Index of Diversity Compiled by Arthur Hu Home | Up

=>WOMEN


Women's spectrum
----------------
<1%   Fortune 4,000 highest earners
1.7%  Putnam math competition 
 2%   Construction Jobs
 2%   Patents 1957
 2.7% Firefighters 1990
 6.0% Truck Drivers 1993
 6.6% CS PhD 1975
 8%   Engineer 1992
 8.1% Aerospace Eng 1990
 9%   Clergy 1992
10%   Dentist 1992
14.6% Police officers 1990
16%   US Air Force 1997
18.6  CS PhD 1995
19.6  Butcher 1990
20.7  Physicians 1990
24.4% Lawyers 1993
25%   New Recruits USAF 1997
25.5% GOP House 1994
26.4% CS Master 1995
26.6% Veterinarians 1990
26.7% Athletes 1990
28.2% CS Bachelor 1995
29.9% CS Master 1986
31%   18-24 who do own auto maintenance
36.2% House GOP 1995
37.2% CS Bachelor 1984
37.5% GOP Senate 1995
62.5  Senate Democrat 1995
63.8% House Democrat 1995
83%   Librarian 
94.3% Nurse 1990
99%   Kindergarten teacher, dent hygen, secretary US
99.4% Day care provider Japan


@@anger

\priv\95\11\womnangr.htm - women get just as angry as men


@@Athletics

THE GENDER GAP IN RUNNING IS _NOT_ GETTING SMALLER
National Review on 12/31/97: Track & Battlefield Everybody knows that
the "gender gap" between men and women runners in the Olympics is
narrowing. Everybody is wrong.  by Steve Sailer and Dr. Stephen
Seiler Published in National Review, 12/31/97 


@@Automobile Repair

MEN MORE LIKELY TO WORK ON THEIR OWN CARS
\doc\web\97\06\fixcar.txt
Source Mediamark Research New York NY (as cited by "Keeping cars on
the road" American Demographics July 97 p. 53 Alison Stein Wellner)

Did do-it-yourself maintenance: oil, battery, antifreeze, spark plug
change
---------------------------
      Men  Women
18-24 26   12
25-34 33   16
35-44 29   12
45-54 25   11
55-64 23    9
65+   13    4

Men consistently do car maintenance more than women by over 2 to 1
in all age ranges.

Items Purchased in 1996
----------------------
            Men     women
Motor Oil   64      50
Antifreeze  44      36
Wiper Blade 28      20

Items purchased is closer than work done, but still favors men.

Mediamark


@@BIAS

 doc934:womenex: women executives


@@Biological Differences

\clip\99\10\angier.txt 'Woman': Science and Politics Mapped on a
Woman's Body By MARILYN YALOM New York Times, 99.4.8 WOMAN An
Intimate Geography.  By Natalie Angier.  398 pages. Houghton Mifflin.
$25.  Natalie Angier's dazzling new book calls upon biology and
evolution to celebrate the female body. Its upbeat message -- that
women are far stronger, more sexual, aggressive and adaptive than
usually given credit for -- is supported by rigorous scientific
underpinnings. 

@@brain

\priv\2007\01\girlbrain.txt
Economist: Differences between the sexes: The mismeasure of woman 
Posted by: "Premise Checker" checker@panix.com   frankforman2000 
Sat Jan 6, 2007 5:37 pm (PST) 
Differences between the sexes: The mismeasure of woman
http://www.economist.com/science/PrinterFriendly.cfm?story_id=7245949
[Linked by Arts & Letters Daily.]
6.8.3
Men and women think differently. But not that differently

IN THE 1970s there was a fad for giving dolls to baby boys and
fire-engines to baby girls. The idea was that differences in
behaviour between the sexes were solely the result of upbringing:
culture turned women into ironers, knitters and chatterboxes, and
men into hammerers, drillers and silent types. Switching toys would
put an end to sexual sorting. Today, it is clear why it did not.
When boys and girls are born, they are already different, and they
favour different toys from the beginning.



@@business

\doc\96\02\femdir.txt - More firms have women directors in Fortune 500

1 from 69% in 1993 to 81% in 1995
2 from 25% in 1993 to 33% in 1995

>>\doc\96\01\womnbus.txt "Ms. Metal Bender" Business Week Jan 29,
1996 p.  6 United States Trust survey of 150 woman owned businesses:

(53% in with husbands)
7% Produce and Nondurables
9% Wholesalers
10% Real Estate and Developers
11% Other NonProfessional
21% Construction, Trucking and Machinery


@@Career vs Children

Sales Offer Women Fairer Pay but Bias Lingers
Wall Street Journal Jan 24, 1995 p. B1
Only 24% of female sales reps had children under 13,
compared with 38% of the men

Marriage and family for 41-55 yr old professionals
Jan 2001 survey of 2,000 women of companies over 5,000 employees
High achieving = 55,000 Ultra-high = $100,000
Childless / Married
42% 57% Corporate women
33% 60% High-achieving women
25% 76% High-achieving men
19% 83% Ultra-high achieving men
(Seattle Post-Intelligencer April 15, 2002)


@@College

(1997 The Economist Newspaper Limited) The higher-education gap
between men and women in the European Union has closed, according to
EU statistics. Germany has the lowest proportion of women at
university (73 to every 100 men); Portugal the highest (132 to 100).
Some traditions, however, persist: four times as many men as women
study engineering and architecture. 

doc\94\11\wellesm.txt women's college The corporate world has yet to
be conquered by Wellesley women, and not surprisingly: Fewer than 1
percent of Fortune's 4,000 highest corporate earners are female,
although a third of that elite group are women's-college graduates.
Only one woman, from '79, has run a company with more than 1,000
employees; about a quarter have run businesses, mostly very small
ones. 

@@color

\doc\95\06\babyblnk.txt - nobody orders pink blankets for boys, or
blue blankets for girls.


@@Competition

MEN LEAVE WOMEN IN THE DUST IN COMPETITION
Are Women Less Competitive? Gene Koretz Business Week Dec 9, 2002 Uri
Greezy U Chicago, Aldo Rustichini U Minnesota find 9-10 yr old boys
ran faster with another runner, especially if a girl. Girls were same
with a boy, slower against another girl.  Another study by same plus
Muriel Niederle of Stanford of Israeli university students. Men
performed better when paid only as the winner, women the same.
"females tend to be far less responsive to competition than males"

@@computer

%%education

\clip\97\19\girlcomp.txt Boston Globe August 8, 1997 approx Helping
girls shine on line By Dolores Kong, Globe Staff 

- Masters degrees dropped from high of 29.9% in 1986 to 26.4 in 1995,
up to 18.6 in doctoral vs. 6.6 in 1975. Bachelor's degrees in CS down
to 28.52 in 1995 from high of 37.20 in 1984

%%game

z87\clip\2004\03\girlgame.txt
http://www.teacherlibrarian.com/tlmag/v_31/v_31_3_feature.html
Teacher Librarian Feature Article
Girls and Gaming: A Summary of the Research with Implications for
Practice
 only 16 percent of game characters were female (Douglas et al.,
2002). About half of the female characters were bystanders rather than
active participants.  ...  most female video game characters were
unnaturally large-br...., unusually thin and/or scantily dressed...the
most common role of female characters was the role of “damsel in
distress.” Similarly, Provenzo (1991) has shown that females are often
either victims or prizes in video games.


Nintendo says 79% of players are male in 1993 unit sales survey
 Seattle Times/PI June 19, 1994 see women computer game

%%online
 d:\doc\94\19\wmonlin.txt women online

%%usage
\doc\95\14\womncomp.wk1

What Men and Women Do With Home Computers

                   Men      Women    Ratio
Games                    64%      53%     1.2
Personal Business        59%      66%     0.9
Office Work              45%      37%     1.2
On-line service          43%      31%     1.4
Electronic Mail          25%      27%     0.9

Men are much more likely to play games or use an
on-line service than women

As cited by USA Today Snapshot Nov 28, 1995
Source: Packard Bell Electronics Survey



 @@congress

\doc\95\01\womcong.wk1 - women in congress by party

"Female Republicans Gain" USA Today Nov 14. 1994
source: USA Today research by Gary Viagaitis

         Number            Percent
House    GOP   Demo  Total GOP      Demo
Current     12    35    47     25.5%    74.5%
Next        17    30    47     36.2%    63.8%
Increase  1.42  0.86  1.00     1.42     0.86

Senate
Current      2     7     9     22.2%    77.8%
Next         3     5     8     37.5%    62.5%
          1.50  0.71  0.89     1.69     0.80

 
@@construction

WOMEN SOUGHT IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY AT 2%?
Construction industry turns to women Eastside Journal Feb 26, 1999 p.
A11 recruiter have turned to women to solve labor shortages. 2% of
construction jobs filled by women.


@@clothing
 
"The Cost of Children" US News and World Report March 30, 1998 p. 52
Bureau of Labor Statistics found that husband-wife families with
children spent 18% more on girls clothes than boys.  The average
family spent $22,063 for each child to age 18.

\doc\95\08\womshop.txt - women shop for clothes more often than men,
2.8 times per month vs. 2.0 ages 16 to 24 according to cotton
incorporated.

 d:\doc\94\17\closet.txt - 41% of household clothing spent on women, 25% for men
 USA Today 8/5/94 source: the Interep Radio Store

@@comics
file: \doc\95\06\comics.txt 
women.comics "No laughing matter - comics
aim for women" USA Today July 6, 1994 p. 7B
85% of comics consumers are boys 6-16, according to Barrington
Research Associates

@@danger

ONLY 30% OF WOMEN VS 60% OF ARMY MEN WOULD VOLUNTEER FOR COMBAT

\doc\96\08\womnvoln.txt The News Tribune (Tacoma WA) Dec 9, 1996 p.
A12. "Influx of women into the ranks gives military new challenge"
Nolan Waters.

Only 30% of women in the US Army said that they would
volunteer for combat jobs, compared to 60% of men

@@day care provider

MEN ONLY 0.6% OF DAYCARE PROVIDERS IN JAPAN
http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/care_100397.html The
Seattle Times Company Friday, Oct. 3, 1997 Gender-bender in Japan:
male day-care workers by Reuters Men are still a rarity in Japan's
day-care centers, accounting for only 1,648 of a total 238,000
nursery-school teachers in 1995. (0.6%)

z56\clip\2002\07\granny.txt
from the August 01, 2002 edition 
Meet the nanny – 'Granny'
Grandparents, says census, are nation's leading child-care providers.
By Marilyn Gardner | Staff writer of The Christian Science Monitor 
... [grandparents] are emerging as the leading child-care provider..
among the nation's 19.6 million preschoolers, grandparents took care
of 21 percent, or 1 in 5, of those who were in some type of child-care
arrangement in 1997. Fathers cared for 17 percent of preschoolers
while mothers worked. About one-fifth of preschoolers were cared for
in organized facilities – 12 percent in day-care centers and 6 percent
in nursery schools or preschools.

@@differences

d:\priv\96\02\genddif.htm Gender Differences page
http://idt.liberty.com/~fathers9/genddiff.htm


@@discrimination

%%by women

RADICAL FEMINIST REFUSES TO TEACH MEN
Radical feminist Boston College professor told she must teach men
Eastside Journal Feb 26, 1999 p. A11 Mary Daly says women defer to
men in their presence, so won't let men into her classed

%%College

IWF Special Report: Confession without Guilt?  In this groundbreaking
report authors Patricia Hausman and James H. Steiger document how MIT
jumped the gun to avoid a sex discrimination controversy, and managed
to shoot itself in the foot.  This paper presents a productivity
study of the MIT biology department faculty, and should serve as a
model for other universities responding to claims of sex
discrimination.  PDF File, 125 KB:
http://www.iwf.org/news/mitfinal.pdf


"MIT Tarnishes Its Reputation with Junk Gender Science," 
Prof. Judith Kleinfeld, Univ. of Alaska - Fairbanks 
Judith Kleinfeld is professor of psychology at the University of
Alaska Fairbanks. 
        The MIT study may be accessed at
http://web.mit.edu/fnl/women/women.html 
        Professor Kleinfeld's critique may be accessed at
http://www.uaf.edu/northern/mitstudy 
        



MIT WOMEN PROFESSOR DISCRIMINATION STUDY FLAWED
\clip\99\11\mitwom.txt Investor's Business Daily.  M.I.T. Report
Flunks Statistics 101 Diana Furchtgott-Roth April 19, 1999 Last month
officials at M.I.T. released a study showing that female professors
“suffer from pervasive, if unintentional, discrimination.” Dean
Birgeneau claimed that M.I.T. was “unique in its willingness” to
release such a study, and that the results were “data-driven, and
that’s a very M.I.T.  thing.” The study was carried uncritically by
newspapers all over the country, The only quantitative evidence of
discrimination cited is the so-called "leaky pipeline," with data on
numbers of male and female undergraduates, graduate students,
postdocs, and faculty members for 1985 through 1994.


@@domestic violence

\priv\95\14\liveviol.txt (from: Learning to Live Without Violence - a
handbook for men; by Daniel Jay Sonkin, PhD, and Michael Durphy, PhD)
Over 2/3 of the men we have seen in our groups have either been
physically or sexually abused as children, or saw their father abuse
their mother.

@@DOORS

 DOC923:dooropen.txt survey: opening doors for women


 @@education

%%gap

%%Economic Growth

EDUCATION OF MEN, BUT NOT WOMEN HELPS ECONOMIC GROWTH?
Robert Barros' "Determinants of
Economic Growth" says that male secondary and higher levels of
education is highly correlated with economic growth.  However, the
secondary education of women showed an insignificant or negative
effect on subsequent levels of economic growth.  Of all the variables
he mentions in the book he gives a theoretical explanation, except
for this one.  His data included over a 100 countries over a 35 to 40
year period.  

%%esteem

 Christina Hoff Sommers "Who Stole Feminism" Newsweek June 20, 1994
p.68 "skillfully attacks two widely publicized studies purporting to
show that girls lack self-esteem and get less attention from teachers
than boys do but concludes that girls are doing fine despite teen
pregnancy, test scores and eating disorders

doc\94\13\priv\whostole.txt - more on how black man have highest self-esteem,
but white girls have lowest, yet blacks are in worst shape.

%%Kleinfeld

CONSERVATIVE ALASKAN BUCKS FEMINISM
z46\clip\2000\11\kleinf.txt Chronice of Higher Education From the
issue dated November 3, 2000 From Alaskan Outpost, Judith Kleinfeld
Looks Down on Higher Education By ROBIN WILSON

%%world

\doc\95\02\unwomed.txt - women 71% literacy 55% schooling in developing
nations compared to men


@@engineering

engineering 10:1
software     3:1

z42 Patty Hausman says women are
simply less interested in engineering just as boys are more into
engineering, even if they're good at it.

\clip\98\10\studbr.txt
http://www.foxnews.com/js_index.sml?content=/news/wires2/0812/n_ap_0812_30
.sml Students see bright future, worry about violence now 1.35 a.m.
ET (536 GMT) August 12, 1998 By Lawrence L. Knutson, Associated Press
"The State of Our Nation's Youth,'' is an annual product of the
Horatio Alger Association "While 11 percent of boys look to
engineering careers, only 1 percent of girls do, the survey said. Six
percent of the boys questioned said they were considering careers in
computer software compared with 2 percent of girls."


@@Evolution

WOMEN CHOOSING HAS SHAPED MEN TO BE DOMINANT, STATUS SEEKING
z48\clip\2001\03\femev.txt Raider of the Lost Patriarch An honorary
white male explains.  By Patricia Hausman, a consulting behavioral
scientist & member of the national advisory board of the Independent
Women's Forum March 10-11, 2001
http://www.nationalreview.com/weekend/culture/culture-hausman031001.shtml
"It is not difficult to understand why males who showed little
dominance or status-oriented behavior were probably among the first
scratched off her dance card. Whatever their positive qualities, she
realized that during hard times, such males would have trouble
competing for resources that her family would need to survive. "

women.executive
@@executive

Pay gap widens between top male, female executives SJM 6-30-93 P.1
doc\94\11\wellesm.txt

women's college
Fewer than 1 percent of Fortune's 4,000 highest corporate
earners are female, although a third of that elite group are women's-college
graduates. 

Only one Wellesley woman, from '79, has run a company with more than 1,000
employees; about a quarter have run businesses, mostly very small ones.

@@feminism

\clip\97\17\nowdead.txt The Wall Street Journal Interactive Edition
-- July 11, 1997 NOW's Time Is Past By SALLY SATEL MEMPHIS,
Tenn.--The National Organization for Women held its annual conference
here last weekend, drawing barely 500 attendees, vs. more than 1,000
in previous years. 


"Wimmin are from Mars, women are from Venus" Economist June 21, 1997
p.  87. Difference feminists reckon that women are equal to men(thus
the relative shortage of female physicists and auditors is held to be
evidence of sexism) except when they are superior (this the relative
shortage of female muggers) Dissent is from the "pod" feminists who
think that women should not always be victims, don't need
preferences, can be Republican, and it's okay to have vaginal as
opposed to clitoral orgasms.m


@@firefighter

PC wisdom is that women should be hired as 50% of firefighters, but
they have higher injury rates, and are hired at much lower rates if
selected with the same criterion.

z50\clip\2001\07\fireinj.txt
http://unisci.com/stories/20013/0717016.htm
female firefighters reported 33 percent more injuries than male
firefighters in the study by Hui Liao, B.A., Richard D. Arvey, Ph.D.,
and Richard J. Butler, Ph.D., of the University of Minnesota and Steven
M. Nutting, M.A., of the City of Minneapolis.
The researchers say the higher injury rate for female fighters may be
due to cultural influences [p.c. males reporting fewer injuries rather 
than women being more prone to injury or less skilled]. 

Personality Influences Health, Safety Of Firefighters

A new study finds that personality can influence the health and safety
of firefighters. The findings appear in the July issue of the Journal of
Occupational Health Psychology, a journal of the American Psychological
Association (APA).



@@fight

Scientists say women tend and befriend rather than 
fight and flight.

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A29471-2000May18.html
Stressed Women Turn to Mother Nurture, Study Says
By Curt Suplee
Washington Post Staff Writer
Friday, May 19, 2000; Page A02 
For decades, behavioral scientists have assumed that humans and many
other animals of both sexes respond to acute stress with a "fight or
flight" response, in which the body readies itself for either
aggression or hasty withdrawal It is clear from recent studies that
men and women have differing interpersonal styles and that, for
example, women are simply better at making human connections by and
large than men are. So their idea of 'tend and befriend' is in line
with current clinical information."



@@genetic  differences

%%Brain

z56\clip\2002\05\estbrain.txt
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2002/05/020517080836.htm
ScienceDaily Magazine -- Estrogen May Dictate What Problem-Solving
Strategy Brain Uses [in rats]
Source:   University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign (http://www.uiuc.edu/)
Date:   Posted 5/20/2002
Estrogen May Dictate What Problem-Solving Strategy Brain Uses
"In the place-training test... Rats on estrogen learned the task
faster than the untreated group."
"when an aging woman's hormone level declines, her
brain might actually shift into a problem-solving mode more common to
men. "Women may actually get better at performing a task from a
different approach, but they are not used to doing it that way, so
they view the change as an impairment,"

z39\clip\2000\02\gendchem.txt Source: Cornell University
(http://www.cornell.edu) Date: Posted 2/17/2000 Brain Neurochemicals
Tell A Female To Act Like A Female, Not Her Gender, Cornell
Biologists Discover ITHACA, N.Y. -- Cornell University biologists
have shown how chemicals produced in a core region of the brain
shared by all vertebrate animals (including humans) make males act
like males, females like females -- and some males something like
females.

%%Hormone

Patricia Hausman thesis is that
difference in sex abilities in math are due to hormone differences,
and women who are good at math are few. also less good at
reproduction.


url: http://www.arthurhu.com/index/women.htm#home


women.home
@@home full-time (as opposed to working)

Spectrum
--------------------------------------
90% Belkin princeton grads do not work full time
86% 1994 poll, girls who think they will not stay at home
77% College ed women 30-44 within 12 mos of birth
76% Peak men, 1950s
72% Women 20-34 working 1987
60% Women with children under 6 1997
58% Women over 16 in workforce 1990
57% Married women in workforce with children under 6 1988
50% 1987 Women with children under 3 work
45% Married women in workforce with children under 6 1980
45% Asian Indian women work outside home 1990
38% Harvard Bus school grads in 1980s working full time
35% Women over 16 in workforce 1945
31% Return within 12 mos of birth 1976
29% Full time work / married
28% Mothers of young children 1996
19% Women in labor force 1900
18% Women with children under 6 1960
12% Married women in workforce with children under 6 1950


%%books

z75\clip\2003\11\fem1.txt
Feminism mugged by reality
Phyllis Schlafly (archive)
November 10, 2003 |  Print |  Send
"The
Opt-Out Revolution" by Lisa Belkin in the New York Times Magazine.
For the last couple of decades,
roughly half of the U.S. graduates with masters in business, law
degrees or medical degrees have been women.
But of the 10 Princeton graduates interviewed by Belkin at a book-club
meeting, five were not employed outside the home, one is in business
with her husband, one is employed part time, two freelance, and the
only one with a full-time job is childless. Nationwide, only 16
percent of corporate officers are women and only eight Fortune 500
companies have female CEOs. In fact, only 38 percent of the women who
graduated from the Harvard Business School in the 1980s are working
full time.

http://www.theatlantic.com/issues/2003/01/flanagan.htm
The Wifely Duty
Marriage used to provide access to sex. Now it provides access to celibacy
IN The Atlantic Monthly, January/February 2003
BY CAITLIN FLANAGAN
..confessed to me either that they had stopped having sex or that
they knew a married person who had stopped having sex.American
middle-class families have made child-rearing a dauntingly complex
enterprise. ... I had better get in the market for an SUV or a
minivan, shuttling the children and their friends to a bewildering
series of soccer games, soccer parties, soccer tournaments. Already I
throw birthday parties with guest lists and budgets that approximate
those of a wedding-rehearsal dinner.

Books discussed in this essay
I Don't Know How She Does It
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ISBN=0375414053/theatlanticmonthA/
by Allison Pearson

The Sex-Starved Marriage
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ISBN=0743227328/theatlanticmonthA/
by Michele Weiner Davis

The Total Woman
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ISBN=0671611658/theatlanticmonthA/
by Marabel Morgan

For Women Only
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ISBN=B00006F7IR/theatlanticmonthA/
by Jennifer Berman, M.D., and Laura Berman, Ph.D.

Motherhood and Hollywood
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ISBN=0375508716/theatlanticmonthA/
by Patricia Heaton

I'm Not in the Mood
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ISBN=0688172253/theatlanticmonthA/
by Judith Reichman, M.D.

Okay, So I Don't Have a Headache
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ISBN=031226366X/theatlanticmonthA/
by Cristina Ferrare

The Bitch in the House
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ISBN=0066211662/theatlanticmonthA/
edited by Cathi Hanauer
. . . .



%%Corporate

CORPORATE WIFE NOT A TRIVIAL JOB, WOMEN DON'T HAVE THEM
z50\clip\2001\06\corpwife.txt NYT June 24, 2001 For Women at the Top,
Something Is Missing: Social, Wifely Support By MARY WILLIAMS WALSH a
vast majority of chief executives at the nation's top corporations
are not only men, but married men with stay-at-home wives, ever ready
to journey with them and be at their sides in public. So endless and
varied are the duties of running a large company, it seems, that no
rational man tries them solo if he can split them with a wife.

%%Husband

HOUSE HUBBIES FOR SUCCESSFUL WOMEN
z60\clip\2002\10\househub.txt
http://www.fortune.com/lists/women/househusbands.html
Trophy Husbands
Arm candy? Are you kidding? While their fast-track wives go to work,
stay-at-home husbands mind the kids. They deserve a trophy for trading
places.
IN FORTUNE, 27 October, 2002
By Betsy Morris
Of the
187 participants at FORTUNE's Most Powerful Women in Business Summit
last spring, 30% had househusbands. And of the 50 women on this year's
list, more than one-third have a husband at home either full- or
part-time.


%%Japan

new freedom brings fear of over work for japanese
(ny times) San Jose Mercury News July 16, 1997

women are 33% of paid work force in japan
over 50% of work with house work
only 2% of taxi drivers
salary
1985=56.1
1995=60.2 vs usa=75%
0% auto workers 20-30% in ohio
managers 40-43 in us, 8-9% in japan from 1988-1996
%women working us 55-60 jpn 49-50 1985-95

%%Rate

Proportion of Women in Work Force Drops

WSJ 3/16/97

Women participation rate fell for the first time 
in 1991. 16+ fell to 57.3% in 1995 from 57.5 in 1990

Bureau of Labor Statistics. Climbed from 
38% in 1960
43% in 1970
52% in 1981
57.5 1990
57.3 1996

decline was mostly in 16-24, under-25 rate
peaked in 1987 at 65%, now down 1 point to 62%

Men peaked in mid 1950s
1991 75.5%
76.1% 1990.

http://www.chron.com/cgi-bin/auth/story/content/chronicle/nation/97/11/27/births.2-0.html
11/26/1997 HoustonChronicle.com New mothers now return to work
sooner, study says By FAYE FIORE Los Angeles Times 

\clip\97\29\return.txt
US Census Nov, 1997
Returned to the workforce within 12 months of birth 1995: 55% 1976 31%
College educated women 30-44 77%
Never married older mothers given birth 1990: 18% 1995 21%
40-44 without children 1976: 10% 1995 18%

\clip\97\07\KOREA.TXT
http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/unit_030597.html
Copyright © 1997 The Seattle Times Company Wednesday, March 5, 1997
Close-up: South Koreans wary of unity with North by Mary Jordan
Washington Post SEOUL - " most women in North Korea work - in
factories, cultivating fields and holding jobs more or less equal to
those of men.  Few South Korean women work after marriage, and
mothers who take jobs raise eyebrows. "


%%Salary

$60/$30 2 WORKER PARENTS WOULD DO BETTER AS $64/$0 1 WORKER April 15:
Was it worth it? University of southern California tax-law professor
Edward McCaffery figures lower tax costs would make it better if the
higher earner got a $4,000 raise and the lower earner stayed at home.

IS YOUR FAMILY WRECKING YOUR CAREER? (AND VICE VERSA)
http://pathfinder.com/@@8XJh9QYAOI5ClmKK/fortune/1997/970317/fam.html#penalty
\clip\97\07\family\fam.txt FORTUNE March 17, 1997 THE TWO-CAREER
PENALTY In 1993, Joy Schneer, an associate professor of management at
Rider University in New Jersey, and Frieda Reitman, a professor of
management at Pace University found,On average, the 84 men married to
nonworking women earned 32% more than the 152 men married to women
who worked either part-time or full-time. 

60% OF CHILDREN < 6 HAVE WORKING MOTHERS VS. 18%
\DOC\WEB\97\02\nextpop.txt "Next Population Bulge Shows Its Might"
Wall Street Journal Feb 3, 1997 p. B1 60% of children under 6 have
working mothers compared to 18% in 1960

WOMEN PREFER TO STAY HOME VS. WORK 2:1 VS. MEN
\clip\96\09\womnhome.txt Seattle Times Nov. 24, 1996 Given their
druthers, women want to be home Front Porch Forum by Eric Pryne
Seattle Times staff reporter

Would you prefer to work outside the home or stay home to
take care of house and family

overall
                     Men   Women   Ratio
Don't know / no ans  6     13      2.16
Stay Home           27     53      1.96
Job                 66     34      1.94

Children at home
                     Men   Women   Ratio
Don't know / no ans  3     6       2.00
Stay Home           55     37      1.48
Job                 39     60      1.53

No children at home
                     Men   Women   Ratio
Don't know / no ans  8     11      1.37
Stay Home           19     19      1.00
Job                 73     70      1.04

Source: Elving research

Roper polls in 74, 89 had similar findings, and not
much change over time.

UW Shelly Lundberg claims that being a housewife and mother might
have been a reasonable career choice 35 or 40 years ago, but today
"young women don't have that option". Comment - yes they still have
that option, it's offensive to say that women only have the choice of
work.

\clip\96\09\parkmom.txt Tokyo's Forbidding `Park Moms' Daunt
Newcomers In City's Rare Green Spaces, Maternal Hierarchies Impose
Rules of Obedience By Mary Jordan Washington Post Foreign Service
Monday, November 18 1996; Page A01 The Washington Post According to
government statistics, the number of stay-at-home mothers of young
children has remained unchanged since the early 1980s, at 72 percent.
Many of the 28 percent who work outside the home do so part-time.

\doc\95\08\womnwor2.txt
Women over 16 in work force
1945 35.8 ****
1950 33.9 ***
1960 37.7 ****
1975 46.3 ***** <- Over half in 1980
1990 57.7 ******
2000 62.6 ******  (Projected)

Source: Wefa Group
As cited by Wall Street Journal "Women at Work"
4/24/95

 
\doc\95\07\workwife.txt
"Working Wives Widen 'Income Gap'" Wall Street Journal June 20, 1995 ed.
Diana Furchtgott-Roth (American Enterprise Institute)

Women in labor force (US Labor Department)
1900 19%  (few married with children)
1960 39%  with children over six
1994 75%  "" <- same as male labor force rate

working age couples with 2 workers
1969 49%
1977 56%
1985 67%
1993 72%     <- same as male labor force rate

two-earner couples
                1969  1993
under $20,000    31%   37%
over $100,000    41%   98%
source: Roberton Willimas, Congressional Budget Office

\priv\95\06\OVERWORK.TXT
\priv\95\06\OVERWORK.GIF - women work much longer than men,
counting work at home, people are spending more at work because
housework takes less time. 

\priv\95\05\supermom.gif Shows wives with children under six go from
under 40% in 1974 to 60% in 1994.

Susan Faludi in book Backlash says women have always worked and had
children, but statistics show it wasn't until the 1980's that a
majority of women with children under 6 were working

\doc\95\04\marrwork.wk1 - Married Women with Children in Workforce

  Percent of Married Women in the Workplace
  With Children Under 6 Years
        1950     11.9 ++
        1960     18.6 +++
        1970     30.3 ++++++
        1980     45.1 +++++++++
        1988     57.1 +++++++++++

Source: Historical Statistics of the U.S. Colonial Times to 1970
(US Department of Commerce, 1976) Series D 63-74; Statistical Abstract
of the U.S. 1989 (U.S. Department of Commerce, 1989) p. 386

\doc\95\02\preswork.txt   Preschool work 1950:12% 1990:52%

\doc\95\01\workmoth.txt
The Economist July 4, 1987 p 38
Bureau of Labor Statistics:

23M children under 18 live with stay-at-home mothers
34M have working mothers
50% of women with children under 3 work

Douglas Beshavrov and Michelle Dally, Public Opinion:
41% work full-time at any time of the year
29% of married mothers work full-time

Women going back home: a bogus trend?  SPI 8/21/94 Margaret L Usdansky
(USA today) The percentage of full-time working women continues to
grow steadily, rising from 45 percent in 1980 to 54 percent in 1992,
compared to 75 percent for men. 54 percent of women with children
under 1 work outside the home. Academics believe the percentage will
grow.

doc\94\15\priv\boypoll.txt boypoll2.txt NYTimes poll of teens in 1994
  girls - 86% work 7% stay at home
  boys  - 58%     19%
In actual fact, only 75% of women in workforce, and leveled off

doc936\boomparn.txt - boomers make more than parents, women work more

doc\94\10\twoincom.txt -  
  47% white, 56% black women contribute 30-70% of income
  50% of women 20-34 worked in 1970, now it has peaked at about 72%

doc\94\11\wellesm.txt
6 out of 10 wives from younger Wellesley classes have jobs with higher
pay or status than their husbands, 40% provide at least half of the
family income


%%Survey

Survey girls 13-20, what they want
57% married, career, children
13% married, career, no kids
8%  married, kids, no job
5%  married, kids, work at home
5%  not married, no kids
4%  live with partner
8%  other
source Element
April 2001 American Demographics



@@Hormones

VERBAL UP, MATH DOWN WHEN FEMALE ESTROGEN IS HIGH
http://www.genderweb.org/~julie/medical/hormones/ability.html
\clip\98\16\hormmath.txt Hormones Linked to Reasoning Ability Los
Angeles Times
at the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience last week in
Toronto, psychologists Elizabeth Hampson and Doreen Kimura said tests
on three groups of women showed muscular coordination and verbal
facility increased by as much as 10 percent during periods of the
month when levels of estrogen, the female hormone, were high. At the
same time, the women's ability to solve problems involving spatial
reasoning fell by a similar amount. [well that explains a lot about
why men score higher in math and lower in verbal, doesn't it?]


@@Housework

Primary child care and household responsibilities for high-achieving
men and women:         women / men
Help with homework        37 / 9
Time off for child sick   51 / 9
Organize child activity   61 / 3
Clean the house           45 / 5
Prepare meals             50 / 9
Shop for groceries        51 / 7
Source: Challenger Gray & Christmas

STUDY "PROVES" HOUSEWORK SHOULD BE 46/46
"Splitting the house chores" Seattle Times 3/13/99 p. A12 Journal of
Health and Social Behavior publishes study of 1,256 adults, claims
that most housework stress is over division of housework when women
do more. A researcher calculated that if both partners do 45.8
percent, and the other 8.4 is done by someone else or not done will
hold down stress levels. (yeah, right)
\clipim\99\93\24\house.jpg

MEN DO MORE, WOMEN LESS HOUSEWORK THAN BEFORE,
BUT HOUSEWIVES DO THE MOST
Consumer Reports March 1999 p.9
American Use of Time Project
University of Maryland

Hours spent on housework per week
     women   men
1965 27.0  4.6
1975 22.5  7.5
1985 19.3  9.6
1994-5 15.6 9.5


@@Injury

Study: Female midshipmen more likely to injure knees during training
http://www.foxnews.com/js_index.sml?content=/news/wires2/1207/n_ap_1207_27
2. sml December 7, 1998 By James Franklin Associated Press "Women at the
U.S. Naval Academy are nearly 10 times more likely to tear a knee ligament
during military training than men, according to a study conducted by four
academy physicians. Six out of 1,956 female midshipmen tore ligaments
during military training, compared to only five out of 15,871 of male
midshipmen, said the study presented Monday to the Society of Military
Orthopedic Surgeons meeting in Vail, Colo. While women were 9.74 times
more likely than men to be injured during training, which includes running
the obstacle course and instructional wrestling, the overall knee injury
ratio for female midshipmen was only 2.44 times more than that for male
midshipmen. The Naval Academy said it would do a thorough review of the
physicians' study, but plans no immediate changes in its training
regimen."


@@japan

WOMEN TAKING MORE MEN'S JOBS IN JAPAN
\clip\97\01\japnwomn.txt Los Angeles Times Wednesday, January 8, 1997
COLUMN ONE A Woman's Place Now Is in the Sumo Ring In Japan, gender
barriers are starting to fall.  Men no longer hold a monopoly on jobs
on the stock exchange, in blue-collar trades and behind the sushi
counter. 

@@job


%%survey
\doc\95\14\womnjob.txt
Seattle Times Oct 15, 1995 p. L3

1992 Census Bureau figures:
Men are %
91 clergy
92 engineeer
90 dentist
17 library
5  nurse
1 kindergarten teachers, dental hygenists, secretaries

%%survival

women.job.survival
Seattle Times Pacific Magazine Oct 15, 1995 p. 1 "Staying Alive" The
Fairchild Air Force Base survival training program, ITF (Instructors
Training Flight) program for trainers is a 6 month program, the latest
program has only 1 woman out of 24 spaces. 40-50 have completed the
normal 17 day training course, which is required of all US Air Force
air crew, 2,500  per year.

@@justice

d:\doc\94\18\priv\womjust.txt - SJM 7/28/94 women dominate top jobs
at justice department The attorney general and the deputy attorney
general are women, and women will fill seven of the 11 assistant
attorney general positions when the confirmation process is complete.
Women have been gaining ground at the rank-and-file levels of the
nation's largest law firm since 1970. Then there were 134 female
attorneys. Last year there were 2,537, roughly a third of the lawyers
in the department.


@@Language, "Inclusive"

\clip\97\09\cathlang.txt "Our Father By Popular Demand" Church goers
disagree that use of masculine pronouns exclude women, or are
discriminatory, and presents problems to religion.

@@law

\clip\96\02\womnlawy.txt Women lawyers make progress 8/6/96 Women
Lawyers at Last Emerging into the Profession's Limelight By Julie
Stoiber, The Philadelphia Inquirer

"Inequalities increase for women lawyers" Seattle Times 1/8/96 f010896

women.law.judge
women.progress.judge
\doc\94\01\womnjudg.txt - Women Judges in Washington State
Overall percentage of women judges doubled in 7 years since 1988

Women Judges in Washington State
Level                 1988       92       93       94       95
Supreme Court            1        1        2        2        2
Court of Appeals         1        4        5        6        6
Superior Court          14       24       36       39       39
District Court          13       14       17       18       23
Municipal Court         12       15       13       15       16
Total                   40       58       73       80       86
Percent of total        11       15       29     20.3     21.5

(1) District and Municipal combined for 1988, breakdown is estimate

Index of Increase (1988 = 1.0)
Level                 1988       92       93       94       95
Supreme Court         1.00     1.00     2.00     2.00     2.00
Court of Appeals      1.00     4.00     5.00     6.00     6.00
Superior Court        1.00     1.71     2.57     2.79     2.79
District Court        1.00     1.08     1.31     1.38     1.77
Municipal Court       1.00     1.25     1.08     1.25     1.33
Total                 1.00     1.45     1.83     2.00     2.15
Percent of total      1.00     1.36     2.64     1.85     1.95

@@Male Dominance

GOLDBERG EXPLAINS WHY MEN ARE AND SHOULD BE ON TOP
\clip\99\18\menrule.txt Steven Goldberg 1998 All Rights Reserved The
Logic of Patriarchy by Steven Goldberg M1y purpose here is not to
provide the anthropological evidence of universality, nor the
psychophysiological evidence supporting an explanation of
universality in terms of the differing neuro-endocrinological
development of males and females. I have done so in many publications
and in my book, Why Men Rule (Open Court, 1993). I will mention
merely that I explain the universals as inevitable limits on
variation imposed by a hereditary male-female difference that
engenders in males a greater tendency to sacrifice others of life's
pleasures (safety, family, vacation, relaxation, and the like) when
dominance and status are available (just as it does a greater
readiness of females to serve the infant in distress).

@@management

WOMEN STILL HALF AS LIKELY AS MEN TO BE MBA - SO WHAT?
\doc\web\99\01\wommba.txt
Contrarian January 12, 1999
 Business Schools Under Attack

\clip\97\29\womnman.txt Copyright 1997 Associated Press. All rights
reserved.  12/10/1997 19:02 EST More Women in Managerial Posts But..
By CLARE NULLIS Associated Press Writer 

% Women Managers
50%   Sweden cabinet posts (#1 in world)
46%   United States
42%   Candada
6.8%  World cabinet 1997
3.4%  World cabinet 1987
3.0%  Britain Board members
2.4%  Highest paid management jobs in top 500 US companies
1-3%  Germany top 70,000 companies top exec and board

Pay Rate
83%   Britian women professionals. vs. men
68%   US earnings of women managers vs. men

Source: International Labor Organization, United Nations


file: \doc\95\06\thatsno.txt - Women's wages 98% of men, 45% of
management and 53% of professional jobs. source: "That's No White
Male" Wall Street Journal March 27, 1995 (editorial) Ellen Ladowsky

\doc\95\11\bestmom.txt "Best employers for mom" Electronic Engineering
Times Sept 25, 1995 p. 131

Working Mother magazine picked twelve technology firms
out of its top 100.

Lotus Development has 50% female senior and executive
vice presidents, along with CMP publications. 
Other companies: 

TRW Space and Elec 17%
Xerox              11%
Hewlett Packard     6%
Eastman Kodak       3%
Hughes Electronics  0%
Motorola            0%


@@Math

Women traditionally have shown less interest than men in math, and
have lower test scores.

From: "Patricia Hausman"  Date sent: Tue, 28
Sep 1999 20:43:29 -0400 NSF's count shows females receiving 20.6% of
all math doctorates in 1995, with a low in operations research (<14%)
and a high in algebra (>29%).  These numbers are a lot lower than in
the life sciences--though physics and engineering are even lower.  


\clip\97\12\math\math.htm - Men in PhD's fall from 8 to 1 to about 4
to 1, but women math PhD's have risen only slightly

\clip\97\12\math\woman.htm - Woman wins Putnam math competition, New
York Times May 1, 1997 Every spring, five are chosen winners of the
William Lowell Putnam Mathematical Competition, the Olympics of
college mathematics. Every year for 56 years, all the winners have
been men.  Until this year. (1 / 56, that's not so unusual)

@@Media


@@military academy

\clip\96\05\vmiclip.txt 24 Sep 1996 03:07:01 -0400 NOW, ACLU Blast
VMI Coeducation Proposals By DAVID REED Associated Press Writer.
National Organization for Women and ACLU complain that equal
treatment of women in shaving heads and equal physical standards is
"humiliating" and ``True equality means making some allowances that
recognize the differences in the sexes,'' What's that?


@@military service

WOMEN ARE JUST A CAPABLE AS MEN IN THE MILITARY (?)
In the eyes of feminists, women are just as capable as men in
everything from police to firefighting, but military is one of the
fields where this theory is greatly at odds with reality. A british
study found that only 2% of women were as capable as the average
male, and they were 8 times as likely to be injured. 43% of white
women in the US Army fail to complete their first enlistment.

Summary of physical abilities men vs. women
----------------------------------------------
                         Men   Women  Index
Carry 165lb stretcher    100%    12%   -10.0
Stronger than 1st man     99%     7%   -14.2
Gulf War Army Nondepl     2.4%   9.1%  -3.8
Navy back injuries                     -3.0
Navy Bomb Carry           130     60   -2.2
Insufficient UB Stregth    9%    25%   -2.7
Volunteer for Combat      60%    30%   -2.0
Throw Hand Grenade       100%?   45%   -2.0
Upper Body Strength                    -2.0
Pushup pass                            -2.00
Muscle Mass                            -1.59
Height                                 -1.08
Army Carry               5500   3000   -1.83
Navy Arm Lift             110     60   -1.83
Army Push                2500   1500   -1.66
Navy Arm Pull             150     90   -1.66
Army Lift                1100    800   -1.37
1.5 mile pass                          -1.27
Situp pass                             -1.11

%%bad

WOMEN CAN'T HACK COMBAT HIKES, BUT NECCESARY TO ACHIEVE EQUALITY Do
women belong on the front lines? Seattle Times Nov 1, 2003 Laurie
Copans AP study commissioned by commander of Israeli ground forces
found that most women not capable of lifting 100 lbs minimum required
of combat soldiers. Most women could not keep up on military treks of
over 12 miles with heavy gear. Male soldiers could be required to
march twice that. Others warn if women are kept out of combat, they
will never achieve equality in the military or life.

BRITISH STUDY FINDS ONLY 2% OF WOMEN AS FIT AS AVERAGE MALE, 8X INJURY RATE
z55\clip\2002\03\womcomb.txt
... a Ministry of Defence report, entitled Combat Effectiveness
Gender Study, has found fewer than 2% of female soldiers are as fit
as the average male soldier, the newspaper says. ... The study also
suggests women are up to eight times more likely to be injured.
Subj:    British Ministry of Defence discovers differences between men & women
Date:   3/30/02 10:02:41 PM Pacific Standard Time
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/uk/newsid_1901000/1901721.stm
Women soldiers 'face frontline ban'
Many women want to be able to fight
Female soldiers will not be allowed to fight in the frontline after a study 
found they were not physically capable, it has been reported.

HACKWORTH SAYS SEX INTEGRATION IN THE MILITARY IS A DISASTER
\doc\web\97\07\hackwort.txt "This terrible situation exists is
because President Clinton has put politically correct civilian dorks
in charge of the Army, Navy, and Air Force and then placed
go-along-to-get-along lap dogs at the top of each service.  "

%%Dropout

Military struggles to keep women soldiers
http://www.usatoday.com/news/washdc/ncssun05.htm By Andrea Stone, USA
TODAY "WASHINGTON - White women are leaving the military before the
end of their first enlistment at a far greater rate than any other
group, Defense Department statistics show.  43% of white women fail
to complete their first enlistment because of physical problems,
pregnancy, failure to adapt to the military or other reasons. By
contrast, just a third of black women, black men and white men are
discharged during their first enlistment. Slightly fewer Hispanics,
31% of women and 26% of men, don't complete their first term. The
average enlistment is three years; enlistments vary from two to six
years."

The picture is bleakest in the Army, where enlisted minority women
outnumber white women 61%-39%. More than half of white female
soldiers, 54%, who enlisted in 1994 were back to civilian life three
years later. 

%%general

Fumento responds it's even
worse

WOMEN _ARE_ LESS QUALIFIED TO BE IN MILITARY
\clip\98\14\marquot.txt http://www.desnews.com:80/edt/yt0rlw2l.htm
Race, gender quotas amount to handouts that devalue military Last
updated 10/07/1998, 12:01 a.m. MT By Walter Williams
The "USMA report on the Integration and Performance of Women at West
Point," cited by Mackubin Thomas Owens in the July issue of Proceedings,
reveals sex-norming schemes whereby women receive A grades for the same
performance that earns a man a D. Navy women pass physical readiness tests
by performing 11 percent fewer sit-ups and 53 percent fewer push-ups, and
running 1.5 miles 27 percent slower than men.

The Marine Corps discovered that only 45 percent of female Marines could
toss a hand grenade beyond its burst radius; one Army study reported only
12 percent could. Navy studies show that only 12 percent of women can
accomplish the two-person stretcher carry, a requirement critical to ship
security. Women may be able to drive a 5-ton truck but need a man's help if
they must change a tire. Women can fire field artillery pieces but often
can't handle the ammunition.


\clip\97\20\gijane1.gif "Can 'GI Jane' Really Hack It?"
Investor's Business Daily Aug 29, 1997 
- Only the top 7% of women scored better than the lowest scoring
Navy man
- All enlisted navy men, but only 12% of women were able to
carry a 165 lb soldier on a stretcher
- Only 45% of female marines could throw a grenade far enough
to be a safe distance.
- The Army developed a test for strength for different jobs.
It would have disqualified women from 3/4 of the Army's jobs,
and the test was dropped on the behalf of the Defence Advisory
Commitee on Women in the Services.

WHAT DOES GENDER EQUALITY MEAN IN THE MILITARY?   New Republic Feb
24, 1997 Stephanie Gutmann. The average woman soldier is 5 inches
shorter, has lower aerobic capacity, half the upper body strength,
and has 37% less muscle mass. ...

25% of women, but only 9% of men among light wheel mechanics reported
they didn't have enough upper body strength to do their jobs.

%%Air Force

WOMAN A10 PILOT SCREWS UP AND DIES \clip\97\20\a10cras.txt
http://www.sjmercury.com/news/breaking/docs/061850.htm San Jose
Mercury News September 13, 1997 Air Force: Pilot error caused A-10
crash TUCSON, Ariz. (AP) -- Disoriented after a practice bombing
dive, Air Force Capt. Amy Svoboda failed to realize she was flying
upside down and drove her A-10 jet into the ground at 400 mph, an
investigation has found.

Aviation Week Ap 16, 1997 "Enlisted Professionals" 16% of USAF are
women, 23% minority, 220 female pilots, 100 navigators, 25% of
new recruits.

%%Army

\clip\97\20\armyfit.txt
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/digest/nat1.htm Army Moves to
Toughen Fitness Standards for Women By Dana Priest Washington Post
Staff Writer Saturday, September 13, 1997; Page A01 Faced with
overwhelming evidence of divisions between men and women in its
ranks, the Army plans to narrow differences in one area that has been
a nagging source of irritation for male soldiers: the comparably easy
standards for women in their semiannual fitness test. (men complain
of different standards and favoritism)



%%israel
\priv\95\06\ISRAWOMN.TXT Israeli women are not allowed into
direct combat in Israel

%%navy

WOMEN NAVAL FLIERS PASSED DIFFERENT STANDARDS \clip\97\15\deatfem.txt
Death by feminism -- New York Post Editorial 6/8/97 Vice Adm.
Patricia Tracey, the U.S. Navy's top training officer, said something
in her testimony before Congress on Thursday with which it is very
difficult to disagree: " men and women who suspect that they have
been trained to different standards cannot have confidence in one
another to boldly go in harm's way." 


http://www.concentric.net/~Issues/demoral.sht 
\clip\97\14\demoral.txt
THE DEMORALIZATION OF THE MILITARY [Reprinted from Issues & Views,
Fall 1996] "At any given time, up to 18% of Navy women are pregnant
and a study of two ships showed a pregnancy rate as high as one in
three. That's nearly 8,423 women, or enough to crew almost two
aircraft carriers." "the Navy now ignores longstanding screening
standards to accommodate the limited physical ability of women; even
after significant training, the strength of women does not improve
and they suffer up to three times as many back injuries as men; Navy
policy embraces pregnancy as an "acceptable" readiness problem
(although almost half of pregnant "sailors" never return to their
crews)"


BABY DIES WHEN SAILOR HIDES PREGNANCY 10% OF WOMEN SAILORS SENT
ASHORE BECAUSE OF PREGNANCY

\clip\96\09\pregsail.txt Friday, November 22 1996; Page A24 The
Washington Post - Woman sailor gives birth in secret on ship, baby
dies. 10 percent of women sailors at sea in 1996 were transfered to
shore because of pregnancy.

%%pilot

NAVY LOWERS STANDARDS FOR WOMEN PILOTS, LOHRENZ BLAMES MALE PILOTS
FOR GROUNDING FOR POOR PERFORMANCE.
http://www.amspec.org/exclusives/97-03-11_update.html
c:\clip\97\12\lohrenz.txt American Spectator Online Update March 11 -
17, 1997 by John Corry Newsweek letters F050597-1 Newsweek has now
taken up the case of Lieut. (J.G.) Carey Lohrenz. It aboard the
aircraft carrier Abraham Lincoln.  "Elaine Donnelly, who had passed
along Lohrenz's flying records to the Washington Times and the
Union-Tribune. She also published a report, "Double Standards in
Naval Aviation." It used the Navy's own records to prove that in its
politically correct zeal to qualify women aviators, the Navy had
relaxed its training standards. Indeed the standards were ignored."

Original article is on the web:
http://www.pnclassroom.com/free/nw/1997/03/nw970301.htm
\CLIP\97\12\HEADIS.TXT Head Is Falling Out Of The Sky By Evan Thomas
and Gregory L. Vistica Newsweek, March 17, 1997 " Normally, out of
120 or so pilots aboard a carrier on a cruise, one or two might wash
out. But today, none of the five women assigned to combat aircraft in
Air Group 11 is flying off a carrier."

\doc\95\06\f14pilot.doc  USA Today comment
"Did Navy policy cost pilot her life?" Linda Chavez, USA Today May 10,
1995 p. 13A. The Navy may have lowered standards judging by records
which show sub-par performance by female pilots was overlooked

\doc\95\06\womnfly.txt

One woman out of seven was reassigned to a cargo plane because she
could not land her EA6B jet on the Eisenhower. If the Lincoln also
had six pilots, that would be 1 out of 7 either ordered off the ship
or killed because of landing mistakes on a first cruise.

%%pregnancy

http://www.usatoday.com/news/nds35.htm
\clip\97\07\pregwar.txt
Some women got pregnant to avoid war
By Steven Komarow, USA TODAY 3/11/97

"The Army found 9.1% of women assigned to the gulf war were
"nondeployable," vs. 2.4% of men. Nearly half the women were
pregnant. In some units, 18% to 20% of women couldn't go, according
to a 1992 Army report to President Bush's commission on women in
combat." A paper written at the Army War College in 1993 by
now-retired lieutenant colonel Donald Fowler claimed that pregnancy
rates were way up in 1991 after rumours of gulf deployment.

ARMY FIGHTING LAWSUIT FOR COPTER PILOT THAT WANTS TO QUIT
TO BREASTFEED BABY

\CLIP\97\07\armyneed.txt USA Today 03/11/97 Army needs more than a
few good women "the Army is fighting a lawsuit filed last week by a
female helicopter pilot, a West Point graduate. Lt. Emma Cuevas wants
to quit the Army so she can breast feed her 9-month-old daughter. For
her $500,000 in education and training at taxpayers' expense, she
made a commitment to serve until May 2000. "


\clip\97\07\togeth.txt USA Today 03/11/97 'Together' only way to win,
commander tells her men "Lawrence says the same percentage of her men
had medical or other reasons to stay back from last month's exercise
as women excused for pregnancy or maternity leave." "During last
month's exercise, many single parents paid round-the-clock sitters.  "

%%volunteer

\doc\96\08\womnvoln.txt The News Tribune (Tacoma WA) Dec 9, 1996 p.
A12. "Influx of women into the ranks gives military new challenge"
Nolan Waters.

Only 30% of women in the US Army said that they would
volunteer for combat jobs, compared to 60% of men

Comment - what does this mean for people like Raoul Contrares who
agrees with the LA Police Department that women should reflect the
43% in the general labor force, rather than the rather smaller
proportion who are actually interested in a dangerous, physically
demanding job? Doesn't that mean that if women are less interested in
the job, then the zero discrimination level of employment would be
much less than the general labor pool?  

@@night shift

women/work/late: newsweek 7/12/93 42% of married work night for daycare!


@@patent

WOMEN UP FROM 2% OF PATENTS IN 1957 TO 11% IN 1998
In 1957 2% of American patents awarded to women, by 1998 the number had
risen to 11 percent
Pacific Northwest Magazine / Seattle Times April 14, 2002 Dream, Build,
Fix, Fly Eric Sorensen

doc\94\11\priv\wominvnt.txt - women patents in a book


@@Pay Equity

The ideal is that men and women should have equal pay. But since they
do different jobs, it's not just equal pay for the same work.


\doc\web\99\02\compwort.txt 'Comparable Worth' Makes a Comeback
http://www.wsj.com/ 2/5/99 By Diana Furchtgott-Roth and Christine
Stolba OPINION Wall Street Journal "The only way to get rid of the
average wage gap is to mandate equal pay for different jobs, a
practice known as "comparable worth."

CANADA PAY EQUITY POINTS SCHEME DOOMED BY MARKET
z56\clip\2002\05\payeqcan.txt Toronto Globe and Mail The pay equity
debacle By MARGARET WENTE Tuesday, May 21, 2002 - Page A19 
      Ten years ago, the federal government set out to overhaul its
entire pay scheme for all its unionized civil servants. ... the
pay-equity plan grew into an administrative nightmare that threatened
to devour the entire civil service. ...it created new inequities.  ..
it threatened to turn the civil service into the worst place to work
in all of Canada. Fortunately, it proved impossible to implement, and
two weeks ago it quietly bit the dust. 
People's salaries would be determined not by their occupation or by
what private-sector firms were paying down the street, but by their
point range. .... points are worthless if you want to hire a computer
programmer and someone down the street happens to be paying more for
them. 

CANADA TO PAY BACK-PAY BASED ON GENDER-EQUITY PAY
\clip\98\10\payeq.txt Seattle Times July 29, 1998 Canada ordered to
pay billions to women The decision was based on a controversial
union-government study, which compared female-dominated jobs such as
secretarial workers and clerks to male-dominated jobs like ship's
crews and tradesmen.  Concluding the female-dominated jobs were
underpaid, the study used the concept of equal pay for jobs that were
determined to be of equal value - even if they were not the same
jobs. 


@@pay gap
women.pay.gap

Pay gap spectrum
-----------------------------------------------------------
100% US computer, same experienced
92% US Sales
75% Entire US Labor Force
68% Top 5 corporate officers in Fortune 500

WOMEN MAKE 75 CENTS ON THE DOLLAR - FOR LOWER PAYING WORK, NOT SAME JOB
The Career Builder Network Liz Schmid
http://www.careerbuilder.com/content/achieve/archive/myc/women/may_paygap.html
According to the U.S.  Department of Labor, women earned 75% as much
as men in 1997. Although the pay gap has narrowed substantially over
the past 20 years (in 1979, women's median earning were 62% of
men's), the difference is still pronounced. 61% of women hold jobs
that allow work flexibility, part-time opportunities and second
incomes. But these jobs generally "require fewer skills" and are
therefore lower paid. 

Sales Offer Women Fairer Pay but Bias Lingers
Wall Street Journal Jan 24, 1995 p. B1
Catalyst found a pay gap of 8% between men and women in sales,
adjusted for tenure, education and experience, much smaller than 70
or 30% gap for women working full-time in all jobs.

WOMEN MAKE LESS AT THE TOP (SURPRISE?)
Study finds pay gap remains for male, female executives Eileen
Glanton AP Seattle Times Nov 9, 1998 p. C8 Top paid female execs make
68% of the top paid male executives according to Catalyst, vs. 76
cents for the US work force as a whole 1st quarter of 1998, because
of age and prior experience.  11.2% of all corporate officers women
of Fortune 500, vs. 10.6% last year. Men hold 94% of line positions
direct responsibility for corporate profits. Study looked at 5
highest paid corporate officers in each Fortune 500 1997 proxy
statement.

Date forwarded: 	Mon, 7 Feb 2000 17:03:47 -0500 (EST)
Send reply to:  	"Patricia Hausman" 
The National Science Foundation contracted with Abt Associates, one 
of the largest consulting firms in the country, to analyze the "gender gap" 
in engineer salaries.  I don't know who is currently in charge at Abt, but 
when I consulted on a project there in the 80s, I believe it was a male.  

Anyway, the study found virtually no gap to speak of once a few co-variates
were controlled for.  To quote:  "salaries of female and male engineers with 
similar years of experience are virtually the same."

The report is 4 pages long.  I downloaded it from the NSF web site about 
two months ago.  Its NSF report #99-352:  How Large is the Gap in Salaries 
of  Male and Female Engineers? 

On the first page of the study, there is a citation to an article in an NSF 
newsletter entitled "Gender Gap Theory Collapses Under Scrutiny."  




@@physical standards

Los Angeles Police Department found many women are not strong enough
to pull triggers.

Washington State Patrol dropped physical tests because too few women
passed.

\doc\94\17\priv\westpt.txt - 
The most controversial area is West Point's differences in physical
requirements for men and women. In order to get a final grade in the
Academy, cadets are given points based on whether they can meet those
requirements.

Men must do 42 push-ups. Women must do 18. Men must do 52 situps in 2
minutes, while women must do 50. Men must run two miles in 15:45
minutes. Women must run it in 18:54 minutes.
''The physical requirement is an ongoing issue,'' Toffler said. ''If
you are a man and I'm a woman and I run a few minutes slower, you get
the same amount of points. For a 17- or 18-year-old, that's not always
palatable.''

History Channel - Basic Training 2002
Army passing requirements:
             Men       Women              
Push Ups     35        13     (3:1 ratio)
2 Mile Run   16:36     19:42

Steve Goldberg:
record for consecutive pushups is 10,029. 
record for consecutive situps is 27,003.
The two-minute record is 165. 


@@politics

%%parliment
\priv\95\11\womnparl.htm - percentage of women in world parlements is
on decline, due to fall of Eastern Europe, and democracy in Africa

%%quota
\doc\95\09\mancand.txt - nations with high number of women in
government use quota schemes, including Sweden

"Man, It Is Tough To Be A Candidate In the Labor Party"
Wall Street Journal June 28, 1995 p. 1


@@professor

doc938:womcolpy.txt - college professors paid less than 
men


@@progress

%%job

Susan Faludi in "Backlash" tried to make the case that women are
falling, not progressing, but that's not what the evidence shows.

"Women Making Progress in Earnings, Education" Investors Business
Daily January 3, 1997 p. B1 In "Women, Work and Family in America",
from 1970 to 1995, the numbers of those age 25-34 working increased
from 50% to 76%. Education showed a "steady improvement". The wage
gap closed from 59% to 79% of men's average wages.

\doc\95\08\womnwor2.txt - progress in various fields

\doc\95\08\jobprog.txt - women job progres

%%judge
women.progress.judge
\doc\94\01\womnjudg.txt - Women Judges in Washington State
Overall percentage of women judges doubled in 7 years since 1988

%%manage - see @@management

%%survey

WHAT BACKLASH?  WOMENS WAGES, WORKFORCE PARTICIPATION AND EDUCATION
ARE UP

\doc\97\01\womnprog.txt
"Women making progress in earnings, education" Investor's Business
Daily Jan 1997 p. B1 According to "Women, Work and Family in
America", from 1970 to 1995, women 25-34 increased from 50% to 76%
working. Education made a "steady improvement", the earnings gap went
from 59% to 79% of an average man's wage.

%%wage - see @@wage

women.progress.work
%%work


Backlash? What Backlash??

doc\94\15\womnwork.wk1
 US News and World Report Feb 8, 1993 p. 16
 Women at work: Share of Jobs held by women
      1970      1990 Increase
      5.3%     26.6%    501.9% Veterinarians
      4.9%     24.4%    498.0% Lawyers
      1.8%      8.1%    450.0% Aerospace engineers
      1.5%      6.0%    400.0% Truck Drivers
      2.9%     10.4%    358.6% Clergy
      5.1%     14.6%    286.3% Police officers
     11.2%     26.7%    238.4% Athletes
      9.7%     20.7%    213.4% Physicians
      1.5%      2.7%    180.0% Firefighters
     11.4%     19.6%    171.9% Butchers
   
  97.3%     94.3%     96.9% Nurses


@@Promise Keepers

\doc\web\97\08\promise.txt
"Promise Keepers 'threaten' NOW" GEORGE OSBORN
 George Lansing Osborn October 5, 1997
"Promise Keepers 'threaten' NOW"

women.prostitution
@@prostitution

\clip\97\17\italpros.txt Exotic Imports Have Captured Italy's Sex
Market The New York Times, July 9, 1997 Market has gone to immigrants
pushing natives off the streets.

\clip\96\04\girllost.txt Sep 10 1996 Girls lost to world's growing
sex trade BY DELIA M. RIOS Newhouse News Service For five days this
August, the World Congress Against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of
Children met in Stockholm to draw attention to what has become a
global crisis driven now more than ever by AIDS.

doc939:usprost.txt US News database

women.rape.perpetrator
@@rape

%%fake

WEST POINT WOMAN CADET FACES EXPULSION OVER RAPE CLAIM Seattle Times
April 30, 1997 F043097 (LA Times and AP) Su Jin Collier (Asian?) was
recommended to be dismissed after it was determined she faked a rape
claim. As a freshman she had also made a rape claim, but admitted
that the sophomore had previously had consensual sex, it was
determined the charge was unfounded.  keywords: asian, woman, rape,
college

%%perpetrator
doc938:womrape.txt woman convicted of raping boy


@@Risk

"Girls catch up with boys" Seattle Times 6/17/98 p. 1 Barbara Vobejda
Washington Post. Girls have caught up in math and nearly so in
science but are engaging in risk behaviors at rates comparable to
boys.

\clip\98\09\girlprob.txt
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/WPcap/1998-06/17/019r-061798-idx.html
Girls Close Gender Gap, And Boys' Problems Await
By Barbara Vobejda and Linda Perlstein Washington Post Staff Writers
Wednesday, June 17, 1998; Page A01


@@spending

z48\clip\2001\03\spendmen.txt
Analysis: Do women spend more than men? 
Monday, 19 March 2001 17:00 (ET)

http://www.vny.com/cf/news/upidetail.cfm?QID=169430
Analysis: Do women spend more than men?
By STEVE SAILER, UPI National Correspondent
" Taken at face value, this would suggest that while women might earn only
74 cents on the dollar compared to men, they spend $2. It might be read as
implying that each year men transfer somewhere in the neighborhood of a
trillion dollars of their earnings to women to spend."


@@sports


%%gender equity

Title IX is being blamed for imposing quotas which end up eliminating
men's sports since normally more men show up than women. The first
method of compliance is to demonstrate that they meet a numerical
quota.

TITLE IX 1ST PRONG - COMPLIANCE BY QUOTA
z62\clip\2002\12\gendix.txt
http://chronicle.com/daily/2002/12/2002120501n.htm
Thursday, December 5, 2002
Members of Federal Panel on Gender Equity in Sports Suggest How They Would
Change Title IX
By WELCH SUGGS
"three prongs... [1] have roughly the same proportion of female
athletes as there are women in the undergraduate student body, which
is known as "substantial proportionality"; "history and continuing
practice" of expanding opportunities for women; or ..  "show .. fully and
effectively accommodating" the "interests and abilities" of women on
campus."
Deborah A. Yow: [prong1] require all colleges to have a 50-50 ratio between
male and female athletes, with a certain variance, such as five or
seven percentage points.

z56\clip\2002\06\iwfquot.txt
http://www.iwf.org/news/020618a.shtml
Independent Women’s Forum Files Amicus Brief in Support of the
National Wrestling Coaches Association
"[equal numbers] an arbitrary and unfair means of determining a
school’s compliance with Title IX. The test fails to account for
differing levels of interest between men and women."  “In intramural
sports, for example, which are driven entirely by student interest,
women’s participation rates are 22%, compared to men’s 78%.”

COLLEGES KILLING MEN'S TEAMS TO FILL GENDER QUOTAS
z56\clip\2002\06\gavora.txt
http://www.latimes.com/news/printedition/suncommentary/la-000042188jun16.story?coll=la-headlines-suncomment 
The War on Football
Some feminists say it's killing off less popular men's sports on college campuses. But the real culprit is Title IX.
By JESSICA GAVORA
Jessica Gavora is the author of "Tilting the Playing Field: Schools,
Sports, Sex and Title IX.
* the average Division I-A football program cleared $3.8 million in
profit after expenses in 1999. Women's sports teams at the same
schools, meanwhile, lost an average of $2.3 million per school.
* men are limited, but women given incentives.  women's squad sizes
are typically smaller than men's--it takes 18 scholarships to produce
the average 21-woman track and field squad, whereas 32 men will come
out to collect 12.6 scholarships for the average men's team.

Safe schools bill 1999 WA
\clip\99\06\safes.txt
ftp://ftp.leg.wa.gov/pub/billinfo/1999-00/house/1750-1774/1765_02041999
Specifically with respect to recreational and athletic
activities, they shall be offered to all students without regard to
sex.  Schools may provide separate teams for each sex.  Schools which
provide the following shall do so with no disparities based on sex: 
Equipment and supplies; medical care; services and insurance;
transportation and per diem allowances; opportunities to receive
coaching and instruction; laundry services; assignment of game
officials; opportunities for competition, publicity and awards;
scheduling of games and practice times including use of courts, gyms,
and pools:  

http://scholar3.lib.vt.edu/VA-news/VA-Pilot/issues/1997/vp970512/05100002.htm
\clip\97\19\sexquot.txt DATE: Virginian Pilot Monday, May 12, 1997 
SEX QUOTAS IN COLLEGE ATHLETICS DEFEAT SPIRIT OF TITLE IX

IS PROPORTIONALITY IN SPORTS THE MEASURE OF EQUALITY?
\clip\97\16\womnath.txt
http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/titl_062297.html
Seattle Times June 22, 1997 Title IX, 25 years later: Women's
athletics still a step behind	Universities still don't have
proportional represention, other ways of complying are steady
progress and matching opportunities with interests.

Education Week - Title IX demands Gender Proportionality in Sports
June 18, 1997 Education Week
\clip\97\15\25year\25year.htm
http://www.edweek.org/ew/current/38titlei.h16
Comment - Why is only gender parity enforced in sports, and not Home
Ec, Shop, Math and Science? Why is parity only enforced for gender in
sports, but not by race in sports, or race in science and math? If
this were applied to sports, then Asians could sue for proportional
representation for every position on the football team, and Blacks
could sue for proportional representation in every honors math class,
and every remedial class would also have to reflect student makeup
regardless of need.

\clip\96\02\sporequi.txt New York Times August 16, 1996 School
Settles Bias Case on Girls' Sports Programs By MIRTA OJITO A New
Jersey high school that last year was accused of discriminating
against female athletes has reached a settlement with the federal
Department of Education to give girls' sports as much attention,
support and money as boys' sports. (videotape, concessions, and
cheerleaders)

\clip\96\02\olymtitl9.txt 6 Aug 1996 NewsHound@sjmercury.com
(NewsHound) Title IX legislation helped women harvest their Olympic
gold medals By Donna St. George. Equity legislation given credit for
improved sports in America. (Comment - it's still a nutty idea to
enforce equal funding when there isn't equal interest. Closer is
fine, but some difference should be accepted.)

%%running


\clip\99\01\womrun.txt January 10, 1999 Study: Women Can't Outrun Men
By The Associated Press The study rebuts a controversial 1992 article
which found that women's world distance records were improving faster
than men's and extrapolated that women would overtake men. The 1992
article predicted that the women's record for the marathon would
equal the men's in 1998. ...  ``We found that the sex difference is
really stable for the last nearly 10 years in events from the mile to
the marathon,'' Sparling said.


WOMEN _ARE_ LESS QUALIFIED TO BE IN MILITARY \clip\98\14\marquot.txt
http://www.desnews.com:80/edt/yt0rlw2l.htm Race, gender quotas amount
to handouts that devalue military Last updated 10/07/1998, 12:01 a.m.
MT By Walter Williams Navy women pass physical readiness tests by
performing 11 percent fewer sit-ups and 53 percent fewer push-ups,
and running 1.5 miles 27 percent slower than men.

From: "Clyde Bruckman"  Steve Sailer and
Stephen Seiler wrote an article for the National Review proposing
that the narrowing gender gap in running was caused mainly by
steroids.  It's at http://members.aol.com/steveslr/gendrgap.htm

There are other articles of interest at
http://members.aol.com/steveslr/



@@stereotype


GENDER STEREOTYPES ARE GENERALLY TRUE AND ROOTED IN NATURE
\clip\98\18\gendster.txt
http://www.apa.org/monitor/gender.html
American Psychological Association
APA MONITOR VOLUME 29 , NUMBER 12 -December 1998 Researcher finds
gender stereotypes to be accurate, part of nature Gender
stereotypes—such as the belief that men never help out around the
house and women gossip—are generally true, David Geary, a psychology
professor at the University of Missouri–Columbia, concludes after
reviewing more than 1,200 studies by psychologists, biologists and
anthropologists.  These stereotypical behaviors are strongly
influenced by nature, Geary says, and rooted in the techniques humans
use to attract mates and compete with members of the same sex. 


@@veil

\priv\96b\04\veil.txt Return-Path:  Date:
Tue, 25 Jun 1996 09:56:22 -0400 Death stalks women who don't wear the
veil Algerians' lives at risk in militants' drive to create pure
Islamic state By John-Thor Dahlburg


@@wage and wage gap

%%equal

New Study Refutes House Pay Equity Act
http://www.conservativenews.org/politics/welcome.html#New Study
Refutes = House Pay Equity Act 07 April, 1999 By Justin Torres CNS
Senior Staff Writer "Equal pay for equal is already a reality for
American women, according to a new book by Diana Furchtgott-Roth and
Christine Stobal. The book, Women's Figures, commissioned by the
Independent Women's Forum, a conservative alternative to the National
Organization for Women (NOW), finds that the salaries of childless
women between the ages of 27 and 33 are 98 percent of the salaries of
comparably-aged men. The findings, announced the day before the
NOW-sponsored Pay Equity Day on April 8, contradict the rationale
behind a bill before the Congress, H.R. 541, that seeks "to provide
more effective remedies to victims of discrimination in the payment
of wages on the basis of sex.""

\priv\95\19\womnwage.txt "Think tank disputes idea of bias in women's
wages" San Jose Mercury News 12/14/95. The wage gap shrinks to
nearly zero when differences in choices, jobs, experience, and
marriage and family structure are taken into account according to the
Pacific Research Institute.

\priv\95\11\eetsurv.htm 1995 Electrical Engineering Times poll: Male
$63,700 Female $63,300 = 99.3%

file: \doc\95\06\thatsno.txt - Women's wages 98% of men, 45% of
management and 53% of professional jobs.
source: "That's No White Male" Wall Street Journal March 27, 1995
(editorial) Ellen Ladowsky


WOMEN AND PERSONS OF COLOR MAKE LESS MONEY? NOT ALWAYS.
here: http://www.arthurhu.com/index/women.htm#wage
clipping: \clip\96\09\wagegap.htm
web: http://www.iwpr.org/wagegap.htm<

Report claims that women and persons of color make less money, but
they omit Asian women, who make more than whites, and does not note
that black college graduates make nearly as much and post graduates
make more (probably due to affirmative action / racial
discrimination)than whites, so this statement is broadly incorrect.

Women   HS    Coll Grad   Postgrad
White  19666  30499       36753
Black  16459  29138       39829


%%unequal



\clip\96\02\womnpay.txt Boston Globe Report: Pay for women still
trails men's Bloomberg Business News, 07/30/96. Women are
paid 25% less worldwide and hold less than 6% of senior management
jobs, spend 31-42 hours per week working in the home in
developing nations compared to 5 to 15 for men

d:\priv\96\04\mswork.htm MS. WORKAHOLIC CAN MAKE ABOUT THE SAME
SALARY AS A MAN, BUT . . . WHO WILL RAISE THE CHILDREN? Thursday,
January 4, 1996 Section: Editorial    San Jose Mercury News Page: 7B
Joanne Jacobs. Overall, women earn 72 cents by Labor Dept, but that's
82 cents per hour, and among 27- to 33-year-olds who have never had
children, women earn 98 cents on the male dollar, according to the
National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. ''The gender pay gap virtually
disappears when age, educational attainment and continuous time spent
in the workforce are factored in as wage determinants,'' write Post
and Lynch.


@@technology

\doc\95\14\eesurv.txt "Americans back electronics R&D, survey says"
Electrical Engineering Times Oct 30, 1995 p. 79	 Men are more
familiar with, and use technology more than women.


@@Transgender

TRANSGENDER FIND THEY BEHAVE, FEEL DIFFERENTLY WITH HORMONES AFFECTS
3-10% OF POPULATION z49\clip\2001\05\transgen.txt
http://chicagotribune.com/news/opinion/perspective/article/0,2669,SAV-010408
0312,FF.html CROSSING THE LINE BETWEEN GENDERS WHAT MEN FIND WHEN
THEY BECOME WOMEN By Julie Deardorff Julie Deardorff is a Tribune
staff reporter April 8, 2001 The condition of gender dysphoria, a
persistent feeling that one's true gender does not match one's
physical body, which afflicts an estimated 3 percent to 10 percent of
the U.S. population "As Donald, I would have been more argumentative,
more inclined to compete with this guy giving the presentation," her
occasional need for erotic behavior has vanished. Many women who take
testosterone suddenly realize what a great advantage male power and
aggression can be.


women.work
@@work

[[benefits

e:\clip\96\03\workenjy.txt Date: Sat, 31 Aug 1996 02:10:03 -0400
From: NewsHound@sjmercury.com (NewsHound) Working Women Enjoy Jobs
and Their Families Are Better Off, Authors Say By Marice Richter, The
Dallas Morning News

[[field

doc\94\15\womnwork.wk1
 US News and World Report Feb 8, 1993 p. 16
 Women at work: Share of Jobs held by women

      1970      1990 Increase
      5.3%     26.6%    501.9% Veterinarians
      4.9%     24.4%    498.0% Lawyers
      1.8%      8.1%    450.0% Aerospace engineers
      1.5%      6.0%    400.0% Truck Dvivers
      2.9%     10.4%    358.6% Clergy
      5.1%     14.6%    286.3% Police officers
     11.2%     26.7%    238.4% Athletes
      9.7%     20.7%    213.4% Physicians
      1.5%      2.7%    180.0% Firefighters
     11.4%     19.6%    171.9% Butchers
     97.3%     94.3%     96.9% Nurses