Dropout

Contents

@@dropout - see education

Summary:

"High dropout rates" are often cited for Asian Americans even when
the rate is actually half average in SF, NYC or Boston. However,
dropout rates for rural areas and SE Asians may be high for Mass
state or other regions with high numbers of refugees where d/o may be
as high as 50%. 

The most common perception is that blacks have the highest drop out
rates, but black dropout rates nationally are now almost identical to
whites, depending on which statistics you look at. They are now equal
at 25-29, lag slightly in the 18-24 range.

Since the 1950s, the gap between blacks and whites declined by about
10 years so that in 1990, the rate of high school education was about
identical for whites. In 1900, only 5-10% of students were even
allowed to enter high school by examination, and by WWII, no more than
half were expected to graduate. It was in the 1960s that every child
was expected to stick around for diploma or be labeled "drop out", and
in the 1990s that "standards" were put into place that they not only
stick around but perform at "world class standards".

The group with the generally highest rates are Hispanics, with a
national average of about 50%. The problem isn't so much Hispanics
who grow up here, but Hispanics who immigrate after the stop school
in Mexico, but don't start again here. It is a well kept secret that
Asians have the lowest rates but Asian figures also average in youth
with very low dropout rates with an adult population with a very high
rate of no formal education beyond elementary school.

Summary:    

    Overall Asians 1/2 white rate in most cities, 
    Asians 15% lower in states except in pockets dominated by refugees.
    White normalized to 1.0

Asians only equal or higher to whites in agricultural CA or Mass
state, probably due to SE Asian refugees, or specific groups such as
Samoans.

Black dropout rate is nearly same as whites after 1990
Hispanics have the highest dropout rate with rates at or over 50%
Rural Whites also have high dropout rates.


Summary of Drop out rates ranked by Asian index - only areas with
high proportions of SE Asian refugees are higher than whites.
1.0 = white -2.0 = 1/2 white rate

Asian Dropout Equal or Higher
    *Massachusetts 86-7       B2.4  H3.5  A 1.4  N2.1
    *Stockton CA              B-1.6 H1.4  A 1.2  N1.3
    *San Juaquin County CA 89 B2.5  H1.5  A-1.02 N-3

Lower
    *California 1989          B2.0  H1.8  A-1.16 F-1.07 P2.0  N1.3
    *Oakland 1990-91          B1.45 H2.81 A-1.16 F 2.0  P-2.8 N1.4
    WA 2004 Grad rate         B1.4  H1.4  A-1.05              N-1.6
    Los Angeles               B2.5  H2.1  A-1.3         P1.8
    San Jose mid school drop  B1.1  H2.0  A-1.6 N1.3
    SanJose Eastside Union 92 B1.2  H2.0  A-1.6 N1.4
	US 16-19 Northeast 90     B1.9  H2.5  A-1.6 N 2.3
    Seattle 1987              B1.3  H1.3  A-1.7
	US 16-19 West 90          B1.2  H2.2  A-1.8 N 1.6
    US 16-19 90               B1.4  H2.2  A-2.0 N 1.8
    New York City                         A-2.0
    Boston 86                 B1.04 H1.10 A-2.1
    Boston Latin 87           B2.06 H2.06 A-2.5
    San Francisco 90          B1.5  H1.0  A-2.9
    Boston Latin Transfer 87  B2    H2    A-3
    Boston held back 87       B1.01 H1.03 A-3.04
    United States 1980        B1.4  H2.3  A-4   N-3.4


Blacks Higher
---------------------
    Los Angeles               B2.5  H2.1  A-1.3         P1.8
    Boston Latin 87           B2.06 H2.06 A-2.5
    *California 1989          B2.0  H1.8  A-1.16 F-1.07 P2.0 N1.3
    Boston Latin Transfer 87  B2.0  H2.0  A-3
    US 16-19 Northeast 90     B1.9  H2.5  A-1.6  N 2.3
    Civil Rights Project      B1.5  H1.5  A-1.03 N 1.42
    San Francisco 90          B1.5  H1.0  A-2.9
    *Oakland 1990-91          B1.45 H2.81 A-1.16 F 2.0  P-2.8 N1.4
    United States 1980        B1.4  H2.3  A-4   N-3.4
    US 16-19 90               B1.4  H2.2  A-2.0 N 1.8
    Seattle 1987              B1.3  H1.3  A-1.7
    US 16-19 West 90          B1.2  H2.2  A-1.8 N 1.6

Blacks within 10%
---------------------------------------------------------
    San Jose mid school drop  B1.1  H2.0  A-1.6 N1.3
    Boston 86                 B1.04 H1.10 A-2.1
    Boston held back 87       B1.01 H1.03 A-3.04


HS Completion spectrum
-----------------------------------
93% White 25-29 1999 US
92.8% Alaska 1999
91.2% Washington State 1999
89% Black 25-29 1999 US
88% White 25+ 1999 US
85% AsianPI 25+ 1999 US
78% US Dept HHS gay high school youth (??)
77% AfAm 25+ 1999 US
70% Native Born Hispanic 1999
56% Hispanic 25+ 1999
44% Foreign Born Hispanic 1999
40% Foster children 1999


@@Asian

Asians usually have the lowest rate of dropout if they are mostly
Chinese or Japanese, but SE Asian refugee populations such as in 
Massachusetts can raise the rate above the white average for all
Asians.

ASIANS DROP OUT AT HALF OVERALL RATE IN NYC
Lessons Edward B. Fiske New York Times March 8, 1989 Meeting the
needs of the Asian Americans who don't fit the 'model minority' mold.
New York City Board of education estimates 13 percent of Asians drop
out of high school, about half the overall rate. Some 7th graders
arrive with no formal education. Cultural Revolution resulted in many
adults with little or no education.
z39\clipim\2000\02\01\lessons.tif

ASIANS HAVE HIGHEST ON-TIME GRADUATE RATE IN WA STATE
\doc\web\2005\09\wagradrate.xls
"On-time-graduation rates rise" Seattle Times Sept 15, 2005 p. B2
On Time Graduation Rates
Washington State Class of 2004

Asian      78.0%  1.05 1.05
White      74.0%  1.00-1.00
Black      54.0%  0.73-1.37
Hisp       54.0%  0.73-1.37
NativeAm   47.0%  0.64-1.57
All        70.0%  0.95-1.06
Drop out   21.5%  0.29-3.44
Fifth ye    8.5%  0.11-8.71
W1.00(74%) B-1.37 H-1.37 A 1.05 N-1.57
Asians have highest, Native Americans lowest graduation rate
If blacks are lower than whites, it is a crisis, but if whites are
lower than Asians, good for the Asians.



@@black

%%general
50% OF BLACK KIDS BORN IN THE 80S WILL NEVER GRADUATE OR WORK
(yeah, right)
"Kids dig in garbage to get enough to eat" USA Today interviews
Harold Ford, Democrat from Tennesee June 5, 1985 p. 9A
z54\clipim\2001\12\14\ford\p1.gif p2

z44\clip\2000\07\afdrop.txt
AFRICANS DROPOUT LOTS IN LISBON PORTUGAL
Africans drop out a lot
By BΑRBARA WONG Sunday, 16 of July of 2000 It is in the Lisbon's
metropolitan area that more students of african origin drop out of
school.  "It is a matter of elimination: only those who have the
ability stay in school", says Ana Braga.

WHITES LOSE DROPOUT ADVANTAGE OVER BLACKS WITH DISRUPTED FAMILIES
"Love American Style" New Republic April 14, 1997 p. 30 F042097 White
children with disrputed parents have higher dropout rates than black
two parent families, and sociologists Mclanahan and gary Sautefur
found that family disruption completely erases the racial advantage
of lower high school drop out rates. [This may also help explain the
why Asians generally have even lower dropout rates than whites, with
generally the highest rate of two-parent families in most cities]

%%Improvement

MORE BLACKS COMPLETING HIGH SCHOOL 6/9/91
San Jose Mercury 6/9/91. While rates have barely improved for whites
and Hispanics, blacks have been on a constant rise. At a loss to
explain it though. Test scores not rising as fast. Local statistics
of 40-50 pct dropout rates are "notoriously unreliable" compared to
census figures.
z75\clipim\2003\12\29\morecomp.efx .jpg

\doc\95\02\cens301.txt
   - In 1993, the annual high-school dropout rates of African Americans (5
     percent) and Whites (4 percent), were not statistically different.

   - In 1994, 73 percent of African Americans aged 25 years old and over
     had attained at least a high school diploma compared with 51 percent
     in 1980.  In 1994, 13 percent of African American adults (25 years and
     over) had a bachelor's degree compared with 8 percent in 1980.
     Corresponding percentages for Whites were 23 percent and 18 percent
     respectively.  

d:\doc\94\19\edrace94.wk1
Adults 18-24 yrs old dropout
W1.00 B1.33 H2.75

Bureau of Census Statistical Brief for Congress Black Children in
America:1993 CB/94-1 Sept 1994. annual high school dropout rate
for blacks declined from 11 percent in 1970 to 5 percent in 1993,
the rate rate for whites went from 5 to 4 percent, so there is no
statistical difference in dropout rate of whites and blacks.

@@city

priv\95\01\dropot90.txt
LIFE Page 1D - June 20, 1990 Dropout rate for blacks declines By
Dennis Kelly, USA TODAY     
The annual dropout rate fell from 9.6% to 6.3% for blacks; from
6.1% to 4.7% for whites. 

doc938\dropout.xls
higher
    *San Juaquin County CA 89   B 2.5 H1.5 A-1.02 N-3
    *Stockton CA                B-1.6 H1.4 A1.2  N1.3
    *Massachusetts 86-7         B 2.4 H3.5 A1.4  N2.1

lower
    California 1989             B2.0 H1.8 A-1.2 Fil -1.07 Pac2.0 N1.3
    Oakland 1990-91             B1.5 H2.8 A-1.2 F2.0 PI-2.8 N1.36
    Los Angeles                 B2.5 H2.1 A-1.3 PI1.8
    San Jose mid school drop    B1.1 H2.0 A-1.6 N1.3
    San Jose Eastside Union '92 B1.2 H2.0 A-1.6 N1.4
    Seattle 1987                B1.3 H1.3 A-1.7
    US 90                       B1.4 H2.2 A-2.0 N1.80
    New York City                         A-2.0
    Boston 86                   B1.04H1.1 A-2.1
    Boston Latin 87             B2.1 H2.1 A-2.5
    San Francisco 90            B1.5 H1.0 A-2.9
    Boston held back 87         B1.0 H1.0 A-3.0
    Boston Latin Transfer 87    B2   H2   A-3
    United States 1980          B1.4 H2.3 A-4.0 N-3.4

\doc\95\13\drop95.wk1 - US Drop Out Rates by Race and Region

Source: Juvenile Offenders and Victims: A National Report
Snyder, Howard N. and Sickmund, Melissa (1995)
Washington D.C: Office of Juvenile Justice and  Delinquency Prevention

Native Americans and Hispanics had the highest drop out rates
Source: Bureau of the Census (1993) STF3

Percentage of youth 16-19 in 1990 that withdrew w/o graduating

        Total   White   Black   NatAm   Asian   Hispanic
US           11      10      14      18       5      22
West         13      11      13      18       6      24
Northeas      9       8      15      18       5      20
Midwest       9       8      15      21       5      20

Not noted: Asians had by far the lowest rate of dropout, about
half the rate of whites in most of the country.

Index White = 1.00
        Total   White   Black   NatAm   Asian   Hispanic
US         1.10    1.00    1.40    1.80   -2.00    2.20
West       1.18    1.00    1.18    1.64   -1.83    2.18
Northeas   1.13    1.00    1.88    2.25   -1.60    2.50
Midwest    1.13    1.00    1.88    2.63   -1.60    2.50


doc93a\usdrop.txt USA 1992 Dept of Ed Age of 22 w/o HSG or equiv
     Index
     Rate      All       White     Black     Hispanic  Asian
         1992      1.40      1.00      1.90      3.70    #N/A
         1972      1.20      1.00      1.73      3.00    #N/A


http://www.arthurhu.com/index/dropout.htm#cacounty
[[California counties

MODEL OR DISADVANTAGED MYTH? ASIANS AND FILIPINOS HAVE LOWER DROPOUT
RATES THAN WHITES IN MOST CALIFORNIA COUNTIES

\doc\96\07\dropco.wk1 Dropouts in California by Race and County
http://goldmine.cde.ca.gov/ftpbranch/retdiv/demo/cbeds_htm_files/student.htm
\doc\96\07\dropco.dbf

Analysis by Arthur Hu

Ranked by Relative Asian rate
Asians are lower or equal to whites in all but 13 out of 45 counties in California
YEAR COUNTY         AI    AS    PAC   FIL   HSP   BLK   WHT   MALE  FEMALE	
94-95VENTURA        -2.26  7.67 -3.39  2.09 -2.39 -2.26  1.00 -1.61 -1.39 			  
94-95KERN           -1.56  4.56  1.14  1.95 -1.29 -1.20  1.00 -1.22  1.00 			  
94-95SONOMA         -2.41  4.40 -1.05  1.29 -2.82 -1.41  1.00 -1.45 -1.14 			  
94-95SAN FRANCISCO  -1.70  3.89 -1.08  1.76  1.16 -1.30  1.00  1.40  1.57 			  
94-95SOLANO          1.62  3.00 -1.43  1.11 -1.57 -1.48  1.00 -1.24 -1.05 			  
94-95SAN MATEO      -1.44  2.57 -1.50 -1.06 -2.61 -1.44  1.00 -1.56 -1.22 			  
94-95YUBA            2.44  2.10 -1.61 ##### -1.09 -1.91  1.00  1.05  1.10 			  
94-95HUMBOLDT       -1.14  2.04 ##### ##### -1.94 -1.04  1.00 -1.08 -1.02 			  
94-95PLACER          3.43  2.00 ##### ##### -1.46 -2.33  1.00 -1.17  1.09 			  
94-95RIVERSIDE       3.43  2.00 -1.58  1.60 -2.00 -1.54  1.00 -1.50 -1.29 			  
94-95PLACER          3.43  2.00 ##### ##### -1.46 -2.33  1.00 -1.17  1.09 			  
94-95DEL NORTE      -1.44  1.78 ##### #####  1.04 -3.79  1.00 -1.35  1.37 			  
94-95CONTRA COSTA   -1.89  1.73  1.73 -1.32 -2.53 -1.89  1.00 -1.42 -1.16 			  
94-95ORANGE         -1.31  1.60 -2.44  1.14 -3.19 -2.19  1.00 -1.81 -1.56 			  
94-95SANTA CRUZ     -1.75  1.50 -1.11  4.50 -1.22  1.33  1.00 -1.08 -1.03 			  
94-95MENDOCINO      -2.26  1.46 -2.37 ##### -2.14 -3.86  1.00 -1.34 -1.14 			  
942-95SAN DIEGO      -2.14  1.27 -1.96  1.12 -2.14 -1.82  1.00 -1.50 -1.32 			  
94-95SAN BERNARDINO -2.50  1.25 -2.07  2.31 -1.63 -1.80  1.00 -1.40 -1.23 			  
94-95LOS ANGELES    -1.69  1.23 -2.22 -1.13 -2.44 -3.31  1.00 -2.16 -1.88 			  
94-95SANTA CLARA    -1.68  1.22 -1.36 -1.23 -2.50 -1.91  1.00 -1.50 -1.45 			  
94-95TULARE         -2.36  1.19 #####  2.50 -2.16 -2.04  1.00 -1.64 -1.56 			  
94-95MERCED         -3.26  1.13 #####  3.09 -1.15 -1.15  1.00 -1.03 -1.12 			  
94-95MONTEREY        1.21  1.12 -1.31  1.12 -1.72 -1.59  1.00 -1.52 -1.28 			  
94-95BUTTE          -2.36  1.08  1.17  1.05 -2.07 -1.95  1.00 -1.19 -1.12 			  
94-95FRESNO         -2.03  1.06 -1.86  5.00 -2.00 -2.09  1.00 -1.63 -1.37 			  
94-95SUTTER         -3.93  1.04 ##### ##### -2.86 -1.45  1.00 -1.38 -1.48 			  
94-95MARIN          #####  1.00 ##### ##### -3.58 -2.33  1.00 -1.58 -1.17 			  
94-95MADERA         -1.12 -1.02 ##### -2.02 -2.02 -1.29  1.00 -1.61 -1.32 			  
94-95ALAMEDA        -1.48 -1.04 -2.74 -1.04 -2.78 -3.52  1.00 -1.96 -1.83 			  
94-95NEVADA          1.28 -1.06 ##### -4.47 -2.28 -1.84  1.00 -1.13  1.07 			  
94-95SACRAMENTO     -2.06 -1.11 -1.03  1.30 -2.23 -2.03  1.00 -1.43 -1.26 			  
94-95YOLO           -1.39 -1.14 -5.75 -9.14 -1.68 -2.46  1.00 -1.39 -1.21 			  
94-95EL DORADO      -1.55 -1.35 -1.10  2.00 -2.25 -2.10  1.00 -1.05 -1.25 			  
94-95IMPERIAL       -1.63 -1.38 ##### ##### -1.29 -2.13  1.00 -1.29 -1.21 			  
94-95SHASTA         -1.07 -1.42 -2.58 ##### -1.19 -1.98  1.00  1.00 -1.09 			  
94-95SANTA BARBARA  -1.62 -1.48 -1.81  1.62 -2.05 -3.05  1.00 -1.57 -1.48 			  
94-95STANISLAUS      1.00 -1.50 -2.47 -1.27 -1.97 -1.90  1.00 -1.53 -1.13 			  
94-95SAN JOAQUIN    -1.75 -1.55  1.00  1.18 -2.50 -2.45  1.00 -1.60 -1.55 			  
94-95GLENN          -5.50 -2.11 ##### ##### -2.89 -2.86  1.00 -1.79 -1.54 			  
94-95LASSEN          1.33 -5.55 ##### ##### -1.10 #####  1.00 -1.20  1.18 			  
94-95TEHAMA          1.86 -7.00 -5.15 ##### -2.15 -11.85 1.00 -1.54  1.00 			  
																		  			  
Only Santa Cruz has lower dropout rate for Blacks than Whites			  			  
Ranked by Relative Black rate											  			  

YEAR COUNTY         AM_INDASIAN PAC_ISFILIPIHISPANBLACK WHITE MALE  FEMALE
94-95SANTA CRUZ     -1.75  1.50 -1.11  4.50 -1.22  1.33  1.00 -1.08 -1.03 			  
94-95HUMBOLDT       -1.14  2.04 ##### ##### -1.94 -1.04  1.00 -1.08 -1.02 			  
																		  			  
																		  			  
Ranked by Filipino relative dropout rate								  			  
Filipinos are worse than White in only 9 out of 30 counties that have figu			  
YEAR COUNTY         AI    AS    PAC   FIL   HSP   BLK   WHT   MALE		  			  
94-95FRESNO         -2.03  1.06 -1.86  5.00 -2.00 -2.09  1.00 -1.63 -1.37 			  
94-95SANTA CRUZ     -1.75  1.50 -1.11  4.50 -1.22  1.33  1.00 -1.08 -1.03 			  
94-95MERCED         -3.26  1.13 #DIV/0 3.09 -1.15 -1.15  1.00 -1.03 -1.12 			  
94-95TULARE         -2.36  1.19 #DIV/0 2.50 -2.16 -2.04  1.00 -1.64 -1.56 			  
94-95SAN BERNARDINO -2.50  1.25 -2.07  2.31 -1.63 -1.80  1.00 -1.40 -1.23 			  
94-95VENTURA        -2.26  7.67 -3.39  2.09 -2.39 -2.26  1.00 -1.61 -1.39 			  
94-95EL DORADO      -1.55 -1.35 -1.10  2.00 -2.25 -2.10  1.00 -1.05 -1.25 			  
94-95KERN           -1.56  4.56  1.14  1.95 -1.29 -1.20  1.00 -1.22  1.00 			  
94-95SAN FRANCISCO  -1.70  3.89 -1.08  1.76  1.16 -1.30  1.00  1.40  1.57 			  
94-95SANTA BARBARA  -1.62 -1.48 -1.81  1.62 -2.05 -3.05  1.00 -1.57 -1.48 			  
94-95RIVERSIDE       3.43  2.00 -1.58  1.60 -2.00 -1.54  1.00 -1.50 -1.29 			  
94-95SAN LUIS OBISPO-1.19 #DIV/0#DIV/0 1.45 -3.06 -1.31  1.00 -1.63  1.00 			  
94-95SACRAMENTO     -2.06 -1.11 -1.03  1.30 -2.23 -2.03  1.00 -1.43 -1.26 			  
94-95SONOMA         -2.41  4.40 -1.05  1.29 -2.82 -1.41  1.00 -1.45 -1.14 			  
94-95SAN JOAQUIN    -1.75 -1.55  1.00  1.18 -2.50 -2.45  1.00 -1.60 -1.55 			  
94-95ORANGE         -1.31  1.60 -2.44  1.14 -3.19 -2.19  1.00 -1.81 -1.56 			  
94-95SAN DIEGO      -2.14  1.27 -1.96  1.12 -2.14 -1.82  1.00 -1.50 -1.32 			  
94-95MONTEREY        1.21  1.12 -1.31  1.12 -1.72 -1.59  1.00 -1.52 -1.28 			  
94-95SOLANO          1.62  3.00 -1.43  1.11 -1.57 -1.48  1.00 -1.24 -1.05 			  
94-95BUTTE          -2.36  1.08  1.17  1.05 -2.07 -1.95  1.00 -1.19 -1.12 			  
94-95ALAMEDA        -1.48 -1.04 -2.74 -1.04 -2.78 -3.52  1.00 -1.96 -1.83 			  
94-95SAN MATEO      -1.44  2.57 -1.50 -1.06 -2.61 -1.44  1.00 -1.56 -1.22 			  
94-95LOS ANGELES    -1.69  1.23 -2.22 -1.13 -2.44 -3.31  1.00 -2.16 -1.88 			  
94-95SANTA CLARA    -1.68  1.22 -1.36 -1.23 -2.50 -1.91  1.00 -1.50 -1.45 			  
94-95STANISLAUS      1.00 -1.50 -2.47 -1.27 -1.97 -1.90  1.00 -1.53 -1.13 			  
94-95CONTRA COSTA   -1.89  1.73  1.73 -1.32 -2.53 -1.89  1.00 -1.42 -1.16 			  
94-95MADERA         -1.12 -1.02 #DIV/0-2.02 -2.02 -1.29  1.00 -1.61 -1.32 			  
94-95NEVADA          1.28 -1.06 #DIV/0-4.47 -2.28 -1.84  1.00 -1.13  1.07 			  
94-95YOLO           -1.39 -1.14 -5.75 -9.14 -1.68 -2.46  1.00 -1.39 -1.21 			  
94-95TUOLUMNE       -3.08 #DIV/0#DIV/0-33.00-2.92 #DIV/0 1.00 -1.23 -1.23 			  

[[Chicago

\clip\98\05\newscl01.txt 2/16/98 Chicago Tribune BILINGUAL SCHOOLING
BECOMES HOT TOPIC By Janita Poe The Latino population has an 11.6
percent high school dropout rate, surpassing all other racial or
ethnic groups.


[[Colorado


Colorado Dept of Education
http://www.cde.state.co.us/facts96.htm 11/97
   Graduation Rates for Class of 1996                              Annual Dropout Rates for 1995-96 School Year   
                       
                                                                       
                           Number of   Graduation                                         Number of    Dropout    
                           Graduates      Rate                                             Dropouts      Rate     

Total                         32,608        77.7%               Total                        12,949        4.0%  

Male                          15,749        74.8%               Male                          7,379        4.4%  
Female                        16,859        80.6%               Female                        5,570        3.5%  

American Indian                  237        46.2%               American Indian                 294        8.2%  
Asian                            981        80.8%               Asian                           260        3.0%  
Black                          1,364        65.1%               Black                         1,021        5.6%  
Hispanic                       4,109        59.6%               Hispanic                      4,284        7.5%  
White                         25,917        82.9%               White                         7,090        3.0%  
                                                                                                         
[[San Francisco

\doc\94\17\sfschool.wk1 SF School grades etc.

          Dropout rate ranked by Race
                    Dropout Ra Relative
         Kor            0.03      -3.89
         Chin           0.03      -3.41
         Japn           0.04      -2.66
         Fil            0.07      -1.56
         SEAS           0.07      -1.51
         White          0.11       1.00
         Hispanic       0.13       1.17
         Black          0.19       1.72
         High school dropout rates 91/92

[[Texas

[[Washington

ASIANS GRADUATE AT HIGHEST RATE
z84\clip\2004\09\gradtime.txt
SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER
http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/local/190687_grads14.html
Only two-thirds of state's students graduate on time Seattle's rate in
2003 slightly worse than 2002
Tuesday, September 14, 2004

On time graduation rate
Pct  vsWhite
71.0  1.02 AsianPI
69.7  1.00 White
49.5 -1.41 Hispanic
48.3 -1.44 Black
41.8 -1.67 AmericanIndian

By GREGORY ROBERTS SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER REPORTER
More than a third of the Washington state students who entered public
high school as freshmen in the class of 2003 failed to graduate on
time in four years, a rate unchanged from 2002, a state education
official said yesterday.
In Seattle, the state's largest school district, almost half of those
freshmen failed to get a diploma in four years


"A third fail to finish high school" Seattle Post Intell.  Aug 28, 2002
David Eggert. Manhattan Institute study finds lower rates based on
9-12 grad rate vs state which uses G12 start/end.

80% State average
77% Asian
70% White
53% Black
47% Native Am
47% Latino
82% Lake Washington
82% Bellingham
71% Seattle
51% Everett
51% Tacoma


@@Civil Rights Project

CIV RIGHTS PROJ: 9TH GRADE GRADUATION RATE W75 A77 B50 H51
\clip\2004\03\mingrad.txt
Report Disputes U.S. High School Graduation Rates
By Linda Perlstein, Washington Post Staff Writer
Thursday, February 26, 2004; Page A03
Civil Rights Project at Harvard University, which joined the Urban
Institute to write "Losing Our Future: How Minority Youth Are Being
Left Behind by the Graduation Rate Crisis."

White             75   1.00
Asian             77   1.03
Black             50  -1.50
Hispanic          51  -1.47
Native American   53  -1.42
----------------------------
Female                 1.08

Civil Rights Project W1.0 B-1.50 H-1.47 A1.03 N-1.42

rates for Whites and Asians are 75 and 77 percent nationally.  Males
graduate from high school at a rate 8 percent lower than female
students.  .. barely half of students from historically disadvantaged
minority groups. Graduation rates for Black, American Indian, and
Hispanic students were 50, 51, and 53 percent respectively. 
"cumulative promotion index," which considers the number of students
enrolled each year and the number who receive diplomas after four
years, is more authentic.


@@Decision

\doc\97\02\dropout.txt MAKING THE DECISION TO DROP OUT OF HIGH SCHOOL
A Bi-level Analysis of the Process in American Schools Timothy B.
Fowler Statistician / Demographer, Population Division, U.S. Bureau
of the Census, Washington DC


@@degree

3.1M High school grad
2.8M Public hsgrad
  300K Private hsgrad
  496K GED
  563K Associate
1.166M bachelor
  385K master
   76K 1st professional
   44K PhD
"Digest of Education Statistics 1999."
National Center for Education Statistics,
U.S. Department of Education, March 28, 2000
(about 1 bachlor for every 3 hs grad)


@@family structure

WHITES LOSE DROPOUT ADVANTAGE OVER BLACKS WITH DISRUPTED FAMILIES
"Love American Style" New Republic April 14, 1997 p. 30 F042097 White
children with disrputed parents have higher dropout rates than black
two parent families, and sociologists Mclanahan and gary Sautefur
found that family disruption completely erases the racial advantage
of lower high school drop out rates. [This may also help explain the
why Asians generally have even lower dropout rates than whites, with
generally the highest rate of two-parent families in most cities]


@@filipino

doc934:filprob.txt high filipino dropout rates? in SF


@@Foster Care

60% of children in foster care never graduate from high school
according to Leating of Seattle Treehouse agency "Leaving grief at
the schoolhouse door Seattle Times Jan 16, 2000


@@Gay

US CLAIMS 28% OF GAY YOUTH DROP OUT -- BUT WHY THE HIGH COLLEGE RATE?
http://www.glsen.org/pages/sections/news/chaseremarks
z45\clip\2000\10\chase.txt Remarks Bob Chase, NEA President For The
Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network Chicago, Illinois October
7, 2000 The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has found
that 28 percent of all gay youth drop out of high school – usually to
“escape the harassment, violence, and alienation they endure at
school.” [note: I find this hard to believe since 50% of gays
complete college, twice the rate of the general population, this
would indicate a dropout rate more likely HALF of the general
population]

@@Hispanic

Hispanics have the highest drop out rates nationally, while the black
dropout rate became comparable to whites during the 1990s. Some say
the schools and racism is to blame, but then why is it higher than
blacks who suffer much worse from discrimination? Most likely, it is
because of a culture that views "family" as somebody who makes money
as soon as possible as opposed to the Asian view of stuffing as much
education as possible into the children.

Latino Dropout Rate Declines, Offering Hope Education
http://www.latimes.com/excite/990319/t000024830.html Friday, March 19,
1999 Percentage with high school diplomas rises slightly. Statistics have
been cause for alarm. By MELISSA HEALY, Times Staff Writer ASHINGTON- "A
year after a commission of experts called the high school dropout rate
among Latinos "shockingly and unacceptably high," the proportion of adult
Latinos with high school diplomas inched upward, the Education Department
reported Thursday. From 1996 to 1997, the percentage of Latinos ages 18 to
24 who have completed high school crept from 61.9% to 66.7%. In the same
period, the proportion of 16- to 24-year-old Latinos who said that they
had dropped out of high school edged downward from 29.4% to 25.3%."


Dropout Rates in the United States: 1995
http://www.ed.gov/NCES/pubs 
BLAME STUDENTS FOR HIGH HISPANIC DROP OUT RATE?
\clip\97\24\hispdrop.txt c Copyright U.S. News & World Report, Inc.
All rights reserved.  October 20, 1997 / Volume 123 / Number 15 The
Hispanic dropout mystery A staggering 30 percent leave school, far
more than blacks or whites.  Why?  BY SUSAN HEADDEN

"Schools in rural Mexico are apt to be
remote, overcrowded, and limited to the primary grades.  Partly
because of this weak academic tradition, many Hispanic parents don't
demand as much of American schools as whites and blacks do." " Others
insist it is Hispanics themselves who are giving up on education."
"Even if blame for the dropout crisis lies with the students, a
solution is likely to come from the schools. The black dropout rate
plummeted once schools focused on it; "


\clip\97\19\hispdrop.txt The Associated Press, July 31, 1997
WASHINGTON (AP) - Nearly a third of young Hispanic adults were high
school dropouts in 1995, a rate that has held steady for more than 20
years, the Education Department reported today.  Those who do attend
school drop out sooner. In 1995, more than half of the Hispanic
dropouts reported having less than a 10th grade education, compared
with 31.1 percent of the white dropouts and 27 percent of the black
dropouts.

http://www.ed.gov/NCES/pubs/dp95/97473-4.html

Table 15 Rate, number, and distribution of status dropouts, ages
16-24, by race-ethnicity and place of birth: October 1995 

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                        Number of
                           Status         status                          Percent      Percent
                           dropout       dropouts         Population       of all         of
Characteristics             rate      (in thousands)    (in thousands)    dropouts    population
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total                       12.0          3,876             32,379         100.0        100.0
   Born in U.S.              9.9          2,875             28,935          74.2         89.4
   Foreign-born             29.1          1,001              3,444          25.8         10.6

White, non-Hispanic          8.6          1,887             21,991          48.7         67.9
   Born in U.S.              8.6          1,831             21,242          47.2         65.6
   Foreign-born              7.5             56                749           1.4          2.3

Black, non-Hispanic         12.1            571              4,732          14.7         14.6
   Born in U.S.             12.2            552              4,519          14.2         14.0
   Foreign-born              8.8             19                213           0.5          0.7

Hispanic                    30.0          1,345              4,485          34.7         13.9
   Born in U.S.             17.9            458              2,562          11.8          7.9
   Foreign-born             46.2            887              1,923          22.9          5.9

Other                        6.2             73              1,171           1.9          3.6
   Born in U.S.              5.6             34                611           0.9          1.9
   Foreign-born              6.9             39                559           1.0          1.7
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------    
NOTE: Because of rounding, details may not add to totals.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Current Population Survey, October
1995, unpublished data.


@@history

2006 figures Digest of Education Statistics

http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d07/tables/dt07_105.asp

SHOWS STEADY DECLINE FROM 27.2% IN 1960 TO 9.3% IN 2006
Table 105. Percentage of high school dropouts among persons 16 through 24 years old (status dropout rate), by sex and race/ethnicity: Selected years, 1960 through 2006 
Year Total status dropout rate Male status dropout rate Female status dropout rate 
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
        Total
        All races1
                 White
                          Black    Hispanic
                                         Female
                                         All races1 White Black Hispanic  All races1 White Black Hispanic  

1960 2  27.2 (—) — (†) — (†) — (†) 27.8 (—) — (†) — (†) — (†) 26.7 (—) — (†) — (†) — (†)
(Based on 1960 census)
1967 3  17.0 (—) 15.4 (—) 28.6 (—) — (†) 16.5 (—) 14.7 (—) 30.6 (—) — (†) 17.3 (—) 16.1 (—) 26.9 (—) — (†) 
1968 3  16.2 (—) 14.7 (—) 27.4 (—) — (†) 15.8 (—) 14.4 (—) 27.1 (—) — (†) 16.5 (—) 15.0 (—) 27.6 (—) — (†) 
1969 3  15.2 (—) 13.6 (—) 26.7 (—) — (†) 14.3 (—) 12.6 (—) 26.9 (—) — (†) 16.0 (—) 14.6 (—) 26.7 (—) — (†) 
                                                  
1970 3  15.0 (0.29) 13.2 (0.30) 27.9 (1.22) — (†) 14.2 (0.42) 12.2 (0.42) 29.4 (1.82) — (†) 15.7 (0.41) 14.1 (0.42) 26.6 (1.65) — (†) 
1971 3  14.7 (0.28) 13.4 (0.29) 24.0 (1.14) — (†) 14.2 (0.41) 12.6 (0.41) 25.5 (1.70) — (†) 15.2 (0.40) 14.2 (0.42) 22.6 (1.54) — (†) 
1972 14.6 (0.28) 12.3 (0.29) 21.3 (1.07) 34.3 (2.22) 14.1 (0.40) 11.6 (0.40) 22.3 (1.59) 33.7 (3.23) 15.1 (0.39) 12.8 (0.41) 20.5 (1.44) 34.8 (3.05) 
1973 14.1 (0.27) 11.6 (0.28) 22.2 (1.06) 33.5 (2.24) 13.7 (0.38) 11.5 (0.39) 21.5 (1.53) 30.4 (3.16) 14.5 (0.38) 11.8 (0.39) 22.8 (1.47) 36.4 (3.16) 
1974 14.3 (0.27) 11.9 (0.28) 21.2 (1.05) 33.0 (2.08) 14.2 (0.39) 12.0 (0.40) 20.1 (1.51) 33.8 (2.99) 14.3 (0.38) 11.8 (0.39) 22.1 (1.45) 32.2 (2.90) 
                                                  
1975 13.9 (0.27) 11.4 (0.27) 22.9 (1.06) 29.2 (2.02) 13.3 (0.37) 11.0 (0.38) 23.0 (1.56) 26.7 (2.84) 14.5 (0.38) 11.8 (0.39) 22.9 (1.44) 31.6 (2.86) 
1976 14.1 (0.27) 12.0 (0.28) 20.5 (1.00) 31.4 (2.01) 14.1 (0.38) 12.1 (0.39) 21.2 (1.49) 30.3 (2.94) 14.2 (0.37) 11.8 (0.39) 19.9 (1.35) 32.3 (2.76) 
1977 14.1 (0.27) 11.9 (0.28) 19.8 (0.99) 33.0 (2.02) 14.5 (0.38) 12.6 (0.40) 19.5 (1.45) 31.6 (2.89) 13.8 (0.37) 11.2 (0.38) 20.0 (1.36) 34.3 (2.83) 
1978 14.2 (0.27) 11.9 (0.28) 20.2 (1.00) 33.3 (2.00) 14.6 (0.38) 12.2 (0.40) 22.5 (1.52) 33.6 (2.88) 13.9 (0.37) 11.6 (0.39) 18.3 (1.31) 33.1 (2.78) 
1979 14.6 (0.27) 12.0 (0.28) 21.1 (1.01) 33.8 (1.98) 15.0 (0.39) 12.6 (0.40) 22.4 (1.52) 33.0 (2.83) 14.2 (0.37) 11.5 (0.38) 20.0 (1.35) 34.5 (2.77) 
                                                  
1980 14.1 (0.26) 11.4 (0.27) 19.1 (0.97) 35.2 (1.89) 15.1 (0.39) 12.3 (0.40) 20.8 (1.47) 37.2 (2.72) 13.1 (0.36) 10.5 (0.37) 17.7 (1.28) 33.2 (2.61) 
1981 13.9 (0.26) 11.3 (0.27) 18.4 (0.93) 33.2 (1.80) 15.1 (0.38) 12.5 (0.40) 19.9 (1.40) 36.0 (2.61) 12.8 (0.35) 10.2 (0.36) 17.1 (1.24) 30.4 (2.48) 
1982 13.9 (0.27) 11.4 (0.29) 18.4 (0.97) 31.7 (1.93) 14.5 (0.40) 12.0 (0.42) 21.2 (1.50) 30.5 (2.73) 13.3 (0.38) 10.8 (0.40) 15.9 (1.26) 32.8 (2.71) 
1983 13.7 (0.27) 11.1 (0.29) 18.0 (0.97) 31.6 (1.93) 14.9 (0.41) 12.2 (0.43) 19.9 (1.46) 34.3 (2.84) 12.5 (0.37) 10.1 (0.39) 16.2 (1.28) 29.1 (2.61) 
1984 13.1 (0.27) 11.0 (0.29) 15.5 (0.91) 29.8 (1.91) 14.0 (0.40) 11.9 (0.43) 16.8 (1.37) 30.6 (2.78) 12.3 (0.37) 10.1 (0.39) 14.3 (1.22) 29.0 (2.63) 
                                                  
1985 12.6 (0.27) 10.4 (0.29) 15.2 (0.92) 27.6 (1.93) 13.4 (0.40) 11.1 (0.42) 16.1 (1.37) 29.9 (2.76) 11.8 (0.37) 9.8 (0.39) 14.3 (1.23) 25.2 (2.68) 
1986 12.2 (0.27) 9.7 (0.28) 14.2 (0.90) 30.1 (1.88) 13.1 (0.40) 10.3 (0.42) 15.0 (1.33) 32.8 (2.66) 11.4 (0.37) 9.1 (0.39) 13.5 (1.21) 27.2 (2.63) 
1987 12.6 (0.28) 10.4 (0.30) 14.1 (0.90) 28.6 (1.84) 13.2 (0.40) 10.8 (0.43) 15.0 (1.35) 29.1 (2.57) 12.1 (0.38) 10.0 (0.41) 13.3 (1.21) 28.1 (2.64) 
1988 12.9 (0.30) 9.6 (0.31) 14.5 (1.00) 35.8 (2.30) 13.5 (0.44) 10.3 (0.46) 15.0 (1.48) 36.0 (3.19) 12.2 (0.42) 8.9 (0.43) 14.0 (1.36) 35.4 (3.31) 
1989 12.6 (0.31) 9.4 (0.32) 13.9 (0.98) 33.0 (2.19) 13.6 (0.45) 10.3 (0.47) 14.9 (1.46) 34.4 (3.08) 11.7 (0.42) 8.5 (0.43) 13.0 (1.32) 31.6 (3.11) 
                                                  
1990 12.1 (0.29) 9.0 (0.30) 13.2 (0.94) 32.4 (1.91) 12.3 (0.42) 9.3 (0.44) 11.9 (1.30) 34.3 (2.71) 11.8 (0.41) 8.7 (0.42) 14.4 (1.34) 30.3 (2.70) 
1991 12.5 (0.30) 8.9 (0.31) 13.6 (0.95) 35.3 (1.93) 13.0 (0.43) 8.9 (0.44) 13.5 (1.37) 39.2 (2.74) 11.9 (0.41) 8.9 (0.43) 13.7 (1.31) 31.1 (2.70) 
1992 4  11.0 (0.28) 7.7 (0.29) 13.7 (0.95) 29.4 (1.86) 11.3 (0.41) 8.0 (0.42) 12.5 (1.32) 32.1 (2.67) 10.7 (0.39) 7.4 (0.40) 14.8 (1.36) 26.6 (2.56) 
1993 4  11.0 (0.28) 7.9 (0.29) 13.6 (0.94) 27.5 (1.79) 11.2 (0.40) 8.2 (0.42) 12.6 (1.32) 28.1 (2.54) 10.9 (0.40) 7.6 (0.41) 14.4 (1.34) 26.9 (2.52) 
1994 4  11.4 (0.26) 7.7 (0.27) 12.6 (0.75) 30.0 (1.16) 12.3 (0.38) 8.0 (0.38) 14.1 (1.14) 31.6 (1.60) 10.6 (0.36) 7.5 (0.37) 11.3 (0.99) 28.1 (1.66) 
                                                  
1995 4  12.0 (0.27) 8.6 (0.28) 12.1 (0.74) 30.0 (1.15) 12.2 (0.38) 9.0 (0.40) 11.1 (1.05) 30.0 (1.59) 11.7 (0.37) 8.2 (0.39) 12.9 (1.05) 30.0 (1.66) 
1996 4  11.1 (0.27) 7.3 (0.27) 13.0 (0.80) 29.4 (1.19) 11.4 (0.38) 7.3 (0.38) 13.5 (1.18) 30.3 (1.67) 10.9 (0.38) 7.3 (0.39) 12.5 (1.08) 28.3 (1.69) 
1997 4  11.0 (0.27) 7.6 (0.28) 13.4 (0.80) 25.3 (1.11) 11.9 (0.39) 8.5 (0.41) 13.3 (1.16) 27.0 (1.55) 10.1 (0.36) 6.7 (0.37) 13.5 (1.11) 23.4 (1.59) 
1998 4  11.8 (0.27) 7.7 (0.28) 13.8 (0.81) 29.5 (1.12) 13.3 (0.40) 8.6 (0.41) 15.5 (1.24) 33.5 (1.59) 10.3 (0.36) 6.9 (0.37) 12.2 (1.05) 25.0 (1.56) 
1999 4  11.2 (0.26) 7.3 (0.27) 12.6 (0.77) 28.6 (1.11) 11.9 (0.38) 7.7 (0.39) 12.1 (1.10) 31.0 (1.58) 10.5 (0.36) 6.9 (0.37) 13.0 (1.08) 26.0 (1.54) 
                                                  
2000 4  10.9 (0.26) 6.9 (0.26) 13.1 (0.78) 27.8 (1.08) 12.0 (0.38) 7.0 (0.37) 15.3 (1.20) 31.8 (1.56) 9.9 (0.35) 6.9 (0.37) 11.1 (1.00) 23.5 (1.48) 
2001 4  10.7 (0.25) 7.3 (0.26) 10.9 (0.71) 27.0 (1.06) 12.2 (0.38) 7.9 (0.39) 13.0 (1.12) 31.6 (1.55) 9.3 (0.34) 6.7 (0.36) 9.0 (0.90) 22.1 (1.42) 
2002 4  10.5 (0.24) 6.5 (0.24) 11.3 (0.70) 25.7 (0.93) 11.8 (0.35) 6.7 (0.35) 12.8 (1.07) 29.6 (1.32) 9.2 (0.32) 6.3 (0.34) 9.9 (0.91) 21.2 (1.27) 
2003 4,5  9.9 (0.23) 6.3 (0.24) 10.9 (0.69) 23.5 (0.90) 11.3 (0.34) 7.1 (0.35) 12.5 (1.05) 26.7 (1.29) 8.4 (0.30) 5.6 (0.32) 9.5 (0.89) 20.1 (1.23) 
2004 4,5  10.3 (0.23) 6.8 (0.24) 11.8 (0.70) 23.8 (0.89) 11.6 (0.34) 7.1 (0.35) 13.5 (1.08) 28.5 (1.30) 9.0 (0.31) 6.4 (0.34) 10.2 (0.92) 18.5 (1.18) 
                                                  
2005 4,5  9.4 (0.22) 6.0 (0.23) 10.4 (0.66) 22.4 (0.87) 10.8 (0.33) 6.6 (0.34) 12.0 (1.02) 26.4 (1.26) 8.0 (0.29) 5.3 (0.31) 9.0 (0.86) 18.1 (1.16) 
2006 4,5  9.3 (0.22) 5.8 (0.23) 10.7 (0.66) 22.1 (0.86) 10.3 (0.33) 6.4 (0.33) 9.7 (0.91) 25.7 (1.25) 8.3 (0.30) 5.3 (0.31) 11.7 (0.96) 18.1 (1.15)

— Not available.
† Not applicable.
1 Includes other racial/ethnic categories not separately shown.
2 Based on the April 1960 decennial census.
3 White and Black include persons of Hispanic ethnicity.
4 Because of changes in data collection procedures, data may not be comparable with figures for years prior to 1992. 
5 White and Black exclude persons identifying themselves as more than one race. 
NOTE: "Status" dropouts are 16- to 24-year-olds who are not enrolled in school and who have not completed a high school programs regardless of when they left school. People who have received GED credentials are counted as high school completers. All data except for 1960 are based on October counts. Data are based on sample surveys of the civilian noninstitutionalized population, which excludes persons in prisons, persons in the military, and other persons not living in households. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity except where otherwise noted. Standard errors appear in parentheses.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, Current Population Survey (CPS), October 1967 through October 2006. (This table was prepared August 2007.)  



Table Table 101.--Percent of high
school dropouts among persons 16 to 24 years old,\1\ by sex and
race/ethnicity: October 1967 to October 1994 1995 Digest of Education
Statistics 

Year - Parity
Percent    White   Black   Hisp
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
          |              Total               |             Male                 |            Female
          |__________________________________|__________________________________|__________________________________
   Year   |  All  | White, | Black, |Hispanic|  All  | White, | Black, |Hispanic|  All  | White, | Black, |Hispanic
          | races |  non-  |  non-  | origin | races |  non-  |  non-  | origin | races |  non-  |  non-  | origin
          |       |Hispanic|Hispanic|        |       |Hispanic|Hispanic|        |       |Hispanic|Hispanic|
__________|_______|________|________|________|_______|________|________|________|_______|________|________|________
    1     |   2   |   3    |   4    |   5    |   6   |   7    |   8    |   9    |  10   |   11   |   12   |   13
__________|_______|________|________|________|_______|________|________|________|_______|________|________|________
1967\2\ ..|  17.0 |   15.4 |   28.6 |    --- |  16.5 |   14.7 |   30.6 |    --- |  17.3 |   16.1 |   26.9 |    ---
1968\2\ ..|  16.2 |   14.7 |   27.4 |    --- |  15.8 |   14.4 |   27.1 |    --- |  16.5 |   15.0 |   27.6 |    ---
1969\2\ ..|  15.2 |   13.6 |   26.7 |    --- |  14.3 |   12.6 |   26.9 |    --- |  16.0 |   14.6 |   26.7 |    ---
1970\2\ ..|  15.0 |   13.2 |   27.9 |    --- |  14.2 |   12.2 |   29.4 |    --- |  15.7 |   14.1 |   26.6 |    ---
1971\2\ ..|  14.7 |   13.4 |   23.7 |    --- |  14.2 |   12.6 |   25.5 |    --- |  15.2 |   14.2 |   22.1 |    ---
          |       |        |        |        |       |        |        |        |       |        |        |
1972 .....|  14.6 |   12.3 |   21.3 |   34.3 |  14.1 |   11.7 |   22.3 |   33.7 |  15.1 |   12.8 |   20.5 |   34.9
1973 .....|  14.1 |   11.6 |   22.2 |   33.5 |  13.7 |   11.5 |   21.5 |   30.4 |  14.5 |   11.8 |   22.8 |   36.4
1974 .....|  14.3 |   11.9 |   21.2 |   33.0 |  14.2 |   12.0 |   20.1 |   33.8 |  14.4 |   11.8 |   22.1 |   32.2
1975 .....|  13.9 |   11.4 |   22.9 |   29.2 |  13.3 |   11.0 |   23.0 |   26.7 |  14.5 |   11.8 |   22.9 |   31.6
1976 .....|  14.1 |   12.0 |   20.5 |   31.4 |  14.1 |   12.1 |   21.2 |   30.3 |  14.2 |   11.8 |   19.9 |   32.3
          |       |        |        |        |       |        |        |        |       |        |        |
1977 .....|  14.1 |   11.9 |   19.8 |   33.0 |  14.5 |   12.6 |   19.5 |   31.6 |  13.8 |   11.2 |   20.0 |   34.3
1978 .....|  14.2 |   11.9 |   20.2 |   33.3 |  14.6 |   12.2 |   22.5 |   33.6 |  13.9 |   11.6 |   18.3 |   33.1
1979 .....|  14.6 |   12.0 |   21.1 |   33.8 |  15.0 |   12.6 |   22.4 |   33.0 |  14.2 |   11.5 |   20.0 |   34.5
1980 .....|  14.1 |   11.4 |   19.1 |   35.2 |  15.1 |   12.3 |   20.8 |   37.2 |  13.1 |   10.5 |   17.7 |   33.2
1981 .....|  13.9 |   11.4 |   18.4 |   33.2 |  15.1 |   12.5 |   19.9 |   36.0 |  12.8 |   10.2 |   17.1 |   30.4
          |       |        |        |        |       |        |        |        |       |        |        |
1982 .....|  13.9 |   11.4 |   18.4 |   31.7 |  14.5 |   12.1 |   21.2 |   30.5 |  13.3 |   10.9 |   15.9 |   32.8
1983 .....|  13.7 |   11.2 |   18.0 |   31.6 |  14.9 |   12.2 |   19.9 |   34.3 |  12.5 |   10.1 |   16.2 |   29.1
1984 .....|  13.1 |   11.0 |   15.5 |   29.8 |  14.0 |   12.0 |   16.8 |   30.6 |  12.3 |   10.1 |   14.3 |   29.0
1985 .....|  12.6 |   10.4 |   15.2 |   27.6 |  13.4 |   11.1 |   16.1 |   29.9 |  11.8 |    9.8 |   14.3 |   25.2
1986 .....|  12.2 |    9.7 |   14.2 |   30.1 |  13.1 |   10.3 |   15.0 |   32.8 |  11.4 |    9.1 |   13.5 |   27.2
          |       |        |        |        |       |        |        |        |       |        |        |
1987 .....|  12.7 |   10.4 |   14.1 |   28.6 |  13.2 |   10.8 |   15.0 |   29.1 |  12.1 |   10.0 |   13.3 |   28.1
1988 .....|  12.9 |    9.6 |   14.5 |   35.8 |  13.5 |   10.4 |   15.0 |   36.0 |  12.2 |    8.9 |   14.1 |   35.4
1989 .....|  12.6 |    9.4 |   13.9 |   33.0 |  13.6 |   10.3 |   14.9 |   34.4 |  11.7 |    8.5 |   13.0 |   31.6
1990 .....|  12.1 |    9.0 |   13.2 |   32.4 |  12.3 |    9.3 |   11.9 |   34.3 |  11.8 |    8.7 |   14.4 |   30.3
1991 .....|  12.5 |    8.9 |   13.6 |   35.3 |  13.0 |    8.9 |   13.5 |   39.2 |  11.9 |    8.9 |   13.7 |   31.1
          |       |        |        |        |       |        |        |        |       |        |        |
1992\3\ ..|  11.0 |    7.7 |   13.7 |   29.4 |  11.3 |    8.0 |   12.5 |   32.1 |  10.7 |    7.5 |   14.8 |   26.6
1993\3\ ..|  11.0 |    7.9 |   13.6 |   27.5 |  11.2 |    8.2 |   12.6 |   28.1 |  10.9 |    7.7 |   14.4 |   26.9
1994\3\ ..|  10.5 |    7.7 |   12.6 |   30.0 |  12.3 |    8.0 |   14.1 |   31.6 |   8.1 |    7.5 |   11.3 |   28.1
__________|_______|________|________|________|_______|________|________|________|_______|________|________|________
\1\"Status" dropouts.
\2\White and black include persons of Hispanic origin.
\3\Because of changes in data collection procedures, data may not be comparable with figures for earlier years.
Source: National Center for Education Statistics, Wall Street Journal April 24, 1995 p. R6 Percentage of people age 25 and over with four or more years of high school 1993: 80.2% ******** 1947: 32.6% *** @@immigrant \priv\96\19\4yrgrad.txt New York Times June 3, 1996 4-Year Graduates From City's High Schools Are at a 5-Year Low By MARIA NEWMAN Summary: Immigrants who start school in the 9th or 10th grade with no knowledge of english are blamed for a 5 year low in rate of students who graduate in only 4 years, however, dropouts are also low with may older students sticking around to complete their education. Comment - why not take longer to learn english? @@Intervention Some programs do make a big difference in drop out rates \clip\97\29\dropbell.txt http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/drop_121997.html The Seattle Times Company Friday, Dec. 19, 1997 School works to catch students about to fall by Jolayne Houtz Seattle Times staff reporter Study in Bellingham WA: Dropouts (vs average) failed two or more classes at the end of their first semester in the 1995-96 school year (vs. less than one) . These students had D or F grade-point averages (vs B), had missed an average of 38 days in eighth grade (vs half as many) and failed an average of 16 classes (vs less than one) in middle school. Results of adding mentor system: an annual dropout rate of 4 percent, down from 61 percent for the comparable group of at-risk freshmen the previous year. In addition, the mentored group on average failed fewer than half the number of classes failed by the at-risk students in the previous year. @@Less Likely to Graduate Education Trust uses OECD figures to claim that new high school students are less likely to graduate high school than previous generations, but 1995 Digest of Education Statistics shows a decline for all races from 17% in 1967 to 13.9% in 1983, and 10.5% in 1994. Latest table shows 9.3% for 2006. Kids less likely to graduate than parents Most states doing little to hold schools accountable, says advocacy group AP Thurs., Oct. 23, 2008 http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/27336656/ Your child is less likely to graduate from high school than you were, and most states are doing little to hold schools accountable, according to a study by a children's advocacy group The U.S. is stagnating while other industrialized countries are surpassing us," said Anna Habash, author of the report by Education Trust, which advocates on behalf of minority and poor children...the United States is now the only industrialized country where young people are less likely than their parents to earn a diploma, the report said http://www2.edtrust.org/EdTrust/Press+Room/Graduation+Matters.htm GRADUATION MATTERS: How NCLB allows states to set the bar too low for improving high school grad rates http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-na-dropout24-2008oct24,0,6528493.story?track=rss U.S. dropout picture is grim, report says The U.S. is the only industrialized country where youths are less likely than their parents to earn a high school diploma, it says. By associated press October 24, 2008 Your child is less likely to graduate from high school than you were, and most states are doing little to hold schools accountable, according to a study by a children's advocacy group The U.S. is the only industrialized country where youths are less likely than their parents to earn a diploma, the report says, citing data compiled by the international Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development http://www2.edtrust.org/NR/rdonlyres/6CA84103-BB12-4754-8675-17B18A8582AC/0/CountingonGraduation1008.pdf Counting on Graduation An Agenda for State Leadership This paper was made possible through the generous support of the State Farm Foundati on. Fall 2008 BY ANNA HABASH, policy analyst, The Educati on Trust THE UNITED STATES IS THE ONLY INDUSTRIALIZED COUNTRY in the world in which today’s young people are less likely than their parents to have completed high school.1 This is a startling turn for our nation, which prides itself on extending educational opportunity to everyone. Document at http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/36/4/40701218.pdf p. 37 OECD, Education at a Glance 2007: OECD Indicators, Indicator A1, Table A1.2a, www.oecd.org/document/30/0,3343, en_2649_39263238_39251550_1_1_1_1,00.html. Population that has attained at least upper secondary education (2005) Rank by overall 25-64 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-65 US 88 87 88 89 86 Canada 85 91 88 84 75 Denmark 81 87 83 78 75 Korea 76 97 88 60 35 UK 67 73 67 65 60 Rank by 25-34, Race/Am not exactly compable 25-64 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-65 Korea 76 97 88 60 35* Canada 85 91 88 84 75 AsAm 90 US 88 87 88 89 86 Denmark 81 87 83 78 75 WhiAm 81 Austral 65 79 66 61 50 UK 67 73 67 65 60 Spain 49 64 54 41 26 LatAm 62 AfAm 59 Mexico 21 24 23 20 12 Table 1. Averaged Freshman Graduation Rate (AFGR), Class of 20063 73% Overall 73% (Not comparable to OECE table) 59% African American 90% Asian 61% Latino 62% Native American 81% White Graduation Matters: Improving Accountability for High School Graduation This report details state-set goals for graduation rates under the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) law, showing how improvement targets are often so low that they undercut the aim of significantly raising graduation rates. http://www2.edtrust.org/NR/rdonlyres/5AEDABBC-79B7-47E5-9C66-7403BF76C3E2/0/GradMatters.pdf America led the world in high school graduation at a time when attaining a diploma was less critical to social and economic mobility. The lead we built through early adoption of universal secondary education has evaporated, and many other countries both graduate more of their young people and boast greater social and economic mobility. According to the most recent data, the U.S. ranks 17th in high school graduation in the developed world, behind countries such as Germany, France, even Hungary.17 17 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, “Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators,” 2006, Table A1.2 @@National Drop Out Rates In the 18-24 age bracket, blacks are only 7% less likely than whites to be high school graduates. DROP OUT RATE AMONG YOUNG ADULTS IS ONLY 12% "Digest of Education Statistics 1999." National Center for Education Statistics, Between 1980 & 1998, the proportion of the adult population 25 years of age & over with 4 years of high school or more rose from 69% to 83%, & the proportion of adults with at least 4 years of college increased from 17% to 24%. In contrast, the proportion of young adults (25- to 29-year-olds) completing high school showed a small increase of about 3 percent points to 88% in 1998. In 1995, adults 25-29 completing high school 1985 1995 Index Black 81 87% 1.00 White 87 87% 1.00 Hispanic 57% -1.52 There is still a gap in 18-24 Blacks closing high school graduation gap CNN online May 19, 1997 Web posted at: 10:04 a.m. EDT (1404 GMT) http://www-cgi.cnn.com/US/9705/19/education/index.html American Council on Education \priv\96\20\acerept.txt In 1996 American Council on Education reports that: HS dropout / 18-24 with HS diploma 83% 77% 57% index 1.00-1.07 -1.45 \doc\95\12\asiark90.wk1 - 1990 US Census Adults over 25 Percent high school graduate or higher (Jewish figure from LA Times poll) Race Percent Index Race Percent Index Jew 92.0 1.18 Japanese 87.5 1.12 Thai 74.0 -1.05 AsIndian 84.7 1.09 Chinese 73.6 -1.06 Other Asian 82.7 1.06 Micronesian 73.6 -1.06 Filipino 82.6 1.06 Guamanian 72.3 -1.08 Korean 80.2 1.03 Samoan 70.6 -1.10 Hawaiian 79.5 1.02 Tongan 64.0 -1.22 White 77.9 1.00 Black 63.1 -1.23 Asian 77.6 -1.00 Melanesian 61.3 -1.27 Asian/PI 77.5 -1.01 Vietnam 61.2 -1.27 Polynesian 77.1 -1.01 Hispanic 49.8 -1.56 PacIslander 76.1 -1.02 Laotian 40.0 -1.95 Other PacIs 75.8 -1.03 Cambodian 34.9 -2.23 US 75.2 -1.04 Hmong 31.1 -2.50 \doc\95\01\jewsedin.wk1 - Jewish profile LA Times poll Education Jew US Ratio Dropout HS 8 26 -3.25 HS Graduate 20 39 -1.95 Some College 17 16 1.05 College Grad + 47 18 2.65 @@Rank Seattle Times December 12, 2003 www.seattletimes.com Statistics rank areas with top percentages of high-school grads By Genaro C. Armas The Associated Press Cities with 250,000 or more people in 2002 ranked by the percentage of residents with high-school diplomas, including equivalency degrees, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. city percent Raleigh, N.C. 92.0 Seattle 91.1 Anchorage, Alaska 91.0 Virginia Beach, Va. 90.6 Lexington-Fayette, Ky. 89.3 Minneapolis 88.7 Colorado Springs, Colo. 88.5 Charlotte, N.C. 88.4 Portland, Ore. 87.8 Honolulu 86.8 Omaha, Neb. 86.8 Arlington, Texas 86.5 Albuquerque, N.M. 86.3 Columbus, Ohio 86.2 Indianapolis 84.7 Tulsa, Okla. 84.7 Pittsburgh 84.7 Aurora, Colo. 84.5 Wichita, Kan. 84.2 St. Paul, Minn. 84.1 Nashville-Davidson, Tenn. 84.0 Source: The Associated Press States ranked by the percentage of residents age 25 and older with high-school diplomas, including equivalency degrees, in 2002, according to the Census Bureau. State Percent Wyo. 90.2 Utah 90.1 Minn. 89.8 Alaska 89.7 Neb. 89.3 Wash 89.1 Mont. 88.3 Iowa 88.1 Vt. 87.8 N.H. 87.7 S.D. 87.6 Kan. 87.5 Mass. 87.3 Hawaii 87.1 N.D. 86.9 U.S. 82.6 Source: U.S. Census Bureau @@Rate 2000 - 88% HS Completion Rate 25-29, 28% bachelor z45\clip\2000\09\hsrate.txt http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/2000/cb00-151.html High School Completions at All-Time High, Census Bureau Reports BS earned $43,782 HS earned $23,594 25+ 88 White 85 API 77 AfAm 56 Hisp 25-29 93 White 89 AfAm The Manhattan Institute Public School Graduation Rates in the United States By Jay P. Greene & Marcus A. Winters This study uses a straightforward and reliable method to estimate the percentage of public high school students from the class of 2000 in the United States who actually graduated. Building on Dr. Greene's work in a similar study on the class of 1998, the authors determine that only 69% actually graduated nationwide. 79% Asian 76% White 57% Native American 55% Black 53% Hispanic @@Reduction SCHOOL LOWERS HISPANIC DROPOUT RATE FROM 7.8 TO 1.5 \clip\99\07\edclip04.txt 2/28/99 School's efforts trim Hispanic dropout rate By Kimberly Durnan Star-Telegram Staff Writer "The community formed a task force, and in one year, the Hispanic dropout rate fell from 7.8 percent to 1.5 percent. In the same period, the school's overall dropout rate declined from 4.5 percent to 0.9 percent. " @@Requirement Traditionally, school is only compulsory to 16, but many states make the legal dropout age 18, same as high school grad. \clip\2009\02\dropout18.txt Bill could change legal dropout age to 18 http://www.theolympian.com/stategovernment/story/747141.html By JESSIE L. BONNER | Associated Press Writer • Published February 03, 2009 "Eighteen states - California, Connecticut, Hawaii, Kansas, Louisiana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington and Wisconsin - already require students to stay in school until they are 18, Jarvis said" @@Risk BELLINGHAM FINDS RISK FACTORS - DF GPA, 2X ABSENCE, FAILED 16 CLASSES. \clip\97\29\dropbell.txt http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/drop_121997.html The Seattle Times Company Friday, Dec. 19, 1997 School works to catch students about to fall by Jolayne Houtz Seattle Times staff reporter Study in Bellingham WA: Dropouts (vs average) failed two or more classes at the end of their first semester in the 1995-96 school year (vs. less than one) . These students had D or F grade-point averages (vs B), had missed an average of 38 days in eighth grade (vs half as many) and failed an average of 16 classes (vs less than one) in middle school. @@Russian DROPPING OUT FOR WORK APPEALS TO RUSSIANS IN OREGON z47\clip\2001\01\portruss.txt http://www.tribnet.com/ Tacoma News Tribune 1/2001 Portland schools alarmed by dropout rate of Russian students OTHER PURSUITS: Educators cite lack of challenge, students' need for money as top reasons for exodus The Associated Press PORTLAND - Students from Russian-speaking families are dropping out of high school in alarming numbers, according to a study by Portland Public Schools. The study found that 14 percent to 19 percent of its Russian-speaking high school students were quitting each year between 1996-97 and 1998-99. [2/3 by graduation] Ivan, a high school dropout, says that as a welder, he earns more than twice as much as a high school graduate who works with him 11.0% African American 15.0% Latino 5.5% Asian 5.7% white @@state Washington state has 2nd lowest drop out rate in US Spectrum 25+ 92.8 Alaska 1999 #1 91.2 Washington 1999 #2 88.8 WA white 25-29 1990 85.7 WA black 25-29 1990 86.9 CA Highest Black state 1999 75.1 West Virginia 1999 #49 78.0 Mississippi 1999 #50 More state students graduating on time Seattle Times Feb 15, 2005 http://www.manhattan-institute.org/html/cr_baeo.htm#04 27 states graduate higher than washington class of 2002 on-time rate white=74 black=59 Latino=53 No asians mentioned in this report prepared for Black group funded by Bill & Melinda Gates foundation Jay P. Greene, Ph. D. Senior Fellow, The Manhattan Institute for Policy Research Research Associate, Prepared for the Black Alliance for Educational Options WA state Black HS Dip = white rate 88 vs 86% p448 1990 census Education in the united states c 3.223/10:1990 cp3-4 sea pub lib 25-29 hsd bs w 88.8 22.4 b 85.7 12.3 h 58.1 8.1 a 86.7 33.9 http://www.census.gov/population/socdemo/education/p20-528/tab14.txt z45\clip\2000\09\tab14.txt by state 1999 WA - white 91.6%, Hisp 54.8% Black - base too small Black CA 86.9 KY 84.5 NJ 83.6 IL 78.9 TX 80.7 FL 76.8 NY 75.5 GA 71.5 \doc\95\07\calfdrop.wk1 - California Dropout 1991-1994 Summary W1.00 B-2.70 H-2.43 A1.15 N-2.10 Fil 1.07 Pac -1.83 Citation: San Jose Mercury News June 14, 1995 Source: California Department of Education Analysis by Arthur Hu California Statewide Dropout Rank by Race, 1993-94 Group Percent Index Asian 2.6 1.15 Filipino 2.8 1.07 White 3.0 1.00 Overall 4.9 -1.63 Pac. Island 5.5 -1.83 Am Indian 6.3 -2.10 Hispanic 7.3 -2.43 Black 8.1 -2.70 @@Khmer 25% dropout rate estimated by survey of khmer Speaking Instructional Assistants in Seattle Schools "Police and Khmer Community Meet Over At-Risk Youth" Fidelius Kuo NW Asian Weekly Nov 12, 1994 p. 1 @@Overstate Lots of people like to cite Asian dropout rates that sound high without comparing them to the general popuation. doc934:asyouth9.txt Asians are 30% of SF dropouts, but they're 50% of students, which shows their dropout rate is lower than average, not an especially high rate. @@women "A Holiday Based on Ms. Information" Christina Hoff Sommers Wall Street Journal April 10, 1995. Ms Foundation information High school girls are more likely to drop out for family related problems such as pregnancy, but boys are more likely to drop out for all causes. @@World FastFacts About Dropout and Completion Rates http://www.pdkintl.org/whatis/ff2dropo.htm \clip\98\08\drop\drop.htm Not long ago, only 50% completed high school, now it's 86%. When completion rates for upper secondary education (roughly high school) and higher education are combined, the United States ranks above all G-7 countries. These include the United States, Germany, Japan, France, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Italy and are among the most highly developed nations. Among G-7 countries, the percentage of the 25- to 64-year-olds in 1992 for whom upper secondary education (roughly equivalent to high school) was the highest grade completed was 60% in Germany, 53% in the United States, 49% in the United Kingdom, 48% in Japan, 36% in France, 30% in Canada, and 22% in Italy. When completion rates for upper secondary education and higher education for 1992 were combined, the United States, with 84%, ranked above all G-7 countries. Among the 22 developed nations studied by NCES in 1992, the 31% of those in the age 25-64 group in the United States who had completed higher education was topped only by the 41% in Canada. The percentages for other G-7 countries included 16% for France, 22% for Germany, 6% for Italy, 21% for Japan, and 19% for the United Kingdom.