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Long Life: It's not the Japanese, Asian and Mormon Americans live the longest

It's not a matter of poverty and racism. What everybody is told: Life expectancy of Blacks lags whites, largely due to racism, and that the Japanese have the longest life expectancy in the world.

But not until 2006 was it ever mentioned that every estimate of life expectancy which include Asian Americans live longer than anybody else, including the Japanese who are generally given credit for the longest in the world. Mormons also have a longer life expectancy than the Japanese, according to economist Thomas Sowell.

They also neglect to mention that Hispanics also live longer than Whites, even though both Asians and Hispanics have very high rates of lacking health insurance, and Hispanics have very low per capita incomes and high poverty rates. A San Francisco news report slammed lower life expectancy for city blacks, but completely overlooked that at 80.2 years, city Latinos rank among the longest living of any group anywhere in the world. In 2010, the US government made "the paradox" of high Hispanic life expectancy an official statistic.

This evidence is counter to the common wisdom that the Japanese live longer, or that Asian Americans lose their longevity when they assimilate, and the general assertion that racism and povery is to blame for shorter life expectancy. There have been other reports that show poor health outcomes for Blacks even with equal incomes and education which indicates something other than racism and poverty may be at work to explain shorter life expectancy.

This has been ascribed by some, such as Phillipe Rushton as genetic as part of a patter of better health and higher intelligence. However, this does not hold up if you observe that among Asian countries, only highly developed Japan and Hong Kong are equal or better than the United States.

"Asians have the longest life expectancy on earth - Crowded Hong Kong residents can expect to live to 76": "Muck and Brass" Economist May 5, 1990 p. 43

"Family Support Credited for Asian's Longevity": Asian Week April 1, 1988 p. 3 "The Japanese live longer than anybody else in the world. That is, until they move here." Newsweek May 27, 1991 p. 49 "Japanese men have the highest life expectancy in the world" San Francisco Chronicle Aug 22, 1990 p. A11 "Japanese Americans in Hawaii Live Longest" Asian Week Sept 1, 1995


Life Expectancy Spectrum
-----------------------------------
200-500 Old Testament heros.
92 US Affluent Asian American 1997
86 US Mormon 1997
80 Japan 1998
78 Italy 1998
76 US 1998
74 Mexico 1998
70 US Black 1997
56 India 1992
47 US 1900
44 Italy 1900
44 Japan 1900
35 Mexico 1900
30 Stonehenge Culture 5000 BC









LONG LIFE SPECTRUM
http://www.arthurhu.com/index/ahealth.htm#worldlife
MORMONS AND RICH ASIAN AMERICANS LIVE THE LONGEST

         \doc\95\14\worllife.wk1
         Life Expectancy by Nation
         Data taken between 1989 and 1992 depending on country

         It has been commonly reported that the Japanese live longer
         than anyone else in the world, however, this does not take
         into account breaking out Asians Americans separately, as it
         is the 1st best kept secret that Asians have the longest life
         expectancy of any American race, and that it is even longer
         than the Japanese by any known study. In the United States,
         Asian Americans live the longest, and Hispanics live slightly
         longer than whites. Worldwide, only Asians in Japan and
         Hong Kong live longer than Americans. US Blacks lag whites, but
         are no worse than South Korea.

         Nation         Male      Female    Average
         Wealthy AsAm       89.5      95.0      92.0(s1)
         Asian-American women
          in Bergen County, N.J.      91.0           (3)
         US Mormon                              86.0
         US Asian           82.1      87.4      84.8 (3) 
         Japan '97          80.0      85.3      83.2
         US Asian                               83.0
         CA Asian           79.2      85.8      82.5
         HI Chinese         78.4      81.7      80.2
         SF Latino          73.9      86.5      80.2
         Hawaii                                 80.0 (3)
         SF Asian           76.5      83.5      80.0
         HI Japanese        77.7      81.5      79.7
         Men Utah           77.0
         Japan '06                    84.4
         Japan '96          76.4      82.8      79.0
         US Hispanic                            78.0
         Iceland              76        80      78.0
         Sweden               75        80      77.5
         Cuba 95 CIA          74.9      79.4    77.1
         France               73        81      77.0
         Australia            74        80      77.0
         Netherlands          74        80      77.0
         Switzerland          74        80      77.0
         Hong Kong            74        80      77.0
         Israel               75        78      76.5
         Italy                73        80      76.5
         Norway               73        80      76.5
         Spain                73        80      76.5
         US Born 1996                           76.1
         US White                               76.0
         Shanghai China                         75.5
         United States        72        79      75.5
         Germany              72        78      75.0
         Denmark              72        78      75.0
         Finland              71        79      75.0
         United Kingdom       72        78      75.0
         New Zealand          72        78      75.0
         CA White             78        71      74.5
         Luxembourg           71        78      74.5
         Greece               72        76      74.0
         Ireland              71        77      74.0
         New York                               73.8 (china wakes)
         Kuwait               71        75      73.0
         Singapore            69        74      71.5
         S. Korea             67        75      71.0
         US Black                               70.0
         N. Korea             66        73      69.5
         China                68        71      69.5
         Black rural south    67.7
         Black Urban US       66.7
         CA Black             65        65      65.0
         Phillipines          63        66      64.5
         Mexico               62        66      64.0
         Thailand             64        59      61.5
         Blacks DC            57
         AmerIndians S.Dakota                   65  (3)
         Guatemala            55        59      57.0
         India                55        56      55.5
         US 1900                                47 (2)
         Italy Japan 1900                       44 (2)
         Mexico 1900                            35 (2)

Source: Nations from Statistical Yearbook 1992
(2) Time 100 (1900) Dec 1998
(3) "Location, race and income affect life spans in U.S."  Seattle Times
Sept 12, 2006 study by Dr. Christopher Murray of the Harvard School of
Public Health.
http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/health/2003254679_longevity12.html
(s1)Daily Herald (Chicago) AP story 12/4/97 Life expectancy in parts
of U.S.  comparable to third world \clip\97\29\lifeexpe.txt
http://www.dailyherald.com/d/newsfront/national/dhhtm/8rest.htm
         Mormon - "How About It Hillary?" Thomas Sowell, Forbes Jan 3, 94 p. 80
         NY: United Nations 1994
         US race - US Census estimates
         CA race - State of California estimates
         HI race - 1984 Hawaii State Dept of Health
         PHS report, The Facts (1988) p. 191, as 
         appears in "Asian Americans: A Status Report"
         GAO (Wash DC) March 1990
Blacks DC, Wealthy Asian, Utah men - affluent New York and Mass counties, Daily
Herald (Chicago) AP story 12/4/97 Life expectancy in parts of U.S. comparable to third world

- Japan #1 Life Expectancy, but US Asians and Mormons still even longer

- US has the longest life expectancy if you're already 80

National Center for Health Statistics
          Male        Female
       '99   '00    '99  '00
All    73.9  74.1   79.4 79.5
Black  67.8  68.3   74.7 75.0
White  74.6  74.8   79.9 80.0

http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr49/nvsr49_12.pdf
Deaths: Preliminary Data for 2000. Vol. 49, No. 12. 40 pp. (PHS) 2001-1120.
No life expectancy for Asians, but does have age-adjusted death rates

... the lowest mortality was reported for the API and Hispanic
populations whose preliminary age-adjusted death rates were 42
percent and 33 percent lower,respectively,than those for the white
non-Hispanic population.In contrast,the age-adjusted death rate for
the black population was 30 percent higher than that for the white
non-Hispanic population. Mortality for races other than
white and black and Hispanic origin may be seriously understated due
to under- 10 reporting of some race groups and Hispanic origin on
death certificates and to undercounts of those population groups in
the census (9,10).

Age Adjusted Death RatesRatio
            2000    1999    2000    1999
Black     1124.8  1147.1   -1.32   -1.33
WNH        863.4   869.4   -1.01   -1.01
White      853.2   860.7    1.00    1.00
NatAm      697.7   716.1    1.22    1.20
Hisp       582.5   601.0    1.46    1.43
Asian      502.0   517.5    1.70    1.66
Note Asian rate is only 1/2 black rate


@@Asian (Longest)

Asian Americans not only live longer than other Americans, they live
longer than other Asians.  Before 2006, only one Knight Ridder series
has EVER printed that Asian Americans have the longest life
expectancy. Even then, the headline was that the healthy image of
Asians was misleading. Why is this such a closely guarded secret?

LONGEVITY GAP FAVORS ASIANS ANYWHERE IN US
ASIAN WOMEN LONGEST LIVING IN THE WORLD
\priv\2006\09\racelife.txt
http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/nationworld/2003254679_longevity12.html
Location, race and income affect life spans in U.S.
Seattle Times Sept 12, 2006
picture: wash13.gif - lowest in missippi and appalacia
Dr. Christopher Murray of the Harvard
School of Public Health.

Murray said the longevity gap has persisted for two decades "despite
the efforts made by public-health programs."
Highest were Asian-American women living in Bergen
County, N.J., who have an average life expectancy of 91 years,
according to the report published in the journal of Medicine.
At the other extreme are American Indians in South Dakota, whose
average life expectancy is only 58 years. "That's comparable to the
life expectancy in Southeast Asia and in sub-Saharan Africa,"
According to the state data, Hawaii is the healthiest, with an average
life span for men and women of 80 years.[note, majority asian state]

"Black Middle America" — African
Americans who live outside inner cities and the rural South — have a
life expectancy five years shorter than those in "Middle America,"
which encompasses the vast majority of urban and suburban whites.

A farmer from a Great Plains
state such as North Dakota is likely to live four years longer than a
farmer living in Appalachia or the Mississippi Valley

Asians have by far the longest life
expectancy: 87.4 years for women and 82.1 for men. Black urban men
have the shortest, at 66.7, followed by Southern rural black men, at
67.7. Indian men in the West are next, at 69.4.

ASIAN AMERICAN WOMEN LIVE LONGER THAN WOMEN IN JAPAN
Asian women in the United States — many of whom are second-generation
and have spent their whole lives here — have a life expectancy that is
three years longer than Japanese women, who, as a national group, are
the longest-living in the world.

WHITES VARY AS MUCH AS BLACK-WHITE
The gap in life expectancy between [[north plains vs Appalacia and
Miss. valley]] in 2001 was 4.2 years for men and 3.8 years for women.
This is not far off the overall gap of 6.4 years between black men and
white men, and the 4.6-year gap between white women and black women.

EIGHT MAJOR GROUPINGS
Tuesday, September 12, 2006
Location, race and income affect life spans in U.S.
By Seattle Times news services

WASHINGTON — Where people live, combined with their race and income, plays a huge role in the nation's health disparities, differences so stark that a report issued Monday contends it's as if there are eight separate Americas instead of one.

Millions of the worst-off Americans have life expectancies typical of developing countries, concluded Dr. Christopher Murray of the Harvard School of Public Health.

Murray said the longevity gap has persisted for two decades "despite the efforts made by public-health programs."

The reason, he said, is that many programs have been aimed at addressing infant mortality, violence and HIV/AIDS, while the real problems unearthed by the study are diseases of the heart, lung and liver, including cancer, taking a toll on people between 15 and 65.

"This is a surprise," Murray said. "Despite a decade or longer of programs to reduce disparities in the U.S., the longevity gap is not getting any smaller, and in fact may be getting worse for males." These findings are "a pretty strong indictment on these efforts. We are clearly not doing enough."

At one end of the scale are Asian-American women living in Bergen County, N.J., who have an average life expectancy of 91 years, according to the report published in the journal PLoS Medicine.

At the other extreme are American Indians in South Dakota, whose average life expectancy is only 58 years. "That's comparable to the life expectancy in Southeast Asia and in sub-Saharan Africa," said Dr. Richard Suzman, associate director of the National Institute on Aging, which partially funded the study.

According to the state data, Hawaii is the healthiest, with an average life span for men and women of 80 years.

Washington state ranked 13th, at 78.2 years.

The District of Columbia had the lowest life expectancy, 72 years. It is followed by Mississippi, 73.6; Louisiana, 74.2; Alabama, 74.4; and South Carolina, 74.8.

A black man living in a high-crime American city can expect to live 21 fewer years than a woman of Asian descent in the United States.

Inhabitants of what the report calls "Black Middle America" — African Americans who live outside inner cities and the rural South — have a life expectancy five years shorter than those in "Middle America," which encompasses the vast majority of urban and suburban whites.

Murray and his colleagues looked at life expectancy in 2,000 geographical units — counties or groups of counties. They then divided them into eight groupings based on ethnicity, race and income.

The Eight Americas were:

• Asians, scattered throughout the country

• Rural whites in the Northern Plains and Dakotas

• White Middle America, consisting of 214 million people not assigned

to other categories

• Low-income whites in Appalachia and the Mississippi Valley

• Western Indians (the smallest group, with 1 million people)

• Black Middle America

• Low-income rural Southern blacks

• High-risk urban blacks (those living in places where a person has a 1 percent or greater risk of being killed between ages 15 and 74)

This study did not cover Hispanic who were noted by US govt as higher than whites or blacks

\clip\98\10\asiheal.txt
http://www.seattletimes.com/news/health-science/html98/asia_080398.html
Seattle Times August 3, 1998 Healthy image of Asian Americans can be
misleading by R.A. Zaldivar Knight Ridder Newspapers " Overall, Asian
Americans have the longest life expectancy, the lowest infant
mortality and the lowest death rates from heart disease and cancer
compared with other Americans.  Stroke is the only major illness for
which Asian death rates are higher than those for whites.  "

LIFE EXP VARIES BY COUNTY, INCOME, RACE: NY ASIANS LIVED LONGEST TO
90S Daily Herald (Chicago) AP story 12/4/97 Life expectancy in parts
of U.S.  comparable to third world \clip\97\29\lifeexpe.txt
http://www.dailyherald.com/d/newsfront/national/dhhtm/8rest.htm "Yet
male Asians living in affluent counties in New York and Massachusetts
lived to be 89.5, Asian women into their mid-90s."  "high-income
whites lived only about two years longer than poor whites." [Finally
somebody else notices low Asian American life expectancies]

ASIAN INDIANS LONGEST, HAWAIIANS AND BLACKS SHORTEST EXPECTED LIFE
\doc\web\99\04\aslife.wk1
http://www.arthurhu.com/99/04/aslife.txt

http://www.cdc.gov/nchswww/data/mvs46_1s.pdf
Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol 46, No 1 Supplement (8/14/97)
National Center for Health Statistics

Table B: Life expectancy by age and race: Total of 7 selected
reporting States, 1992 [Extreme caution should be exercised in
interpreting these estimates, particularly those for specified groups
other than white and black. Estimates from abridged life table]

* Small population size limits the reliability of life table values.
August 14, 1997 7

Group       Life Expectancy
AmIndian        91.1    1.21
Guamanian*      85.5    1.14
AsIndian*       85.1    1.13
Korean          82.3    1.10
Japanese        82.1    1.09
Chinese         81.7    1.09
Filipino        80.6    1.07
Total           80.3    1.07
Vietnamese*     78.8    1.05
Allraces        75.2    1.00
White           75.1    1.00
Other API       71.4   -1.05
Black           68.3   -1.10
Hawaiian        68.3   -1.10
Samoan*         68.3   -1.10

A CONTRARY OPNION - ASIANS NOT ALWAYS THE LONGEST LIVED.
From: juan pablo montoya sangliasuga hotmail.com
Sent: Saturday, July 31, 2004 7:45 PM
Subject: incorrect dada arthur
"East Asians also have lower life expectancies(longest lived humans
are Albanian,ms. Hoxa and French ,Ms Jeanne Louise Calment women) than
European states(andorra is the longest lived state, and the mean of
korea, japan, china, taiwan is lower than the mean for any four
nations in west europe) and much higher 5rates of hepetitis infection."



@@Black

PROGRESS, BUT STILL LAGGING
Blacks are well known to have lower life expectancy than whites, but
there is evidence that black death rates are lower than whites at
very high ages, thus the very old black women effect. The gap in life
expectancy has shrunk from 30% at the start to 12% at the end of the
20th century.

Cochran on "crossover" effect This
is a very interesting phenomenon--called the "black-white crossover"
in the literature of demography.  Black mortality rates are higher
than those of whites in the US until about age 70 when the hazard
curves cross.  At age 85 or 90 the annual risk of death is a lot
lower for blacks than for whites.  A good source is a monograph by
Manton and Stallard, but I am on the road and don't have the full
reference at hand.

BLACKS ARE 2X TO BE 105 OR OLDER COMPARED TO GENERAL POP
Jim Chapin con1453#aol.com notes:
Well, the 1990 census gave Blacks 12.3% of the population.  They continue to 
die at higher rates than Whites until they reach their  80's -- then look at 
what happens: 

Of the 30,947 people between 100 and 104,  13.6% were Black.
Of the  6,359 people 105 and older,  26.2% were Black.  

This is the very end of the Bell Curve of life expectancy, but it  suggests, 
at least,  that, were it not for the unhealthy life styles of many Blacks, 
they might  have a longer life expectancy than Whites.  

BLACKS LIVE LONGER, ASIANS SHORTER AT EXTREMES
Henry Harpening: A good discussion of this race difference is Manton
and Stallard, 1984, Current Trends in Mortality Analysis.  This
black-white mortality crossover in old age is IMHO well established.
There are also data from older censuses suggesting that it is
mirror-imaged in Asians.  The censuses of Taiwan and Japan in the 60s
showed very poor survivorship in the 70s and 80s.



Black Life Expectancy Gap Shrinks in 20th Century
Year Gap in Years % Difference* 
1900 14.6 31% 
1910 14.7 29% 
1920  9.6 17% 
1930 13.3 22% 
1940 11.1 17% 
1950  8.3 12% 
*Percent shorter than whites
Source: National Vital Statistics Reports, 12/24/98
From table in Wall Street Journal Dec 26, 2000
z47\clipim\2001\01\02\life\life.htm



@@Centenarians

z54\clip\2001\12\cent.txt
http://cgi.newsobserver.com/standing/help/tools/_scripts/friendly-print.cgi
Raleigh News & Observer December 16, 2001 Race,longevity may be
linked through genes "[African Americans ] make up 31 percent of all
Tar Heel centenarians.  But only 21 percent of the state's population
is black. And African-Americans are only about 15 percent of North
Carolinians in their 60s, 70s, 80s and 90s.  "


@@County

LIFE EXP VARIES BY COUNTY, INCOME, RACE: NY ASIANS LIVED LONGEST TO
90S Daily Herald (Chicago) AP story 12/4/97 Life expectancy in parts
of U.S.  comparable to third world \clip\97\29\lifeexpe.txt
http://www.dailyherald.com/d/newsfront/national/dhhtm/8rest.htm Men
in a swath of South Dakota as well as in the eastern cities of
Baltimore and Washington live about as long as men in such developing
countries as India and Bolivia, a Harvard scientist reported
Wednesday.  


@@Hispanic

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/14/us/14brfs-HISPANICSOUT_BRF.html
New York Times Oct 13, 2010
National Briefing | Health
Hispanics Outlive Whites and Blacks in U.S.
By THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
Published: October 13, 2010

* Hispanics in the United States can expect to outlive whites by more
than two years and blacks by more than seven

* report first to calculate Hispanic life
expectancy in the nation, instead of included with white and black

* “Hispanic paradox” — longevity for a population with a large share
of poor, undereducated members.

* theory immigrants are healthier

* A Hispanic born in 2006 could expect to live about 80 years and
seven months.  Life expectancy for a white person is about 78, and
just shy of 73 for a black person.

http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704049904575554320137649894.html
Wall Street Journal OCTOBER 16, 2010
Latino Aging Stumps Experts
Miriam Jordan

...often poor, uneducated and without health insurance—live long and
strong has long confounded health professionals, scholars and other
experts. This week, the first official life-expectancy data released
for U.S. Hispanics shows they outlive whites by 2.5 years and blacks
by almost eight years.

The life expectancy for Hispanics is nearly 81 years, compared with 78
years for whites and almost 73 for blacks. As a whole, people in the
U.S. can expect to live 77.7 years, according to the report from the
Centers for Disease Control.

"The findings can imply the Hispanic population is healthier overall"
than whites and blacks despite its low socio-economic status, said
Elizabeth Arias, lead author of the report


... "Hispanic epidemiological paradox" coined in 1986 by Kyriakos
Markides, a professor at the University of Texas Medical Branch at
Galveston, Texas, ....among Hispanics in the Southwest. Back then, "it
seemed paradoxical that a population so disadvantaged could live so
long and be relatively healthy," he said...  studies in California by
David Hayes-Bautista, a professor at the UCLA Medical School's Center
for the Study of Latino Health and Culture, found similar patterns.

Source: CDC/NCHS national vital statistics system and centers for
medicare & medicaid services, medicare data

Life expectancy at birth by race and sex in US in 2006
(table leaves out Asians)
          Female    Male
White     80.4      75.6
Black     76.2      69.2
Hispanic  83.1      77.9
-------------------------
Asian     87.4      82.1 (2)

SOURCE (2) - did not cover Hispanics
http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/health/2003254679_longevity12.html
September 12, 2006
Location, race and income affect life spans in U.S.
By Seattle Times news services

According to the state data, Hawaii is the healthiest, with an average
life span for men and women of 80 years. (Highest Asian)

Washington state ranked 13th, at 78.2 years.

The District of Columbia had the lowest life expectancy, 72 years. It
is followed by Mississippi, 73.6; Louisiana, 74.2; Alabama, 74.4; and
South Carolina, 74.8.

As previous studies have shown, Asians have by far the longest life
expectancy: 87.4 years for women and 82.1 for men. Black urban men
have the shortest, at 66.7, followed by Southern rural black men, at
67.7. Indian men in the West are next, at 69.4.



@@History

Time 
http://cgi.pathfinder.com/time/time100/timewarp/timewarp.html

Life expectancy 1900 vs now

        1900    1998
US      47      76
Italy   44      78
Japan   44      80
Mexico  35      74

@@Immigrant IMMIGRANTS LIVE LONGER, ASIANS LIVE LONGER THAN ANYBODY \clip\2004\06\immlife.txt http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2004/5/26/172416.shtml *Immigrants Outlive Native Americans* */Wednesday, May 26, 2004/* Life Expectancy: 78 Immigrant (3 more than US more) 77 US Overall 75 US Born 73 Immigrant African (9 years longer than US born) 64 US Born Black 50 African in Africa Obese adults 22% immigrant, 28% US born, 30% all US .. misconception that immigrants have poorer health, .. [facts show] better than their U.S.-born counterparts," says Gopal K. Singh, an NIH statistician. His research, published this month in the Canadian Journal of Public Health.. .. Asians/Pacific Islanders, the group with the longest life expectancy.

@@Income

Income is thought to explain most of the difference in races, but poor whites only live 2 years less than rich ones. Asians live much longer despite higher poverty rates than whites, and Hispanics live as long or longer with lower median incomes and much higher poverty rates.

LIFE EXP VARIES BY COUNTY, INCOME, RACE: NY ASIANS LIVED LONGEST TO 90S Daily Herald (Chicago) AP story 12/4/97 Life expectancy in parts of U.S. comparable to third world \clip\97\29\lifeexpe.txt http://www.dailyherald.com/d/newsfront/national/dhhtm/8rest.htm "high-income whites lived only about two years longer than poor whites." [Finally somebody else notices low Asian American life expectancies]



@@Limit

NO LIMIT TO LIFE EXPECTANCY, TO REACH 100 IN 60 YEARS
z56\clip\2002\05\lifelim.txt Public release date: 9-May-2002 Contact:
Katharine Neal Duke University Study indicates no natural limit to
life expectancy May 10, 2002, Science. Data analyzed by the Duke
university scientists indicate that the maximum human lifespan will
reach 100 in about six decades,


@@News


z43\clipim\2000\06\21\staymarr.efx Quality Counts Economist June 10,
2000. Chart

JAPAN, AUSTRALIA LEAD "full" LIFE EXPECTANCY
z42\clip\2000\06\japnlife.txt Seattle Times Company June 05, 2000
Japanese are tops in long, full life by Geir Moulson The Associated
Press Japanese can expect 74 1/2 years of healthy life, according to
a WHO study that measures "disability-adjusted" life expectancy,
subtracting years according to the prevalence and severity of
ailments ranging from malaria to lung disease.  Australia, at 73.2
years, came second, followed by France, Sweden, Spain and Italy. The
United States, which spends the most on health, rated only 24th, with
an expectancy of 70 years. 

Top countries: 1. Japan, 74.5 years; 2. Australia, 73.2; 3. France,
73.1; 4. Sweden, 73.0; 5. Spain, 72.8; 6. Italy, 72.7; 7. Greece,
Switzerland, 72.5; 8. Monaco, 72.4; 9. Andorra, San Marino, 72.3 10.
Canada, Netherlands 72. 

Worst countries: 186. Uganda, 32.7; 187. Botswana, 32.3; 188. Zambia,
30.3; 189. Malawi, 29.4; 190. Niger, 29.1; 191. Sierra Leone, 25.9 

\clip\97\29\inftmort.txt
http://www.bouldernews.com/BoulderNews/HealthScience/Discovery/html/X_9712020011.htm
Boulder News December 2, 1997 Infant mortality rate in U.S. at new
low By ALEXANDRA ZAVIS Associated Press CHICAGO life expectancy at
birth has reached a new high, at 76.1 years.  In 1996, there were 7.2
infant deaths per 1,000 live births, according to a summary of
preliminary 1996 government statistics published in the December
issue of Pediatrics, the journal of the American Academy of
Pediatrics.

\clip\97\23\checkup.txt
http://search.tribnet.com/archive/0997/0912a12.htm News Tribune
Checkup finds nation is healthier Life expectancy is up, and infant
mortality is down September 12, 1997 Marlene Cimons; Los Angeles
Times 

\clip\97\05\eldrlife.txt NewsBank, inc. - The Seattle Times - 1995 -
Article with Citation STUDY: ELDERLY AMERICANS LIVE LONGER THAN MOST
Date: November 2, 1995 Section: NEWS Page: A9 Edition: FINAL DANIEL
Q. HANEY AP "Americans who reach age 80 can expect to live about a
year longer than elderly folks in four other industrialized
countries."

Source: New England Journal of Medicine
Life  expectancies for 80-year-old:
           Women Men
USA        9.1   7.0
Japan      8.5   6.9
France     8.6   6.7
Sweden     8.3   6.5
England    8.1   6.2

------------------------------------------------------------

HEADLINES DECLARE BLACK "CRISIS" BUT ASIAN MEN, LATINA WOMEN LIVE THE
LONGEST IN SAN FRANCISCO.

\doc\web\97\05\lifesf.txt 'Health crisis' for black men in S.F."
Seattle Post Intelligencer June 18, 1997 p. B3 (AP)

Dr. Thomas Aragon, city Health Department for the Bayview-Hunters
Point Health & Environmental assessment Project

        Years           Index
        Men     Women   Men     Women
White       64.9    79.5    1.00    1.00
Black       59.9    72.5   -1.08   -1.10
Latino      73.9    86.5    1.14    1.09
Asian       76.5    83.5    1.18    1.05

Analysis by Arthur Hu

-----------------------------------------

US HAS LONGEST LIFE EXPECTANCY AT 80

\clip\97\05\eldrlife.txt NewsBank, inc. - The Seattle Times - 1995 -
Article with Citation STUDY: ELDERLY AMERICANS LIVE LONGER THAN MOST
Date: November 2, 1995 Section: NEWS Page: A9 Edition: FINAL DANIEL
Q. HANEY AP "Americans who reach age 80 can expect to live about a
year longer than elderly folks in four other industrialized
countries."

Source: New England Journal of Medicine
Life  expectancies for 80-year-old:
           Women Men
USA        9.1   7.0
Japan      8.5   6.9
France     8.6   6.7
Sweden     8.3   6.5
England    8.1   6.2

p. 331 Shanghai Life expectancy is 76 compared to 73.8 in New York
City Nicholas d. Kristof, Sheryl Wudunn "China Wakes" 1994 Random
House \doc\97\02\chined.txt

\clip\96\09\stayoung.htm Time - NOVEMBER 25, 1996 VOL. 148 NO. 24 Can
We Stay Young

\clip\96\04\alivcent.txt Date: Tue, 10 Sep 1996 21:18:08 -0400 From:
NewsHound@sjmercury.com (NewsHound) Number of People in Japan Alive a
Century Tops 7,000 TOKYO (AP) -- There will be 7,373 Japanese 100
years or older at the end of September -- 955 more than a year ago,
the Health and Welfare Ministry said Tuesday. Of those who have lived
a century, 80 percent are women, it said. Comment - Japan has the
highest life expectancy of any nation, but Asian and Mormon Americans
live even longer.

\clip\96\02\japnlife.txt 10 Aug 1996 From: NewsHound@sjmercury.com
(NewsHound) Quake, flu outbreak trim Japanese life expectancy TOKYO,
Aug. 10 (Kyodo) women 82.84, men 76.36 years, both longest in the
world, followed by Sweden 81.38/76.08 and Hong Kong 81.16 / 75.84
Comment: Japan still lags California Asians at 85.8 (vs 82.8) for
women and 79.2 (vs. 76.36) for men. They also lag US Asians at 83
yrs, and US Mormons at 86 years.

\doc\96\02\mmwr1.txt From 1992 to 1993, overall life expectancy (LE)
at birth declined from 75.8 years to 75.5 years. As in 1992, LE at
birth continued to be highest among white females (79.5 years),
followed by black females (73.7 years), white males (73.1 years), and
black males (64.6 years). Although LE declined for all four
racial-sex groups during 1992-1993, the overall race-specific
difference in LE for blacks and whites increased slightly, from 6.9
years in 1992 to 7.1 years in 1993.


\priv\95\20\oldest.htm Oldest confirmed woman in world is 120 in 
Italy

\doc\95\18\jplife.doc 
\priv\95\18\jplife.doc
"Japanese Americans in Hawaii Live Longest" Asian Week Sept 1, 1995 
p. 7. David  Curb of the Honolulu Heart Program found that 
Japanese Americans in Hawaii had the longest known life expectancy 
of any group in the world.

d:\priv\95\17\clinplan.txt No Exit The New Republic Feb 7, 1994 p.
21 The nation's high infant mortality rate and lower life expectancy
reflect not health care, but the epidemic of low-birth-wieght babies
born to tennage and drug-addicted mothers, as well as the large number
of hommicides in American cities and drug related deaths (not to
mention AIDS)

\priv\95\16\amovr80.txt Americans older than 80 have longer life
expectancy than in other countries Tacoma News Tribune 11/1/95


\doc\95\11\hawalife.txt
Life Expectancy at Birth

Adapted from Robert W. Gardner
Life Tables by Ethnic Group for Hawaii
R&S Report Issue No. 47
March 1984. Research and Statistics Office
Hawaii State Department of Health

As appeared in Asian Week Jan 20, 1995 Ranked by combined life
expectancy Chinese and Japanese in Hawaii have the longest life
expectancy - both outlast Japanese in Japan.

            Both   Male   Female
Chinese     80.24  78.41  81.73
Japanese    79.66  77.74  81.54
Filipino    78.78  77.34  81.04
Other       76.85  72.60  78.05
All         78.02  75.04  81.45
White       76.38  74.15  79.08
Hawaiian    74.01  70.86  76.02


\priv\95\05\lifespan.txt - disparity in life by race, healthy
lifespan is 64 years. JAMA 4/12/95

\priv\95\05\aidssum.txt "Billions Suffering Needlessly, Study Says"
New York Times (05/02/95) P. C5;  Leary, Warren E. the WHO survey
noted that global life expectancy has increased to 65 years from 61
years in the last quarter of a century.

"U.S. Population in 2050 Will Be Half Minorities"
San Francisco Chronicle Dec 4, 1992 p. A1 Ramon G. McLeod

U.S. Census projections
Life expectancy: W76   B70   H78  A83
                  1.0 -1.1   1.02 1.09

Life Expectancy, 1960 study in California,
1980 Study in Hawaii, both sexes

            White  Japanese Chinese  Filipino
California  71     78/1.10   73/1.03    NA
Hawaii      76     80/1.05   80/1.06    79

Source: R.W. Gardner, R Robey, and P.C. Smith,
"Asian Americans: Growth, Change and Diversity,"
Population Bulletin (1985) as presented in
the PHS report, The Facts (1988) p. 191, as 
appears in "Asian Americans: A Status Report"
GAO (Wash DC) March 1990


asian.health.life-expectancy.centennial
"More Celebrating Their Centennial" Wall Street Journal Jan 27, 1995
p. B1. The number of people reaching the age of 100 has doubled every
10 years in most countries.

doc938\lifexpec.xls  - US and CA figures show Asians live longest
 CA Male   W78 B65 HNA A85.8 
 CA Female W71 B65 H72 A79.2


 "Who Lives Longest" The Economist Dec 14, 1991 p. 111

 The Japanese live longer than any other nation, 79 years, and biggest
 improvement of any industual nation (from 68 in 1960)
                Approx
 Top                 1990      1960
 Japan                 79        68
 Holland               77        72
 Spain                 77        69
 Canada                77        71
 France                75        70

 Los Angeles Times Aug 28, 1990 H5
                Male      Female
 North Korea           67        73
 South Korea           66        73

 San Francisco Chronicle Aug 22, 1990 p. A11
 "Japanese men have the highest life expectancy in the world"

 "Death by Fried Chicken", Newsweek Sept 24, 1990 p. 36
                     1890      1990
 Men                 35.0      75.5
 Women               37.0      82.0

 "Chinese Grow Healthier From Cradle To Grave" New York Times
 April 14, 1991 Nicholas D Kristof
                Life Exp  Infant Mort per 1000 live births
 Shanghai            75.5      10.9
 White NYC           73.0
 NonWhite NYC        70.0
 All NYC                       13.3
 All US              76.0       9.0


 Thailand (no source) 67 male 71 female

 "Japan's Declining Birthrate" Wall Street Journal June 6, 1991
 Average Life Expectancy set a new record:
 Men                75.91
 Women              81.77

 "Pity Those Poor Japanese" Economist Dec 24, 1988 p. 48
 1987 Life Expectancy
                Men       Women
 Japan               75.6      81.4
 United States       71.3
 United Kingdom      71.8
 West Germany        71.5
 Source: World Health Organization
--------------------------------------
 CA Asian Am         79.2      85.8
 CA White            72.3      79.3
 AsAm - Japan edge   +3.6      +4.4
 Asian Americans live 4 years longer than Japanese
 according to California State Center for Health Statistics


 Differing Ills
 Deaths per 100,000 people, 1985

                Heart               Lung      Stomach
                Disease   Strokes   Cancer    Cancer    Suicide
 Japan               45.0     123.6      25.0      42.9      19.6
 USA                229.8      62.8      52.0       6.1      12.2
 Britain            243.3     104.3      57.7      16.0       8.5
 France              74.4      79.8      31.7      11.6      21.3
 W Germany          167.0     104.5      34.6      18.8      18.6

 "Report Details Death Risks Around the World" San Francisco Chronicle
 April 26, 1991 (AP)
 World Health Organization Report

 "Japanese women live the longest"
                Men       Women
 Japan               76.5      82.5
 US                  71.6      78.6

 Newsweek May 27, 1991 p. 49
 "The Japanese live longer than anybody else in the world. That is, until
 they move here. The Japanese have one fifth to one sixth the rate of
 breast cancer that we do, says Dr. Peter Greenwald, director of the
 Division of Cancer Prevention and Control at the National Cancer
 Institute. "When they move to Hawaii, the rate goes up". Note - this is
 false, life expectancy is higher for Asians in California than Japan

 "Family Support Credited for Asian's Longevity" Asian Week April 1,
 1988 p. 3
 source: California State Center for Health Statistics

                Men       Women     Index
 Asian               79.2      85.8       8.2       7.8
 Hispanic              72    #N/A           1    #N/A
 White                 71        78         0         0
 Black                 65        65        -6       -13

 Asians live longest, Hispanics outlive Whites as well
 These two groups are most likely to be without health insurance



 "Muck and Brass" Economist May 5, 1990 p. 43

 "Asians have the longest life expectancy on earth - Crowded Hong Kong
 residents can expect to live to 76"

 "U.S. Population In 2050 Will Be Half Minorities"
 Ramon G. McLeod San Francisco Chronicle Dec 4, 1992 p. 1
 U.S. Census Projection

                White     Black     Hispanic  Asian     NativeAm
 Years                 76        70        78        83        78
 Difference             0        -6         2         7         2
 Index               1.00     -1.09      1.03      1.09      1.03

 1995 Life Expectancies
 Years          White     Black     Hispanic  Other
 Male                73.9      66.9      76.4      80.2
 Female              80.2      75.2      83.7      85.6
 Both                77.0      71.0      80.0      83.0

 Index          White     Black     Hispanic  Other
 Male                1.00     -1.10      1.03      1.09
 Female              1.00     -1.07      1.04      1.07
 Both                1.00     -1.08      1.04      1.08

 California Department of Finance, 1993
 Note: Most of "Other" are Asian Americans / PI

* Mormons live a decade longer than other whites.

"How About It Hillary?" Thomas Sowell, Forbes Jan 3, 94 p. 80


@@Primitive


Henry Harpending 2/2001:
There are pretty good data from a few technologically primitive human
groups without medical care nor any sort of public health.  Among Bushmen
survival from birth to 15 was about .71, birth to 65 about .51, so the
probability a 15 year old reached 65 was about 70%.
Ache are foragers in the Amazonian forest.  Survival from birth to 15
was .61, birth to 65 was .28, so survival from 15 to 65 was 45% or
so.  The difference may be that the Ache experienced more violence,
their food was not as good, or there were more pathogens in a humid
forest.

Greg Cochran: Actually, those are pretty good numbers - useful, too.
The Bushmen numbers are close to those of Massachusetts in 1850: the
expectation of life at age 20 was 40.1 years, so if anything the
Bushmen lived _longer_.  Civilization is overrated.  

modified 4/10/2011
http://www.arthurhu.com/index/lifeexpe.htm
\doc\web\index\lifeexpe.txt