countries instead "twice as many Americans 25-34 hold bachelors degrees compared to most other countries", and that includes Japan and Germany) Over 5% have some post-secondary education, astouding by international standards. NY CUTS FUNDING, BUT RICH MUCH MORE LIKELY TO GRADUATE FROM COLLEGE \clip\97\02\poorcoll.txt New York Times January 27, 1997 Aid Cuts Put College Beyond Reach of Poorest Students 79% of the top 25% finished college in 1994 vs. 31% in 1979, but it was 8% in the botom 25% either year. 40% of New York's City University come from households earning less than $20,000. WA POLL: 94% OF PARENTS EXPECT KIDS TO GO TO COLLEGE, 64% TO FINISH 4 YR DEGREE VS. 50/25 REALITY filed: \doc\96\07\highed.txt Higher Education: A Challenge, Not a Crisis.Glen R. Pascall Puget Sound Business Journal Oct 18-24 1996 p. 17 Pollster Stuart Elway reported 94% of parents expect their children to attend public higher education in the state of Washington. 64% expect to go to a 4 year university, 27% to a community or technical school. (Comment, in the US, only 50% of young adults start higher education, only 1/4 complete 4 years of college) 70% OF US DOESN'T FINISH COLLEGE, BUT THAT'S STILL NUMBER 1 IN THE WORLD! \doc\96\01\hedsmith.txt "America Not Competitive" NW Asian Weekly July 15, 1995 Hedrick Smith in "Rethinking America" points out The average age of college students is 28. 70% of US students don't finish college (but he doesn't point out this is higher than any other nation in the world, tied with Canada) \priv\95\14\ridehigh.txt "Riding High" business week Oct 9, 1995 pl 134 The percentage of high school graduates enrolling in college after graduation jumped from 49% in 1980 to 62% in 1992. The ratio of bachelor's degrees awarded to those 18 to 24 years of age rose a remarkable 29% from 1980 to 1990, according to John Bishop, economist at Cornell University \doc\95\10\washhi.txt Panel to study financing for higher education John Iwasaki SPI 7/25/95 Washington in 1993 ranked 49th in college-age in 4 yr college 4th in community / technical 20th overall, including private \doc\95\10\apifact.txt - Census summary 25 years or older with bachelor degree, 1990 Male Female Ratio White 28 21 1.33 Asian/PI 46 37 1.24 Ratio 1.64 1.76 \doc\95\01\jewsedin.wk1 - Jewish profile LA Times poll Education Jew US Ratio Dropout HS 8 26 -3.25 HS Graduate 20 39 -1.95 Some College 17 16 1.05 College Grad + 47 18 2.65 Ramon G. McLeod, San Francisco Chronicle Jan 13, 1994 p. A3 1990 Census shows that Russians have the highest education of any group with at least 1 million people, and highest income Russian US Asian 4 yr college 48% 20% 37.7% doc937\asianrnk.xls Asian 1980 census by Rank Percent 4 or more years of college 58.4 Pakistani 3.42 51.9 AsIndian 3.04 37.0 Filipino 2.16 36.6 Chinese 2.14 34.3 Asian 2.01 33.7 Korean 1.97 33.3 Indonesian 1.95 32.9 Asian/PI 1.92 32.9 Hawaiian 1.92 32.3 Thai 1.89 26.4 Japanese 1.54 17.1 White 1.00 16.2 US -1.06 16.2 Polynesian -1.06 12.9 Vietnamese -1.33 12.9 Melanesian -1.33 9.6 Micronesian -1.78 9.3 PacIsld -1.84 9.3 Samoan -1.84 9.3 Tongan -1.84 8.4 Black -2.04 7.7 Cambodian -2.22 7.7 Native Am -2.22 7.6 Hispanic -2.25 7.3 Guamanian -2.34 5.6 Laotian -3.05 2.9 Hmong -5.90 http://www.arthurhu.com/index/acollege.htm#college90 1990 Census d:\doc\95\12\asiark90.txt 4 or more years of college, over 25 Group Rate Index White=1.00 Gay 58.3 2.71 (Overlooked Opinions) Indian 58.1 2.70 Russian 48.0 2.23 Jewish 47.0 2.18 (LA Times poll) OthAsian 41.7 1.94 Chinese 40.7 1.89 Filipino 39.3 1.83 Asian 37.7 1.75 AsianPI 36.6 1.70 Japnese 34.5 1.60 Korean 34.5 1.60 Thai 32.8 1.53 White 21.5 1.00 US 20.3 -1.06 Vietnam 17.4 -1.24 OtherPI 15.8 -1.36 Hawaiian 11.9 -1.81 Black 11.4 -1.89 PacIsl 10.8 -1.99 Polynes 10.8 -1.99 Micrones 10.2 -2.11 Guamanian 10.0 -2.15 Hispanic 9.2 -2.34 Samoan 8.0 -2.69 Melanesian 7.5 -2.87 Tongan 5.8 -3.71 Cambodia 5.7 -3.77 Laotian 5.4 -3.98 Hmong 4.9 -4.39 \doc\94\20\calfcens.wk1 - California Census results CA 90 College Grad W1.00 B-1.72 H-3.58 A1.34 O-4.70 \priv\94\20\calfcen3.txt The new census figures show that Asian Americans lead Californians in college degrees, with a stunning 34 percent of all adults. Takaki said a recent study in New York City revealed that 78 percent of the Korean greengrocers had college educations. \priv\94\20\quallife.txt -- Almost a quarter of California adults hold college degrees, well up from 1980, when fewer than one in five held such degrees. In San Francisco, an amazing 35 percent hold degrees, continuing the city's tradition as one of the most educated in the nation. Santa Clara County has a rate of about 33 percent. \doc\94\20\babyboom.wk1 - Baby Boomers by Race Index White Black Hisp Asian College Grad 1.00 1.33 -2.75 1.61 @@PHD Asians have proportionally the highest number of PHD, up to 26% vs 4% of population ASIANS TAKE 12-26% OF PHDS, NOT COUNTING FOREIGN STUDENTS http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/cb98-108.html astat.txt 1996 %doctorates 12 overall 26 engineering 22 math 22 computer science 20 physical sciences astronomy, physics chemistry, biological sciences @@Predicted La Griffe du Lion http://www.lagriffedulion.f2s.com has Harvard undergraduate enrollment data for 1998, including some predictions From "The Color of Meritocracy," http://www.lagriffedulion.f2s.com/color_of_meritocracy.htm . Predicted Predicted enrollment enrollment 1998 (after set-asides (no set-asides) enrollment African American 8.0% 0.07% 8.0% Hispanic 8.0 0.4 8.0 Asian/Pacific Islander 14.6 17.0 17.0 Jewish 24.1 27.9 (25 to 33%) @@President American Demographics September 1988 p. 14 "Ivory Power" Blayne Cutler 95% white 89% male 4% Jewish (vs 2 pop) 87% academic promotion 4% religious education 2% government less than 1% military 87% doctorate 1% from military From The University and College Presidents Heidrick and Struggles @@Private vs. Public \clip\97\19\privcoll.txt Copyright 1997 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. Wealthy students choose public universities Move is sending many poorer students to community colleges August 26, 1997 " McPherson and co-author Morton Schapiro, an economist at the University of Southern California, found that 38 percent of college freshman from the richest families enrolled in public schools in 1994, compared with 31 percent in 1980. Those families earned more than $200,000 a year. " (subsidies can be as much as $12,000 per year, no matter how much the student family earns) @@professional degrees LSAT SCORES SEE \doc\95\13\lsat.wk1 First-professional degrees 1986-87 by race /ethnic group and field of study Source: US Department of Education Statistics Digest of Education Statistics 1989 p. 251 pop 75.85 12 9.5 2.25 0.4 Ranked by Asian Index total whitenh black hisp asian/pi natam/al Veterinary Medic 2,230 1.21 -11.20 -2.88 -2.48 2.89 Chiropractic 2,493 1.22 -14.59 -7.70 -2.28 -2.43 Law 36,056 1.18 -2.95 -3.86 -1.40 -1.18 Podiatry 591 1.16 -2.49 -5.81 -1.31 -1.55 Theological Stud 6,518 1.14 -2.27 -6.34 -1.06 -2.27 Osteopathic medi 2,518 1.22 -8.14 -7.73 1.02 1.64 All prof fields 71,617 1.15 -2.88 -3.78 1.23 -1.15 Masters Degrees 289,341 1.04 -2.61 -4.13 1.28 -1.04 Medicine 15,429 1.12 -2.64 -3.44 2.06 -1.12 Optometry 1,082 1.15 -8.12 -4.05 2.63 -1.15 Dentistry 4,739 1.07 -2.34 -2.83 2.77 -1.43 Pharmacy 861 0.81 1.33 -1.58 6.99 2.15 Pharmacy is the only field where Blacks are over-represented. @@Ready ABOUT 1/3 OF STUDENTS GRADUATE READY FOR COLLEGE MORE BLACKS ENTER COLLEGE THAN ARE READY FOR COLLEGE z74\clip\2003\10\colread.txt Public High School Graduation and College Readiness Rates in the United States Jay P. Greene, Ph.D. Senior Fellow, Manhattan Institute for Policy Research Greg Forster, Ph.D. Senior Research Associate, Manhattan Institute for Policy Research Funding for this report was provided by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation ..only 32% of all students-fewer than half of those who graduate and about one-third of all students who enter high school-leave high school with the bare minimum qualifications necessary to apply to college. ..very similar to the actual college-entering population, in terms of both its size and its racial composition. [for blacks ]the number actually attending college is larger than the number who are college ready September 2003 @@Remedial Colleges offer remedial courses in basic math and reading / writing to those that do not pass tests or need help. One approach is to require minimal skills, but then you wouldn't get enough students, the other is to say that high schools should produce only college-ready graduates. Asians have the lowest rate of remedial classes National W1.00 B-4.20 H-1.23 A 1.96 ACE W1.00 B-1.72 H-1.72 A ?.?? Rates of remedial classes 87% New York community college fail at least 1 exam 64% Cal State math exam 62% Nashville, Tennesee U Tenn 50% Cal State Math 47% Cal State English 41% 1995 US 2-year colleges take remed course. 20% Boston Latin (Elite High School) Grads 19% Black, Hispanic, Asian undergrad US 15% AmIndian undergrad US 11% White undergrad US WILL "HIGH STANDARDS" ELIMINATE REMEDIAL COLLGE COURSES? \clip\99\18\remed.txt Moving On to College, Going Back to Basics Many Students Need Remedial Courses By Steve Twomey Washington Post Staff Writer Thursday, September 23, 1999; Page A01 "it's our fault, too," says Nancy S. Grasmick, Maryland's superintendent of schools. "but if we can achieve our purpose with these high school assessments . . . if we can literally end social promotion, if we can provide for the support systems . . . if all that comes together, you would hope there would be no student entering college who requires remedial education." \clip\98\16\remed.txt High School Kids Failing To Master Basic Skills A record number need remedial help Lori Olszewski, Laura Hamburg, Chronicle Staff Writers Tuesday, November 3, 1998 ©1998 San Francisco Chronicle URL: http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/1998/11/03/MN56735.DTL About half of the new freshmen entering California State University at all 22 campuses need remedial help in math and English, according to results on the university's placement test. The number is the highest since 1989, when CSU started tracking the number of students who need remedial help. Susan Estrich, "It's not who goes to college; it's who can stay there" USA Today, May 12, 1998, A13 64 percent of the freshmen entering the California state college system failed the entry-level math test, and 43 percent failed verbal exam, but in top 1/3 of grad class University of California campuses, 35 percent of entering freshmen needed remedial instruction in basic English proficiency. In New York, 87 percent of the students entering one of the City University's six community colleges fail at least one initial exam. A 1995 federal survey found that 41 percent of college freshmen at public two-year colleges took at least one remedial course. \priv\98\06\remed.txt LA TIMES, Wednesday, March 18, 1998 MOST CAL STATE FRESHMEN NOT MATH-READY By KENNETH R. WEISS, Times Education Writer http://www.latimes.com/HOME/NEWS/LEARNING/t000026259.1.html More than half the freshmen who entered the California State University system last fall were unprepared for college-level math and 47% lacked the skills to handle college English courses, although they were among the top third of California's high school graduates. 20% of BOSTON LATIN GRADS IN UMASS WERE IN REMEDIAL COURSES http://www.boston.com/dailyglobe/globehtml/321/Study__Many_freshmen_academically_b.htm \clip\97\25\massrem.txt Study: Many freshmen academically behind Report comes as remediation is cut By Richard Chacón , Globe Staff, 11/17/97 "About 22 percent of public and private high school students from Massachusetts who enrolled at UMass in 1995 took at least one remedial-level course in math or English," \doc\96\02\quesrem.wk1 "Questions About Remedial Education in a Time of Budget Cuts" New York Times June 7, 1995 p. B8 filed under asian.college.remedial Asians are least, Blacks most likely to be in remedial college education National Center for Devlopmental Education finds IN 1993: Ranked by Index 1993 Remedial 4yr colle Rate Index Asian 2% 5.10% 0.39 -1.96 White 59% 76.90% 0.77 1.00 Hispanic 7% 7.40% 0.95 1.23 NatAm 2% 0.90% 2.22 2.90 Black 30% 9.30% 3.23 4.20 93 US Remedial College W1.00 B-4.20 H-1.23 A1.96 * "College remedial gap found" Seattle Times Feb 12, 1996 p. A4 American Council on Education report finds that 19% of black, Hispanic and Asian American and 15% of American Indian students took remedial college courses in the 1992-93 school year compared with 11% for white undergraduates. 93 ACE Remedial college W1.00 B-1.72 H-1.72 N-1.36 Remedial rates in Tennesee 27% to 70% \priv\96\02\csuremed.txt In 1993, the most recent year for which figures are available, 49 percent of CSU freshmen failed the English placement exam and 47 percent failed the math exam. Many CSU campuses have even higher failure rates. One guy claimed that he had seen an article that claimed that 20% of incoming college freshmen need remedial classes. Several people disputed his claim and asked for documentation. He only remembered that he had seen this statistic in a Boston Globe article. \doc\94\6\lowrem.txt Remedial classes for low income students enrolled for 90 hours each and work for 2 consecutive summers, after 15 months both reading and math increased by about a half-grade. But most of the gains dissapated long-term without continuous reinforcement \doc\web\97\11\remed2.txt As of the fall semester, The percentage of high school graduates, "in one or more developmental or remedial course in a Tennessee Board of Regents School" Including: TSU, MTSU, Nashville Tech, Vol State, Austin Peay, Columbia State, and other state schools, "but not including UT Knoxville, UT Chattanooga, or UT Martin", IN 1994/95 - Nashville 63%, Tennessee 64% IN 1995/96 - Nashville 59.64%, Tennessee 62.2% IN 1996/97 - Nashville 61.5%, Tennessee 61.9% Bruce Crawford wrote: Out here in California, at the Cal State universities, 40% of the incoming freshmen require remedial English classes, and 45% require remedial math. @@salary offers \doc\95\07\gradsal.txt - NACE salary survey puts engineering highest, english last @@SAT test scores doc\94\5\priv\college.txt US News survey @@scholarship SOME MERIT SCHOLARSHIPS END UP PAYING FOR CARS AND VACATIONS \clip\2002\schocar.txt New York Times Education October 31, 2002 B's, Not Need, Are Enough for Some State Scholarships By GREG WINTER Scholarships open to students like Ms. McKenna, who estimates her parents' income at $200,000 or more, are rising quickly.... Ryan is a senior at the University of Georgia, where a B average in both high school and college earns a free ride, regardless of one's ability to pay. Ryan has made good use of her college trust fund. It has bought a trusty Honda, trips to Italy, Switzerland, About the only thing it is has not paid for is, well, college. @@single-sex and single-race colleges \clip\96\02\allmale.txt Date: Tue, 20 Aug 1996 22:38:04 -0400 Private School Keeps All-Male Policy By BILL BASKERVILL Associated Press Writer 84 all women's colleges, but only 3 all-male. Date: Sat, 29 Jun 1996 22:53:48 -0400 From: NewsHound@sjmercury.com (NewsHound) Separatism is in, except for white men BY MIKE ALLEN. New York Times It is acceptable to have a predominantly woman or black college, but not for white men. the country will have just three all-male colleges, with a total enrollment under 5,000, which are private and therefore not affected by last week's ruling. They are Hampden-Sydney College in Virginia, Wabash College in Indiana and Morehouse College in Atlanta. But there are 84 women's colleges, with 120,000 students, and about 100 historically black colleges, with 280,000 students. @@Skills COLLEGE JOB PREMIUM TIED TO TEST SCORE SKILLS, NOT YEARS OF ED Investor's Business Daily, page B1, Wed, Oct 15, 1996 Perspective: The Education Illusion. IT'S COGNITIVE SKILLS, NOT COLLEGE DEGREE THAT MATTERS \clip\97\21\collgrad.txt THE SHEEPSKIN PARADOX Business Week Oct 6, 1997 College grads in lower-level jobs (This is related to blacks having lower pay and higher unemployment even with equal education, but not test score measured skills) @@sports and academics \doc\95\10\sporhurt.txt - sports and fraternities hurt grades compared to nonathletes. @@Technical College Perks plentiful for trade school grads Seattle Times Jan 9, 2000 Al Stambotski Ranken Techical College reports 12-40 job offers for each graduate, meanwhile many college grads can't find well paying jobs, one tech pays $13 an hr @@White WHITE CHRISTIANS MAY BE THE MOST UNDER-REPRESENTED http://buchanan.org/blog/pjb-the-dispossession-of-christian-americans-241 by Patrick J. Buchanan – November 27, 1998 The Dispossession of Christian Americans "When one adds foreign students, students from our tiny WASP elite and children of graduates, what emerges is a Harvard student body where non-Jewish whites — 75 percent of the U.S. population — get just 25 percent of the slots. Talk about underrepresentation! Now we know who really gets the shaft at Harvard — white Christians" " Perhaps ethnic Catholics and Christians can stop resisting proportional representation — and demand their fair share of the slots at Harvard, etc., based on their share of the U.S. population. How can Harvard say no to the Irish if it says yes to Hispanics? If proportional representation is the name of the game, Christian and European-Americans should get into the game, and demand their fair share of every pie: 75 percent, and no less. " @@women %%Economic Growth EDUCATED WOMEN HOLD BACK ECONOMIC GROWTH? Robert Barro's "Determinants of Economic Growth", and he was discussing the influence of education on economic growth. He said that male secondary and higher levels of education is highly correlated with economic growth. However, the secondary education of women showed an insignificant or negative effect on subsequent levels of economic growth. Japan is more educated among men but US is higher overall %%Professional WOMEN EARN CLOSER TO HALF OF 1ST PROF AND PHD DEGREES \clip\97\09\women\women.htm http://www.forbes.com/forbes/121696/5814047c.htm Forbes (12/16/96): More women earn top credentials. Since 1961, women from 2.7 to 40.7% of first professional degrees, 10.5 to 38.5% of phD degrees. \doc\95\13\womncoll.txt - in Europe, women are higher than men in higher education, except for math and engineering. @@underrepresentation The data reveal that, although African Americans’ representation in higher education has grown in the past decade, it still is significantly below the percentage they represent in the general population. This underrepresentation is especially true at the more prestigious research universities and the most expensive four-year colleges and universities. Source: United Negro College Fund THE AFRICAN AMERICAN EDUCATION DATA BOOK, VOLUME 1: HIGHER AND ADULT EDUCATION (note - in fact, UCLA freshman survey shows that black representation is higher at the best universities than average, because of affirmative action goals based on parity, many professional schools such as Stanford and Harvard admit black law school students in the same proportion as the population) @@West Point USA Today Army commanders: White men lead a diverse force http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2014/09/11/army-officer-corps-dominated-by-white-men/14987977/ Sep 11, 2014 The lack of black officers who lead infantry, armor and field artillery battalions and brigades — there are no black colonels at the brigade level this year — threatens the Army's effectiveness, disconnects it from American society and deprives black officers of the principal route to top Army posts, according to officers and military sociologists. Fewer than 10% of the active-duty Army's officers are black compared with 18% of its enlisted men, according to the Army. Pride and patronage - USA Today http://www.usatoday.com/longform/news/politics/2014/09/15/service-academies-congress-nomination-army-navy/15452669/ USA Today Sep 15, 2014 Though the nomination system ensures geographic diversity, it does a poor job of providing for racial diversity. According to 2012 West Point data, only a quarter of black cadets get in with a congressional nomination. The rest get in through special admissions programs for athletes, enlisted soldiers or sons and daughters of active-duty military The U.S. Air Force Academy pegged the taxpayer cost of graduating each cadet in the Class of 2014 at more than $487,000. Graduates of the academies are commissioned as junior officers, with salaries starting at $35,000. For decades, many Southern lawmakers refused to nominate black candidates. e Military Academy Board of Visitors in 2012, 58% of admissions to West Point came through a congressional or vice presidential nomination. But only 27% of African-American candidates were admitted on a congressional nomination. (Affirmative action quota?) Most African-American candidates get in through an "alternative admission," one of about 200 appointments made by the superintendent after congressional and service-related spots are filled. West Point Class of 2010 84 male 64 female 9% black 10% hispanic 81% other (including Asian) Forbes http://www.forbes.com/colleges/united-states-military-academy/ #9 college overall in USA 1% AmIndian 6% Asian (about = population, but low for elite college) 7% African American (slightly less than population) 9% Latino 71% White (slightly greater population) 4% Two or more 1% unknown 1% NMon resident alient http://www.arthurhu.com/index/acollege.htm#world @@University of California Mattnf@aol.com contributes \doc\web\2000\02\ucbchin.wk1 Jews vs. Chinese vs. Japanese at UC Berkeley Fall 1998 University of California Berkeley compared to est 1994 high school grads BA's 1997-1998 Chin Ranked by Representation Ratio Assume Jews = 1%, Indian/Pakistani = .74%, Chinese = 2.8% Pop Rate Group Field 20.0% 20.00Jew grad 31.8% 11.24Chin biological sciences 31.5% 11.13Chin chemistry 10.0% 10.00Jew undergrad 24.3% 8.59Chin engineering 6.3% 8.51Indi chemistry 6.3% 8.51Indi chemistry 21.0% 7.42Chin undergrad 20.1% 7.10Chin physical sciences 5.1% 6.89Indi business 4.6% 6.22Indi biological sciences 15.5% 5.48Chin social 3.8% 5.14Indi engineering 3.7% 5.00Indi undergrad 10.9% 3.85Chin business 2.7% 3.65Indi graduate 7.8% 2.76Chin humanities 6.9% 2.44Chin graduate @@World The stereotype is that Americans lag in higher education, but no nation on earth has higher rates of college education than the US except Canada, which is about the same. New figures say that Australia and France have just caught up, but the US is still way ahead of Japan and Germany, and in fact it is an advantage that college isn't free since this has an effect of limiting the number who can go, instead of admitting all who can pay and do the work. Higher education stats stir new concerns in USA 9/6/2006 By Mary Beth Marklein, USA TODAY http://www.usatoday.com/news/education/2006-09-06-higher-education_x.htm Original report http://measuringup.highereducation.org/about/whatsnew.cfm Introduction: International Comparisons Highlight Educational Gaps Between Young and Older Americans by Patrick M. Callan The National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education The National Report card on Higher Education Percentage of students going to college and completing a degree: College participation 18-24 currently enrolled in college Rhode Island 54% North Dakota 49% Korea 48% Greece 43% Finland 37% Belgium 37% USA 35% Ireland 35% Poland 34% Australia 31% France 31% Hungary 31% Washington State 30% Spain 30% New Zealand 29% Netherlands 27% Norway 25% Portugal 25% Sweden 24% Czech Rep. 24% Germany 23% Austria 23% Denmark 20% Slovak Rep. 20% Iceland 19% Switzerland 18% Mexico 13% Turkey 11% College completion Japan 26% Portugal 25% U.K. 24% Australia 23% Switzerland 23% Denmark 23% Ireland 21% New Zealand 21% France 20% Iceland 19% Korea 18% Belgium 18% Sweden 18% Slovak Rep. 18% Poland 17% USA 17% Spain 17% Netherlands 16% Hungary 16% Czech Rep. 15% Mexico 14% Norway 14% Finland 13% Turkey 13% Austria 13% Germany 13% Italy 12% http://measuringup.highereducation.org/commentary/introduction.cfm Percent of Older Adults (35-64) with associate degree or higher, 2004 Minnesota Massachusetts New Hampshire Washington 41 Canada 39 United States 31 Finland 31 Japan 31 Sweden 31 Denmark 29 New Zealand 28 Australia 28 Norway 26 Switzerland 26 Belguim 25 Iceland 25 United Kingdom 23 Germany 23 Netherlands 22 Ireland 22 Korea 20 Spain 19 France 17 Greece 15 Hungary 15 Luxembourg 14 Austria 14 Mexico 12 Czech Republic 12 Poland 11 Slovak Republic 10 Italy 9 Portugal 7 Turkey Ages 25 to 34 53 Canada 52 Japan 47 Korea 40 Finland 40 Sweden 39 Belgium 39 United States 38 Spain 37 France 37 Ireland 36 Australia 35 Denmark 33 United Kingdom 32 New Zealand 29 Switzerland 28 Iceland 28 Netherlands 24 Greece 22 Germany 20 Poland 19 Luxembourg 17 Hungary 16 Portugal 15 Austria 13 Slovak Republic 12 Czech Republic 12 Italy 11 Turkey Source: National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education World college going rates \doc\web\97\03\worlcoll.wk1 CANADA LEADS WORLD IN "SOME" COLLEGE z50\clip\2001\06\cancoll.txt June 19, 2001 National Post Education boom sidesteps Canada Post-secondary training rising fast in industrial world By Heather Sokoloff according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development: * Canada ranks number one among OECD nations when it comes to the percentage of the population aged 25-34 with some kind of post-secondary education, at almost 50%. UK, US, JAPAN LEAD IN UNIVERSITY DEGREE RATE Student population completing university degree in 1999: 35.6% United Kingdom (most in OECD) 33% United States 29% Japan 26.9% Canada Lowest: Austria, Switzerland (less than 2% private funding) OECD SAYS US IS #2 FOR BOTH, TIED FOR #2 FOR MEN WITH BS DEGREES \doc\web\2000\07\bachrate.wk1 Digest of Education Statistics 1999 Chapter 6. International Comparisons http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2000/digest99/d99t415.html Table 415.---Number of bachelor's degree recipients per 100 persons of the theoretical age of graduation,\1\ by sex: Selected countries, 1989 to 1996 \1\The graduation rate relates the number of people with bachelor's degrees to the number of people in the population at typical age of graduation. SOURCE: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, unpublished tabulations. (This table was prepared September 1999.) Ranked by rate for men Country | Men only | Men and Women |_____ |1996 United Kingdom ........|32.7 Australia ..............36.0 Japan ................|30.7 United States ..........34.7 United States .........|30.6 United Kingdom .........34.4 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Australia .............|28.9 Canada .................31.9 Canada ................|26.5 New Zealand ............30.8 New Zealand ...........|26.2 Denmark ................28.0 Ireland ...............|24.6 Norway .................27.4 Denmark ...............|23.1 Spain ................. 26.1 Finland ...............|22.4 Ireland ................25.5 Spain .................|21.5 Finland ................23.9 Norway ................|20.2 Japan .................22.9 Netherlands ...........|18.2 Netherlands ............19.6 Germany\2\ ............|18.2 Sweden .................19.1 Belgium ...............|16.7 Germany\2\ .............16.1 Sweden ................|15.1 Belgium ................15.9 Switzerland ...........|11.5 Portugal ...............15.7 Italy ................ |11.4 Italy ................ 12.6 Austria ...............|11.4 Austria ................10.5 Portugal ..............|11.3 Switzerland ............ 9.3 United States is #2 in both sexes with bachelor's degrees US is tied for #2 for men with bachelor's degrees with Japan, behind UK http://www.pdkintl.org/whatis/ff2dropo.htm \clip\98\08\drop\drop.htm FastFacts About Dropout and Completion Rates Among G-7 countries, the percentage of the 25- to 64-year-olds When completion rates for upper secondary education and higher education for 1992 were combined, the United States, with 84%, ranked above all G-7 countries. Among the 22 developed nations studied by NCES in 1992, the 31% of those in the age 25-64 group in the United States who had completed higher education was topped only by the 41% in Canada. The percentages for other G-7 countries included 16% for France, 22% for Germany, 6% for Italy, 21% for Japan, and 19% for the United Kingdom. intcoll.wk1 UNITED STATES HAS MORE COLLEGE ED THAN ANY OTHER NATION BUT JAPAN LEADS IN COLLEGE EDUCATED MEN International comparisons of educational attainment by age Source: The Condition of Education/ 1992 p. 64 U.S. Department of Education Office of Educational Research and Improvement NCES 92-096 Compared to other large industrialized countries, the United States has the most educated population (both sexes) but is #2 measured by education of the men. A higher percentage of 25 to 64 year olds in the United States has completed secondary school and college than in Japan, Germany, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, or Canada. Asians are the most educated Americans. Percentage of population in large industrialized countries who have completed secondary and higher education, by age, sex, and country: 1989 US LEADS JAPAN IN BOTH SEX HIGHER ED 24% VS 23% National Ranked by Both Sexes 25-64 yrs ol25-34 years old Both sexes Both sexes Male Female SecondHigherSecondHigherSecondHigherSecondHigher Country United States 82.0 23.4 86.6 24.2 85.7 24.9 87.4 23.5 Japan 69.7 13.3 90.6 22.9 89.3 34.2 91.8 11.5 Canada 71.4 15.1 82.5 16.1 82.1 16.9 84.8 15.2 Germany 78.4 10.2 91.5 11.8 94.5 13.3 88.2 10.3 United Kingdom 64.5 9.2 76.7 11.2 79.7 12.8 73.7 9.5 France 48.1 7.0 63.0 7.6 65.6 8.1 60.4 7.1 Italy 25.7 5.7 41.1 6.7 40.9 6.9 41.2 6.5 JAPAN LEADS IN MALE HIGHER EDUCATION 34% VS 25% US IS NO. 2 Nations Ranked by Male higher education Country Japan 34.2 United States 24.9 Canada 16.9 Germany 13.3 United Kingdom 12.8 France 8.1 Italy 6.9 In the United States, completing secondary school is defined as completing high school; completing higher education is defined as completing 4 or more years of college Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Center for Educational Research and Innovation, International Indicators Project US #1 IN EDUCATING HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE LEVELS, BUT WHO WOULD HAVE GUESSED? \doc\96\08\countend.txt Countries tend to spend less on more students USA Today Dec 10, 1996. Everybody says the US lags other countries in education, but experts insist on ignoring that nobody matches the US which now graduates 32% of young adults from college with Australia, Canada and the UK trailing slightly according to a survey of the ECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) \doc\96\03\worlcoll.wk1 College Students by Nation As of 1990, source: The Economist Book of Vital World Statistics, 1990 Comparitive analysis by Arthur Hu West Germany and Japan are far behind the US and Canada in numbers of college students, at 1/2 and 1/2.6 respectively StudentsFemale Univ or Index OECD per 100k equiv US 5142 33 62.5 1.00 Canada 4950 61.1 1.04 Korea 3671 30 70.0 1.40 Phillipines? 3580 54 89.6 1.44 Israel 2762 46 54.0 1.86 Netherlands 2749 42 43.1 1.87 Norway 2730 51 41.2 1.88 West Germany 2592 41 86.5 1.98 Belgium 2566 47 40.7 2.00 Spain 2542 40 94.4 2.02 Austria 2511 46 93.3 2.05 Australia 2444 49 100.0 2.10 France 2395 51 75.1 2.15 Denmark 2314 50 79.1 2.22 Sweden 2209 53 69.7 2.33 Italy 1995 47 99.2 2.58 Greece 1987 49 58.6 2.59 Ireland 1979 43 55.6 2.60 Japan 1971 37 80.7 2.61 Iceland 1909 54 93.9 2.69 UK 1880 46 33.8 2.74 Switzerland 1874 32 64.5 2.74 Finland 1831 50 71.2 2.81 Mexico 1578 36 95.0 3.26 Hong Kong 1410 35 18.8 3.65 Portugal 1020 54 67.8 5.04 Turkey 1020 33 64.0 5.04 Singapore? 963 42 40.3 5.34 Luxembourg 232 34 100.0 22.16 China 190 31 27.06 Phillipines is likely reversed with Singapore. \clip\97\28\myth\college.htm http://www.scruz.net/~kangaroo/L-collegeglut.htm International comparisons And how does American education stack up against that of other nations? At the college level, the U.S. is the most highly educated society in the world. At the elementary and high school level, the U.S. has a mixed record. Educational attainment of persons aged 25 to 64 years old, percent by country, 1992 (6) Primary Secondary College Country Only Also Also --------------------------------------------- United States 16% 53 24 Netherlands 42 37 21 Canada 29 30 15 Denmark 41 40 13 Germany 18 60 12 Norway 21 54 12 Sweden 30 46 12 United Kingdom 32 49 11 Finland 39 43 10 France 48 36 10 Switzerland 19 60 8 Italy 72 22 6 Adding the figures in the first two columns shows how well each nation educates its non-college workforce. For example, the U.S. gives 69 percent of its society either an elementary or high school education, although in Italy it's 94 percent, France, 84 percent, etc. On the other hand, the U.S. also sees more of its students through high school than most other countries, which have unusually high dropout rates even in elementary school. So, on the whole, the U.S. produces more highly educated workers than any other nation. \doc\web\97\09\edworld.wk1 Educational Attainment (US and Canada are the highest higher education in the world) Lower Higher Higher SecondarSecondarEducatioIndex Canada 29 30 41 1.32 United States 16 53 31 1.00 Norway 21 54 25 -1.24 New Zealand 43 33 24 -1.29 Sweden 30 46 24 -1.29 Australia2 47 30 23 -1.35 Germany 18 60 22 -1.41 Japan1 30 48 21 -1.48 Netherlands 42 37 21 -1.48 Switzerland 19 60 21 -1.48 Belgium 55 25 20 -1.55 United Kingdom 32 49 19 -1.63 Denmark 41 40 19 -1.63 Finland 39 43 18 -1.72 Ireland 58 25 17 -1.82 France 48 36 16 -1.94 Spain 77 10 13 -2.38 Czechoslovakia3 27 63 10 -3.10 Austria 32 61 7 -4.43 Portugal 86 7 7 -4.43 Italy 72 22 6 -5.17 Turkey 86 9 5 -6.20 University Enrollment (United States and Canada Lead the World) Age ----------------18-21 Country 18-21 22-25 26-29 Index --------------------------------------------------- G-72 United States 25.0 12.1 5.4 1.00 Canada 23.9 13.9 5.6 -1.05 Spain 22.5 14.9 5.4 -1.11 France 20.2 11.6 3.8 -1.24 Netherlands 20.1 15.9 4.8 -1.24 Australia 18.8 6.2 5.4 -1.33 New Zealand 18.8 7.8 3.6 -1.33 Belgium 16.9 7.1 1.5 -1.48 Greece 15.6 1.6 0.3 -1.60 United Kingdom 14.2 4.7 1.8 -1.76 Austria 13.1 15.4 9.0 -1.91 Finland 10.3 16.6 8.7 -2.43 Norway 8.4 15.3 6.5 -2.98 Poland 8.1 12.1- -3.09 Denmark 7.8 17.2 8.7 -3.21 West Germany (f 7.4 15.2 9.6 -3.38 Turkey 7.0 4.9 2.3 -3.57 Hungary 6.0 5.0 1.6 -4.17 Switzerland 4.8 7.8 4.0 -5.21 Sweden 4.3 8.1 3.8 -5.81 SOURCE: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs/eiip/index.html Education Indicators: An International Perspective US Dept of Education ------------------------------------------------------------- In 1994, 62 percent of high school graduates enrolled in college the October following graduation, up from 47 percent in 1973. Source: US Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, October Current Population Survyes. Preparation for Work, The Condition of Education 1996 National Center for Education Statistics no. 8 http://nces.ed.gov/pubs97/97373.pdf \clip\97\27\workskill.pdf 1973 1983 1994 ----------------------------------- Total 47 53 62 2-yr 15 19 21 4-yr 32 34 41 \priv\96b\08\hongcoll.txt Date: Sun, 14 Jul 1996 07:27:48 -0400 From: NewsHound@sjmercury.com (NewsHound) Colony lacking in educational tradition By Michael Dorgan San Jose Mercury News Staff Writer. US and Japan are about 50% college going, but Hong Kong is only at 8% Note - Japan college rate is actually only about 1/2 that of the US --------------------------------------------------- \doc\96\04\homegrown.txt "Home-Grown Standards" Albert Shanker, American Federation of Teachers (ad) New Republic June 10, 1996 f053196 "AP exams are not as tough as those face by French or German students seeking entry into college, but they are not pushovers either" Ed Comment: Only half as many Europeans attend college as Americans. "If nearly one-third of youngsters in Germany and France and japan take and pass four or five exams that are at least as difficult as the APs, why shouldn't our students be able to do the same?" Comment: about half of US children attend some college, about one quarter complete, far higher than any other nation on earth, Japand Germany included. If US kids can be pushed harder, great, but lets get some perspective. ---------------------------------------------------- Source: Statistical Abstract of the World, Marlita A. Reddy Editor, base data United Nations as of 1991. Gale Research 1994 Rates of post-secondary education for adults over 25 United States 32.2 Japan 21.2 Germany 17.3 China 1.0 -------------------------------------------------------- c:\doc\96\03\worlcoll.wk1 College Students by Nation As of 1990, source: The Economist Book of Vital World Statistics, 1990 Comparitive analysis by Arthur Hu West Germany and Japan are far behind the US and Canada in numbers of college students, at 1/2 and 1/2.6 respectively StudentsFemale Univ or Index OECD per 100k equiv US 5142 33 62.5 1.00 Canada 4950 61.1 1.04 Korea 3671 30 70.0 1.40 Phillipines? 3580 54 89.6 1.44 Israel 2762 46 54.0 1.86 Netherlands 2749 42 43.1 1.87 Norway 2730 51 41.2 1.88 West Germany 2592 41 86.5 1.98 Belgium 2566 47 40.7 2.00 Spain 2542 40 94.4 2.02 Austria 2511 46 93.3 2.05 Australia 2444 49 100.0 2.10 France 2395 51 75.1 2.15 Denmark 2314 50 79.1 2.22 Sweden 2209 53 69.7 2.33 Italy 1995 47 99.2 2.58 Greece 1987 49 58.6 2.59 Ireland 1979 43 55.6 2.60 Japan 1971 37 80.7 2.61 Iceland 1909 54 93.9 2.69 UK 1880 46 33.8 2.74 Switzerland 1874 32 64.5 2.74 Finland 1831 50 71.2 2.81 Mexico 1578 36 95.0 3.26 Hong Kong 1410 35 18.8 3.65 Portugal 1020 54 67.8 5.04 Turkey 1020 33 64.0 5.04 Singapore? 963 42 40.3 5.34 Luxembourg 232 34 100.0 22.16 China 190 31 27.06 Phillipines is likely reversed with Singapore. GERMANS CLAMOUR TO KEEP COLLEGE FREE, BUT FEW CAN GO VS USA \clip\97\28\germcoll.txt http://www.latimes.com (hunter) Friday, November 28, 1997 German Students Protest Fund Cuts Education: About 40,000 demonstrators arrive in Bonn in support of tuition-free universities. Police say no incidents were reported. From Associated Press [1/3 of Germans seek higher education vs. 2/3 of Americans, college may be free, but far fewer go than Americans who are free to pay their own way as well] >>\doc\96\02\ukcoll.txt "Degrees of poverty" Economist Feb 3 1996 p. 48 31% hs grads go to college in UK In United Kingdom, only 5% of high school leavers went on to higher education in the 1960s. In 1995 it was 31%, but the goal is 40% similar to the US. >>\doc\96\01\hedsmith.txt "America Not Competitive" NW Asian Weekly July 15, 1995 Hedrick Smith in "Rethinking America" points out 6% of US, vs. 40% of German and 94% of Japanese students in high school study calculus. The average age of college students is 28. 70% of US students don't finish college (but he doesn't point out this is higher than any other nation in the world, tied with Canada) \doc\95\09\germcoll.txt - college prep school grads go to college for free in Germany HIGHER EDUCATION IS ALREADY HIGHEST IN WORLD, WHY ADD MORE FEDERAL MONEY? \doc\web\97\02\collhigh.txt "Is an Education Crusade Needed? Funds, Pupils Going to College At All-Time Highs" Investors Business Daily Feb 11, 1997 p. 1 f021197-1 * US is at or near #1 in world in higher education (but pundits say we lag other countries instead "twice as many Americans 25-34 hold bachelors degrees compared to most other countries", and that includes Japan and Germany) Over 5% have some post-secondary education, astouding by international standards. \priv\95\17\usfair.txt - full text \doc\95\14\usfair.txt - summary U.S. EARNS FAIR MARKS IN EDUCATION REPORT SAYS IT COMPARES FAVORABLY WITH OTHER NATIONS San Francisco Chronicle (SF) - THURSDAY, December 9, 1993 The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (based in Paris) found that the US #1 in higher education spending $13,679 vs. $10,415 for Australia #2, and $6,000-$7,000 average for other 24 countries #1 in 25-64 with 4 year college degree #1 in perentage of women in higher education top 5 in percentage of 5 yr olds in education top 3 in science graduates, behind Japan and UK, but ahead of Germany Germany has only 1/2 rate of higher education Japan has only 2/3 rate of higher education US blacks vs. the world: Race Rate Percent US White 1.00 42% US Black -1.27 33% Japan -1.50 28%* German -2.00 21%* Percent 18-24 high school graduates enrolled in college 1993: black - 33% white - 42%