New Jersey is generating heated outrage over their proposal that every student in 10th and 11th grade be required to spend 1 day at work and spend only 4 days in the classroom, even kids who are prepping for college.
See this link for Henry Hyde's excellent speech on the evolution of School To Work and Goals 2000. It's developed by Marc Tuckers "High Skill, High Wages" report, so it is much of the model for the entire standards based education reform blueprint, whether the intent is to work right out of high school or go to college.
It is a way to attach strings to federal money and get states to align to federal standards like Goals 2000.
Though developed as a response to Russian, German and Japanese programs for students who are tracked away from college, states like Oregon and Texas intend to require internships of ALL students, and legislation covers all students, starting in kindergarten, aligned with the movement to eliminate tracking. Britain has discarded its apprenticeship system.
School To Work is not completely evil for all students, but it's still full of silly ideas. Why do we strive to emulate nations like Germany and Japan where the teachers decide which 30% go on to the college track, and which 70% have to spend 11th and 12th grades working in apprenticeships instead of learning academic skill?
World-class standards means looking up at countries that don't hold a candle to the USA in terms of dominance of space, military and commercial aircraft, computers or software of any size, or entertainment. It would have been a total waste of my time to do an apprenticeship as a college bound student, but this is a big part of stw.
Parents have only bought into this because they buy into the crazy notion that one single CIM credential will qualify you for any position from McDonalds up to designing the kernel to Windows 20002. People will always vary in ability, and holding everybody to the 90th percentile standard will simply leave everybody else up the creek without a paddle. Marc Tucker is the Music Man of education reform, he's a master saleman, but has no common sense when it comes to education.
In case this helps, Shirley Basarab's book has helped me figure out what Tucker's CIM/STW scheme does:
Before: High School Grad = 12 years of college prep College = 4 yr liberal arts or engineering degree United states has most educated, affluent poplation Umited states dominates software, computers, aerospace All students expected to perform as well as they can After: High School Grad = 10 years of vocational ed plus 2 years apprenticeship at low/no wages College = 2 yrs high school plus 1 yr community college to get vocational/technical certificate All students expected to meet one standard for all. Schools like MIT or Harvard will no longer be able to ask for students with 12 years of academic classes because the last 2 years will be mandated to be working apprenticeships. US is no more college bound than Europe US no longer dominates any economic sphere, nor has highest living standard.
Q: What Is School To Work?
A: All students will be required to spend significant amounts of time at a work site during normal class hours, regardless of career track in order to receive a diploma or Certificate of Mastery. It is said that this will insure that all students are prepared for a world class work force.
Critics say such experience may be appropriate for some students. But job training is certainly not required for all students or jobs, it is not required by most colleges or employers. This is especially inappropriate if their aim for their children is to be college trained professionals, managers and owners rather than "labor". Federal and state laws are requiring participation on the part of all schools as part of Goals 2000, and other initiatives.
Q: Why do we need school to work?
A: Compared to other nations, the US has few formal programs for the non-college bound to prepare students for work. It is also said that students object to studying academic subjects which do not apply to the job market, so all academic study must be linked to why it is needed in the workplace.
Critics say that most parents want their children to go to college or attend online classes for college after K12, not work. classesafter K12, not work. Today, over 2/3 of graduating seniors continue on to college. Even in Germany, the majority of students have chosen the university prepatory track, which does _not_ require any time on a job site.
School To Work is a grand plan to centralize control of the economy to create a seamless "lifelong learning" model where the workplace is simply an extension of school and vice-versa which subjugates the role of education to produce a human resource pool for government regulated industry.
Q: Don't "World Class Standards" require School-To-Work?
A: Researchers found that many or most European nations such as Germany send high school students after age 16 to paid apprenticeships in factories such as Volkswagen or Mercedes Benz with additional job related education. However, see below as only SOME students are required to do this. There is no similar program in Japan. Q: Is School To Work Required of All students?
A: In Germany, the college bound spend high school only studying academic subjects to grade 13. Only non-college-bound skilled laborers do "apprenticeships" in what would be grades 11 and 12. Unskilled laborers exit at grade 9, or can also continue to apprenticehips. Japan has different grades of high schools with different work vs academic emphasis but no formal required apprenticeship system. In Germany, no one is allowed to apply for a job without a skills certificate, STW is moving towards this "ideal".
US proposals would require all 11th and 12th graders to spend some unspecified amount of what would normally be class time at work to graduate. One reason is that if college prep student were exempted, no student would want be classified as a mere "worker", so all students must be "workers". States such as Washington and districts like Lake Washington are adding "work experience" to their graduation requirements, no students will be exempt as such rules are adopted with little or no debate.
Q: Does School To Work reduce unemployment or raise wages?
A: In Germany the result is very high levels of unemployment, and very high taxes to support this expensive training scheme.
The idea is that a centrally planned economy, where local labor boards decide how many of each type of worker will insure a match between skills and actual jobs. By international standards, some believe the US produces too many college graduates, and that most new jobs do not require a college degree.
In practice, the Germans find that everybody is trained in the same half-dozen jobs, many of which are performed by unskilled immigrants who work at a fraction of union wages. Young Germans now have some of the highest unemployments rates of the industrialized world, most Germans are now opting to go to college as they no longer believe apprenticeships will guarantee them high wage jobs. In Japan and Germany, the first choice of most students and parents is going to college, not working.
Q: Who Created School To Work? How is it related to "Higher Standards?"
A: It was first proposed by 1989 "High Skills or Low Wages!" report by Marc Tucker and the National Center on the Education and Economy. Federal law was passed in 1994, followed by similar legislation in most states. Goals 2000 also established the National Skills Board which would produce "skills certificates" for every known job. School To Work is usually treated separately from Tucker inspired "Standards Based Education" but usually appear side by side with SBR, and made to appear to a "grass roots" movement demanded by local people, which it is not. Lake Washington school district proposal integrates a school to work requirement with other Standards (Outcome) based graduation requirements, along with mandatory community service. Both STW and SBR would base proficiency based on tests of actual "performance" rather than "seat-time", both rely on the methods of Total Quality Management to sell unsuspecting victims / customers on pre-determined outcomes
Q: Where do students work and go to school, and for how long?
A: In Germany, apprenticeship students leave high school after grade 10, and go to work full time. They go to classes in the factory one day of a six day week or evenings for instruction at the plant site.
In the US, there is no standard for time spent on a job site. Students would be expected to spend grades 11 and 12 in high school rather than on the job site. They would theoretically commute to jobs either part of the day, week or entire quarter or semester. Sometimes only a few visits are envisioned as a "job shadow" rather than doing actual work. New Jersey quickly scuttled a proposal to require all 11th and 12th graders to spend one day a week working. The part of the day, week, or year spent at work would not be spent on academic subjects, thus high school graduates would spend significantly LESS academic time on subjects than they do now.
However, most jobs are situated at a 15 min to 1 hour 9 to 5 rush hour commute away from homes, much farther away than high schools which are generally no more than a 10 minute drive from home, so this is NOT practical.
Q: Who pays for School To Work?
A: In Germany, students pay by working at half wage, employers also contribute to costs of the system. In the US, nobody really knows. The idea is the federal or state government would jump-start the system, but once seed money runs out, employers will bear much of the costs.
Q: How much money do students earn as "interns"?
A: In Germany, students are paid half the normal wage or below minimum wage. Students are often fired to make room for the next batch of low wage students.
In the US, nobody really knows. US proposals range from unpaid to pay at mininum wage.
Q: How would School To Work insure college for all?
A: NCEE and other proposals would re-define college as it is seen in countries such as Britain where the last two years of non-college students is used for vocational based training, which may lead to specialized degrees or certificates.
However, in the US, few national standards for such certificates have yet been created. Two years of high school + 2 years of college would be re-labeling what is currently seen as a community college or associate degree. It is not the 4 year bachelor degree widely accepted in the US as neccesary for most professions such as engineering or teaching. In fact, by REDUCING time for academic subjects in grade 11 and 12, and setting the Certificate of Mastery at grade 10 rather than grade 12 skills, high school graduates would be LESS prepared academically than under the current system.
Q: Is there any fully working School To Work system in the US?
A: No. No state or district has actually fleshed out the details of a full school to work system which applies to all students. Those who have most fully attempted to implement such systems have encountered the most problems.
Reasons why School To Work Is Bad
The Certificate of Initial Mastery Sets One High Standard for All Reality: Germany and Japan do not have one standard for all. No nation bases its diploma on a passing a single criterion-referenced test score at age 16 like the CIM. As is seen below, so-called national standards are not applied equally to all students. The notion that everyone in any country can meet "a level of performance equal to the best nations in the world" is not even met in Germany or Japan where, like anywhere else, half fall above and half fall below the median.
STW and CIM is for all / Eliminate Tracking Reality: Everyone is sorted by test scores into different tracks and different schools. Germany's Hauptschule is for those who will not get any academic study and exist at grade 9, and not recieve any certificate. The Realschule is for most workers who exit into apprenticeships at grade 10, they get the Mittlre Reife equivalent to the 10th grade CIM. The Gymnasium is reserved for the highest scoring students who exit at grade 13 with the Arbitur. Japan similarly uses test scores to sort students into high schools for the ineducable, the average, and the university bound. By contrast, most US students go one "comprehensive" high school for all tracks with the execption of a few examination and remedial high schools. Both Japan and Germany are considering the US system
One Certificate / Standard is Good For All Jobs and the College Bound Reality: Germany's CIM is not good enough for college. Neither the dummy nor the university tracks are are required to get CIM. Likewise, selective high schools pick out the best test scores in rank order, there is no universal "passing" standard for admission. The best schools get the best students, and vice versa. How good is "good enough" depends on the job and institution.
STW Reduces Unemployment Germany has over 12% unemployment, one of the highest rates in the industrialized world compared to only 3% for the US. Half of their unemployed posess their CIM.
STW Matches Skills to Labor Markets Reality - Government and big industry decide what few jobs will be officially sanctioned and taught, not the market. The result is too many trained at too high wages for too few different kinds of jobs, and they will not take work that they have not "trained" for. Many jobs include janitorial and construction work that is taken by immigrants at a fraction of what Germans expect for a "high" wage.
STW Assures High Wage High Skill Jobs Reality - most of the really "high paying " jobs require some or a 4 year college degree. More Germans are opting for college than the dual-education path because they no longer believe their CIM will assure them of a high paying job. Nearly all in Japan also aspire to go to college. The statment that 75% of US students don't go to college is false, that's 25% who get 4 year degrees. 60% of high school students go directly on to higher education, which is twice as high as Germany or Japan.
Conclusion: STW forces university student standards on all students or flunks them. It forces all tracks to take vocational training, essentially eliminating the academic and remedial tracks. It promotes performance-based tests which have been shown to be impractical and unrealisitic. It centralizes labor planning and will increase unemployment and job mismatching. It lies about what "world class standards" are really about.
TX to require ALL students get STW on-the-job vocational credentials
OREGON TO REQUIRE STW OF _ALL_ STUDENTS By 2004, all high schools in Oregon will be required to have school-to-work programs. This is considered a major component of Oregon's school reform effort. As they pursue their certificate of advanced mastery, students will be required to choose one of six career paths and spend at least part of their time in job internships or other career-related learning programs. Brad Cain, Associated Press, "Oregon gives students a peek at workaday world" as published in The Seattle Times, January 4, 1998, B6
The National School-to-Work Learning & Information Center | What is School To Work | Dispelling Myths about School To Work
Today's workplaces, and those of the 21st century, require a new kind of worker -- one who excels at solving problems, thinking critically, working in teams, and constantly learning on the job. In this new global and technology-driven economy, the skills of the workforce are a company's major competitive advantage.
-------------------------------------------------------------------- More STW Links Date sent: Sun, 01 Mar 1998 20:47:26 -0800 From: Jim Keeffe
Subject: Re: School to Work So, for anyone interested in the database issue and STW, you\'ll now find everything updated at http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/stw.html. 1. http://www.industries.net/radio-liberty/school.htm "School-to-Work: A Formula for Failure" (The business mentioned in this article is Sizzlers restaurants) 2. http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/stwcollision.html "School-to-Work: A Comming Collision" co-authored by Lynne Cheney. Presented to the Heritage Foundation 2/4/98. 3. http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/Terminology.html "Terminology Every Parent MUST Understand" by Jeanne Donovan 4. http://www.basenet.net/~eagle/educate/1997/may97/holland.html "What's Wrong With School-to-Work" by Robert Holland 5. http://eagleforum.org/educate/1996/apr96/alarmed.html STW in Missouri State 6. http://www.fessler.com/stw.htm (read 'School-to-Work: It's the Law!') 7. http://www.compuex.com/eaglecross/OBE.html "School-to-Work; Goals 2000; Outcome Base Education" by Hon. Henry Hyde 8. http://www.sover.net/~nbrook/Hillary.html Letter to Hillary Clinton by Marc Tucker 'author' of workforce development and School-to-Work. 9. http://www.accessus.net/~eagle/educate/1995/sept95/ersept3.html "Hillary Letter Lays Out School-to-Work Plan" by Dennis Cuddy Ph.D. 10. http://www.crisismagazine.com/OLDissues/apr96/iacovelli.html "Hillary's Scarlet Letter" by Karen Iacovelli (Constitutional Law Schalar) 11. http://www.accessus.net/~eagle/educate/1997/dec97/focus.html "NCEE's Human Development Plan" by Virginia Miller 12. http://www.jb.com/~btennison/ The Tennison family of Oregon. Their son received the first Certificate of Initial Mastery in the nation. The Tennisons are leading a national campaign against School-to-Work and Goals 2000. They are also in the process of suing their school district. 13. http://www.home-ed-press.com/HEM/HEM141.97/141.97_clmn_tkch.html "School-to-Work: Problems and Alternatives" by Larry and Susan Kaseman in Home Education Magazine. 14. http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/Beasley2000.html "Goals 2000 and Work Force Development" by Sherry Beasley in 'Hope for the World' news letter. 15. http://www.athenet.net/~jlindsay/Educ1617.shtml "Educational Tyranny:H1617 = Certificate of Mastery for ALL ADULTS" by Katie Levans. 16. http://www.fessler.com/listen.htm "School-to-Work - a stupid idea' by Dick Farrell, editor of 'The Times Reporter' of Ohio. Washington State School-to-Work information: 1. http://www.wa.gov/wtb/ Washington State's 'Workforce Training and Education Coordination Board' 2. http://www.wa.gov/wtb/stw-what.html Washington State's "School-to-Work Transition" report 3. http://www.wa.gov/wtb/hshwexec.html Washington State's "High Skills, High Wages" report 4. http://www.stw.ed.gov/ (On left side click on 'States'. Find Washington and click on 'Submit' to go to Washington State's School-to-Work Initiative.) Implementing the federal Workforce Investment Act http://www.wa.gov/wtb/wia-impl.html National School-to-Work information: 1. http://www.stw.ed.gov/factsht/act.htm Federal 'School-to-Work Opportunities Act of 1994' (Public Law 103-229) 2. http://www.stw.ed.gov National School-to-Work web site 3. http://www.stwnews.org School-to-Work news letter @@Acts School To Work also obligates you to buy into other acts stuter HR 2884 to Work Opportunties Act of 1994 (STWOA). In order to receive grant monies under the STWOA, your state plan must also show how you will integrate your plan with • the Adult Education Act, • the Carl D Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act, • the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, • the Higher Education Act of 1965, • part F of title IV of the Social Security Act, • the Goals 2000: Education American Act, • the National Skills Standards Act of 1994, • the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, • the Job Training Partnership Act, • the Act of August 16, 1937 (National Apprenticeship Act), • the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and • the National and Community Service Act of 1990. @@Age Most US exit exams are based on examinations at age 16. This is the same age as German vocational exams, and British GCSE initial exam. But now most Americans stay in high school until age 18. MOST USED TO LEAVE SCHOOL AT AGE 16, NOW 18 \clip\98\19\edclip04.txt TUESDAY, DECEMBER 15, 1998 TEEN LABOR Virtues of work vs. finishing homework Yvonne Zipp Staff writer of The Christian Science Monitor "4 in 5 American teens hold some kind of job during the school year, half more than 20 hours a week." "At the beginning of the century, a majority of Americans left school for work at 16. The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 restricted labor for children 15 and younger and helped transform American teens from workers into students. Today, 90 percent of teens graduate at 18, and about half of those go on to college. " @@All School To Work Is Vocational Track for All STW is based on practices in Europe such as Germany, where non-college bound students do an apprenticeship after the 10th grade. Britain and others have abandoned this approach, and it is crumbling even in Germany as more seek a academic education. Officials often say that STW will be optional for the non-college kids, but most legislation would take 1 or more day per week for EVERY student, regardless of track, and start out in kindergarten, not after graduation. STW WOULD FAIL IF EVERYBODY KNEW IT WAS FOR NON-COLLEGE BOUND STW for All because it would fail if it were perceived as only for non-college bound. Z43\doc\web\2000\07\stwall.txt Z43\clipim\2000\06\28\stwall.efx Industry-Based Education: A New Approach for School-to-Work Transition E. Gareth Hoachiander MPR Associates, Inc. Berkeley. California School-to-Work What Does Research Say? NJ STW MANDATES 4 DAY WEEK, 1 DAY WORK FOR ALL \doc\web\98\10\stwnj.txt The Westfield Leader Thursday, November 12, 1998 Front Page By Michelle H. LePoidevin New Jersey State "School-to-Work " Mandates Four Day Week; Worries Parents at Forum "In 11th and 12th grades, the students would be required to work no less than one day per week in the workforce. Students and parents must enter into a contract with the school and their child's employer at this juncture. " CUNNINGHAM: VOC TRACK FAILED, COLL FOR ALL HAS PROBLEMS BUT STW IS VOCATIONAL TRAINING FOR ALL STW HAS OPPONENTS ON THE LEFT \doc\web\98\10\vocall.txt If there is a problem with requiring all students to prepare for college, there may be a greater problem with structuring high schools so that they prepare all students for non-college careers and this is what is promoted by nationally mandated school to work programs. The School-to-Work Opportunities Act of 1994 identifies "academically talented" students in its definition of "all students." \clip\98\07\stwok.txt March 25, 1998 Education Week on the Web - http://www.edweek.org/ew/current/28stein.h17 Trashing School-to-Work By Adria Steinberg "rejected the misconception that the school-to-work philosophy is simply about "getting jobs for kids" or "doing something for the non-college-bound." Rather, school-to-work encompasses a set of key practices that define a more contextualized approach to curriculum, assessment, and pedagogy and an easier transition to the adult world of learning and work--for all students." WA requires employer contract to get CIM (thanks to Jim Keefe) "All students, before earning a Certificate of Mastery, are to engage in career exploration by researching various occupations, visiting work sites and interviewing workers. All students engage in work-based learning experiences that coordinate with school course work after earning a Certificate of Mastery. These work experiences are governed by a contract between the student, the school and the employer that spells out what the student will learn both on the job and in school. Job placements match the educational and career plans that students have developed during their pre-certificate education." "Unpaid work-based learning, appropriate for students still working to attain the Certificate of Mastery, should include, but not be limited to, worksite experiences that:...Occur during time usually designated as the student's normal school day." ** "After earning a Certificate of Mastery ALL students will engage in work-based experiences that coordinate with their school coursework. These work experiences will be governed by a contract between the student, the school, and the employer that spells out what the student will both learn on the job and in school." School To Work: It's the Law \clip\97\25\stwnews.pdf - STW is for all students, and turns education into vocational training. Nebraska Public Television a live interview show featuring Norfolk (NE) STW coordinator, a former STW student, and a representative of business from Omaha. She clearly stated that STW targets all students, that mentoring may take 1 day/week for the entire year or more @@Apprenticeship CANADIAN APPRENTICESHIP PROGRAM FLOUNDERING IN CANADA z40\doc\web\2000\04\canapp.txt EXCERPT http://www.csls.ca/pdf/apprent.pdf Executive Summary Apprenticeship in Canada: A Training System Under Siege? Note their concern that more individuals are entering post-secondary institutions than apprenticeship programs. * the stagnation in new apprenticeship registrations in the 1990s. * the inability of the apprenticeship system to expand beyond traditional fields such as the construction trades and motor vehicle repair * the inability of the apprenticeship system to increase the extremely low proportion of women enrolled in apprenticeship programs (3 per cent); * the uneven development of apprenticeship programs by province, resulting in regional disparities in access to apprenticeship programs; * 9.5% completion rate, much lower than other types of education and training; and * the strong downward trend in apprenticeship completion rates, declining one third over the past two decades. @@Auto Repair z40\clipim\2000\04\10\ayes.efx Dan Flanagan WA High School Gear for Better A-Yes Program High school auto techs employ youth part time before they graduate from high school. The Manifold (WA) April 2000 STW BANNED AS REQUIREMENT FOR ALL STUDENTS E D U C A T I O N R E P O R T E R SEPTEMBER 1999 STW In Chains New Illinois law prohibits mandatory requirements SPRINGFIELD, IL - On July 16, Governor George Ryan signed into law SB 1133, a bill prohibiting the Illinois Board of Education from requiring a public school district or student to participate in a school-to-work (STW) or job training program. @@basic skills School to Work is based on the assumption that workers need to be trained in workplace skills, yet employers complain workers lack basic math and reading skills, not SCANS competencies. NEW STANDARDS BASED ON FLAWED SCHOOL TO WORK MOVEMENT z49\clip\2001\04\stwstand.txt http://www.heritage.org/library/backgrounder/bg1427.html The New Definition of Standards in American Education by Virginia Miller Corporations are complaining about workers who lack basic math and reading skills, not SCANS competencies. According to a 1998 report by the National Association of Manufacturers, "40 percent of all 17-year-olds do not have the necessary math skills--and more than 60 percent do not have the necessary reading skills--to work in a $33,000 per annum production job at a modern auto plant." Plumber wants schools to teach math, not plumbing. @@Berry MARY FRANCES BERRY: MOTHER OF STW AS CHINA REJECTED IT AS FAILURE z55\doc\web\2002\03\berry.txt Here's my Mary FRances Berry contribution: SCHOOL-TO-WORK REVOLUTION, ROOTS, AND BLEAK FUTURE By Natalie and Gerald Sirkin* In 1977, Health, Education, and Welfare Assistant Secretary for Education Mary Frances Berry toured Communist China's educational institutions with a UNESCO delegation for nine days...The title of her prepared text-of which we have a copy-is, "The Chinese Experience in Education-What America Stands to Learn." .. his education reform, a school-to-work plan he adapted in 1969 from Marx, wasn't working. The Soviet Union had tried it in the 1920s and by 1930 had found it a failure. Deng Xiaoping panned it saying there were no scholars left. STW had "made intellectual cripples of a whole generation of young people," he told Der Spiegel. @@British System The British have long abandoned a system similar to the Germans - students were tracked by IQ-like test into an pre-college track, or to exit at age 16 into apprenticeship into a trade. Now they have a test at age 15, the GCSE. 2 years later they can take the college bound GCE A-levels, or a vocational NVQ. Advanced NVQs can also lead to vocational degrees at universities. age 15 - GCSE high score - age 18 GCE A level --> academic university low score - NVQ --> work NVQ high level --> vocational degree university James Hughes explains the difference between NVQs and GCSE levels. UK WANTS CIM WITH COMMUNITY SERVICE LIKE USA z50\clip\2001\06\ukcim.txt BBC Online Tuesday, 26 June, 2001 New certificate for school leavers Teenagers in England could get a new, US-style school graduation certificate recording all their achievements - possibly including compulsory unpaid community work. The proposal is part of the latest big idea from the Education Secretary, Estelle Morris, aimed at tackling what she calls "a culture of leaving education at 16". "The idea of introducing another certificate, a kind of American-style school-leaving graduation ceremony attached to a certificate, in my view at this stage is mind-boggling in its stupidity," [opposition] said. NEW NVQ BETTER THAN 11 PLUS SHEEP AND GOATS DIVISION VS. GCE FOR ALL \clip\98\19\moreone.txt Education Viewpoint: There's more than one path to a good ALAN SMITHERS, Education Viewpoint: There's more than one path to a good., Independent, 01-13-1994. There are, however, others who will fear a rerun of the old 11-plus division into 'sheep and goats'. They believe that since vocational education is seen as second- best, many young people will be consigned to a second- class education and a second-class life. It is fairer, they say, to require everyone to do the same things during the years of compulsory schooling. %%Comprehensive School One school educates all children, rather than sending the best to rigorous academic grammar schools. Now the policy in UK. %%Grammar School images: \clipim\99\02\04\proged\*.tif text: \clip\99\06\proged.txt City Journal Winter 19998 Progressive Ed's War on Boys Banishing rigid academics and discipline has been a disaster for working class boys. Banishing elite curriculums, grammar schools and age 11 tracking in favor of comprehensive education for all has resulted in fewer, not more outstanding working class children going to the best colleges. \clip\99\06\edclip01.txt BBC Tuesday, February 9, 1999 Published at 16:55 GMT Grammar schools divisive, says PM The prime minister opposes a return to the 11-plus exam Tony Blair has said that grammar schools brand children as "failures" at the age of 11. "But the whole burden of our policy is geared toward developing modern comprehensive schools so that we take account - for example by setting in different subjects - of different abilities without going back to the old system of the 11-plus. \doc\web\98\08\britstw.txt Although it has been since abandoned, the British had a system whereby, at the age of eleven, the children were required to take what amounted to an IQ test. Those who passed went on to seven more years of rigorous academic training, the best of them subsequently admitted to university, depending on the results of national examinations. The students who didn't pass the 'eleven plus', as it was called, were given five more years of school and left at the age of sixteen to pursue apprenticeships in the trades. Streaming was continued in high school, with gradations of the difficulty of the subject matter being dependent on which of three streams the pupils were assigned to. Independent 1994 Newspaper Publishing P.L.C. Education: A quiet revolution in post-16 education: NVQs and.. GNVQs originate from a policy of bringing the very successful BTEC National awards, which were emerging as practical alternatives to A-levels. They tended to be taken by people who did less wellat GCSE than those going on to A-levels. If that continues with GNVQs, it is difficult to see how GCE and GNVQ A-levels can come to be popularly regarded as equivalents. %%Vocational A-level UK intends to replace old vocational test with "vocational a-level" intended to have just as much prestige as academic a-levels, but they are threatened by high failure rates. The Times (UK) 3/30/01 Nearly all pupils fail vocational A levels THE failure rate for new vocational A levels is running as high as 90 per cent in some subjects, throwing government plans to reform work-related study into chaos. @@China China education system with year-by-year structure, labor education in early grades. \doc\web\99\02\chintech.txt School Enterprises: Combining Vocational Learning with Production by Madhu Singh, 1998 http://www.unevoc.de/publicat/pdf/iug015e.pdf CASE STUDIES: CHINA [Chinese schools incorporate factories or working restaurants] @@city http://stw.ssd.k12.wa.us/ Seattle Schools Page @@Constructivism School To Work is based on Constructivism \doc\web\98\10\voccons.txt Academic and Vocational Integration Myths and Realities by Bettina Lankard Brown 1998 Current research on teaching and learning supports a constructivist pedagogy, which contends that people construct knowledge through their interpretive interactqions with and experiences in their social environments. @@Cost 1 BILLION: STW WILL DIE WITHOUT FED MONEY, INTEGRATION INTO STANDARDS ASSESSMENTS MOVEMENT Education Week 12/2/98 School-to-Work Movement Faces Test, Study Says By Mary Ann Zehr Washington \clip\98\18\stwmove.txt Funding for the act will end in 2001; state governments have received $1.1 billion so far. @@Critics SCHOOL TO WORK IS UN-AMERICAN - SLIDE SHOW http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/stwslides.html \clip\98\11\ibdstw.txt Investor's Business Daily August 27, 1998 WHO DECIDES STUDENTS\' FUTURE? School-To-Work Law Gets Feds Heavily Involved by Michael Chapman The main architects behind School-to-Work are Robert Reich, Ira Magaziner and Marc Tucker -- all longtime advocates of central economic planning. Tucker is president of the National Center on Education and the Economy. In a November \'92 letter to Hillary Clinton, Tucker described his \"human resource development system\" -- or student-workers\' training plan. >Date: Thu, 22 Oct 1998 08:45:15 -0400 >THE AMERICAN SCHOOL BOARD JOURNAL IS CONDUCTING A SURVEY OF STW. THE >QUESTIONS ARE: > >YES, SCHOOL TO WORK PROGRAMS BEBFIT STUDENTS BY HELPING MAKE THEM MAKE >AN EXPLICIT CONNECTION BETWEEN ACADEMICS AND THE WORKPLACE . THESE >PROGRAMS MOTIVATE STUDENTS, GIVE THEM A HEAD START ON PLANNING FOR THEIR >FUTURE CAREERS >, AND EXPOSE THEM TO CAREER OPTIONS THAT THEY MIGHT NOT OTHERWISE HAVE >BEEN AWARE OF . > >NO, SCHOOL TO WORK PROGRAMS DILUTE ACADEMIC STANDARDS WITH VOCATIONAL >TRAINING AND TRACK MANY KIDS INTO LOW GROWTH INDUSTRY JOBS . SCHOOL >DISTRICTS SHOULD NOT HAND OVER CONTROL OF THE CURRICULUM TO BUSINESS >INTERESTS . > > @@Data Gathering Data gathering on employment form @@Economic Justification Economic Justification for STW http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/21-EconJustif.jpeg Worldwide Competitiveness Rankings http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/23-GraphCompetition.jpeg America is the most comptitive large economy in the world http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/24-SachsUSCompetitiveness.jpeg @@Europe Vocational Training movement in Europe Europa - Home page http://europa.eu.Int/ Education, Vocational Training, and Youth http://europa.eu.Int/pol/educ/index_en.htm Detailed activities in above subject http://europa.eu.Int/en/comm/dg22/dg22.html @@example STUDENTS SPEND 1HR 2/WK AT GEIGER FACTORY \clip\97\27\polwork.txt From: Nanny714@aol.com Date sent: Mon, 24 Nov 1997 11:09:57 -0500 (EST) "The Burlington (Vt.) Free Press" Monday, Nov. 24, 1997: Students Polish Work Skills Manufacturer gives lessons youths can use By Kathleen Schassler; Free Press Correspondent @@Federal HERITAGE KNOCKS STW, TEST SCORES NOT HIGHER IN PG COUNTY z49\clip\2001\04\stwfail.txt THE WASHINGTON POST April 24, 2001 p. A 13 Value of Teens' Work Questioned As U.S. Money Runs Out, Programs to Introduce High School Students to Careers Are Criticized as Well as Touted www.washingtonpost.com By Jay Mathews Washington Post Staff Writer Tuesday, April 24, 2001; Page A13 Tewelde, a senior at Eleanor Roosevelt High School in Prince George's County, spends 12 hours a week at Washington Hospital Center [3 school days!] @@Flowchart Chris Patterson, author of "School-to-Work: The Coming Collision" (http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/stwcollision.html), has created three wonderful flow charts about school-to-work that can be distributed nationally. They are: National School-to-Work System (School Activities) Education & Workforce Development (Federal Statutes 1994-Present) Federal Governance of School-to-Work Systems Chris plans to use these in a manuscript, but she has made them available to the public so long as her copyright appears. You can access these flow charts by going to http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/stwflow.html @@Foreign Influence Foreign Influences on the STW movement: http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/9-ForeignInfluences.jpeg http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/10-RenwickScotland.jpeg http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/11-NGAScotland.jpeg http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/12-BottomsGermanyetal.jpeg http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/13-BottomsEuropean.jpeg http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/14-GloverGermanAustin.jpeg http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/14a-OregonGermanmodel.jpeg http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/14b-OreGerBusiness.jpeg http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/14c-OreGerStudents.jpeg http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/14d-GitterGermanconsensus.jpeg http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/15-BeckMarxist-Leninist.jpeg http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/16-BeckPolytechnicalEd.jpeg http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/18-SchoolSocietyLinked.jpeg http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/45-TuckerQuoteLevy.jpeg http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/17-BeckFinalSolution.jpeg http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/71-Unamerican.gif @@Futurama Matt Groening's Futurama has stw-like vision of the future.
Much of Marc Tucker's School To Work model comes from Germany. But there, they run 3 different grades of high schools, in general, only the students in the elite high schools go to college and only half as many Germans go to college as America, which sends over 60% of its children to higher education immediately after high school.
The 10th grade test largely determines whether you will be in the 70% that spends 11th and 12th grades spending 4 out of 5 days tightening bolts for Volkswagen, while 70% of our kids are preparing for college.
Contrary to Marc Tucker's promises of no tracking, putting all on STW, giving all a CIM, and a CIM guaranteeing hi-paying job marketability, the German model has 3 tracks, only the middle track gets a CIM. The bottom track gets no certificate and finishes at 9th grade. The 10th grade CIM comes with exiting school at grade 10, not grade 12 as in US diploma. The CIM is not good enough for university, and university students don't need a CIM. Germany has 11% unemployment, one of the highest in the industrialized world, and half of the unemployed have the CIM. More Germans are opting out of the apprenticeship system in favor of going on to college since 1993 because they don't think it will give them a well paying job.
%%Against GERMAN SYSTEM PULLS KIDS OUT OF SCHOOL, INTO WORKSITE z47\clip\2000\12\stwgerm.txt Phyllis Schlafly: "Education policy Competition" Washington Times on December 22, 2000. STW's goal is to move American children into "The German Dual System of Vocational Training" under which Germany transfers nearly 70 percent of its students at age 16 from full-time secondary school to spending most of their time as apprentices in the workplace. National training standards have been established for each occupation in Germany, and company training is governed by federal law. The German system requires the student to spend three to four days a week in the work force under an employer's mentorship, and only one to two days a week in traditional education. GERMAN DUAL SYSTEM TRANSFERS 70% AT AGE 16 INTO WORKPLACE APPRENTICE Schafly mentions a GDS brochure, "[Which] explains that STW's goal is to move American children into 'The German Dual System of Vocational Training' under which Germany tranfers nearly 70 percent of its students at age 16 from full-time secondary school to spending most of their time as apprentices in the workplace. National training standards have been established for each occupation in Germany and company training is governed by federal law." link Germany has combined 12% unemployment. However, they have 60,000 unfilled high-tech jobs, and about 90,000 young people who have completed apprenticeships in dead-end skills for which there are no jobs. Much of this is because the gilds simply won't change or give up any control over training programs, and there are no "Meisters" or teachers for the fast moving high-tech industry. Without Meisters there can be no training programs. This has forced the high tech "runners" to import labor from other countries, mainly India, England, and to some degree Turkey, where education is not yet regulated to the degree that it is in Germany. email@example.com %%Elementary school %%Unemployment "Social Welfare system is under scrutiny" Seattle Times Sept 27, 1998 William Drozdiak Washington Post. 23 yr old Sven Mehlis is one of the few young lucky people from Brandenburg to hold down a full time job at Daimler-Benz. Pays $2700 per month, health insurance, 6 weeks paid vacation, can't get fired. But he pays $1,200, and his employer about the same to pay for social costs. [Does not mention failure of dual education apprenticeship system) GERMAN VICTIM OF SPECIALIZED VOCATIONAL ED "As a teenager I was forced to decide on my future profession and went to a school that specialized in production of technicians and mechanics. The focus of that school was to get young, often clueless, young people to start working in a factory as soon as possible." GERMANY'S WORK CLASS VOCATIONAL TRAINING = HIGH UNEMPLOYEMENT, WRONG SKILLS = LOW PAYING JANITOR CONSTRUCTION WORK \clip\98\11\germunem.txt Los Angeles Times Saturday, April 12, 1997 Qualified, Educated Germany's effort to protect its workers has boomeranged, creating a corps of long-term unemployed. By MARY WILLIAMS WALSH, Times Staff Writer "they say I'm too old, or too big to run this or that type of machinery, or I'm overqualified," he says. "I can't get a job." "Dilsner's $1,200 unemployment comes to about $8.50 per hour--much less than what he made when he was working, true, but still better than four times what those $1.90-an-hour Poles beavering away down on Potsdamer Platz earn."
%%For the German Model Marc Tucker's "America's Choice" claims that most european students enter a 2 or 4 year professional program to prepare them for a working life , but in fact top students are allowed to take grade 11, 12 and 13 to prepare for college, average students do vocational/technical apprenticeships 4 days a week a half pay, below average students are kicked out at grade 9 with no additional training. Lake Washington STW Requirements. %%General Model Comparing U.S. and German Education: Like Apples and Sauerkraut Ernest G. Noack. Phi Delta Kappan June 1999. No official web version efax format zip36\clipim\99\09\01\efax1.efx efax version: http://www.arthurhu.com/clip/99/08/11/efax1.efx download windows reader at www.efax.com * Main Hauptschule was once half, now 1/3, from grades 5 to 9 or 10, then to vocational apprenticeship with 10 hours of training weekly, minimal math and writing skills, fast-food cok, janitor * Intermediate Realschule was 1/3, now 1/4 of students grades 5 to 10, enter 2 or 3 year apprenticeship program, more math, 4 to 6 years of foreign language. Auto mechanics, technicians, sales clerks * College Prep Gymnasium was 1/5, now 1/3, soon to be 1/2, to grades 12 or 13. Specialized programs in sciences, languages, health. * New comprehensive schools for urban areas with foreign students. * Sonderschule for handicapped students who cannot succeed in standard schools. * No one in Germany is allowed to apply for a job without a job certification, not even part time fast food. * Work is full time at below minimum wage. Additional 10 hrs schooling per week is scheduled evenings or Saturdays, job specific, not academic. * Schools rank students by academic record, employers pick apprentices from the top of these lists. * Written and verbal comprehensive final exams determine who graduates from high school. * All higher education is free (but fewer can go compare to US) Only masters degrees are granted from specialized colleges for architects, programmers, etc. Universities are for doctoral programs * 3 tier system of apprentice, journeyman, master in white and blue collar professions. * School is in session 12 months per year, six days a week including saturday, equal to 180 US days with short vacations. * Math and science are continuously sequential by grade rather than algebra/geometry/calculus biology/chem/physics, which appears like "integrated" science and math on the surface. Compared to Marc Tucker's "High Skills" vision, standards vary between schools. There is no such thing as a national Certificate of Mastery, "one high national standard for all students. There is no one certificate which guarantees a student is prepared for any job or higher education". There is no notion of part time STW work experience, as an apprentice, you work full time, and take extra classes evenings or saturday at below minimum wage. You cannot apply for a job without a skills certificate, something that Tucker is working towards with the National Skills Board. Problems with German Model High adult unemployment, low pay, only 1 day of school per week. Thread on how School To Work and Apprenticeship / Tracking works in Germany
z60\clip\2002\10\germsplit.txt October 22, 2002 edition http://www.csmonitor.com/2002/1022/p11s01-lecl.html [ARGH, GERMAN SCHOOLS WERE MARC TUCKER'S MODEL FOR STANDARDS BASED EDUCATION REFORM AND CERTIFICATE OF MASTERY!] JOERG SARBACH/AP/FILE Germany: Schools that divide By age 11 or 12, top students in Germany are headed for high school, or Gymnasium, where they take the Abitur, the high school exit exam that enables them to go on to university. Others go to a less-challenging Realschule, which trains them for white-collar jobs. Less intellectually gifted students are routed toward the Hauptschule to learn trades... may be outdated .. Germans were stunned to learn that 20 percent of their teenagers were almost illiterate, and only in Mexico and the Czech Republic did fewer students go on to higher education. Just 9 percent of German pupils were able to understand complex texts, putting them far behind Britain, with 16 percent, and the United States, with 12 percent. Ore CIM/STW PATTERNED AFTER GERMAN VOCATIONAL MODEL part II, III
Apprentice spends 4 days a week at work, only 1 day per week in school, vs US STW where student would still have most high school classes. Apprentices are paid only 25% of starting salary. Employers pay all expenses, average of $17,000, or net cost of $10,500 after value of labor. Every employer and self-employed must pay into the system.
The Japanese do NOT follow Marc Tucker's vision of a track-less society where all succeed at the same high standard. Fewer than 6% opt to skip high school entirely, but it is optional. High schools are tracked into night school, vocational, city and prefecture academic schools, and private elite academies. In most districts, students are assigned to one academic high school, some also have few examination based elite schools, and a few remedial schools in large districts like Chicago who do not pass grade-level tests.
@@Graduation RequirementBellevue WA is considering making a work experience part of the diploma graduation requirement. @@Heritage Foundation One of the few mainstream conservative organizations to come out against School to Work http://www.fastlane.net/~eca/stwcollision.html "School-to-Work: A Comming Collision" co-authored by Lynne Cheney. Presented to the Heritage Foundation 2/4/98. 4 BILLION FOR GOALS 2000 AND STW SINCE 1990S, STOP IT NOW link Heritage Foundation No. 1324 September 22, 1999 TIME TO END THE TROUBLED SCHOOL-TO-WORK PROGRAM D. MARK WILSON Produced by The Thomas A. Roe Institute for Economic Policy Studies Published by The Heritage Foundation One priority should be to end funding for discretionary programs that are redundant, ineffective, or obsolete. The federal School-to-Work (STW) program is one such program. Created by the School-to-Work Opportunities Act of 1994 (P.L.103-239) Since 1994, all 50 states have received STW implementation grants. In FY 1999, Congress appropriated $503 million for the program. Since 1994, a total of $2 billion has been appropriated. Since 1980, the U.S. Department of Education has granted states enormous sums of money for programs that duplicate STW activities, including $2.3 billion for Goals 2000 and $19.8 billion for vocational education. It also provides $4 billion for education research and development and $22 billion for a variety of school-improvement programs. 4 @@India %%Compulsory INDIA PROPOSES COMPULSORY VOCATIONAL ED = STW z47\clip\2000\12\inded.txt http://www.timesofindia.com/today/28indi42.htm 12/28/2000 Concern at budget plans to privatise education By Aunohita Mojumdar The Times of India News Service. Recommends compulsory primary and secondary and vocational education. %%Examination india.net seattle times Feb 13, 2000 All college entrants are ranked by the Joint Entrance exam, everybody remembers score
@@InjurySCHOOL TO WORK MORE DANGEROUS THAN GUN ARMED KOOKS \doc\web\98\09\stwhurt.txt From: WitchyPooy@aol.com (by way of Jimmy Kilpatrick
) according to these statistics, STW and students going off campus to "work" provides more of a hazard to these students than any crazed gunman. In the past 4 years, about 280 teens have died on the job across the nation. 210,000 young people are injured on the job every year. In 1996, about 70,000 teens got emergency treatment for OJIs.
The Japanese do not have an apprenticeship system like the Germans do. Their idea of "school to work" consists of vocational schools which have turned into holding pens for those who do not meet entrance standards for the college bound high schools, and night schools which were meant for working teens, but now consist mostly of those not even good enough for the vocational schools.
In other words, Japanese school-to-work was based on an economy when most didn't even continue into high school, and is becoming obsolete in a college-oriented economy. The German system is based on a middle-ages institution when most did not go to high school either, so the United States is seeking to emulate institutions which are no longer needed for a 21st century economy. Most Japanese aspire to college, even if they're stuck with working. STW tracks have become holding pens for losers, now the US seeks to extend this institution to all US students, even the college bound.
Japanese examinations are not a universal credential like the one size fits all CIM. The worst colleges and jobs have no entrace requirements at all besides basic literacy, the worst high schools give out diplomas for anyone who sticks around the minimum number of years.
The best high schools and universities and jobs require the highest test scores and best grades from the best institutions, and all admissions are based on rank ordering scores, not any universal defintion of "mastery".
Speaking of "school to work" the vocational track schools for girls in Japan have problems with girls who get arrested for prostitution, certainly an area of education we can't be caught behind in. You won't hear Marc Tucker telling us about that.
EXCELLENT BOOK- JAPAN'S HIGH SCHOOLS
Japan's High Schools Thomas P. Rohlen 1983 University of California
Press. Author He outlines 5 different types of high schools from scum
of the earth to feeder to the highest university
%Go to %Go to Percentile ability
Name Type University 2 Yr Coll Range
Nada - Private, academic 100 0 99-100
Okada - State, academic 72 14 40-99
Otani - City, academic 62 25 30-90
------- requires minimum examination score -----------------
Yuma - City, vocational 6 10 4-30
Sakura City Night school 2 6 0-2
In 1980 42% of hs grads went on to jobs
only 6% chose to end school at 9, only 4% drop out.
#1 in world in high school graduation rate.
Night school was originally intended to further study for those
who had to work in the day, but often just those who cannot get
into a vocational school.
Vocational school was once prized when only 50% went to high school,
but now is stigmatized when everyone seeks to go to college, they go
only because scores were not high enough for academic high schools,
there is discussion of getting rid of these, they have turned into
holding schools for those who flunk minimum entrance standards.
Although overall 4 yr college rates are comparable at 25%, Japan
sends boys at 2 to 1 rates vs the US 1 to 1, so 39% of Japanese
households vs. 25% have at least the main wage earner with a degree.
1974 Educational Attainment (p. 3)
M F M F
High School 90 91 73 77
Jr College 44 32 47 44
BA 39 12 25 24
(average = 25 in US or Japan)
High School Students in Japan
Article written by Merry White for the Asia Society's Video Letter from Japan II: Suburban Tokyo High
School Students, pp. 5-12, 1988.
Entrance to high school is determined by examination, and the
subjects tested are Japanese, mathematics, science, social studies,
Although traditionally there was no tracking or differentiation by
ability once students entered high school, recent curriculum changes
have included the introduction of tracking.
In high school, the homeroom is where most learning occurs, with
specialty teachers coming to the classroom rather than students
circulating to different parts of the building.
Classes are large, averaging 43 to 45 to one teacher.
Classes are held six days a week, including a half day on Saturdays,
and the school day lasts from 8:30 A.M. to 3:00 P.M. (12:30 on
Saturdays), with after-school activities filling the rest of the
afternoon. These activities, however, tend to be pursued only by
first and second year students at high schools where the majority of
students are college-bound, because third year students at such
schools are preoccupied with study for the college entrance
educational reformers, critical of the narrowness of the material
that is tested in these examinations, are pressing for a more
open-ended evaluation that would allow for longer essay questions and
testing of analytic ability.
Most Japanese see U.S. students as lazy and U.S. schools as having
very low standards of accomplishment, they don't mind large classes
or lots of time devoted to study.
There are reformers who would like to move away from emphasis on
academic / college orientation and introduce a well-supported
multitrack system at the high school level, including good technical
and other specialized vocational schools to draw students into a
range of appropriate occupations and interests
Typical Japanese high school students rarely date in couples, are not
sexually experienced, and have no contact at all with drugs and
rarely with alcohol.
Problems in high school
Lots of Japan Education links
A Japanese hs home page
Japanese Schools on the internet
Japanese system - from co-worker
Elementary - 1,2,3,4,5,6
Middle - 7,8,9
High school is optional. (vs. compulsory for most US states)
Take a test, score determines which level of high school,
working or college track, another test to get into the
best high school if you qualify for the track.
High - 10,11,12
Japan tracks students into different grade high schools, but
the US sends all students into one level of school.
JAPAN WANTS MORE CREATIVITY "The Struggle to Create Creativity"
Economist June 28, 1997 p. 46 F070397 The Japanese have a high
average, but narrowly centered around an average, the US has more bad
and very good people, they think those at the top are giving the US
an overall advantage. They want to trade equality and conformity for
creativity and individualism. They are thinking of judging students
by factors other than test scores, and letting down on "examination
A Study of Three Cultures: Germany, Japan, and the United States An
Overview of the TIMSS Case Study Project
\clip\98\08\timss\timss.htm Phi Delta Kappan Magazine March 1998
Japanese do not set exact content standards for each grade except for
Chinese characters. Japan has vocational and academic schools,
Germany has Hauptschule (for low-achieving students), Realschule (for
average students), and Gymnasium (for high-achieving students).
Tests and grade decide who goes to which, US, with few exceptions do
not require examinations and do not have separate high schools.
Japan's High Schools p. 294 "Newspaper accounts of teenage
prostitution also draw attention to vocational and low-status private
schools. The police arrest about 250 high school girls each year...
girls are low on the academic ladder, bored with school and
interested in pocket money"
S1186 is evil Tucker-Inspired School To Work Bill
MINNESOTA LP ATTACKS GOALS 2000 STW \doc\web\99\14\libnews.txt
Libertarian Party News April 1999 p. 9 Headline: Affliate News:
Reasons to oppose Goals 2000 Charles Test on Goals 2000: "It is about
resisting the temptation of federal funding". * Minnesota The
federal government's School to Work and Goals 2000 education programs
treat children as "human resource capital" said LP State Chair
Charles Test in testimony to the House Education Committee -- and the
state legislature should protect Minnesota children by withdrawing
from those programs.
Opposition from minorities to STW tracking
3, 1998 Author decries education gap by Dick Lilly Seattle Times
staff reporter Jonathan Kozol: Inequity could also be a result of
so-called "school-to-work" programs because they’re likely to
separate "inner-city kids, particularly black kids . . . for the
lower levels of the work force," he said.
October Sky 4 boys use a rocket
project to escape a dying coal town in 1950s. High school's main job
was to produce coal miners, not rocket scientists.
@@National Skills Board
A coalition of leaders from business, labor, employee, education, and
community and civil rights organiza... .. is building a voluntary
national system of skill standards, assessments and certification that
will enhance the ability of the United States Workforce to complete
effectively in the global economy.
On May 11, 2001, the Manufacturing Skill Standards Council (MSSC)
released the country's first-ever, nationwide, industry-recognized
skill standards for the vast manufacturing, installation, and repair
industry sector. This sector covers 15% of the U.S. workforce and
contributes $1.5 trillion of U.S. Gross Domestic Product.
EAGLE FORUM WINS, NEW JERSEY REJECTS FORCED 1 DAY / WEEK JOB TRAINING
From the New Jersey Star-Ledger Students won't be forced into job
training 03/19/99 By Dunstan McNichol STAFF WRITER A controversial
plan to make every New Jersey high school junior and senior spend one
day a week in on-the-job training is going to be scrapped, Gov.
Christie Whitman's nominee for education commissioner told lawmakers
yesterday. ..Charles' mother, Carolee, is the president of the New
Jersey chapter of Eagle Forum, a conservative group headed by
activist Phyllis Schlafly that has campaigned against school-to-work
programs nationwide. \clip\99\09\nonjstw.txt
NJ STW MANDATES 4 DAY WEEK, 1 DAY WORK FOR ALL
\doc\web\98\10\stwnj.txt The Westfield Leader Thursday, November 12,
1998 Front Page By Michelle H. LePoidevin New Jersey State
"School-to-Work " Mandates Four Day Week; Worries Parents at Forum
"In 11th and 12th grades, the students would be required to work no
less than one day per week in the workforce. Students and parents
must enter into a contract with the school and their child's employer
at this juncture. "
NJ OPPOSITION TO MANDANTORY 4 DAY SCHOOL 1 DAY WORK WEEK
\clip\98\18\njstw.txt Opposition to School-To-Work: Bergen Record,
November 25, 1998 Key parts of high school reform plan opposed
Wednesday, November 25, 1998 By DAVID GLOVIN Staff Writer Lawmakers
and education groups are rallying against a proposal to require
juniors and seniors to spend one day a week at work
\clip\98\18\forclabr.txt Copyright 1998 Coming soon to a school near
you: Forced labor 11/29/98 By Paul Mulshine
The Star Ledger-NJ