Arthur Hu's Index of Diversity: Birth

Contents | Summary



Summary - It is one of the best kept secrets that Asians have the lowest rate of alchohol, smoking, drug use and AIDS while pregnant, lowest rate of teen pregnancy, and unmarried pregnancy. This has predictable effects on grades, test scores, crime rates, earnings, and unemployment rates. They have highest rate of 30-35 births. A seattle study of motherhood risks of juvenile delinquency found Asians were at the lowest risk, and Asians happen to be at the lowest risk of nearly all factors cited as being correlated with juvenile offenders, under 18 and unmarried, with blacks being the highest.

If there were an ethnic strategy to family success, it would be to minimize teen and unmarried births, and maximize education and income, and get married before birth, which leads to positive health, economic and educational outcomes, while the opposite is true for races with high rates of teen births which have high rates of infant mortality and low academic achievment.

On the minus side, Asians are more likely to be below poverty level, be uninsured or publicly insured, and receive late or no prenatal care. Suprisingly, the only negative outcomes are a slightly higher rate of moderately low birthweight, but this seems to be a sign of smaller babies, not less healthy since the rate of infant mortality is much lower than any other ethnic group. Asians also have the lowest rate of SIDS, Asians were the inspiration to try moving babies off their stomachs which was the recommended sleeping position in the West.

This is almost never reported because this would imply that a socially backward and intolerant culture such as most Asian cultures have positive social outcomes.

see @@abortion
See @@adoption
see %%aids
see @@drugs
see @@health %%drugs
see %%circumcision
see %%infant mortality
see %%low birth weight
see %%prenatal care
see %%smoking

Summary stats: Ranked by Black
Abandoned Babies         W1.0 B-15.2  H-2.3    A-1.2  N-3.1   (note8)
US 90 Unmarried          W1.0 B-4.14  H-2.03   A 1.44         (note7)
Seattle Teen Preg        W1.0 B-4.06  H-4.43   A-1.12 N-4.46  (note3)
US92 %born out of wedlockW1.0 B-3.7   H-2.2    A 2.1          (note5)
CA 15-17 Teen/Married    W1.0 B-3.17  H-1.04   A 2.16 N 1.09 (note4)
US90 Unmarried Mothers   W1.0 B-3.26  H-1.80   A 1.55 N-2.63  (note1)
US Teen Birth rate       W1.0 B-2.45  H-2.70                  (note2)
CA Teen Births           W1.0 B-2.39  H-1.43   A 1.8  N-1.44  
US90 Teen Birth Rate     W1.0 B-2.22  H-1.97   A 1.92 N-1.60  (note6)
MA95 Infant Mortality    W1.0 B-2.19  H-1.63   A 1.46
US90 Infant Mortality    W1.0 B-2.07  H-1.05   A 2.00        doc\95\03\infmort.wk1
MA92 very low birth wt   W1.0 B -2.05H  1.33A  -1.01  N-1.63   \doc\94\17\masslbw.wk1
Premature, =inc, care    W1.0 B-2.0                          \doc\95\01\blakinfn.txt
Smoke, drink drug preg   W1.0 B-2.0                          \doc\95\01\blakinfn.txt
CA93 Pregnant Drug Use   W1.0 B-2.0   H 1.33   A 1.71        doc\doc936\mothdrug
US Abortion UChicago     W1.0 B-1.4   H-1.17   A-2.6  N-1.5   \doc\95\11\aborrace.wk1
Proportion of Abortions  W1.0 B-1.82  H-1.01
Pregnancies / woman      W1.0 B-1.82  H-1.68
CA86 Lo Birth Wt.        W1.0 B-1.8   H-1.1    A-1.5  N 1.0   doc938\lobirth.xls
MA92 LoBW nonsmoker      W1.0 B-2.55  H-1.48   A-1.44         Mass Dept Health
US 1990 Birth Rates      W1.0 B-1.31  H-1.49   A-1.15 N-1.42
US90 30-34 Birth rate    W1.0 B-1.19  H-1.20   A 1.30 N-1.13  (note6)
MA92 low birth weight    W1.0 B-1.07  H-1.12   A-1.25 N-1.07  \doc\94\17\masslbw.wk1
------------ parity --------------------------
Proportion of Miscarr    W1.0 B 1.21  H-1.04
MA92 Smoked pregnant     W1.0 B 1.51  H 1.79   A 3.8         Mass Dept Health

Almost every risk and outcome is worse for Blacks than Whites.

Ranked by Asian - Compared with whites, only the overall US birth
rate higher. The Seattle teen birth rate is comparable, and even
then, it's not worse by much compared with a very elite white

Otherwise, Asians have lowest teen and unwed birth rates, and highest
rate of mature motherhood, when careers, marriage and education are
completed, lowest rate of drug and alchohol use while pregnant.

Only birthweights and abortion rates are worse than for whites.

                        W    B      H      A       N
Japan vs. USA           W   1                 50.0
MA92 Smoked pregnant    W   1B  1.51H  1.79A   3.8         Mass Dept Health
CA 15-17 Teen/Married   W   1B -3.17H -1.04A   2.16N 1.09  (note4)
US92 %born out of wedlocW   1B -3.70H -2.20A   2.10        (note5)
US90 Infant Mortality   W   1B -2.07H -1.05A   2.00        doc\95\03\infmort.wk1
US90 Teen Birth Rate    W   1B -2.22H -1.97A   1.92N-1.60  (note6)
CA Teen Births          W   1B -2.39H -1.43A   1.80N-1.44
CA93 Pregnant Drug Use  W   1B -2.0 H  1.33A   1.71        \doc\doc936\mothdrug
US90 Unmarried Mothers  W   1B -3.26H -1.80A   1.55N-2.63  (note1)
MA95 Infant Mortality   W   1B -2.19H -1.63A   1.46
US 90 Unmarried         W   1B -4.14H -2.03A   1.44        (note7)
US90 30-34 Birth rate   W   1B -1.19H -1.20A   1.30N-1.13  (note6)
CA90 Infant Mortality   W   1B -2.34H -1.01A   1.15        \doc\96\03\infmort.wk1
------------- parity -------------------------------------------
MA92 very low birth wt  W   1B -2.05H  1.33A  -1.01N-1.63 \doc\94\17\masslbw.wk1
Seattle Teen Preg       W   1B -4.06H -4.43A  -1.12N-4.46  (note3)
US 1990 Birth Rates     W   1B -1.31H -1.49A  -1.15N-1.42
Abandoned Babies        W   1B-15.20H -2.30A  -1.20N-3.1   (note8)
MA92 low birth weight   W   1B-1.07 H -1.12A  -1.25N-1.07  \doc\94\17\masslbw.wk1
CA86 Lo Birth Wt.       W   1B -1.8 H -1.1 A  -1.5 N 1.0   doc938\lobirth.xls
US Abortion UChicago    W   1B -1.4 H -1.17A  -2.6 N-1.5   \doc\95\11\aborrace.wk1
MA92 LoBW nonsmoker     W   1B-2.55 H -1.48A  -1.44        Mass Dept Health

also see - abortion, adoption, infant mortality, low birth weight,
prenatal care

Summary - The number one problem in American society is the fall of
the nuclear American family, and poor birth statistics. But Asians
are almost always ignored as the group with the lowest rates of
unmarried and teen births, the lowest rates of infant mortality, even
among the poorest groups, the lowest rates of pregnant drug use and
smoking. This isn't racism, it's a culture that leads to healthier
babies and stronger families.

@@Abandoned / Hidden Pregnancy

There are actually quite a few stories of Asian teen women who are
too embarassed to bear the shame of single motherhood and choose to
abandon their babies at birth, and sometimes even toss them in the
trash. Asians don't have a high rate of abandoned babies, but a high
rate of "boarder" babies may be because of their lower birth rate.

\clip\97\19\abanbaby.txt c 1997 Cable News Network, Inc. All Rights
Reserved.  Fear, denial lie behind abandoned babies epidemic July 29,

\clip\97\15\hidpreg.txt The
Seattle Times Company Thursday, June 5, 1997 Hidden births, hidden
grief: Denial and panic may make a young mother hide her pregnancy,
even kill her newborn by Nancy Montgomery Seattle Times Snohomish
County bureau [This story mentions the Asian woman who threw her baby
into a McDonalds trash bin, but makes no mention of the race of any
of the half-dozen local cases of hidden pregnancy described]

\priv\96B\05\ABANBABY.HTM other seattle cases of women ditching
their babies in the trash.

\priv\96B\05\BABYTRAS.HTM Asian U Wash student abandons baby in trash
in McDonalds.

doc93A:abaninf.xls Abandoned infants and boarder babies
  Abandoned: W0.29/1.0 B15.2 H2.3 A1.2 N 3.1
  Boarder:   W0.18/1.0 B28.1 H1.3 A3.9 N10.3
@@Age of Mother

Health, economic and education risks increase for younger mothers,
few know that Asians not only have the lowest rate of teen mothers,
but the highest rate of older mothers, who are more likely to have
high paying careers and completed a college education, and / or
married men who are highly educated with good careers.

Fertility of American Women: June 1990 P-20-454 by Amara Bachu,
US Census Bureau
Rank by teen birth rate          Rank by 30-34 birth rate
Black            2.22            Asian            1.30
Hispanic         1.97            Hispanic         1.20
AmIndian         1.60            White            1.00
All              1.18            All             -1.01
White            1.00            Black           -1.19
Asian           -1.92            AmIndian        -1.33

Women in U.S. delaying childbirth
CDC study finds age at first birth rising
By Robert Bazell (NBC NEWS)
The ethnic background of Americans also plays a big role. Puerto 
Ricans, Native Americans and African Americans are on average the 
youngest mothers while Filipina, Chinese and Japanese Americans are 
the oldest.

"New research links mother's age to increased health risk for babies"
Seattle Times April 27, 1995 p. A9 New England Journal of Medicine
study shows teen mothers are at greater risk because of their young

"APA Women Waiting Longer to Have Children" Asian Week April 2, 1993
p.3 National Center for Health Statistics: 58% of Chinese Am and 60%
of Japan Am women who had children in 1990 were 30 or older

\clip\97\25\teenmom.txt The Associated Press Study: Odds are stacked
against children of teen moms November 4, 1997 "Daughters born to
teen moms in inner-city Baltimore in the early 1960s were 3.6 times
more likely to be on welfare than those with mothers older than 25,
according to the study in this month's issue of the journal
Pediatrics.  "


Asians and Hispanics have the lowest rates given rates of drug use,
college and high school alchohol abuse.

d:\doc\94\19\apalocho.doc - API alchohol use and fetal alchohol syndrome
threatents Asians, but there is no data available.

@@Asian Advantage

API Births found to be healthy
Asian Week April 6, 2000 Jamet Dang. Alameda County report shows
racial disparities in maternal health. Women of Asian descent have
relatively healthy babies with an overall lower rate of low birth
weight, pre-term births and infant mortality compared to other
minority groups. Report released in march by Maternal Child and
Health Program. Asians had lowest rates of sexually transmitted
diseases and AIDS, low rates of obesity and hypertension. Extremely
low mortality rates. Rates of births to teens, unmarried women, and
multiple births lower among API than whites. Hispanic women have low
rates of low birthweight, drug, tobacco use during pregnancy. Latin
teens 4x vs white to have babies. _Contrary to the popular myth of
Asians being the healthiest racial and ethnic group_, there are
significant health risk disparities among the subgroups.. Cambodians
and Pacific Islanders have the worst outcomes. 33% of API don't speak


\doc\web\99\10\activf.txt From: "Patricia Hausman"
 Date Tue, 13 Jul 1999 I looked at the
reproductive success of women with an unusal cognitive ability
pattern (top decile for math and mechanical ability).  These women
were far more likely to report having played sports in high school
than a control group that had above average general ability.  The
more active group did have considerably fewer pregnancies, as well as
more miscarriages.  As of their last interview, these women were
between 31 and 39, and almost half were childless.

@@Bacterial Vaginosis

\clip\98\10\healborn.txt In health all babies not born equal
" -- Bacterial infection. Bacterial vaginosis, an infection seen in
women of all races, appears to be more prevalent in black women.
Mark Klebanoff, an epidemiologist, says studies show that 25 percent
to 40 percent of black women have elevated levels of bacterial
vaginosis, compared with 15 percent to 20 percent of Hispanic women,
10 percent of white women and 8 percent of Asian women.  "
Seattle Times Company August 4, 1998 Race a major factor in health of
babies by Tracey A. Reeves

Bacterial Vaginosis  w1.00 b-3.00 h-1.80 a1.25
         percent  index
white          10     1.00
black          30    -3.00
hispanic       18    -1.80
asian           8     1.25

@@birth center

doc936:birthcen.prn Asians less likely to use birth center W1.2 B-4.2
H1.5 A-3.4 


Blacks have worse birth outcome than whites, even with comparable
education or income. Ethiopian immigrants have some better outcomes,
but not better for low-birthweight.

Dora Costa's web page,, in PDF form, without ordering it.
Race and Pregnancy Outcomes in the Twentieth Century: A Long-Term
NBER Working Paper No. 9593
[No mention of non-environmental causes, no mention of good outcomes
for high poverty Hispanics or Asians]
Today the primary observable explaining differences in
 prematurity rates is the low marriage rate of black women.
 Maternal birth weight accounts for 5-8 percent of the gap in
 black-white birth weights in the recent data, suggesting a role
 for intergenerational factors. 

BLACKS z49\clip\2001\05\ethbirt.txt Am J Public Health 1994
Sep;84(9):1505-7 Pregnancy risk factors and birth outcomes in
Washington State: a comparison of Ethiopian-born and US-born women.
Wasse H, Holt VL, Daling JR.  Department of Health Services, School
of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington,
Seattle 98195.  Ethiopians were older, more likely to be married, and
less likely to smoke than were US-born women, and they were less
likely to have anemia than US-born Blacks. The adjusted
low-birthweight risk among Ethiopians was similar to that of US-born
Blacks (relative risk [RR] = 0.9) and Whites (RR = 1.1). Ethiopians
were more likely to have high-birthweight infants than were US-born
Blacks (RR = 4.0). Cultural and behavioral etiologies may explain
these favorable birth outcomes.

@@breast feeding

d:\doc\94\18\mabirt01.wk1 - Mass births teen, low, cesarean sections
and breast feeding

East Asians high, but SE Asians are low, perhaps due to welfare
dependency and free formula.

Breast Feeding Mass 1992        
Other Asian 1.44    
Cent American   1.34    
Other Hispanic  1.33    
Dominican   1.27    
Haitian 1.27    
Chinese 1.06    
Hispanic    1.04    
Other   1.02    
White nonHisp   1.00    
State Total -1.01   
Black non-Hisp  -1.09   
Asian   -1.11   
Other Black -1.16   
Puerto Rican    -1.22   
Other SE Asian  -1.56   
Unknown -1.68   
Vietnamese  -2.44   
Cambodian   -3.36   
Vietnamese and Cambodians least     

d:\doc\94\17\massceas.wk1 - Prenatal, Breast Feed, Cesarean Sec
Birth Characteristics and Source of Prenatal Care Payments By
Race and Hispanic Ethnicity Massachusetts: 1992
breast feeding W1.0 B-1.10 H1.02 A-1.12

@@cesarean birth 

Summary - Mass births are much lower for Asians, but WA survey were
linked with older births, which were more common among Asians.

d:\doc\94\16\cesbirth.wk1  Higher age and first
births is linked to higher cesaraean births

Cesarean births vs. <3 population W1.00  B1.12 H1.24 A1.09 
(not consistent with Massachusetts, minorities was lower) Data
insufficient to compare rate for races

d:\doc\94\17\massceas.wk1 - Prenatal, Breast Feed, Cesarean Sec
Birth Characteristics and Source of Prenatal Care Payments By
Race and Hispanic Ethnicity Massachusetts: 1992

cesarean section W1.00 B-1.08 H-1.12 A-1.37

d:\doc\94\18\mabirt01.wk1 - Mass births teen, low, cesarean sections
and breast feeding

Cesarean Sections Mass 1992 
Haitian 1.08
Dominican   1.04
Other Hispanic  1.01
White nonHisp   1.00
State Total -1.03
Other   -1.04
Other Asian -1.06
Black non-Hisp  -1.08
Other Black -1.11
Hispanic    -1.12
Puerto Rican    -1.17
Chinese -1.20
Asian   -1.37
Unknown -1.50
Vietnamese  -1.54
Cent American   -1.56
Other SE Asian  -1.66
Cambodian   -3.27


Characteristics of Mothers of Offenders vs nonOffenders

A study at Harborview Medical Center in Seattle found that children
of unmarried and very young mothers were at much higher risk of being
juvenile offenders. Further analysis shows that Blacks were highest,
Asians were the lowest, and my data shows that, not so
coincidentally, Asians have the lowest and Blacks the highest rate of
unmarried teen pregnancies, but the highest rate of married and
mature births over 25, which may explain much of why Blacks outcomes
are so poor, and Asian outcomes are so favorable.

Ranked by Offender Ratio Risk
Original table
          OffenderNonoffenRatio   Index
NativeAm       3.3     1.6    2.06   -2.14
Unmarried     16.2     8.4    1.93   -2.00
AfricanAm      4.6     2.4    1.92   -1.98
Mother <18     8.4     4.8    1.75   -1.81
Female        52.3    30.8    1.70   -1.76
Mother 18-    13.2     9.8    1.35   -1.39
Born #4+      12.9    10.6    1.22   -1.26
Born #3       15.5    13.5    1.15   -1.19
Born Urban    54.8    51.1    1.07   -1.11
Mother 20-    38.6    37.1    1.04   -1.08
Norm Birth    95.2    94.5    1.01   -1.04
Norm gest     90.7    90.4    1.00   -1.04
Born #2       32.8    32.9    1.00   -1.03
Preterm        9.3     9.6    0.97   -1.00
White         89.9    93.1    0.97    1.00
Born Rural    45.2    48.9    0.92    1.04
Married       83.8    91.6    0.91    1.06
Born #1       38.8      43    0.90    1.07
Low BirthW     4.8     5.5    0.87    1.11
Mother 25-    27.5    32.6    0.84    1.14
Mother 35+       3     3.6    0.83    1.16
Mother 30-     9.3    12.1    0.77    1.26
OtherNonW      2.2     2.9    0.76    1.27
Male          47.8    69.2    0.69    1.40
Very Low B     0.2     0.8    0.25    3.86

Ratio analysis by Arthur Hu 6/97

The highest risk ratios are for Black, Native American, unmarried and
under 18 at time of birth.  The lowest risk ratios are Asian mother,
mothers over the age of 25 first born and married. (Most nonwhite
other race is Asian)

Asians have the lowest rate of teen births, unmarried births, and the
highest rate of births over age 25 which may largely explain the
Asian advantage but this was not explored by the study which largely
ignored other nonwhite races.

From study: "Maternal and Perinatal Risks Factors for Later
Delinquency" Amy Conseur et. al Pediatrics Vol 99 No. 6 June 1997 p.
783 Reprint Harborview Injury Prevention and Research Center Box
359960 325 Ninth Ave Seattle WA 98104-2499 (F060697) Birth records were used to
determine mother's characteristics at birth of juvenile offenders and


BIRTH DEFECTS MAY BE GENETIC z48\clip\2001\02\birtdef.txt Tuesday
February 13 4:08 PM ET Norwegian Study Traces Birth Defect
CHICAGO (Reuters) - Men born with birth defects are less likely to
have children of their own but when they do those children are more
likely to suffer a defect, Norwegian researchers reported on Tuesday.

\priv\96b\07\birthdef.txt Date: Thu, 11 Jul 1996 22:32:25 -0400 From: (NewsHound) OPINION: Making Healthy Babies By
Donald R. Mattison, The Journal of Commerce 12 to 14 out of 100
babies has a serious birth defect or developmental disability


Asians have the lowest rate of drug use while pregnant. It's not
polite to say which group is the highest, and if it is highest, it's
just proof of racial bias.

z48\clip\2001\03\blakbaby.txt Black newborns
likelier to be drug-tested: study March 16, 2001 BY BRENDA WARNER
ROTZOLL STAFF REPORTER Black babies are more likely than white babies
to be tested for cocaine and to be taken away from their mothers if
the drug is present, according to the March issue of the Chicago
Reporter. the most compelling explanation is that it is evidence of
bias [urban hospitals test every baby, but only few in suburbs]

US drug use by pregnant mothers      B-2.0 H 1.3 A1.71
Cocaine exposed births NYC           B-6.9 H-3.0 A NA

doc936:mothdrug.xls,prn - US drug use of pregnant mothers by race 
   B=2.0 H=-1.33 A=-1.71

\doc\95\14\crakbaby.wk1,.txt Cocaine Exposed Births in NYC by Race
Incidence Index: W1%(1.0) B6.7%(6.9) H2.9%(3.0) A-NA

\doc\95\14\drughire.txt "Hires passing drug tests" USA Today Oct 30,
1995. New job applicants tested for drugs have declined from 11.4% in
1989 to 3.8% in 1994 for postive.

Blacks are 90% of cocaine addicted births in San Francisco "Mentors
help black youths to adulthood" Gregory Lewis, San Francisco
Chronicle March 10, 1991



Mankind Quarterly A Translation
Of.- "Popularizing the Knowledge of Eugenics and Advocating Optimal
Births Vigorously" by Sun Dong-Sheng Jinan Army Institute, People's
Republic of China
"recent developments in Japan and Singapore, when laid aside the
evidently growing interest in China itself in eugenic measures to
improve its human capital, suggest that the taboo on this subject is
not as strong in East Asia as in the West."
" Eugenics is currently being promoted in China.  Although literally
it means "superior births," the essence of eugenics can be found in
the expression, "the birth of that which is better," that is to say,
the birth of children whose prenatal characteristics are excellent. "


Asians have the lowest rates of fertility overall,
though some recent refugee groups are very high

Summary ranked by Asian
1980 Index W1.00 B-1.45 H-1.49 A1.13
1990 Index W1.00 B-1.17 H      A1.06


"Making babies" Asian Week Nov 8, 1996 F011497-1 Asians have varying
fertility rates. Established groups have low rates, new refugees are

US Fertility Rates: Asians have the lowest number of children
1990 Index W1.00 B-1.17 H   A1.06

Number of children ever born per woman 15 years and older for
selected races: 1990
Thai            1.4    1.29
Japanese        1.5    1.20
Korean          1.6    1.13
AsianIndian     1.6    1.13
Chinese         1.6    1.13
Asian/PI        1.7    1.06
White           1.8    1.00
Native Born     1.8    1.00
Filipino        1.9   -1.06
Vietnamese      1.9   -1.06
Foreign bor     2.0   -1.11
Guamanian       2.0   -1.11
Black           2.1   -1.17
Hawaiian        2.1   -1.17
Samoan          2.3   -1.28
NativeAm        2.3   -1.28
Aleut           2.3   -1.28
Laotian         2.5   -1.39
Cambodian       2.5   -1.39
Inuit           2.7   -1.50
Hmong           9.5   -5.28

Source: US Census Bureau Population Division As cited by Asian Week
Nov 8, 1996 "Making babies" Hmong figure from: "Early marriages of
Hmong continue" San Jose Mercury May 24, 1993 3B (Los Angeles Times)

1980 Census
Family Fertility               Child 
                  Birth Rate   BearAge	 Fertility  Birth Rate																     												  							   
White       100.0%   100.0%    22.9%        1404     14.8 																     											  							   
Black       132.4%   145.9%    25.1%        1859     21.6 																     											  							   
Asian      -113.9%   114.2%    27.5%        1233     16.9 																     											  							   
Hisp        136.9%   149.3%    25.2%        1922     22.1 																     											  							   

--> Asians have nearly the largest families, though lowest fertility rate
--> Hispanics have largest families and fertility rates
--> Asians have highest percentage of child-bearing age women
--> Whites have lowest birth rate, and percentage of child bearers
* Fertility is children ever born per 1000 women, ages 25 to 34
* Birth rate is births per year per 1000 persons
* Asian birth rate is high despite lower fertility because so many
  women are in child-bearing years compared to white.

  doc922\fertdoc.doc Fertility of Am Women 4-1-92


Cochran posits that 5% of males
would be enough to fertilize every female. It takes average of sex 3
times to produce a baby. Estimates 1 male could service 250 females.



Date sent: Mon, 10 May 1999 writes: (a) the
surplus of male children over female children (In people of European 
 origin, 105 boys are born for 100 girls.  In people of West African origin, 
 the sex ratio at birth is almost equal);
I noticed this racial disparity in the Statistical Abstract of the U.S. a 
couple of years ago. It's especially odd because relative to other races in 
the U.S., the ratio among blacks of male deaths to female deaths before 
adulthood is higher. Thus, I'd expect African-Americans to have a greater 
than normal surplus of baby boys over baby girls, so that the two sexes would 
be about equal in numbers when they reach mating age. So, why is the opposite 
Steve Sailer 

\clip\97\21\spouage.txt "Study: Spouse's ages affect firstborn sex"
Malcom Ritter AP Seattle Times Sept 25, 1997 F092697. In a sample of
English couples, men who marry younger women had more male
firstborns, women who married younger men tended to have more girls.

@@Girls, preferences against / for

Asian cultures are infamous for their bias against female babies,
reports of this come from India to China, and developed Taiwan, and
Korea. There have been no reports of this among Asians in America, but
it might be over here too.


Desire for Sons Drives Use of Prenatal Scans in China
1990 census found a nationwide ratio of 111 newborn boys to 100
newborn girls.  By 2000, to the alarm of demographers, the recorded
disparity in births had grown to a national average of 117 boys for
every 100 girls.  In pockets of the countryside the imbalance is
staggering, with births of as many as 144 boys recorded for every 100


z49\clip\2001\05\indgirl.txt New York Times, 2001.5.6 Modern Asia's
Anomaly: The Girls Who Don't Get Born By CELIA W. DUGGER In most
parts of both India and China, where more than two billion people
live, it is generally a son who carries on the family line, inherits
ancestral land, cares for his parents as they age and performs the
most important ceremonial roles when they die.

z49\clip\2001\04\indabor.txt NYT 4/22/2001 Abortion in India Is
Tipping Scales Sharply Against Girls "Our elders wanted a boy," she
explained. India outlawed sex-determination tests in 1994, but 2001
census data, show the number of girls per 1,000 boys dropped to 927
this year from 945 in 1991 and 962 in 1981.

Lionel Tiger 2001: One estimate is there are 122 NKorean Males to 100

z48\clip\2001\03\chindemo.txt China's population now more than 1.2
China's population now more than 1.2 billion By JOHN LEICESTER,
Associated Press BEIJING (March 28, 2001 A 1999 survey counted 117
male births for every 100 girls - up from a ratio of 111 boys to 100
girls in 1990, Zhu said.  Zhu said women may be aborting girls,
despite rules banning the use of ultrasound scanners to test the sex
of fetuses. Families also may not be reporting female births, he

When It Comes to Having Children, Americans Still Prefer Boys
POLL RELEASES December 26, 2000 by Wendy W. Simmons GALLUP NEWS
SERVICEPRINCETON, NJ -- Americans today
still harbor a preference for having male rather than female children
have sons. A majority of men (55%) say they would prefer to have a
boy if they could have only one child; 18% of men would prefer a girl
and 21% have no preference. Women, on the other hand, are just as
likely to prefer girls as they are to prefer boys -- 32% of women say
they would prefer a boy, compared with 35% who say they would prefer
a girl and 28% who say it does not matter to them either way.  '

JAPAN NOW PREFERS GIRLS, NOT BOYS \clip\99\20\gendpref.txt Japanese
Couples Think Pink Girls have become the gender of choice among those
trying to conceive, a reversal rooted in the profound social changes
affecting the country.  Besides, explains one young mother, 'boys
don't listen.'  LA Times, 11/15/99 By SONNI EFRON, Times Staff Writer
the National Institute of Population and Social Security Research in
Tokyo has systematically documented the growing preference for girls
by asking the same questions of married couples every five years. In
1982, the survey found that of those families who wanted only one
child, 51.5% wanted a boy. But by 1987, only 37.1% wanted a boy, and
by 1997 it was just 25%.  In boy-crazy China, South Korea and Taiwan,
abortions of female fetuses--particularly in families that already
have one girl--are blamed for creating a large surplus of males,

\clip\96\05\58bill.txt The Seattle Times Company Sept. 24, 1996
Science: 5.8 billion of us - and growing Changes in food and
medicine, life spans and social conditions alter dynamics of
population growth. Forced limits in China have led to abortions and
killing of girls.

\doc\96\02\chinadop.txt "Give me your squalling masses" Economist Feb
3, 1996 p. 22 More Chinese babies, 2,130, were adopted in 1995 than
in the previous 5 years combined. Russia was #2 at 1,896, and South
Korea has fallen to third with 1,666. Most are girls abandoned by
parents who want boys because of the one-child policy. Some are left
to be found in parks or train stations.



z50\clip\2001\06\indabor.txt AP International - 06/23/2001 India
Addresses Abortions of Females by NIRMALA GEORGE Associated Press
Writer NEW DELHI, India (AP) -- Government officials and religious
leaders are meeting in an effort to stem an alarming rise abortions
of female fetuses.

Researchers call it the "immigrant paradox": Pregnant Latino women
smoke and drink less than pregnant white and African American women,
Latino newborns have lower infant mortality rates, and the cognitive
skill of infants 9 to 15 months are about equal for white and Latino
children. .... but by age 2 or 3, their toddlers begin to lag behind
white middle-class children in vocabulary, listening and
problem-solving skills, according to two studies released Tuesday

@@Hormones, Racial Differences

Race and crime: an international dilemma.  Rushton, J. Philippe
Society, Jan-Feb 1995 Sex hormones also influence reproductive
physiology. Whereas the average woman produces 1 egg every 28 days in
the middle of the menstrual cycle, some women have shorter cycles and
others produce more than one egg; both events translate into greater
fecundity including the birth of dizygotic (two-egg) twins. Black
women average shorter menstrual cycles than white women and produce a
greater frequency of dizygotic twins. The rate per 1,000 births is
less than 4 among east Asians, 8 among whites, and 16 or greater
among Africans and African-Americans.


\doc\95\14\hmong.txt  Peter Herz points out Hmong have reputation in
SE Asia for sexual freedom for teens, and marriage by capture

\doc\doc933\HMONGMA.XLS hmong teen mothers



@@Infant Mortality: Low for Asians, Hi for Blacks


There are stories (see girls) from China, Korea, India and other
nations that girls will be abandoned, or fetuses aborted, or outright
killed after birth in preference for boys.


z46\doc\web\2000\10\pot.txt (1990)
Francis J. Canavan writes that The selective aborting was practiced
by "civilized" greek society "Sir Alfred Zimmern In 1911 published
The Greek Commonwealth, The following is taken from pages 330-331 of
the 5th edition, published by the Oxford University Press:"


z42\clipim\2000\05\16\india.efx Wall Street Journal May 9, 2000 Among
Poor Villagers, Female infanticide Still flourishes in India.  Miriam
Jordan. Proverb says raising daughter is like watering neighbor's
flowers. Pretty severe on Indian culture. jgadhgi4.efx


controversial book "The Giver" assigned as early as g4, perfect
society assigns birth and baby education to professionals instead of
parents, imperfect babies are killed.
giver review by kjos

zip37\clip\99\17\infanti.txt Infanticide Taught at Princeton From
Today's Newsmax Teaching the Unthinkable Oliver NorthSeptember 10,
1999 "At Princeton University, the place where James Madison went to
study theology, the class of 2003 will have a chance to study
something much different: how and why we should be killing
"defective" children.  "

@@Intended Pregnancy

Teens and the poor have mostly unintended pregnancies

Does having kids fuel sprawl
Seattle Birth Statistics Sept 20, 1998

    Births by intent, medicaid
          48%Intended, not medicare
          15%Intended, medicare
          20%Unintended medicare
          17%Unintended, not medicare

    Percent intended by medicare
          74%Intended not medicare
          43%Intended medicare
          63%Intended overall

    Most nonmedicare are intended, most
    poor cases are not intended

    Wash Dept of Soc and Health Serv

"Teen Pregnancy Findings" Seattle Times May 1, 1997 p.1 from
1995 National Survey of Family Growth

Percentage of pregnancies unintended
Teenagers   66.7%
All         31.0%


Japan has very low birth rates and very low rates of single births

\clip\96\03\japnbirt.txt Date: Wed, 28 Aug 1996 08:13:36 -0400
From: (NewsHound) Health ministry to study
impact of fewer children TOKYO, Aug. 28 (Kyodo) There may be problems
posed by the declining number of children in view of figures which
show that as of 1995 the average number of children a Japanese woman
is likely to bear in a lifetime was a low 1.43.

@@Low Birth Weight

"Advances haven't cut low-birth-weight rate" Seattle Times June 10,
1997 Gannet News Services Reichard Whitmire Abstract: Tobacco use
down down, from 29% of pregnant women in 1989 to 14% in 1995, 81.3%
began prenatal care in the 1st trimester, teen births are down,
especially blacks (8%), but the lbw rate continues to rise. "Black
women continue to deliver low-birth-weight babies at more than twice
the rate of white women, but that has held for many years" F061797

@@Maternal Death

Blacks have a 4 times the maternal death rate as whites, the rates
(as with infant mortality) remain high even for affluent and well
educated mothers, which supports the notion of some that there are
markeed biological differences between the races, not just "racism"
as the sole explanation of health differences. Not enough data for
Asians or Hispanics exists (though both are likely lower than whites
since their infant mortality rates are also low)

Sons cut short their mothers' lives 
May 02 news service 
Giving birth to and raising a son shortens a woman's lifespan by 34
weeks - but raising a daughter extends it by an average of 23 weeks,
according to Finnish research. 
based on records of people who lived in
pre-industrial northern Scandinavia between the 17th and 19th

Death from childbirth: Racial Disparities found: Experts puzzled by
Hispanic better outcomes than more affluent blacks.  Obstetrics and
Gynecology reports per 100,000 women who give birth: Hispanics about
2x whites, but much less than comparably poor blacks. (Study
does not note Hispanics also have low infant mortality, as do Asians)

Rate    Poor/nrly poor fam
 6  1.0 26  nonHispanic white
10 -1.7 60  Hispanic
25 -4.1 55  Black
Asians not included

In 1996 Hispanic women 18% of deliveries  but 11% of childbearing age
Ken Leveno believes poverty is overriding, deaths undercounted, Norton
says economics is not everything

\clip\99\15\matdeath.txt ny times black women mat death 4x whites 

\clip\99\12\birth.txt NEW YORK TIMES June 18, 1999 Racial Divide
Found in Maternal Mortality By SHERYL GAY STOLBERG WASHINGTON --
Though the nation's infant mortality rate has steadily declined over
the last decade, the percentage of women who die in childbirth has
remained essentially unchanged, and black women are four times as
likely to die as whites, according to a Government study released

"Study: More pregnancy-related deaths in blacks" Seattle Times
June 18, 1999. CDC reports mortality rates per 100,000

      28.7             black New York highest rate
i4.0  19.5 per 100,000 black
i1.0   5.3 per 100,000 white
       7.7             national
       3.3 national goal, white in WA, MA, Nebraska

black woman's risk of death is higher than whites for every specific
cause of death in every age group. No data for other minority groups.


z47\clipim\2001\01\dejaview\dejaview.htm Deja's View In Poor Baby's
Fight To Survive, a Parable Of a Medicaid HMO. Wall Street Journal
Dec 27, 2000. Inner city woman too poor to keep phone service or buy
a crib has $750,000 worth of medical care poured in to save her
premature baby . "High-dollar Medicaid babies are major profit
center.. the vast majority of Children's poor babies are insured, and
command high rates of reimbursement."  ..nine months and 13 days
after she entered the NICU. As of Tuesday, her bill topped $750,000.
What her case says about the economics of Medicaid managed care is
something else.


\doc\95\07\pregbirt.wk1 - Birth statistics by Race
"Study: 3 pregnancies for average woman"
USA Today May 26, 1995 p. 3
Analysis by Arthur Hu

@@mixed birth 

Chicago Tribine Archive for Thursday, October 02, 2008 Study explores
pregnancy risks for Asian-white couples By Will Oremus October 02,
2008 PALO ALTO, Calif. - A new study from Lucile Packard Children’s
Hospital and the Stanford University School of Medicine finds that
Asian-white couples face pregnancy risks that can vary depending on
which parent is Asian.  Asian women whose partners are white, for
instance, are more likely to deliver through Caesarean section than
those with Asian partners. But white women with Asian partners have
lower rates of Caesarean section delivery [Hmmm, maybe because Asian
women are smaller?]...deliveries at the Johnson Center for Pregnancy
and Newborn Services from 2000 to 2005. It’s one of the first to
explore the distinct outcomes of Asian-white pregnancies, 

"Don't call them exotic" Northwest Asian Weekly
(Seattle) Jun 24, 95 p. 47 - National Center for Health Statistics
says 3.2% of births were multiracial in 94 vs. only 0.7% in 1968.

\priv\95\01\intemarr.wk1 - Intermarry and Mixed Birth

"All of the Above" A Magazine, Angelo Ragaza Vol 3 No. 1 (1994) p. 21
There are 1.39 mixed Japanese births for every two-Japanese parent

@@multiple births

Seattle Times Jan. 29, 1997 Drugs, mothers' age cited in rise in
multiple births 


Summary - Asian women and other minorities much more
likely to have births publicly funded.

d:\doc\94\17\massceas.wk1 - Prenatal, Breast Feed, Cesarean Sec
Birth Characteristics and Source of Prenatal Care Payments By
Race and Hispanic Ethnicity Massachusetts: 1992
birth paid public W1.0 B3.05 H4.40 A1.94
birth paid private W1.0 B-1.59 H-2.63 A-1.20


Poverty and lack of prenatal care is often given as the primary
reason for bad birth outcomes, yet poor Asians and Hispanics have
good outcomes despite higher rates of poverty and lower rates of
prenatal care.

\priv\95\06\mexdiet.txt Sixteen percent of non-Hispanic white women
smoke heavily during pregnancy - compared with only 1 percent of
immigrants born in Mexico. Despite conditions of often extreme
poverty, babies born to recent Mexican immigrants are approximately as
healthy as non-Hispanic whites, while black babies have 2 times more


Summary - Not much data, but based on mortality, Asians less likely
to give premature birth, Hispanics close to white, despite poverty

Phil Rushton, controversial race researcher claims that blacks
are simply born earlier, even though they come out more developed.

Summary W1.00 B-3.00 H?.?? A?.??

Rushton presents data that blacks
are born earlier, are more developed, walk earlier, brains develop
earlier, while Asians bring up the rear.  African and Black babies
are typically born a week to ten days earlier than European and white
babies (and east Asian babies) but this isn't necessarily evidence of
"prematurity." In America, 51% of Black children have been born by
week 39 of pregnancy compared with 33% of White children.  In Europe,
babies from Black Africa, even of professional mothers, are also born
earlier than White babies.

\priv\96b\01\prembirt.txt Date: Wed, 19 Jun 1996 14:41:12 -0400 From: (NewsHound) Lung Treatment Helps White Babies
More Than Blacks By DANIEL Q. HANEY. A new treatment which works
better on whites than blacks appears to be widening the gap between
the races because it reduced white deaths by 41%, but had no effect
on blacks.  Blacks are 3 times as likely as whites to be born
prematurely and twice as likely to die in infancy. Genetic
differences, smoking and other poor living habits during pregnancy
and less prenatal care are all suspected. Black fetuses mature seven
to 10 days earlier than whites.

file:C:\priv\96\15\PREMIE.HTM Friday, May 10, 1996 · Page A2 1996 San
Francisco Chronicle "Even a Week Helps Chances For Preemies Medical
costs drop considerably as well" David Perlman, Chronicle Science
Editor An extra week or two in the womb can make a major difference
in the survival rates of extremely premature babies

\priv\95\06\mexdiet.txt Sixteen percent of non-Hispanic white women
smoke heavily during pregnancy - compared with only 1 percent of
immigrants born in Mexico. Despite conditions of often extreme
poverty, babies born to recent Mexican immigrants are approximately as
healthy as non-Hispanic whites, while black babies have 2 times more

"Study: 'Clock' warns of premature births" Seattle Times May 1, 1995
p. A4 Researchers have found abnormal hormone levels in women who
deliver prematurely which may help predict risk cases.

half 500-750 grams will survivre
10% will get cerebral palsey
10% will be retarded with IQs below 70

see asian health birth premature
Many 'miracle' babies lack school skills USA today Sept 22, 1994
New England Journal of Medicine
68 Ohio children who survived under 750 grams 82-86, 45%
in special ed, 20% mentally retarded 25% severe visual problems
9% cerebral palsey, 1/3 with no unusual problems.

@@Prenatal Care

Asians and Mexican have healthier babies, but have less prenatal
care. CDC says prenatal care would help, but Mass data shows that low
birthweight still higher for blacks even with equal prenatal care.

\priv\96b\07\poorheal.txt Nineteen percent of births occur to women
with no prenatal care or care beginning after the first trimester.
Hispanic and African-American women exceed the county-wide rate (30
percent and 23 percent respectively.) Access to Care, Age- and
Illness-Specific and Environmental Issues Revealed in County Health
Status Report Card Health & Medical Wri SJ Mercury 7/10/96

d:\priv\95\01\prenat.txt - Hispanics have healthier babies, but
less prenatal care

D:\priv\94\19\prenbirt.txt - JAMA Oct 6, 1993 Prenatal visits reduce
risk of low birth weight for cocaine users, Asians were excluded

d:\doc\94\17\massceas.wk1 - Prenatal, Breast Feed, Cesarean Sec
Birth Characteristics and Source of Prenatal Care Payments By
Race and Hispanic Ethnicity Massachusetts: 1992
prenatal care W1.0 B-1.30 H-1.21 A-1.19 breakdown by insurance

d:\doc\94\17\massbirt.wk1 - Births in Massachusetts by Race
1992 Massachusetts Department of Public Health
Overall prenatal W1.00 B-1.30 H-1.21 A-1.19

Low Birthweight by prenatal care
Adequate     W1.00 B2.52 H1.07 A 1.28
Not Adequate W1.00 B1.51 H1.16 A-1.05

d:\doc\96\03\massbir2.wk1 - Births in Massachusetts by Race
Massachusetts 1992 Department of Public Health 1992 Advance Data: Births

Birthweight and Prenatal Care and Teen Births by Ethnicity

Ranked by Adequate Prenatal Care
White NH           86.6%
Chinese            85.5%
Other Asian        83.1%
State Total        82.9%
Dominican          80.2%
Other Hispanic     77.4%
Hatian             73.2%
Asian              73.0%
Hispanic           71.7%
Unknown            70.9%
Other              68.6%
Puerto Rican       68.5%
Central American   67.1%
Black NH           66.7%
Other Black        65.6%
Vietnamese         60.9%
Other SEA          56.9%
Cambodian          51.0%


Analysis: Unwed moms' birth rate up 
By Steve Sailer
UPI National Correspondent

Percentage of births to unwed mothers, 2000
82.0 Wisconsin black
77.0 DC black
70.4 black 1994
68.4 black 2003
68.0 black 2002
68.0 Virgin Islands
62.0 Hisp Connecticut (Puerto Rican)
56.0 District of Columbia 2000
48.0 Hisp born in US 2000
47.0 LA, MI, NM
43.4 Hisp 2002
39.0 Hisp born outside US 2000
37.6 Hisp 1990
33.8 US 2002
33.5 US 2001
33.0 Idaho black
33.0 Maine 2002 (Vermont, W. Va, Indiana)
22.9 NH whites 2002
22.0 US 1965
18.5 Hawaii black 2000 (about = white)
18.0 US 1980
17.3 Hawaii white 2000
17.0 Utah 2000
16.9 white 1990
13.0 New Jersey white
13.0 Utah white
10.0 Asians less than 10 2000
 8.0 DC white
 8.0 US 1965
 1.9 white 1956

Note: DC is one of few locations where whites are over 50% college
educated, with more college than Asian Americans. Its white population
appears to be atypically elevated as its black population is
depressed. Seattle and Boulder are also similar in this respect.

LOS ANGELES, June 27 (UPI) -- The good news from the federal
government's preliminary birthrate data for 2002 is that the black
illegitimacy rate has not only stopped getting worse, but it is now in
a gradual decline. Last year, 68.0 percent of the black women who had
babies were unmarried, down from 68.4 percent in 2001. The peak was
70.4 percent in 1994. 

Echoes of Rushton's early-maturation theory?
Top obstetrician causes stir with ethnic theories on birth 
Paris - A prominent French obstetrician is making headlines for
saying fetuses of black women reach term one full week before the
expected delivery date for Caucasian women. 
Emile Papiernik, widely regarded as France's leading obstetrician,
says in ``Le Passeur de Vie,'' (The Delivery Man), that understanding
racial distinctions can help doctors save the lives of newborns
delivered dangerously past their due date. 

\clip\98\10\healborn.txt In health all babies not born equal
" -- Bacterial infection. Bacterial vaginosis, an infection seen in
women of all races, appears to be more prevalent in black women.
Mark Klebanoff, an epidemiologist, says studies show that 25 percent
to 40 percent of black women have elevated levels of bacterial
vaginosis, compared with 15 percent to 20 percent of Hispanic women,
10 percent of white women and 8 percent of Asian women.  "
Seattle Times Company August 4, 1998 Race a major factor in health of
babies by Tracey A. Reeves 


Asians have lower fertility than whites (children ever born per women
25-34), but have a higher birth rate because most immigrants are
young adults.

Rates among the very young mothers 10-14 are higher.

1980 Fertility   W1.00 B-1.32 H-1.37 A-1.13 *
1980 Birth Rate  W1.00 B-1.46 H-1.49 A-1.46 *
1990 Birth Rate  W1.00 B-1.31 H-1.49 A-1.15 *
2002 10-14 Rate  W1.00 B-9.5  H-7.0  A-1.5

Live Births, Deaths, Marriages, and
Divorces 1950-1991, From US Statistical Abstract 1993

\priv\96b\04\teenbirt.txt Date: Tue, 25 Jun
1996 Birth Rate Declines for 3rd Year in Row. Fertility rates were
highest for Hispanic and black women. Comment - not mentioned is that
Asians are lower than whites.

1980 Census
Family Composition              Two Parents           Fertility           Child Bearing Women
         Size        Female Head           Children              Birth Rate
White           3.19       11.2%      82.9%      49.5%     100.0%   100.0%    22.9%
Black           3.70       37.4%      45.4%      61.4%     132.4%   145.9%    25.1%
Asian           3.80       10.3%      84.7%      93.8%      87.8%   114.2%    27.5%
Hisp            3.90       19.7%      70.9%      68.1%     136.9%   149.3%    25.2%

--> Nearly all Asian families have children under 18
--> Asians have the highest percentage of intact families
--> Asians have nearly the largest families, though lowest fertility rate
--> Hispanics have largest families and fertility rates
--> Asians have highest percentage of child-bearing age women
--> Whites have lowest birth rate, and percentage of child bearers
* Fertility is children ever born per 1000 women, ages 25 to 34
* Birth rate is births per year per 1000 persons
* Asian birth rate is high despite lower fertility because so many
  women are in child-bearing years compared to white.

         Total       2 Paren    Female     Children   Fertility  Birth Rate
White         50,644     43,065      5,659     25,062        1404     14.8
Black          6,105      3,390      2,283      3,751        1859     21.6
Asian            818        644         84        767        1233     16.9
Hisp           3,273      2,413        646      2,229        1922     22.1
Press Release
November 15, 2004 Contact: CDC National Center for 
Health Statistics Press Office
Births to Youngest Teens at Lowest Levels
in Almost 60 Years
Rates per 1,000 for mothers 10-14
        2002   1990
nhBlack  1.9   5.0    9.5
Hispanic 1.4   2.4    7.0
AsPI     0.3   0.7    1.5
nhWhite  0.2   0.5    1.0
2002 10-14  W1.00 B-9.5 H-7.0 A-1.5
This report, Births to 10 to 14 Year-Old Mothers, 1990-2002: Trends
and Health Outcomes, is the first ever analysis of births to this
group of very young mothers, and was prepared by the CDC’s National
Center for Health Statistics.
Note: Asians higher than whites
The birth rate among young adolescents aged 10 to 14 has fallen to the
lowest level since 1946 according to a report released today by the
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

\priv\95\09\worlbirt.txt SFC 7/25/95 Deadly Differences in Prenatal
Care / High birthrates, neglect lead to high death rates Ramon G.
McLeod, Chronicle Staff Writer

\doc\census\cabirt.wk1 - California birth rates show low
Asian teen births

\doc\95\07\pregbirt.wk1 - Birth statistics by Race

"Study: 3 pregnancies for average woman"
USA Today May 26, 1995 p. 3
Analysis by Arthur Hu

National Center for Health Statistics
Based on 1991 patterns
of 10 women, there will be:

Number       white   black      Hispanic
pregancies        28         51      47
births            18         26      30
abortions          6         19      10
miscarriages       4          6       7

Percent      white   black      Hispanic
pregancies     100.0%     100.0%  100.0%
births          64.3%      51.0%   63.8%
abortions       21.4%      37.3%   21.3%
miscarriages    14.3%      11.8%   14.9%

             white   black      Hispanic
pregancies      1.00       1.82    1.68
Blacks have highest number of pregancies

Proportion of
births          1.00       0.79    0.99
abortions       1.00       1.74    0.99
miscarriages    1.00       0.82    1.04
Blacks have highest proportion of abortions,
lower proportion of live births
No data on Asian American women.

Birth Rates Computed From 1990 Census
Divide 1-2 year old population by 2 and total pop

             Age     Age        Rate             Official
             1-2     Total      per 1000Index    rate
White NonH   7225544  236160661    15.3    1.00  14.8
Black        1201061   29986060    20.0    1.31  22.6
Hispanic     1020415   22354054    22.8    1.49
Asian         256711    7273662    17.6    1.15
Native Am      85234    1959234    21.8    1.42
(Note that these numbers are very close to official statistics)

No. 93. Births and Birth Rates (1993 Statistical Abstract of the
United States CD-ROM)

[Births in thousands and by race of child, except as indicated.
Beginning 1970, excludes births to nonresidents of the United States.
For population bases used to derive these data, see text, section 2,
and Appendix III. See also Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1970,
series B 1, B 5-10, B 12-20]
               ITEM                  1985     1986     1987     1988
    Live births \1                  3,761    3,757    3,809    3,910
White                               2,991    2,970    2,992    3,046
Black                                 608      621      642      672
    Birth rate per 1,000 population  15.8     15.6     15.7     16.0
White                                14.8     14.6     14.6     14.8
Black                                21.3     21.5     21.9     22.6
\1 includes all races

Source: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, Vital Statistics
of the United States, annual; Monthly Vital Statistics Report;
and unpublished data.

\priv\95\07\aborrate.txt women birth
ONLY 5 IN 8 PREGNANCIES LEAD TO BIRTH  San Jose Mercury News 5/26/95


@@birth sex ratio

Peter Frostsays there is a
relation ship between low sex ratios and polygyny in africa. Phil
Rushton says that Asians are just the opposite relative to whites.
East Asians have a sex ratio opposite (once again) to Europeans with
more males, and not due to the Chinese one child policy because it is
true in Japan and of east Asians in the USA.  polygny = 1 man many
women, polyandry = 1 woman many men, but rare, only in Tibet.

@@sex selection

Asians have a nasty reputation for preferring boys over girls, even
using abortion or infanticide or abandonment in India, China, Korea,
and various other nations. No reports of this so far in America (yet)

\priv\96\20\babysex.doc Seattle Times June 7, 1996 China region bans
tests to tell baby's sex (AP) To curb abortions of unwanted girls,
Fujian province has banned ultrasound and other tests that tell
expectant parents the sex of their unborn children. The tendency
already has created an imbalance in the ratio of boys to girls in the
population 115.4 to 100, far above the overall national ratio of 103
to 100

New Technique allows baby gender selection " ST Dec 14, 1995 The
first baby born, a girl last summer


Asians and Hispanics have the lowest rate of pregnant smokers, partly
due to the high percentage of older mothers and low percentage of
teens. This may explain a large part of their favorable birth
outcomes despite low incomes and high poverty rates among Hispanics
and some Asian refugee groups. From a PC standpoint, these numbers
aren't very helpful since Blacks have a lower rate as well, despite
worse birth outcomes. 

Smoking while pregnant has been linked to delinquency, retardation,
miscarriages, stillbirths, premature deliveries and low birth-weight.

Racial Comparisons       1.00=White 2.00= 2 times better
CDC US 93 Smoking Pregnant    W1.00 B 1.32 H 3.36 A 3.91
MA92 Smoked during pregnancy: W1.00 B 1.51 H 1.79 A 3.8  Mass Dept Health
Mexican Immigrants            W1.00        H 16.00


\clip\97\17\smokpreg.txt CNN Interactive Study: Smoking during
pregnancy linked to childhood delinquency July 14, 1997 (CNN) --
"Women who smoke while pregnant are much more likely to give birth to
boys who are diagnosed with what psychiatrists call "conduct
disorder" or a severe form of delinquency, a study shows....Smoking
during pregnancy already had been linked to other problems --
miscarriages, stillbirths, premature deliveries and low birth-weight

\doc\94\16\ceasbirth.wk1 Wash State Cesarean Births 
Smoking pregnant
decreases with age: <20:38.2% 20-29:26.6% 30-34:16.2% >35:12.9%


\priv\95\06\mexdiet.txt \priv\95\02\mexheal.txt STUDY: MEXICO-BORN
FRANCISCO -- Women in the United States would do well to learn from
the diets of recent Mexican immigrants, according to a University of
California study. Study by UC Berkeley professor Sylvia Guendelman
was published Thursday in the American Journal of Public Health.
Sixteen percent of non-Hispanic white women smoke heavily during
pregnancy - compared with only 1 percent of immigrants born in
Mexico. Despite conditions of often extreme poverty, babies born to
recent Mexican immigrants are approximately as healthy as
non-Hispanic whites, while black babies have 2 times more


USA - Health 1995
file: \doc\web\97\06\smokerac.xls
summary: CDC US 93 Smoking Pregnant W1.00 B1.32 H3.36 A3.91

Races Ranked by Relative Smoking Rate, 1993
        Race         Rate      index
Chinese                     1.1     15.27
Central S American          2.3      7.30
Other Asian PacIs           3.2      5.25
Mexican American            3.7      4.54
Asian or Pacific Isla       4.3      3.91
Filipino                    4.3      3.91
Hispanic origin             5.0      3.36
Cuban                       5.0      3.36
Japanese                    6.7      2.51
Other Hispanic              9.3      1.81
Puerto Rican               11.2      1.50
Black                      12.7      1.32
Black, non-Hispanic        12.7      1.32
All races                  15.8      1.06
White                      16.8      1.00
Hawaiian                   17.2     -1.02
White, non-Hispanic        18.6     -1.11
Am Indian or AlasNat       21.6     -1.29
Analysis by Arthur Hu

\doc\94\17\massbirt.wk1 - Births in Massachusetts by Race
Massachusetts 1992 Department of Public Health 1992 Advance Data: Births

In Massachusetts, whites have the highest rate of smoking, Asians have
the lowest.

MA92 Smoked during pregnancy: W1.00 B-1.51 H-1.79 A-3.8 Mass Dept Health
MA92 LoBW nonsmoker           W1.0 B-2.55 H-1.48 A-1.44 Mass Dept Health


\doc\96\03\smokretr.txt "Smoking Linked To Retarded Babies"
Seattle Times April 10, 1996 p. A7 According to article in
April Pediatrics magazine, pregnant women who smoke were 50%
more likely to have retarded children. There was a 35%
increase for those with just 5 cigarettes a week. It was
60% more if smoking was in last 6 months of pregnancy, and
1 pack per day was up 85%

\doc\94\14\welfdrug.txt - half of welfare mothers are smokers

@@Teen birth/ also see
@@unmaried births

Headlines always proclaim that blacks, and now Hispanics have the
highest teen birth rates. But Asians are rarely listed with other
races, when they are consistntly the least. In fact one UCLA student
was quoted in Asian Week as saying data was nonexistent. However in
every case when they are listed, Asians are generally the lowest
nationally of any race and in most states such as CA and USA.

Even with high proportions of disadvantaged Asians like Mass or
Seattle public schools where Asians ARE worse than whites, they are
not much worse.  Even when they give births as teens, they are much
more likely to be married. Asians are the most likely to give birth
in 20s or 30s with married fathers, the best economic strategy to
have successful families, which may explain the low rate of poor
health and other social and educational problems.


\priv\96\09\sinfath.txt - Most teen mothers are impregnated by older


Liberal columnist Alexander Cockburn and a few other social
scientists like Joe Hotz say the we should not attack teen
motherhood, and that it may be beneficial to some teen women (?!)

Joeph Hotz says that teen mothers dont' have problems because of teen
birth, mothers who gave birth did slightly better than those that had
miscarriages. (of course that doesn't explain comparison with those
that never got pregnant in the first place)

"Teen-pregnancy myths debunked" Seattle Times 6/5/97 p. A12 F060797
UCLA researcher Joseph Hotz "there may be benefits to getting
childbirth out of the way early, when earning potential is lowest,
and then beginning an uninterrupted career"

The University of Chicago Magazine June 1996 Kids Having Kids
Surprise: The U of C's Joe Hotz says many teenage moms-like these
women receiving job counseling at Chicago-area Aunt Martha's Youth
Services-later earn more than their peers.
U Chicago News12/5/96 Teen
motherhood doesn't increase welfare costs ""Over her early life (from
age 17 to 34), a teen mother is no more likely to participate in
government-sponsored public assistance programs than if she had
delayed her childbearing until she was an adult,""

\doc\96\07\teensex.txt "Sermons about teen sex skirt the issue of
poverty" Alexander Cockburn Seattle Times June 20, 1996

"there have been some interesting studies .. showing that for a poor
black mom there are some sound reasons to have a baby early: a
healthier body, a family support network still in place rather than
exhausted or dead"

"There's no 'good' time for poor women to have children, the
alternative is take all of the other studies to their logical
conclusion which is that poor women should not have children at all
early or late"

\doc\96\06\whatlib.txt "The Lost Children: What Liberals don't like
to say" The New Republic Oct 21, 1996 p. 30 Jean Bethke Elshtain,
review of "Dubious Conceptions: The Politics of Teenage Pregnancy by
Kristin Luker. Several liberal schools of thought are that Teen
pregnancy is not a problem but a positive adaptation to adverse
circumstances.  Alexander Cockburn suggests it is less risky than
giving birth later in life.

Luker suggests that data are "not unambiguous" and questions cause
and effect. Luker considers discouraging teen mothers to not have
babies to be undesirable. She concludes that teen motherhood does not
cause poverty, poverty causes teen mother hood [but this does not
apply to poor Asians]

[[Asian Low

"Births to girls of Asian descent always were minuscule"

\clip\97\20\teenbirt.txt Culture Clash Equals a Tide of Teenage
Births Los Angeles Times, Tuesday, September 2, 1997 By B. MEREDITH
BURKE Stemming Mexican American teen births . . . will require
educating parents to value rather than fear a life for their
daughters that extends beyond the home, encouraging and rewarding
girls to set goals that give a reason to forestall childbearing.'


Bureau of Census Statistical Brief for Congress Black Children in
America:1993 CB/94-1 Sept 1994. For unmarried teens 15-17,
fertility rate was B78 W8 or 10 times higher in 1970, by 1990 it
Rwas B81 W20 or just 4 times higher. Black rates have stayed level
over 20 years while whites have risen.


Asians are half as likely to give birth as teen, 1.4 to 5 times as
likely to be married if teen mother.

\priv\96\13\MAIDSKEW.HTM Thursday, May 2, 1996 · Page A16 San
Francisco Chronicle Maiden Names Skew Birth Data U.S. counts babies
of married moms as out of wedlock Ramon G. McLeod Bill is presented
so that CA requires reporting of marital status of parents on birth
certificates, instead of guessing based on maiden names.

Adolescent Pregnancy and parenting in California Claire D. Brindis Dr.
P.H. and Rita J. Jeremy PhD. Center for Population and Reproductive
Health Policy Institute for Health Policy Studies University of
California, San Francisco 94143 Sutter Publications P.O. Box 7690 SF
CA 94120-7690 d:\doc\94\18\cabirth.wk1 - CA births by marial status
and race 1988 Summary:

Percent of births to teens
W1.0(7.9%) B2.39(18.9%) H1.91(15.1%) A-1.8(4.4%) Oth-1.05

Teen births to married mothers
10-14 married W1.0 B-2.05 H1.43 A5.19 O-1.44
15-17  married W1.0 B-3.17 H1.04 A2.16 O-1.09
18-19  married W1.0 B-3.19 H-1.12 A1.39 O-1.10


The Washington Times
U.S. teens' birthrate lowest in 6 decades
Cheryl Wetzstein
Published 6/7/2002
"All teen ethnic groups saw declines, with the largest among black

births per 1,000 age 15-19

     w    b    h     a       n
2000 32.5 79.4 94.4 21.6  67.8 
2001 30.2 73.1 92.4 20.6  65.7

15-19 Teen Birth Rate in 2001 W1.00 B-2.4 H-3.1 A 1.5 N-2.2
30-34 Older Birth Rate in 2001 W1.00 B-1.4 H1.2 A 1.2 N-1.4

HHS Report Shows Teen Birth Rate Falls to New Record Low in 2001
June 6, 2002
NCHS Press Office Births: Preliminary Data for 2001. NVSR Vol. 50, No. 10. 20 pp. (PHS) 2002-1120.
National Vital Statistics Reports
Volume 50,Number 10 June 6,2002
Births:Preliminary Data for 2001
by Joyce A.Martin,M.P.H.;Melissa M.Park,M.P.H.;and Paul D.Sutton,Ph.D.Division of Vital Statistics

Table A.Total births and percent of births with selected demographic and health characteristics,by race and Hispanic
origin of mother:United States,final 2000 and preliminary 2001
[Figures for 2001 are based on weighted data rounded to the nearest individual ]
                     All races 1         White,total       2 Non-Hispanic White  Black 2         Hispanic 3
Characteristic        2001     2000      2001      2000      2001      2000      2001    2000    2001    2000
Births ..............4,040,121 4,058,814 3,192,985 3,194,005 2,336,033 2,362,968 604,834 622,598 849,800 815,868
Births to
unmarried mothers      ...33.4      33.2      27.6      27.1      22.5      22.1    68.3    68.5    42.4     42.7
Low birthweight 4 .    ....7.6       7.6       6.7       6.5       6.7       6.6    12.9    13.0     6.5      6.4
Very low birthweight 5 ...1.43      1.43      1.15      1.14      1.16       1.13   3.02    3.06    1.13     1.14
Total cesarean
delivery rate 6  .........24.4      22.9      24.2      22.8      24.5       23.1   25.8    24.3    23.5     22.1
Primary cesarean rate 7 ..16.9 16.1 16.7 15.9 17.2 16.4 18.2 17.3 15.2 14.5
VBAC rate 8 ..............16.5 20.6 16.4 20.4 16.9 21.1 16.8 20.5 14.8 18.5
Prenatal care beginning
in first trimester .......83.4 83.2 85.2 85.0 88.5 88.5 74.5 74.3 75.7 74.4
Prenatal care beginning
in third
trimester or no care . ...3.8 3.9 3.2 3.3 2.3 2.3 6.6 6.7 5.9 6.3
1 Includes races other than white and black.
2 Race and Hispanic origin are reported separately on the birth certificate.Data for persons of Hispanic origin are included in the data for each race group according to the mother ’ s reported race;see
Technical notes.
3 Includes all persons of Hispanic origin of any race;see Technical notes.
4 Birthweight of less than 2,500 grams (5 lb 8 oz).
5 Birthweight of less than 1,500 grams (3 lb 4 oz).
6 Total births by cesarean as percent of all births.
7 Number of primary cesareans per 100 live births to women who have not had a previous cesarean.
8 Number of vaginal births after previous cesarean delivery per 100 live births to women with a previous cesarean delivery.
Table B.Birth rates for women aged 15 –19 years,by age,race,and Hispanic origin:United States,final 1991 –2000 and
preliminary 2001,and percent change in rates,1991 –2001
[Rates per 1,000 women in specified group ]
Age and race and Hispanic Percent change
origin of mother 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1991 –2001


Teens are much more likely to have unintended pregnancies, more likely
to divorce, and more likely to have had involuntary first sex.  "Teen
Pregnancy Findings" Seattle Times May 1, 1997 p.1 from 1995 National
Survey of Family Growth


\doc\96\03\kingpreg.txt "Teen pregnancy rates down in King County"
Seattle Post Intelligencer May 3, 1996 p. 1. F050396 Rates of teen
pregnancy by race, per1,000:

rates  W16.0 B65     H70     A18     N71.5
index  W1.00 B-4.06  H-4.43  A-1.12  N-4.46

Comment - Seattle is one of few cities where Asians have equally high
rates of teen pregnancy as whites, their math scores are also worse,
where it is higher in most other cities, reflecting unusually
well-educated white parents, and distressed Asians with a high
percentage of poor refugees and pacific islanders.

\doc\94\18\seateen.wk1 - seattle survey of drug use among students
- data in report, but not in spreadsheet


Chinese had the lowest rate, but Asians overall slightly higher than

\doc\96\03\massbir2.wk1 - Births in Massachusetts by Race
Massachusetts 1992 Department of Public Health 1992 Advance Data: Births

Birthweight and Prenatal Care and Teen Births by Ethnicity

Ranked by Under 18 births
                Under 18Index
Puerto Rican       13.7%    8.06
Hispanic            9.4%    5.53
Other SEA           9.2%    5.41
Other Black         7.5%    4.41
Black NH            6.8%    4.00
Other               6.8%    4.00
Cambodian           5.7%    3.35
Dominican           5.6%    3.29
Other Hispanic      3.4%    2.00
Central American    3.2%    1.88
State Total         2.9%    1.71
Hatian              2.8%    1.65
Asian               2.1%    1.24
White NH            1.7%    1.00
Unknown             1.6%   -1.04
Other Asian         0.5%   -3.40
Vietnamese          0.3%   -5.67
Chinese             0.1%  -16.73

\doc\94\18\mabirt01.wk1 - 
Mass births teen, low, cesarean sections
and breast feeding

Massachusetts Health Department 1992 births report
Teen Birth Rank, Mass 1992  
Chinese -17.12
Other Asian -3.38
Unknown -1.07
White nonHisp   1.00
Asian   1.23
Haitian 1.60
State Total 1.69
Vietnamese  1.70
Cent American   1.81
Other Hispanic  1.98
Dominican   3.21
Cambodian   3.28
Black non-Hisp  3.90
Other   3.91
Other Black 4.31
Other SE Asian  5.26
Hispanic    5.43
Puerto Rican    7.87


Teen Pregnancy by State

Rank     State   Rate
       1 D.C.         277
       2 Calif        159
       3 Nev          145
       4 Hawaii       138
       5 Ariz         133
       6 N.M          129
       7 Ga           127
       8 Fla          127
       9 Texas        123
      10 Miss         122
      11 NC           121
      12 Del          121
      13 \NY          120
      14 Md           118
      15 Ala          117
      16 Ark          116
      17 Ill          112
      18 Tenn         112
      19 Colo         111
      20 SC           110
      21 Alaska       109
      22 La           109
      23 Mich        1087
      24 Wash         107
      25 Va           101
      26 Mo           100
      27 Okla         100
      28 Ore           99
      29 Ky            99
      30 NJ            97
      31 Conn          96
      32 RI            96
      33 Ind           95
      34 Ohio          93
      35 Kan           90
      36 Mass          87
      37 W Va          85
      38 Pa            84
      39 Mont          81
      40 Wyo           81
      41 Idaho         77
      42 S.D.          74
      43 Wis.          73
      44 Vt.           71
      45 Neb.          71
      46 Maine         70
      47 Iowa          67
      48 Utah          65
      49 Minn          64
      50 N.H.          62
      51 N.D.          59
         Average      112

Wash. D.C. is highest, and has highest proprortion of African Americans.
However, Hawaii has highest percentage of Asian / Pacific Islanders and
tanks number 4, Nevada at #3 is nearly all white

Source: National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy
as cited in USA Today July 14, 1997 p. 3A

Rate is pregnancies per 1,000 girls 15-19 years old for 1992


Asians overall about half the rate of teen pregnancy, but
some Asian groups are much lower.

Fewer kids are having kids-teen pregancies fell in the '90s Business
Week 0mar 15, 1999 p. 22 Metropolitan Life Ins co Statistical
Bulletin birth rates fell 15% 1991-97, black is lowest on record. US
53 / 1000 vs 4 Japan 29 UK.  <7% of teen married, 71% white 95%
black birth out of wedlock

Hispanic Teens Rank 1st in Birthrate Blacks No Longer Have Highest
Incidence [But Asian lowest rate STILL unreported!]

By Barbara Vobejda and Pamela Constable Washington Post Staff Writers
Friday, February 13, 1998; Page A10 Hispanics also have higher
out-of-wedlock birthrates than African Americans and have the lowest
rates of high school and college graduation. American born hispanics
have the highest rates.

The percentage of Hispanic teenagers who give birth has surpassed
that of African American teenagers for the first time, with both
groups more than twice as likely as whites to become mothers before
they turn 20, the federal government reported yesterday.

Births per 1,000 girls Change, 1989-95
age 15-19                                                          				  																	 
Group         Index  Rate Change																	 				  																	 
Cuban          1.34  29 -16
White          1.00  39  - 2													 				  																	 
Total         -1.46  57  - 7%                             						   				  																	 
Puerto Rican  -2.28  89 -21												   				  																	 
Black         -2.53  99  -11														 				  																	 
All Hispanic  -2.74 107 6												   				  																	 
Mexican       -3.20 125 32													   				  																	 
SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics 					 

\clip\96\06\birthrat.txt Birth Rate For Unwed Women Falls By Judith
Havemann Washington Post Staff Writer Saturday, October 5 1996; Page
A01 The Washington Post The birth rate for unmarried women dropped
for the first time in nearly 20 years,

F100796-3 "Births among unwed mothers, teens dropping " Steven A
Holmes (New York Time) Journal American Oct 5, 1996 p. 1 (chart)

% of births to unmarried women
       1980 1994  Index
Black  56.1  69.5 2.74
All    18.4  32.0 
white  11.2  25.3 1.00

Birth rate per thousand for teens 15-19 yrs US
       1980  1994
Black  97.8  95.5 1.89
All    53.0  56.9
White  45.5  50.3 1.00

\clip\96\06\birthrat.txt Birth Rate For Unwed Women Falls By Judith
Havemann Washington Post Staff Writer Saturday, October 5 1996; Page
A01 The Washington Post

"Unwed Moms" US News June 19,1995 - Unwed birthrates H95.3 B86.5 W35.2
per 1,000. No mention of Asian women who have the lowest rates of any
race Index W1.0 B2.45 H2.70

\priv\95\07\immoth.doc - Asian immigrant mothers from India and Korea
have the lowest rates of unwed and teen pregnancy. Summary: Only 2
percent of births to Koreans and Indians were to teens, compared to 12
perect for all US in 1992, the National Center for Health Statistics
said today. (1/6) Only 8 per cent of the Indian babies and about 4
percent of Korean babies were born to unmarried women, compared with
30 percent of all babies born in this country. (1/4 to 1/8)
International Examiner (Seattle) May 17, 1995 "Unmarried, teen-age
Asian immigrants; less likely to have babies"

\doc\95\02\umarr.wk1 - Unmarried mothers by race, US 1990 Summary -
Blacks and Native Americans are highest, Whites are about average,
Asians overall half, Chinese one-quarter white rate
    Unmarried Mothers Ranked by Race, 1990
                                  70-90          90
                    1970     1990 Increase Index
    Chinese          3.0      5.0      1.7    -4.08
    Japanese         4.6      9.6      2.1    -2.13
    Asian/PI       $         13.2             -1.55
    Other API                14.9             -1.37
    Filipino         9.1     15.9      1.7    -1.28
    White            5.5     20.4      3.7     1.00
    All             10.7     28.0      2.6     1.37
    Hisp                     36.7              1.80
    AmInd/AN        22.4     53.6      2.4     2.63
    Black           37.5     66.5      1.8     3.26

    Hispanic is for selected states

    Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    National Center for Health Statistics
    Based on table in Asian Week Feb 24, 1995
    "Unwed Mothers Give 1 of Every 8 Asian Pacific American
    Live Births", Patrick Anderson


In 1970, unmarried African American teens were 10 times more likely to
     have had babies than White unmarried teens (78 per thousand versus 8
     per thousand).  By 1990, they were just four times more likely to have
     children (81 per thousand versus 20 per thousand).

Japanese Am who gave birth in 1990: 2.9
Chinese 1.2
Filipino 6.1
Other Asian American 6.3
Percent of Korean American teens in LA survey who knew another
Korean American teen who got pregnant 90%
A Magazine 1994

\doc\94\18\asbirth.wk1 - Unwed and Teen births for Asians and
other races

Fertility of American women: June 1992 P20-470, US Census Bureau
% of children born out of wedlock W1.0(15%) B3.7 H2.2 A-2.1
Unmarried mother's total increasing Seattle Times Dec 30, 1991 A2
% of children born to unmarried  W1.0(21.6%) B3.3 H1.7 A-1.4

Fertility of American Women: June 1990 P-20-454 by Amara Bachu,
US Census Bureau
Rank by teen birth rate          Rank by 30-34 birth rate
Black            2.22            Asian            1.30
Hispanic         1.97            Hispanic         1.20
AmIndian         1.60            White            1.00
All              1.18            All             -1.01
White            1.00            Black           -1.19
Asian           -1.92            AmIndian        -1.33

d:\doc\doc934\teenbirt.xls - lowest teen birth rate in CA
"Teen Moms" Dan Walters San Jose Mercury June 25, 1993 p. 13B               
Births in California
            White   Black   Hispanic    Asian
Live births 39.8    94.9    94.5    30.7
per 1000                
Index       W1.0    B2.4    H2.4    A-1.3
University of California at San Francisco Study             

doc934:filpro.txt - high filipino teen birth rates (?)

doc933:HMONGMA  XLS hmong teen mothers

doc934:asteenp.txt - it's not OK for Asian teens to be pregnant

doc935:worldfat.txt - black families without fathers
doc938:unmabirt.txt/doc - G. Will Asians have low SF birth rate

doc940:singbirt.xls - single, teen birth rate in US
from 1993 Statistical Abstract
   teen      W1.00 B2.12 H1.53 A-1.96
   unmarried W1.00 B4.14 H2.03 A-1.44

   Race Index
   Race and                                 Prenatal care
   Hisp Origi   Teen Mother   Unmarried     First Trimest Third or none
                percent       percent
                1985   1990   1985   1990   1985   1990   1985   1990
   total        1.19   1.17   1.52   1.57  -1.04  -1.05   1.21   1.22
   White        1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00
   Black        2.13   2.12   4.14   3.95  -1.28  -1.28   2.13   2.22
   AmIndian     1.77   1.79   2.81   3.17  -1.32  -1.34   2.45   2.63
   Asian/PI    -1.96  -1.91  -1.44  #N/A   -1.06  #N/A    1.30  #N/A
   Filipino    -1.86  -1.79  -1.20  -1.06  -1.03  -1.01  -1.02  -1.09
   Chinese     -9.82  -9.08  -3.92  -3.38   1.04   1.05  -1.12  -1.44
   Japanese    -3.72  -3.76  -1.84  -1.76   1.08   1.12  -1.81  -1.69
   Hawaiian     1.47   1.69  #N/A    2.66  #N/A   -1.18  #N/A    1.78
   Hispanic     1.53   1.54   2.03   2.17  -1.30  -1.29   2.66   2.45
   Mexican      1.62   1.62   1.77   1.97  -1.33  -1.34   2.74   2.69
   PuertoR      1.94   1.99   3.52   3.31  -1.36  -1.22   3.30   2.16
   Cuban       -1.52  -1.42   1.11   1.08   1.04   1.09  -1.27  -1.75
   C/S Am      -1.32  -1.21   2.41   2.44  -1.31  -1.26   2.66   2.22

\doc\94\16\cesbirth.wk1  Asian lowest teen for cesarean births Wash State
  highest adult rate
  Under 20  W1.0(.87) B2.37 H2.08 A-1.34
  30-34     W1.0(1.0) B-2.22 H-2.95 A1.60

\doc\94\17\unwedbir.wk1 - Asians lowest unwed births
USA Today 7/14/93 "Many women in 30's won't have kids"
Census report says
W15% B56% H33% A7%
W1.0 B3.73 H2.20 A-2.14

[[high / unknown rate of Asian teen births.

AW 10-4-91/16 "there is virtually no information regarding this
matter" Wendy A. Yan, UCLA junior [that's false, this index is proof
that there's lots of data, and all of it points to extremely low
rates of teen and unwed births among Asians and very high rates of
births among women 25-35 and the married. It is politically
unacceptable that Asians do better than whites.]


doc934:birthrat.txt birth rate by ethnicity

Fertility of American women: June 1992 P20-470, US Census Bureau
% of children born out of wedlock W1.0(15%) B3.7 H2.2 A-2.1

Unmarried mother's total increasing Seattle Times Dec 30, 1991 A2
% of children born to unmarried  W1.0(21.6%) B3.3 H1.7 A-1.4

  mothers who are unmarried B3.3 H1.7 A-1.4
  birth rate 15-19 B2.2 H2.0 A-1.9 NA 1.6

  birth rate 35-39 B-1.1 H1.4 A1.6

doc934:teenbirt.xls teen pregancies - Asian lowest teen preg rate

  asians have lowest teen pregancy rate (6%)
  doc\94\6\seaspov2.txt UCLA study on Asian success and poverty

[[risks \doc\96\06\whatlib.txt "The Lost Children: What Liberals
don't like to say" The New Republic Oct 21, 1996 p. 30 Jean Bethke
Elshtain, review of "Dubious Conceptions: The Politics of Teenage
Pregnancy by Kristin Luker. Teen motherhood has multiple negative
social effects. [Since Asians have the lowest rate of teen pregnancy,
this carries over into why they have such a low rate of infant
mortality, low dropout rate, and high academic achievement and intact

Babies of teenage mothers
- less likely to flourish
- more likely to be low-birthweight or premature
- less likely to have had prenatal care
- more likely to be born into poverty
- less safe than stable two-parent births
- more likely to have health problems
- more likely to have behavioral problems
- more likely to be neglected or abused by mothers
- more likely to drop out or be teen moms
- more likely to be involved with criminality
- homes of single teen mothers have double the rate of
reported abuse of single mother households in general
- children of single teen mothers 40% more likely to 
drop out
- 70% of incarcerated men were born to teen mothers
according to National Campaign to Prevent Teen
- $7 billion direct taxpayer cost of teen childbearing
- $21 billion annual total social costs
- 90% of black teen births are unwed
- Blacks are only 15% of teen population but 1/3 of teen

Robin Hood Foundation study "Kids Having Kids" found adolescent child

- lower likelyhood of completing high school by
- increases likelyhood of more children by 24%
- increase time spent as single parent during 1st
13 years of parenthood by 57%


Japan is the lowest rate in the world, only Asian nation on the
No. 1380. Births to Unmarried Women, Selected Countries
from 1993 statistical abstract CD-ROM bureau of census

                            1989                1990
      COUNTRY        ------------------- -------------------
                      Total    Percent    Total    Percent
                       live    born to     live    born to
                      births  unmarried   births  unmarried
                     (1,000)    women    (1,000)    women
Sweden                    116        52       124        47
Denmark                    61        46        63        46
France                    766        28       762        30
United Kingdom            777        27       799        28
United States           4,041        27     4,179        28
Canada \1                 385        23     3,979        24
Germany \2                682        10       727        11
Netherlands               189        11       198        11
Italy                     556         6       581         6
Japan                   1,269         1     1,240         1

\1 Beginning 1980, excludes Newfoundland.
\2 Formerly West Germany (prior to unification).

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Monthly Labor Review,

@@teen birth programs

\doc\95\15\anothome.txt	"Another Home, Another Chance" Economist Sept
9, 1995 p. 32 Teen mothers placed in structured homes have a very
high 95% graduation rate, and a very low pregnancy rate. 33% of such
mothers have been abused as children, 71% dependent on alchohol, 65%
did not graduate high school.


\clip\99\07\birttime.txt February 24, 1999 Study: Two-year wait for
conception best for second baby BOSTON (Reuters) - An interval of
nearly two years between the birth of one child and the conception of
another is optimal for the health of the later baby, researchers
reported in Thursday's New England Journal of Medicine.



JAPAN IS 50 TIMES LOWER IN TEEN PREGNANCIES THAN US From: According to the New York Times, out of a population
of 130 million people in Japan, there were only 35,000 teenage
pregnancies (ie. 1995). By contrast, a record 1 million American
teenage girls became pregnant last year out of a population of 260
million people. On a per capita basis, American teenagers are
becoming pregnant at a rate 50 times higher than Japanese teenagers. 

[[united states


\doc\96\09\nmbirth.wk1 Births to Never Married Young Women US
Children Ever Born April 1990
US Census CP4-1-194 September 1996

Women 15-24 Native Born, Never Married
Group     Births per Index White=1.00
Black          429   -5.96
Eskimo         428   -5.94
Hmong          373   -5.18
AmIndian       310   -4.31
OtherRace      253   -3.51
Hawaiin        231   -3.21
Guamanian      141   -1.96
Total          140   -1.94
Laotian        139   -1.93
Samoan         139   -1.93
Cambodian       95   -1.32
OtherAsian      77   -1.07
White           72    1.00
Vietnamese      63    1.14
Filipino        61    1.18
OtherPI         46    1.57
Thai            41    1.76
Japanese        32    2.25
Korean          28    2.57
Chinese         16    4.50
AsIndian        14    5.14
Japan National       50.00 (NY times)

Wed, 27 Aug 1997 From: Big Don  After very much
searching far and wide, I did come up with something finally.  Here
is a "hard data" reference:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Center for Health
Statistics Vol. 44 No. 11 Supplement, June 24, 1996

"...(talking about 1994 U.S. births)...Births to unmarried women comprised
25 percent of births to white women, 70 percent of births to black women,
and 43 percent of Hispanic-origin births.  Proportions for Asian or
Pacific Islander women were generally lower, averaging 16 percent."


c:\priv\96b\07\mexbirt.txt Mexican birth rate declines AP 7/11/96