Arthur Hu's K12 Disciple / Suspension Education Page

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ARE BLACKS UNFAIRLY SUSPENDED AT HIGH RATES? AND WHY DOESN'T ANYBODY NOTICE ASIAN RATE ARE _LOWER_ THAN WHITES?

Summary - Every year in every city, headlines proclaim black expulsion rates are proof of bias. Yet it is very well kept secret that Asians are least likely to be suspended at rates as low as 1/10 the rate of whites. Discipline is the most important issue to parents. Blacks are most likely from 2 to 5 times rate of whites. High rates of suspension are most often presented as proof of racist mistreatment of black boys, rather than a propensity for crime which is also reflected in high arrest rates for actual crimes, and low rates of suspension and arrest for Asians. The low rate of discipline problems is likely a significant factor in high Asian achievment and low black achievment.

Ranked by Asian Ratio
---------------------------------------
Urbana Elem     W1.0 B-2.9         A10.0
Britain Chinese W1.0 B-5.71 H      A 5.6
Urbana High     W1.0 B-3.3         A 3.0
San Jose        W1.0 B-2.15 H-1.43 A 2.18
Urbana Mid      W1.0 B-2.4         A 2.0
San Francisco   W1.0 B-4.8  H-1.5  A 1.8
USA             W1.0 B-3.07 H-1.21 A 1.26
Seattle '94     W1.0 B-3.89 H-1.44 A 1.0
--- Asian worse -----------------------
Seattle '97     W1.0 B-4.8  H-1.9  A-2.2

Ranked by Black Ratio
---------------------------------------
San Jose        W1.0 B-2.15 H-1.43 A 2.18
USA 1997        W1.0 B-2.25
Urbana Mid      W1.0 B-2.4         A 2.0
Urbana Elem     W1.0 B-2.9         A10.0
Urbana High     W1.0 B-3.3         A 3.0
USA ever        W1.0 B-3.07 H-1.21 A 1.26
Seattle '94     W1.0 B-3.89 H-1.44 A 1.0
Minneapolis     W1.0 B-4.0
San Francisco   W1.0 B-4.8  H-1.5  A 1.8
Seattle '97     W1.0 B-4.8  H-1.9  A-2.2
Britain Chinese W1.0 B-5.71 H      A 5.6
-------------------------------------------

@@Bias


essay:
"Racial Disparities in School Discipline," which may be found in La
Griffe du Lion, Vol. 3, No. 3, June, 2001,
http://www.lagriffedulion.f2s.com/discipline.htm . There he/she shall
find a Griffian analysis of school suspensions by race. It begins:
"There are among us persons of so refined and delicate a nature that
they cannot bear the guilt even of crimes they have not committed.
Their shame is so great that they turn their considerable talents to
serve the demagogues of bias. In this essay we analyze their efforts to
document racial discrimination in school discipline, and humbly offer
advice on how to improve their methods."

NO EVIDENCE BLACKS MISBEHAVE MORE
BLACKS OVER 2 TIMES MORE LIKELY TO BE SUSPENDED EVEN IF FACTORS ACCOUNTED FOR
PROMISE THAT GAPS WILL BE ERASED BY 2005 IN SEATTLE
z55\doc\web\2002\03\uneven.txt
Seattle Post Intelligencer March 15, 2002 "An Uneven Hand:
The racial discipline gap in Seattle Schools"
re: http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/disciplinegap/index.asp
z55\clipim\2002\03\17\hand\index.htm
"one study completed last year has become a leading document on the
discipline gap. Indiana University researcher Russell Skiba found
that African American students were more likely than others to be
disciplined, but found NO EVIDENCE THAT THEY ACTUALLY MISBEHAVED MORE"


LA GRIFFE FINDS EXPULSION RATES CONSISTENT WITH WORLDWIDE CRIME RATE
GAPS FOR BLACKS / WHITES "Racial Disparities in School Discipline,"
by La Griffe du Lion.
http://www.lagriffedulion.f2s.com/discipline.htm
z49\clipim\2001\06\04\expel\expel.htm La Griffe takes the
controversial stance that differential rates of disagreeable behavior
is largely invariant between races, "In December, using assault as a
threshold for aggressiveness, we found a black-white aggressiveness
gap of 0.37 standard deviations (SD), blacks being the more
aggressive. Data came from two sources.  From INTERPOL we obtained
rates of "serious assault" in 64 African and European countries. From
the Justice Department's National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)
we obtained US assault data. the aggressiveness gap was found to be
invariant to cultural shifts across continents, compelling evidence
that aggressiveness distributions differ among races and are
intrinsic to them."
" Close agreement between prediction and observation indicates that
punishment was dispensed without prejudice.  When school discipline
is administered in an evenhanded manner without regard to race,
blacks will be punished out of proportion to their numbers. That is
the expected norm. Disproportionate discipline therefore cannot serve
as a criterion for racial bias."

@@Britain

z48\clip\2001\02\ukdisc.txt The Electronic Telegraph ISSUE 2106
Thursday 1 March 2001 Black pupils three times more likely to be
barred By Liz Lightfoot, Education Correspondent FEARS that some
teachers treat black children more harshly than white have been
confirmed by inspectors. Not only are black pupils up to three times
more likely to be expelled, they tend to receive longer short-term
exclusions.


Phil Rushton notes: the UK from The Times March 11, 1999:
School exclusions for bad behavior per 1000: Chinese 5, White 28, Black
160.
INDEX: W1.0 B-5.71 A5.6 [Asians are as unlikely as blacks are more
likely to be disciplined, is this positive discrimination?]

AFRO-CARRIBEAN KIDS 4X TO BE EXPELLED
z47\clip\2001\01\ukblak.txt
http://www.sunday-times.co.uk/news/pages/Sunday-Times/stinwenws01023.html
December 31 2000 BRITAIN Teachers fear tackling unruly black pupils
Tom Robbins African-Caribbean pupils are nearly four times as likely
as their white counterparts to be excluded from school. Ofsted
research found that black pupils often began school with the highest
attainment of any group but by GCSE were the worst performers.

www.elibrary.com (pay) \clip\99\09\ukprej.txt Independent; JUDITH
JUDD; 05-16-1996 Black pupils 'held back by prejudice' Black boys do
badly at school because teachers believe they are disruptive and
unacademic, leaders of the Commission for Racial Equality said
yesterday.  Around four times as many black Caribbeans as whites are
excluded from school.  

@@City

BLACKS USUALLY TWICE AS LIKEY TO BE DISCIPLINED AS WHITES IN OHIO
z75\clip\2004\02\blakdisc\blakdisc.htm
http://www.enquirer.com/discipline/disciplineday3main.html February
22, 2004 Black students disciplined more Difference blamed on
stereotypes, culture, poverty and behavior By Jennifer Mrozowski and
John Byczkowski The Cincinnati Enquirer
"Three-fourths of 40 Southwest Ohio school districts disciplined
African-Americans at higher rates than whites last year, an Enquirer
analysis of school discipline data shows. In more than half of
schools, blacks were twice as likely to be suspended and sent home for
at least one day. "

Suspensions by race
Black students are given out-of-school suspensions at significantly higher rates than whites every one of Ohio's eight largest city school districts. In 2002-0 

District Black, Non-Hispanic, Out of School Suspensions
         White, Non-Hispanic, Out of School Suspensions  
Akron  95.8  37.7  
Canton  32.9  15.8  
Cincinnati  43.6  14.0  
Cleveland  19.5  14.6  
Columbus  42.6  28.5  
Dayton  37.9  24.1  
Toledo  64.9  24.9  
Youngstown  50.7  22.8  
Source: Ohio Department of Education; Enquirer research 


@@Japan

Amazing. The Japanese goof off too.

\clip\99\03\japndisc.txt In Japan Schools, Discipline in Recess Old
Order Making Way for Disorder in Formerly Rigid Classrooms By Mary
Jordan and Kevin Sullivan Washington Post Foreign Service Sunday,
January 24, 1999; Page A01 

   TOKYO Miss Sato's second-grade class has "collapsed."
DISCIPLINE MADE THE DIFFERENCE "Redemption in Room 33" Reader's
Digest May 1997 p. 48A Cindy Brown Austin (Northeast, Hartford
Courant Nov 10, 1991) F041797 White teacher Mr. Mahoney enforced
discipline and enabled poor black children to live up to high
expectations. "Outburts in class brought lengthy handwriting
punishments.. Mr. Mahoney never had to call for reinforcements.. many
of us had been written off as bullies and dunces whose future had
been written out: FAILURE"


@@Offences

http://www.ets.org/research/pic/orderclass/order.html Order in the
Classroom: Violence, Discipline, and Student Achievement This report
confirms the link between order in the classroom and academic
achievement, examines the current level of school discipline problems
Educational Testing Service

Percentage of US Tenth graders reporting delinquent behavior 
(ever, report has table with frequency if > 1)

73 late to class
42 breaking rules
34 cut /skip class
9  in-school suspension
5  out of school suspension
3  got arrested
1  transferred for disciplinary reasons
source: weglinsky, unpublished tabulations from NELS:88
National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988


@@Race

http://www.lagriffedulion.f2s.com/discipline.htm

Volume 3  Number 3 
June 2001 
RACIAL DISPARITIES IN SCHOOL DISCIPLINE
La Griffe finds school discipline rates entirely consistent, and
predictable based on globally observed differences in agressive
behavior between races, but also finds significant improvement as
a result of intensive intervention.
"using assault as a threshold for
aggressiveness, we found a black-white aggressiveness gap of 0.37
standard deviations (SD),..  INTERPOL..in 64 African and European
countries... US assault data.  Each source independently produced the
same 0.37 SD aggressiveness gap... From the standpoint of the method
of thresholds, expulsion and suspension from school are simply new
thresholds to be placed on the aggressiveness axis...  On the
aggressiveness axis, suspension fell at 0.61 SD from the black mean,
much lower than assault (1.64 SD), and lower still than "serious
assault" (2.86 SD). 

Solution of (1) yielded the results shown in Table 1. 
            Black (n = 6161) White (n = 4620)  
           actual predicted actual predicted threshold (l) 
suspended  1696   1692      765    769       0.60 SD 
expelled     35     34        7      8       2.54 
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Table 1. Predictions based on group differences in aggressiveness. 

"Long-term Effects of an Early Childhood Intervention on Educational
Achievement and Juvenile Arrest," A. J. Reynolds, J. A. Temple, D. L.
Robertson and E. A, Mann, JAMA, 285, 2339-2346 (2001), is a 15-year
follow-up of urban, mostly black, low-income children who matriculated
through an early intervention program in the Chicago public schools.
The authors describe impressive long-term gains made by the children.
.. the method of thresholds will reveal the fuzzy variable gap between
the two groups in each category. Table 3 displays the calculated gaps.

Improvement in 
HS completion       0.28 SD 
Juvenile arrests    0.29 
Violent arrests     0.32 
School dropout      0.21 
Grade retention     0.32 
Special Ed.         0.29 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Table 3. Gaps between CCPCP children and comparison group. 

A shift in the distribution of this variable by about 0.3 SD accounts
quantitatively for all the results of Table 2. We might call the
variable, "socialization," and its shift to higher values, "getting
civilized."  There is yet hope

@@Seattle

z49\clip\2001\04\blacdisc.txt
http://seattlep-i.nwsource.com/local/19160_discipline18.shtml Little
has been done about racial disparities in school discipline
Wednesday, April 18, 2001 By REBEKAH DENN SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER
REPORTER "All of us are to blame for what's going on," said Carl
Mack, vice president of the Seattle chapter of the NAACP.  .. came in
response to data released by the Seattle Public Schools earlier this
month showing that black middle school students were three times as
likely to be disciplined as students in other ethnic groups,

Bias found in school' discinplinary action. AP Eastside Journal Apr
6, 2001 Black students in Seattle schools 2-3X likely to be suspended
or expelled at all schools studied. hs 23 vs 40 disciplined, midd
22/46. 2/3 were boys Eckstein 8.5 /37.8 McClure 20.2/34. Says
teachers need training.


@@USA 

BLACKS ABOUT 2X, LIKELY TO BE SUSPENDED IN US
MALES 3X IN NC
z45\clip\2001\01\susp.txt
http://www.citizen-times.com/cgi-bin/story.cgi?schools&20010106_sch2.txt
Study finds minority students suspended more often than White
students By Clarke Morrison, STAFF WRITER Asheville Citizen-Times
(NC) Jan 6 2001 Sixty-three percent of students statewide who
received long-term suspensions over the past three years were
minorities, vs 38 enrollment, according to the new report by the N.C.
Department of Public Instruction. In Asheville City Schools, where
minorities make up 48.7 percent of the student population, it was 81
percent ...would suggest that we disproportionally commit crimes.  "I
think that the equity in the implementation of the system
disproportionally penalizes African Americans. ...Black males, who
received 43 percent of all long-term suspensions statewide in the
past three years, were nearly three times more likely .. U.S.
Department of Education said in June that one out of every eight
Black students was suspended from school three years ago, compared to
only one out of every 18 White students.  Males were three times more
likely than females to get long-term suspensions, Seventy percent of
students receiving the suspensions were referred to alternative
schooling programs

BLACKS DISCIPLINED AT HIGHER RATES, BUT UNFAIR?
zip39\clip\99\21\disc.txt Federal report says black students
disciplined at higher rate than whites Are schools disciplining
students equitably?  December 8, 1999 During the 1997-1998 school
year, the latest year figures were compiled, African-Americans
accounted for 32 percent of suspensions for disciplinary reasons,
while representing about 17 percent of the total school population.
White students accounted for 51 percent of the disciplinary
suspensions, although they comprise 64 percent of the total student
population. 

\doc\95\11\discipln.txt "Discipline is No. 1 school concern" USA today
8/23/95 Mary Beth Marklein

BLACKS TWICE AS LIKELY TO BE SUSPENDED IN US, 4 TIMES IN MINNEAPOLIS
\clip\97\12\blackboy.txt
http://detnews.com:80/1997/accent/9704/24/04240044.htm Detroit News
Thursday, April 24, 1997 Are schools failing black boys?  Educators
and activists look for ways to keep African-American males from
losing interest in class by Celeste Fremon & Stephanie Renfrow
Hamilton / Parenting Magazine.  Unduly harsh discipline:
African-American males in primary and secondary schools were
suspended more than twice as often as white males in 1992, according
to the Office of Civil Rights. In Minneapolis, 43% of suspended were
black males vs. 14% white males despite equal numbers in 95-96.

----------------------------------------------------------
@@San Jose

.wk1\doc\web\97\02\berrviol.wk1
history: doc936:berrviol.xls

Analysis by Arthur Hu Oct 2, 1993
When society's violence enters community schools
Berryessa Sun (San Jose) September 1993 p.5

Incidents of violence or disobedience, all grades, by race
District Students are for 1992-1993

Ranked by Index White=1.00
           Percent DistrictRate    Index
Black         12.0%    5.0%    2.40    2.15
AmIndian       1.0%    0.6%    1.67    1.49
Hispanic      30.0%   18.8%    1.60    1.43
White         32.0%   28.7%    1.11    1.00
PacIslander    1.0%    1.5%    0.67   -1.67
Asian/PI      24.0%   46.9%    0.51   -2.18
Filipino       6.0%   11.8%    0.51   -2.19
Asian         17.0%   33.6%    0.51   -2.20

San Jose Discipline W1.00 B-2.15 H-1.43 A2.18

           Number  Percent
Male            209   75.7%
Female           67   24.3%
Total           276  100.0%

           Number  Percent
Grade
Sixth            50   22.6%
Seventh          85   38.5%
Eighth           86   38.9%
Total           221  100.0%

Only Asians have a much lower incidence of problems. Hispanics
are 43 percent and Blacks double rate of Whites. So much
for the stereotype of Asian gangs, they've been outnumbered by the
nerds

-------------------------------------------


@@San Francisco

"S.F. Blacks Near Bottom in Grade-Point Survey"
San Francisco Chronicle Aug 3, 1990 p. A29
Blacks are 50% of all suspensions

San Francisco Expulsions 1992-93
Chinese SF Suspension W1.0 B4.8 H1.5 A-1.8 *

old: doc936:sfsuspen.xls,prn
 keywords - asian black white hispanic suspension discipline
 school education
 Analysis by Arthur Hu

 Ranked by Suspension Rate White = 1.00, 1/2 = -2.0
                 Pop       Num         Pct       Rate      Index
 AfricanAm           18.5%        1142     51.4%      2.78       4.8
 Total              100.0%        2220    100.0%      1.00       1.7
 Hispanic            19.9%         398     17.9%      0.90       1.5
 AmIndian             0.6%          12      0.5%      0.90       1.5
 Phillipino           7.8%         125      5.6%      0.72       1.2
 Other NonWhite      12.1%         167      7.5%      0.62       1.1
 White               14.5%         188      8.5%      0.58       1.0
 Korean               1.1%          12      0.5%      0.49      -1.2
 Chinese             24.5%         174      7.8%      0.32      -1.8
 Japanese             1.0%           5      0.2%      0.23      -2.6
 Samoan             #N/A            31      1.4%    #N/A      #N/A
 Indochin           #N/A            63      2.8%    #N/A      #N/A

 Blacks are 5 times more likely than whites to be suspended,
 but Hispanics are 1.5. All the other nonwhite together are still
 close to white, but samoans and Indochinese are not included
 in population counts. The Filipinos, who are "officially"
 disadvantaged are actually not much worse than whites.  The
 Koreans aren't much better at -1.2, but the Chinese are only
 half as likely, and the Japanese are the least at -2.6


-------------------------------------------
@@Seattle

"Seattle school expulsion rates highest in 5 years"
Seattle Times Jan 2, 1997 p. B5

Expulsions from high school (most common):
94-5 95-6 96-7
2.9% 4.5% 4.3% African American
1.0% 2.0% 2.0% Asian
          2.0% District Average
          1.8% American Indians
          1.7% Latino
          0.9% Whites

(Asians have increased to be higher than whites after 1994-95, the
only district in this survey where Asians are higher than whites)

\doc\95\05\seadata.wk1 - Chinese and Japanese least in Seattle
index -2.00 = 2 times worse


Ranked by Expulsions			   
                Percent Index  S
AlaskaNat           0.0%  0.00  
NatAmerican         0.0%  0.00  
EastIndian          0.0%  0.00  
Japanese            0.0%  0.00  
OtherAsian          0.0%  0.00  
Gypsy               0.0%  0.00  
Chinese             0.3%  3.00  
Vietnamese          0.5%  1.80  
Korean              0.8%  1.13  
LatinoIndian        0.9%  1.00  
Asian               0.9%  1.00  
White               0.9%  1.00  
Latino              1.3% -1.44  
Filipino            1.3% -1.44  
AmIndianAll         1.5% -1.67  
LatinoWhite         1.5% -1.67  
Total               1.6% -1.78  
LatinoAsian         1.9% -2.11  
AmIndian            2.1% -2.33  
LatinoBlack         2.3% -2.56  
Other SEAsian       2.5% -2.78  
Samoan              2.9% -3.22  
Black               3.5% -3.89  


                white   black   hisp    asian
ShortTrmSusp    1.00    -2.39   -1.81   1.16 
LongTrm Susp    1.00    -3.14   -2.48   -1.48 
Expulsion       1.00    -3.89   -1.44   1.00 

Chinese  0.2
E Indian 3.6

-----------------------------------------


@@United States

  Odds Ratio of Ever Suspended or Expelled:
  W1.0 B3.07 H1.21 A-1.26 USA

  Source: 1993 National Household Education Survey, School Safety and
  Discipline Component, National Center for Education Statistics,
  US Dept of Education. Analysis of data from public use file by
  Nicholas Zill and Laura Spencer Loomis From "Running in Place" Nicholas
  Zill 1994 (Washington DC: Child Trends Inc 202-362-5580)

doc941\sfexpel.xls 70%-90% for guns, knives, robbery, theft,
assault, drugs

(5X) 6% OF ALL, BUT 34% OF AFRICAN AM IN MINN ARE SUSPENDED FROM SCHOOL
z75\clip\2003\12\zerot.txt
http://www.thenation.com/doc.mhtml?i=20031215
Nation article in the 12/15/03 issue called "Discipline and Punish,"
by Annette FuentesOf course minorities are vastly disproportionately
affected by zero tolerance, e.g., in Minn., 6% of all students were
suspended in 2000-01, while 34% of African-American students were.

National statistics on suspensions from the US Education Department
for 2000 indicate the depth of the disparity: African-American
students are 17 percent of the entire public school population but
account for 34 percent of all out-of-school suspensions and 30 percent
of expulsions. White students, by contrast, are 62 percent of the
student population but account for 48 percent of out-of-school
suspensions and 49 percent of expulsions. 


@@Urbana IL

Date sent:      	Mon, 15 Mar 1999 20:21:51 -0600
From:           	Albert Himoe 
Subject:        	Re: Expulsions by race A < W < B
>Summary - It is very well kept secret that Asians are least likely to be
>suspended -1.26 to -2.2. Discipline is the most important issue to
>parents.  Blacks are most likely from 2 to 5 times rate of whites.

The Urbana, IL figures are right in this range [All from the Equity Audit
Report, Oct 6, 1998]:

For the grade schools:
              Enrollment     Suspensions                     Rate [White =1]
Black         29%               57%                         2.9 
White         59%               40%                          1 
Asian           9%             0.4% [1 suspension]         <0.1


For the Middle School
              Enrollment     Suspensions                  Rate [White =1]
Black         29%               49%                        2.4 
White         59%               42%                          1 
Asian           8%                3%                      0.5

For the High School
              Enrollment     Suspensions                     Rate [White =1]
Black         23%               51%                         3.3 
White         67%               46%                         1 
Asian           7%                 1.5%                     0.3

Although the report claimed that the type of infraction was essentially
the same for all ethnic groups, 21 or 16% of the elementary school
infractions by blacks concerned physical confrontation with the staff,
while only 2 or 2% of the white suspensions concerned this infraction.
[Physical confrontation with students was the most common infraction
resulting in suspension.]