Arthur Hu's Index of Diversity
top | http://www.arthurhu.com/index/drugs.htm

Contents

DRUGS: IS DRUG USE THE SAME ACROSS ALL RACES?

"Drug use among blacks is no higher than among whites" - USA Today ("use drugs at the same rates"), LA Times ("national surveys show same rate of cocaine use"), San Francisco Chronicle ("13% of drug users are black")

It is a well kept secret that Asians have the lowest rate of drug use in almost every comparison of drug use by race. This contributes to a low crime rate, low rate of homelessness, AIDS due to IV drug use, high academic achievement, and healthier babies despite stereotype of gangs that control the drug trade. If you want to be successful and avoid fractured families and AIDS, avoid drugs and casual sex.

When you see a friend or a loved one being overcome by drug abuse, perhaps you should think about intervening and signing him up for addiction treatment and drug rehabilitation centers that will help him get a new lease on life.

Some studies and surveys claim Asians have a higher rate of drug use than the general population, but I have not been able to document any of these studies

Many articles claim blacks have a lower rate of overall drug use than whites as proof of alleged bias in the justice system. But only a 1992 US drug survey of all drugs, regardless of severity, and a survey of HS seniors (heaviest drug users don't make it to senior year) show this. Moreover, whites and blacks use different drugs, with most enforcment concentrated on crack and cocaine, and on sellers of drugs who ARE disproportionately black, although this is rarely mentioned by the press.

Every other indicator of drug use or sales is higher than whites. Blacks have highest rate of emergency room drug cases, use by students in Washington state and Seattle, arrests for cocaine posession and sales, rate of cocaine in blood when murdered or other deaths. The rate of black crack babies in San Francisco is 80 times higher than for whites. Rates are also higher for drug addicted babies, taking drugs while pregnant, AIDS due to IV drug use, drug clinics in San Francisco, New York and Seattle, and most serious drug use (crack, cocaine, heroin).

Most importantly, most crack dealers are black, which carries the highest penalties. In high poverty areas, illegal drug sales contribute a significant portion of the gross community product, and incomes otherwise unemployed men. High drug use contributes to low academic achievement, low rates of employment, marriage, high crime and homicide rate, high rate of homelessness, high rate of cocaine addicted and HIV infected babies, low birthweight and high infant mortality, low rates of drug use have positive effects. Thus, low rates of drug use probably explain postive outcomes for Asians, while high rates of the most dangerous drug use contribute to negative outcomes for African Americans.

Ranked by Black disproportionality 1.0 = white -2.0 means 1/2 rate of whites
Note that Asians better by 2-20x than white by every measure, and with the exception of 3 numbers, blacks are worse than whites nearly every time


Higher----------------------------------------------------------
 W1.0 B76.7            SF cocaine addicted babies vs. nonblack
 W1.0 B48.3            SF cocaine arrests in city vs. nonblack
 W1.0 B16.4H 7.0 A-2.6 US 1993 AIDS from sex with drug user (5)
 W1.0 B15.2      A-1.5 Seattle 2000 Drug arrests 
 W1.0 B14.6H12.0 A-6.2 US 1993 AIDS from injecting drug use (5)
 W1.0 B6.9 H 2.9       NYC cocaine exposed births vs. pop
 W1.0 B6.3 H 4.0       US Heroin users
 W1.0 B3.1 H 5.5 A-3.1 NYC drug detoxification participants
 W1.0 B2.9 H 1.4       US Crack use (2)
 W1.0 B2.6 H 2.3       US Cocaine use 1991 (2)
 W1.0 B2.0             WA state teenager drug use G6, G8
 W1.0 B2.0 H-1.3 A-1.7 CA 1993 drug use by pregnant mothers (4)
 W1.0 B1.6 H1.4  A-5.0 NY City Murder victim used cocaine
 W1.0 B1.6             Georgia deaths postive for cocaine
 W1.0 B1.5 H-19  A-19  SF IV drug treatment clinic methodone
 W1.0 B1.4             WA state teenager drug use G10
 W1.0 B1.4 H-1.1 A-3.4 Cleveland OH arrestee drug use BJS 1994
 W1.0 B1.3 H-1.5 A-8.6 SF drug detoxification clinic
 W1.0 B1.2 H 1.1       US 1993 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse
 W1.0 B1.2 H-1.1       US 1995 survey of marijuana use (1)
Equal ---------------------------------------------------
W1.0 B 1.1 H-1.3 A-1.9  US drug use survey 1992 (3)
W1.0 B 1.0 H 1.3 A-1.8  US high school seniors Heroin use
W1.0 B 1.0              Los Angeles Times Cocaine (incorrect 6)
Lower --------------------------------------------------
W1.0 B-1.4 H-1.1 A-2.1  US high school seniors Marijuana use
W1.0 B-2.0 H 1.2 A-2.1  US high school seniors Cocaine use

Ranked by Asian - note that all data points are LOWER than whites.
W1.0 B 2.0 H-1.3 A-1.7 US drug use by pregnant mothers
W1.0 B 1.0 H 1.3 A-1.8  US high school seniors Heroin use
W1.0 B 1.1 H-1.3 A-1.9  US drug use survey 1992
W1.0 B-1.4 H-1.1 A-2.1  US high school seniors Marijuana use
W1.0 B-2.0 H 1.2 A-2.1  US high school seniors Cocaine use
 W1.0 B16.4H 7.0 A-2.6 US 1993 AIDS from sex with drug user 
 W1.0 B3.1 H 5.5 A-3.1 NYC drug detoxification participants
 W1.0 B1.6 H1.4  A-5.0 NY City Murder victim used cocaine
 W1.0 B14.6H12.0 A-6.2 US 1993 AIDS from injecting drug use
 W1.0 B1.3 H-1.5 A-8.6 SF drug detoxification clinic
 W1.0 B1.5 H-19  A-19  SF IV drug treatment clinic methodone

Sources:
(1) \doc\96\02\usdrug.txt
(2) U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services
Administration, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1991.  
(3) \doc\95\12\asdrug.wk1 - US survey drug use by race B1.1 H-1.3
A-1.9 "Illegal drug use drops except in over-35 group" San Jose
Mercury June 24, 1993 p 10A
(4) "Infant Deaths Tied to Mom's Use of Drugs" San Francisco
Chronicle Sept 16, 1993 p. A8
(5) CDC 1993 AIDS report analysis
(6) Seattle Times Oct 20, 1996 Jesse Katz "No Crack Conspiracy" Data
is simply incorrect, included here for comparison.
(7) Seattle Times Sept 17, 2000 "Drug enforcement by the 
numbers blacks 44%, white 50% of arrests compared to 86/5 of
population








@@arrest

Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics
web: http://www.albany.edu/sourcebook/1995/pdf/t433.pdf
local \doc\97\02\t433.pdf
drugcrim.prn

Sourcebook of criminal justice statistics 1995, page 436
Table 4.33
Drug use by arrestees in 23 U.S. cities
By type of drug, race, ethnicity, and sex, 1994

In almost every city, black arrestees have higher rates of any drug
use and cocaine use than whites, contrary to the widely held belief
that black drug use is the same as whites.

Ranked by Relative Usage of Any Drug
                   black   white   hispanicother
Washington, DC         2.28    1.00    0.00    0.00
Houston, TX            1.49    1.00   -1.05    0.00
San Antonio, TX        1.41    1.00    1.09    0.00
Cleveland, OH          1.41    1.00   -1.06   -3.40
Omaha, NE              1.37    1.00   -1.31    1.10
Atlanta, GA            1.37    1.00    0.00    0.00
Denver, CO             1.28    1.00   -1.02    0.00
Miami, FL              1.27    1.00    1.15    0.00
Dallas, TX             1.26    1.00   -1.11    0.00


@@Asians Low

ASIAN KIDS USE LESS DRUGS BECAUSE PARENTS ARE CLOSER
"Substance abuse lower in Asian-American families" The Asian Reporter
(Portland Ore) Dec 3, 2002 "Strong family ties and good parent-child
communication appear to protect Asian-American youth from drug and
alchohol use says a new study by [Irene Kim U California Davis Dept
of Human and Community Development, co-author Zoland Zane UC Davis,
Sehee Hong UC Santa Barbara.] .. protected from peer influences.
Published in Journal of Psychology.. Pacific Islander youth use more
than other API..  counseling .. improving communication within the
family...


@@birth

doc\doc936\mothdrug.xls
"Infant Deaths Tied to Mom's Use of Drugs"
San Francisco Chronicle Sept 16, 1993 p. A8

CA93 Pregnant Drug Use  B=2.0 H=-1.33 A=-1.71 doc\doc936\mothdrug

"This study should not be interpreted as providing any
evidence that the primary reason for poor birth outcomes in
blacks is due to maternal behavior" (but a relationship is
plausible)

Black women are twice as likely as whites to use alchohol,				
tobacco or drugs in pregnancy, and over 8 times more likely				
to have used cocaine. Asians and, more surprising,				
Hispanics are less likely than whites to have used alchohol,				
tobacco or drugs. (According to other statistics, these two				
groups have lower infant mortality than Whites or Blacks,				
despite higher poverty levels than Whites) This is counter
to the traditional explanation of racism and poverty to
explain poor black birth outcomes.

\doc\95\06\sfdrug.txt - blacks are 90% of cocaine
addicted births in San Francisco "Mentors help black youths to
adulthood" Gregory Lewis, San Francisco Chronicle March 10, 1991

asian.drug.black
@@black

Most press accounts claim that drug use is no higher in the black
community than whites. However only one US high school senior survey
shows lower rates of drug use for Blacks, which is misleading since
the heaviest users of drugs are not likely to stay in school for the
senior year. One US survey shows Blacks about 10% higher than whites
overall for ALL drug use. Statments by the LA times that cocaine use
is the same is just plain false, data in the Statistical Abstract
show blacks to be 2.6 to 3 times higher in crack and cocaine usage.
Every other indicator of drug use is much greater for Blacks than
Whites, and this shows most greatly in AIDS due to drug use and poor
birth outcomes.

%> equal or lower

d:\doc\web\97\02\nocrak.txt "Paper: No Crack Conspiracy" Jesse Katz
(Los Angeles Times) Seattle Times Oct 20, 1996 p. A16 "Their
distribution system did not bypass the African American community,
which has always used cocaine at about the same rate as White
America, according to national drug-abuse surveys"

\doc\95\12\blakjail.txt "1 of 3 Blacks in 20s Had Trouble With the
Law" Loius Freedberg (San Francisco Chronicle) Seattle Post
Intelligencer Oct 5, 1995 p. 1 The Sentencing project in Wash. D.C.
The report says that 4.8 percent of black women are serving jail
sentences, compared to only 1.4 percent of white women.

Blacks are
13% of drug users (equal to population)
35% of drug posession arrests
55% of drug posession convictions
74% of prison sentences for drugs

\priv\95\17\drugbuy.txt Date: Tuesday, November 14, 1995 Chicago
Tribune BIAS STORY UNRAVELING IN SLAYING Half of drug buyers in a
black neighborhood were white in a sting operation in Chicago (yes,
but what percent of the dealers were black?)

USA Today July 23, 1993 6A "Stereotypes fuel cycle" Blacks are four
times more likely to be arrested as whites on drug charges, but blacks
and whites use drugs at about the same rates (no evidence they
sell drugs at the same rates, does not cite the study)

\priv\95\07\crakchar.txt "Who is Prosecuted on crack charges?"
Seattle Times May 21, 1995 A18 Very few whites are prosecuted on drug
charges, and they are largely prosecuted in state courts, with much
easier sentences. The National Institute on Drug Abuse show that
whites are more likely than other racial groups to use crack. (That's
not correct, and it does not explain why blacks have highest rate of
cocaine addicted babies, and emergency room cases, did not cite the
study)

doc\94\15\priv\blackstr.txt - black teens use less drugs than whites
according to most surveys, and less use of alchohol (conflicts with
Wash and Seattle student survey, probably based on survey on high
school seniors which doesn't include drop-outs)

\doc\95\02\hsdrug.wk1 - National High School Drug Survey Summary:
Whites use illicit drugs the most according to this survey of high
school seniors, however drug users are not likely to be in high
school for senior year. This survey also has the unusual conclusion
that Asians are less than Whites, but sometimes more than Blacks.
This study does not appear to be reliable given data for Washington
State and Seattle for children in all grades.

   Male                             Cocaine
        Male         PR/LA              1.31
        Male         MexAm              1.24
        Male         Other              1.23
        Male         NatAm              1.19
        Male         White              1.00
        Male         Black             -1.95
        Male         Asian             -2.05

\doc\95\12\asdrug.wk1 - US survey drug use by race B1.1 H-1.3 A-1.9
 "Illegal drug use drops except in over-35 group" San Jose Mercury
June 24, 1993 p 10A

 Drug Use by Race, 1992
             White     Black     Hispanic  Asian/Oth		  
 Percent         76.1%     14.0%      8.0%      1.9%		  
 Index                      1.1      -1.3      -1.9

@@ higher

-------------------------------------------------------
US 1993: Index W1.00 B1.23 H1.13

source: http://www.health.org/pubs/93hhs/anyillic.htm Preliminary
Estimates from the 1993 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Office of
Applied Studies U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Public
Health Service Advance Report Number 7

The rate of current illicit drug use for blacks (6.8 percent)
remained somewhat higher than for whites (5.5 percent). The rate for
Hispanics was 6.2 percent. @()

     Most current illicit drug users were white. There were an
estimated 8.7 million whites (74 percent of all users), 1.6 million
blacks (13 percent), and 1.1 million Hispanics (10 percent) that were
current illicit drug users in 1993.

\doc\96\02\usdrug.txt "More Teenagers Using Marijuana" USA Today
Sept 13, 1995 p. 7D US Marijuana use: W1.0 B1.21 H-1.11 US Survey on
Drug Abuse, 9-12-95 shows marijuana use: (contrary to common reports
that black drug use is lower)
                        
                     Percent Index
18-34 No HS diploma  14.6%
18+   Unemployed     14.0%
18+   Men             8%
      Black           7.3%   1.21
18-34 Colleg Grad     6.7%
18+   Employed        6.7%
      White           6.0%   1.00
18+   Hispanic        5.4%  -1.11
18+   Women           4.3%
      Asian           NA
      

file: \doc\95\06\sfdrug.txt - blacks are 85% of cocaine arrests in
San Francisco "Mentors help black youths to adulthood" Gregory Lewis,
San Francisco Chronicle March 10, 1991
arrest index = 48.3 vs. non-black
cocaine birth index = 76.7 vs. non-black

African American youths are 85% of all cocaine arrests in San
Francisco city. 90% of cocaine addicted babies in San Francisco
General Hospital are black.

d:\doc\94\19\homicoke.wk1 - Cocaine and homicide in NY City
Murder victim used cocaine, age & gender corrected 
 W1.0 B1.6 H1.4 A-5.0

d:\doc\94\17\cocdeath.wk1 cocaine and death  7/6/94 JAMA
d:\doc\94\18\cokegun.wk1 - Cocaine Detection and Homicide in GA
Tested positive for cocaine use vs. White
Homicides W1.0 B1.57 (black rate is nearly 50%)
Firearms Deaths W1.0 B1.69
Other Deaths W1.0 B1.2

doc938:sfaids93.xls - 
  SF IV drug in methadone treatment (W1.38)1.0 B1.5 H-19 A-19 NA2.7
  SF IV+non-IV in drug detox        (W1.33)1.0 B1.3 H-1.5 A-8.6 NA3.7

doc941\nycidu.wk1
  NYC drug detoxication participants
  W(.417)1.0 B3.06 H5.49 A-3.08

doc941\washdrug.xls drug use among Washington State teenagers
  survey of moderate to high drug use
B G6=2.00 G8=1.83 G10=1.47 G12 1.36 rate of whites

d:\doc\94\18\seateen.wk1 - seattle survey of drug use among students

ever been high at school            W1.0 B1.13 H0.27 A.50 SA 0.33 N1.27
Drug or Alchohol Use in Past month  W1.0 B1.03 H1.10 A.64 SA 0.51 N1.09
Alchohol Use                        W1.0 B1.04 H1.08 A.58 SA 0.51 N1.04
Drug not Alchohol                   W1.0 B1.22 H1.22 A.52 SA 0.39 N1.55
Marijuana                           W1.0 B1.22 H1.22 A.30 SA 0.19 N1.44
Cocaine                             W1.0 B1.50 H3.00 A.50 SA 0.50 N2.50

doc936:mothdrug.xls,prn - US drug use of pregnant mothers by race 

   B=2.0 H=-1.33 A=-1.71

\doc\95\14\crakbaby.wk1 Cocaine Exposed Births in NYC by Race
Incidence Index: W1%(1.0) B6.7%(6.9) H2.9%(3.0) A-NA

@@cocaine baby - see asian.drug.birth

@@cocaine and homicide
d:\doc\94\19\homicoke.wk1 - Cocaine and homicide in NY City

Summary: Asians more likely to be murdered, esp 45-54
but much less likely to have been using cocaine when murdered
All Homicides in NY City W1.0(.21) B8.76 H9.27 A2.73
Murder victim used cocaine, age & gender corrected 
 W1.0 B1.6 H1.4 A-5.0
With age and gender corrected, chances of being killed by
firearms W1.0 B1.7 H1.5 A2.2

d:\doc\94\17\cocdeath.wk1 cocaine and death  7/6/94 JAMA

d:\doc\94\18\cokegun.wk1 - Cocaine Detection and Homicide in GA
Tested positive for cocaine use vs. White
Homicides W1.0 B1.57 (black rate is nearly 50%)
Firearms Deaths W1.0 B1.69
Other Deaths W1.0 B1.2


@@dealers

\clip\96\08\ladrug.txt AP 20-Oct-1996 17:40 EDT REF5429 L.A. Times
Doubts CIA Drug Role LOS ANGELES (AP) -- Crack was introduced to Los
Angeles' black neighborhoods not by the CIA or anti-communist
guerrillas, but as numerous dealers tried to cash in on the drug's
profitability, the Los Angeles Times reported Sunday. An early
kingpin said that blacks were "the ones who could hustle it on the
streets", and gangs were in control of distribution, accounting for
25% of arrests.


\clip\96\02\blakcrak.txt 20 Aug 1996 06:31:28 -0400 War on drugs'
unequal impact on U.S. blacks Contra case illustrates the
discrepancy: Nicaraguan goes free; L.A. dealer faces life By Gary
Webb San Jose Mercury News Staff Writer. The reason: most crack
dealers are black

@@employment

\doc\95\14\drughire.txt "Hires passing drug tests" USA Today Oct 30,
1995. New job applicants tested for drugs have declined from 11.4% in
1989 to 3.8% in 1994 for postive.

@@Family

ADDICTS TWICE AS LIKELY TO HAVE COME FROM DISRUPTED FAMILIES

\doc\web\97\02\drugfam.txt "Study Links Drug Addiction To Early
Family Disruption" Investor's Business Daily Feb 11, 1997.  Journal
of Drugs and Alchohol Dependence says that one-third of addicts in
Baltimore City, twice the rate of other residents, had divorced or
separated parents 9% had parents who had never married


@@general 

USA Today July 23, 1993 6A "Stereotypes fuel cycle" "blacks are four
times as likely as whites to be arrested on drug charges even though
blacks and whites use drugs at about the same rates"

d:\doc\94\17\pardmari.txt - 
Parade Magazine July 31, 1994 p. 16 poll of 51,797 readers
35% of Parade magazine readers use marijuana frequently
67% use it at least occasionally

\doc\95\12\asdrug.wk1 - US survey drug use by race B1.1 H-1.3 A-1.9
"Illegal drug use drops except in over-35 group" San Jose Mercury
June 24, 1993 p 10A

 Drug Use by Race, 1992
             White     Black     Hispanic  Asian/Oth		  
 Percent         76.1%     14.0%      8.0%      1.9%		  
 Index                      1.1      -1.3      -1.9

doc938:sfaids93.xls - 
  SF IV drug in methadone treatment (W1.38)1.0 B1.5 H-19 A-19 NA2.7
  SF IV+non-IV in drug detox        (W1.33)1.0 B1.3 H-1.5 A-8.6 NA3.7

doc941\nycidu.wk1
  NYC drug detoxication participants
  W(.417)1.0 B3.06 H5.49 A-3.08

doc941\washdrug.xls drug use among Washington State teenagers
  survey of moderate to high drug use
           White     Black     Hispanic  Asian     NatAm
 G6             1.00      2.00      5.00      2.00      5.00
 G8             1.00      1.83      1.50     -1.20      2.17
 G10            1.00      1.47      1.07     -1.25      2.00
 G12            1.00      1.36      1.14     -7.33      1.45
 Asians much lower G12, slightly lower in lower grades,
 blacks and hispanics and NAms much higher than white

\doc\94\2\usdrug2.wk1 drug use by race

As cited in: US Statistical Abstract 1993 CD-ROM sec03\s0208.wk1										No. 209. Use of Selected Drugs, by Age of User: 1991										
Source: U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 										
National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1991.										

Drug use ranked by highest relative Black use - blacks have higher
rate of marijuana and cocaine, equal smoking, but not other drugs.

index women vs men=1.0 black vs white=1.0
                                   Women    Black    Hispanic Asian-NA
Crack: Total              ever         -2.0      2.9      1.4
Cocaine: Total            month        -2.2      2.6      2.3
Marijuana: Total          month        -1.9      1.6     -1.0
Cigarettes: Total         month        -1.1      1.0     -1.1
Alcohol: Total            month        -1.3     -1.2     -1.1
Analgesics: \4 Total      ever         -1.3     -1.4     -1.7
Inhalants: Total          ever         -1.8     -1.5     -1.2
Sedatives: \4 Total       ever         -1.3     -1.5     -1.5
Smokeless tobacco: Total  month       -13.0     -2.0     -4.9
Tranquilizers: \4 Total   ever         -1.1     -2.0     -1.6
Hallucinogens: Total      ever         -1.6     -2.2     -1.4
Stimulants: \4 Total      ever         -1.4     -2.4     -1.6

doc\94\6\heroinra.wk1 Heroin use by race
"Smack's Back" USA Today May 25, 1994 p. 3A			

Users                           W(.49) 1.00 B6.3  H4.04 A??
Emergency Room admissions 1993: W(.49) 1.00 B6.21 H4.01 A??

doc\census\usaids.wk1 
1990 US CDC figures, Risk of AIDS of Asians compared to white
due to IV drug user          -6.76 
due to Homosexual and IV    -13.54
similar figures in every other location in the US surveyed on HIV risk

@@Heroin

Wake up call: Heroin deaths on the rise
Seattle Post Intelligencer May 12, 1999
144 heroin deaths in King County 1998

83% white 13% black
86% male
50% ages 35-44

@@homicide

One might make a claim that drug arrests are just a figment of 
racial bias, but what of the high homicide rate?

BLACKS AND DRUGS - RACIAL BIAS OR A REAL PROBLEM?

It is said that black drug arrests are because of racial bias, but 
how does that explain the astronomical death rate of blacks
involved in the drug business? Is that bias?

\clip\97\09\drugkill.txt
http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/dead_032897.html
Seattle Times Friday, March 28, 1997 A promising life, a tragic end
by Linda Keene Seattle Times staff reporter

Angaw Ayele survived civil war and famine in Africa, but he couldn't
survive the drug and gang wars of Seattle. The bright, personable
honor student was shot and killed in a downtown alley last week, a
bag of cocaine in his pocket.


@@Nitrous Oxide (Laughing Gas)

zip37\clipim\99\09\17\laugh.gif Seattle Times Sept 3, 1999 MIT
student, alum charged in death from laughing gas.  22 year old
physics major aspyxiated as a result of nitrous oxide inhalation,
pair also faces charges of conspiracy, possession of a hypodermic
needle and cruelty to animals. authorities were investigating whether
he had been inhaling from a "community canister" shared by other
students.

zip37\clip\99\18\nitrox.txt
http://www-tech.mit.edu/V111/N53/obit.53n.html Two workers found dead
in parking lot (nitrous oxide) By Dave Watt Two employees of Lincoln
Laboratory died Wednesday after they were found unconscious in a van
located in the laboratory's parking lot.  Although a tank of nitrous
oxide was found in the van, the cause of their deaths has not yet
been determined. 

@@opium
\priv\96\02\laodrug.txt Laotians bring Opium habit to US

@@race

Races have different
effects with drugs


@@religion

http://www.andrews.edu/IPA/research/sda_youth.html 3/2/97
\clip\97\07\sda\sda.htm Seventh Day Adventists have very low
rates of drug use

       Substance Use among Seventh-day Adventist Youth
 Table 1: Alcohol and Marijuana Use Among SDA Youth 
                      Age Group Alcohol Use  Marijuana Use 

 Junior High Students: 
      IPA Survey      12-13 year olds  4%      1%
      Valuegenesis:   7th, 8th graders 3%, 5%  4%, 6% 
      U.S. youth      similar age      8%, 16% 3%, 7% 

 High School Seniors: 
   Union-wide Survey: 12th graders     13.5%   11.6%
     Valuegenesis:    12th graders     15%     11%
      U.S. youth:     similar age      54%     20%

@@sex

Teens who have less sex are also less likely to take drugs or get
involved in other risk behaviors (in other words, good boys and girls
have less sex and take less drugs)

DOCN AD941314
 TI   "Substance Use and HIV-Related Sexual Behaviors Among US High School
      Students: Are They Related?"
 DT   940700
 AU   Lowry, Richard;  Holtzman, Deborah;  Truman, Benedict I. et al.
 SO   American Journal of Public Health (07/94) Vol. 84, No. 7, P. 1116
 AB   Lowry et al. set out to determine whether use of alcohol, 
      cigarettes, marijuana, or hard drugs is linked to the likelihood of
      sexual behaviors that increase risk for HIV among adolescents. They
      used the 1990 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey to gather
      self-reported data from 11,631 high school students across the United
      States.  Lowry and his colleagues found that those youngsters who
      reported no substance abuse were least likely to have had four or
      more sexual partners, least likely not to have used a condom, and
      least likely to have had sex at all.  These risky behaviors were, on
      the other hand, most common among students who had used marijuana,
      cocaine, or other illicit drugs. The researchers conclude that HIV
      programs for adolescents must take into account the fact that
      substance abuse, through its association with unsafe sexual
      behaviors, may be an important factor in calculating risk of HIV
      infection and AIDS.

      DISTRIBUTED BY GENA/aegis (714.248.2836 * 8N1/Full Duplex): Copyright
      (c) 1994 - Information, Inc., Bethesda, MD.  This information is
      provided by the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC),
      National AIDS Clearinghouse as a public service.  Noncommercial
      reproduction encouraged.

@@teen - see youth

@@tong

>>\priv\96\02\tong.txt \priv\96\02\tong.txt  NYT 2/6/96 Members of
Chinese-American Groups in Atlanta Are Indicted
asian-american.crime.tong - Money laundering is found.

@@women

\doc\96\04\womndrug.txt

Use of drugs by women by income

Source: National Center on Addiction and
Substance Abuse, as cited by USA Today
6/20/96
           Regular  Ever
0-14,999   5%       28%
15-29,999  4%       33%
30-74,999  2%       37%
75,000 +   2%       46%

Drug include cocaine/crack, heroin,
hallucinogens, marijuana and perscription drug
abuse
Regular = at least once a month in past year

Hi incomes are more likely to have tried drugs, but poorer
women are most likely to use it regularly (and have poor
birth outcomes)

\priv\96\19\womndrug.txt San Jose Mercury Wed, 5 Jun 1996 

Young women turning to drugs Report cites neglect, pressure from
society By Rachel L. Jones WASHINGTON -- Young American women are
closing a deadly gap with men, turning to illegal drugs, tobacco and
alcohol at an alarming rate. Comment - there is no mention that the
extraordinarly high rate of birth health problems and AIDS among
blacks is due to drug use, and that the extremely low rates for AIDS
and birth problems for Asians is mostly due to very low rates of drug
use by Asian women.

\priv\96\19\womndru2.txt Women Closing Gender Gap on Substance Abuse,
Report Says By JENNIFER BROWN SJM 6/6/96 69 percent of women in
alcoholism treatment were sexually abused as children, compared with
12 percent of men in treatment, the report said.  Girls and boys are
about even in the number who smoke (about 12 percent), drink alcohol
(about 18 percent) and use drugs (about 13 percent), the study said.


@@youth @@drug

CHINESE (2-3X) JAPANESE (2X) LOWEST DRUG USE, HAWAIIAN, WHITE HIGHEST RATES
z85\doc\web\2004\12\hiabuse.txt
Table 2. Lifetime prevalence of substance use by grade and ethnicity in Hawaii, 1998 (percent)
Ranked by any drug
                      Grade 8                     Grade 10
Ethnicity  Any drug  Alcohol  Tobacco  Any drug  Alcohol  Tobacco
Hawaiian     35.5     59.4     53.5      55.1     80.1     65.3
White        30.2     56.2     44.0      49.4     76.0     60.0
Filipino     25.2     55.2     50.8      39.9     73.5     65.9
Japanese     16.9     43.1     29.0      30.7     63.8     45.6
Chinese      10.6     36.8     20.2      18.9     54.9     35.1

                      Grade 12
Ethnicity  Any drug  Alcohol  Tobacco
White        61.8     86.9     67.0
Hawaiian     57.4     82.2     66.0
Filipino     48.4     84.0     67.8
Japanese     39.2     75.4     55.6
Chinese      31.3     70.3     46.5

Ratio: White = 1.0, -2.0 = 2 times worse
        Grade 8                 Grade 10
EthnicitAny drugAlcohol Tobacco Any drugAlcohol Tobacco
Hawaiian   -1.18   -1.06   -1.22   -1.12   -1.05   -1.09
White       1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00
Filipino    1.20    1.02   -1.15    1.24    1.03   -1.10
Japanese    1.79    1.30    1.52    1.61    1.19    1.32
Chinese     2.85    1.53    2.18    2.61    1.38    1.71

        Grade 12
EthnicitAny drugAlcohol Tobacco
White       1.00    1.00    1.00
Hawaiian    1.08    1.06    1.02
Filipino    1.28    1.03   -1.01
Japanese    1.58    1.15    1.21
Chinese     1.97    1.24    1.44

Hawaiians worse in grades 8 and 10, whites at top by grade 12
Chinese best, then Japanese and Filipino in all 3 grades

Source: Klingle RS, Miller MD. 1998 Hawaii student alcohol and drug
use study. Honolulu: State of Hawaii Department of Health, Alcohol and
Drug Abuse Division; 1999. p. 126-37.


\clip\97\30\teendrug.txt AP 12/20/1997 Figures From Drug Abuse Survey
--Daily use of the drug by eighth-graders decreased to 1.1 percent
this year from 1.5 percent in 1996.  --Daily use among seniors
increased to 5.8 percent in 1997 from 4.9 percent last year. 

\clip\96\12\teendrug.txt AP 19-Dec-1996 Study: Teen Illegal Drug Use
Rising
   WASHINGTON (AP) -- Illicit drug use by American teen-agers rose again
in 1996, with marijuana use accounting for much of the overall increase,
according to a survey of 50,000 students done for the federal government.

\clip\96\08\whoswho.txt AP 13-Nov-1996 Teenager Survey on Immigration
Issue Survey of "Who's Who Among American High School Students"
98% plan to go to college
14% tried marijuana

\clip\96\02\drugup.txt AP 20-Aug-1996 5:53 Teenager Drug Use Up Drug
use among 12- to 17-year-olds rose 78 percent from 1992 to 1995,
according to the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse by the
Department of Health and Human Services, the paper reports in
Tuesday's editions. Some say that drug use, which was at a low is
rising due to lack of leadership by Clinton administration.

>>\priv\96\01\teenfear.htm - SJM 1/12/96 -- Almost 1 in 3 students
worried about being victims of drive-by shootings. More than 2 in 5
black and Hispanic students expressed that fear.

\priv\95\05\teenrisk.txt

1.5% of surveyed US teens had shot up drugs. Among those with four or
more sex partners, rates were dramatically higher - 6.2% for boys and
2.6% for girls.  Source: CDC Atlanta  "Teens' risky sexual behavior"
USA Today Page 1D - April 10, 1992 By Kim Painter, USA TODAY

\doc\95\02\hsdrug.wk1 - National High School Drug Survey

Summary: Whites use illicit drugs the most according to this survey.
Asians are less than Whites, but often more than Blacks. However,
this does not explain prevalence of drug dealing in inner city
neighborhoods, or  emergency room incidents, or babies born exposed
to drugs which are higher for Blacks than Whites. The biggest problem
is that it is of high school seniors, when the people most likely to
use drugs are most likely to have dropped out already.


Ranked by Cocaine Use                                                    Other
                       Marijuan Inhalant Hallucin LSD      Cocaine  Heroin   Opiates
 Female       NatAm     1.22    -1.18     1.80     1.85     1.67     3.33     1.08
 Male         PR/LA    -1.31    -1.73    -1.28    -2.06     1.31     1.71    -2.17
 Male         MexAm    -1.08    -1.47    -1.41    -1.35     1.24     1.29    -2.03
 Male         Other    -1.06    -1.04     1.20     1.09     1.23     2.00    -1.23
 Male         NatAm     1.04     1.09     1.20     1.11     1.19     2.14     1.14
 Female       Other    -1.26    -1.37    -1.09    -1.30     1.12     1.00    -1.39
 Male         White     1.00     1.00     1.00     1.00     1.00     1.00     1.00
 Female       White     1.00     1.00     1.00     1.00     1.00     1.00     1.00
 Female       PR/LA    -1.69    -1.79    -2.38    -3.55    -1.13     1.33    -3.31
 Female       MexAm    -1.38    -1.21    -2.27    -2.44    -1.22     1.33    -2.52
 Female       Asian     3.09    -1.63    -2.27    -2.05    -1.63    -1.50    -2.52
 Male         Black    -1.35    -3.38    -4.37    -5.38    -1.95     1.00    -3.42
 Male         Asian    -2.05    -1.83    -2.77    -2.80    -2.05    -1.75    -2.10
 Female       Black    -1.96    -2.36    -8.33   -13.00    -3.58     1.33    -4.42

                    Stimulan Sedative Barbitur Methaqua Tranquil Alcohol
 Female       NatAm     1.30     1.45     1.63     1.57     1.47    -1.09
 Male         PR/LA    -1.70    -1.15    -1.10    -1.09    -1.87    -1.10
 Male         MexAm    -1.20    -1.13    -1.07    -2.08    -2.23     1.05
 Male         Other    -1.08     1.34     1.39     1.36     1.34    -1.05
 Male         NatAm     1.25     1.66     1.64     1.92     1.19    -1.08
 Female       Other    -1.30    -1.22    -1.23     1.14    -1.31    -1.14
 Male         White     1.00     1.00     1.00     1.00     1.00     1.00
 Female       White     1.00     1.00     1.00     1.00     1.00     1.00
 Female       PR/LA    -1.63    -1.69    -1.52    -2.80    -1.44    -1.15
 Female       MexAm    -1.46    -1.63    -1.58    -2.80    -2.81    -1.20
 Female       Asian    -2.10    -1.69    -1.65    -1.56    -3.28    -1.31
 Male         Black    -2.96    -2.41    -2.32    -2.78    -3.41    -1.22
 Male         Asian    -2.43    -1.56    -1.69    -1.67    -1.81    -1.27
 Female       Black    -4.74    -3.67    -3.45    -4.67    -4.21    -1.39

 Ranked by Asian American Prevalence
 White Index and Percent Prevelance
                    Male              Male              Asian vs
                    Asian    Percent  Black    Percent  Black
 Alcohol               -1.27     69.3    -1.22     72.5    -1.05
 Sedatives b           -1.56      3.4    -2.41      2.2     1.55
 Methaqualone b        -1.67      1.5    -2.78      0.9     1.67
 Barbiturates b        -1.69      2.6    -2.32      1.9     1.37
 Heroin                -1.75      0.4     1.00      0.7    -1.75
 Tranquilizers         -1.81      3.2    -3.41      1.7     1.88
 Inhalants             -1.83      4.8    -3.38      2.6     1.85
 Marijuana / Hashis    -2.05     19.6    -1.35     29.8    -1.52
 Cocaine               -2.05      5.8    -1.95      6.1    -1.05
 Other opiates b       -2.10      3.1    -3.42      1.9     1.63
 Stimulant b           -2.43      5.6    -2.96      4.6     1.22
 Hallucinogens         -2.77      3.0    -4.37      1.9     1.58
 LSD                   -2.80      2.5    -5.38      1.3     1.92
   Asians less than Whites, but more than Blacks !

   Relative Rates of Cocaine Use
   Male                             Cocaine
        Male         PR/LA              1.31
        Male         MexAm              1.24
        Male         Other              1.23
        Male         NatAm              1.19
        Male         White              1.00
        Male         Black             -1.95
        Male         Asian             -2.05

   Female                           Cocaine
        Female       NatAm              1.67
        Female       Other              1.12
        Female       White              1.00
        Female       PR/LA             -1.13
        Female       MexAm             -1.22
        Female       Asian             -1.63
        Female       Black             -3.58

   Asians rank last with Blacks, but Blacks have higher rates of
   emergency room incidents and babies born to mothers taking cocaine
   compared to Whites


d:\doc\94\18\seateen.wk1 - seattle survey of drug use among students

ever been high at school            W1.0 B1.13 H0.27 A.50 SA 0.33 N1.27
Drug or Alchohol Use in Past month  W1.0 B1.03 H1.10 A.64 SA 0.51 N1.09
Alchohol Use                        W1.0 B1.04 H1.08 A.58 SA 0.51 N1.04
Drug not Alchohol                   W1.0 B1.22 H1.22 A.52 SA 0.39 N1.55
Marijuana                           W1.0 B1.22 H1.22 A.30 SA 0.19 N1.44
Cocaine                             W1.0 B1.50 H3.00 A.50 SA 0.50 N2.50
Tranquilizer/Barbit                 W1.0 B1.25 H1.25 A.75 SE 0.75 N1.75
Hallucinogen                        W1.0 B0.44 H0.89 A.33 SE 0.22 N1.11
Heroin                              W1.0 B3.00 H4.00(A2.0)(SE2.0) N2.0
Tried Marijuana                     W1.0 B1.26 H1.17 A.36 SE0.24  N1.50
Tried Cigarettes                    W1.0 B0.97 H1.13 A.77 SE0.66  N1.31
Tried Alchohol                      W1.0 B0.98 H0.98 A.78 SE0.60  N0.97

Blacks higher for everything but LSD, 
Asians lower for everything but Heroin (but overall rate still only
2%)
Native Americans higher than Blacks for nearly everything

asian.health.drugs 

"Dramatic Findings in School Drug Survey" San Francisco Chronicle Feb
25, 1990 A6 (Washington Post) Study by University of Michigan
Institute of Social Research. "The ethnic group with the lowest rates
of legal and illegal drug use were Asian Americans. Only 9.7 percent
of Asian American males reported using marijuana in the past month,
less than half the rate (25.7%) of whites. Native Americans were the
highest, Hispanics were "intermediate" 40% of white males and 29.8% of
black males used marijuana in the past year

doc934:asyouth9.txt doc\94\7\blackcpol.txt - pessimistic poll of black
parents and children of black parents 66% said at least half of black
children will be destroyed by drugs

doc\94\15\priv\blackstr.txt - black teens use less drugs than whites
according to most surveys, and less use of alchohol (conflicts with
Wash and Seattle student survey)
   
  * no documentation on rate of drug sales among black youth