\ @@Desegregation: Index of Diversity http://www.arthurhu.com/index/deseg.htm
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DESEGREGATION: INDEX OF ISSUES/DIVERSITY

Desegregation is the #1 fraud in education (Affirmative Action is #2)

HOW DID DESEGREGATION CHANGE FROM PLACEMENT WITHOUT REGARD TO RACE TO FORCED BUSING TO MANDATING DISCRIMINATION TO CREATE "BALANCE?"

Summary - After 25 years of desegregation, the percentage of blacks in white majority schools has increased from .001% in 1954 to 43.5% in 1988. But whites have left most urban school systems, and by many measures, segregation is still very great, despite the fact that nearly every city has implemented a desegregation program, whether forced or not. How do you integrate a city like LA, SF, or New York when whites are less than 10-15% of the students? It's just a joke. Many cities and even many black organizations have abandoned busing because of its costs have not brought any tangible benefits, now people are advocating neighborhood schools as the asnwer to improving academic performance.

Color Blind? Desegregation started out, like affirmative action, as color blind prohibiting assignment by race. But, also like affirmative action, it has evolved into a law that compels people to assign students by race. Rather than banning the use of race, it has become unconstitutional to choose students without regard to race! The language originally said that eliminating racial imbalance was not the goal, but now any degree of racial imbalance or even inequality in grades or test scores is sufficient evidence of a civil rights violation, even though such conditions apply to every school district in the nation, regardless of what desegregation schemes they try or none at all.

Worsening Segregation If anything, forced busing may have increased so-called segregation by driving whites out of cities where they would have to attend majority-minority schools, regardless of the neighborhood.

1 of 2 biggest frauds The big fraud is that there are no instances where desegregation has been shown to equalize test scores between races. This is one of the top two frauds, the other being that if you equalize spending, it will equalize outcomes.

Goal: parity in test scores Outcome: No such luck Even though this is largely assumed to be one of the primary reasons for desegregation, study of every affluent school district which has been deliberately avoided by educational experts show that blacks (and Latinos) lag whites in every district, and school whether it the poor, the affluent, the predominantly minority, or the integrated. The ironic fact is that the only settings where minorities rival the best affluent white kids are predominantly minority settings such as Whitney Young in Chicago or Barclay in Baltimore. The media continues to that it is a "mystery" that test scores remain different despite 25 years of desegregation. Orfield says desegregation never really happened, but it appears it doesn't work, and it would be impossible to implement even if it were a good idea.


Arthur Hu Exclusive!! Blacks in the best districts like Bellevue do worse than Whites in many suburbs with poorer white test scores like Renton. There are some districts where Asians do better or worse, and even many cities where blacks make more money than whites, but blacks perform worse in every district that has enough students to provide meaningful data.


bwgap.wk1
Black Vs. White Gap In Different Quality Schools
Even the Best School Districts for Whites Show Gaps

Washington State
Ranked by White score
                 Percentile              Index
                 White   Black   Asian   Black   Asian
Richland G11           70      23      87   -3.04    1.24
Bellevue               62      31      55   -2.00   -1.13
Lake Washington G      62      30      67   -2.07    1.08
Renton G8              62      34      74   -1.82    1.19
Issaquah               61      46      74   -1.33    1.21
Spokane G11            55      32      52   -1.72   -1.06
Pasco G11              53      20      44   -2.65   -1.20
Seattle G11 CFAS       53      32      48   -1.66   -1.10
Tacoma G11             51      27      42   -1.89   -1.21
----------------------------------------------------
CFAS or CTBS test math test score percentile
Only blacks in affluent Issaquah are close to whites in 
blue-collar Tacoma.
Blacks in every community are below the 50th percentile median,
regardless of income.
Asians are within 20% of whites in every community.

Ranked by White percentage with Math 3 orIndex
California Bay ArWhite   Black   Asian   Black   Asian
Oakland                53      10      33   -5.30   -1.61
Cupertino              51      23      69   -2.22    1.35
San Ramon Valley       49      30      78   -1.63    1.59
Santa Clara Count      41      15      48   -2.73    1.17
California State       36      12      44   -3.00    1.22
San Francisco          35      12      41   -2.92    1.17
Contra Costa Cty       22      11      45   -2.00    2.05
-----------------------------------------------------------
Only blacks in affluent San Ramon Valley are significantly better
than whites in depressed Contra Costa county.
----------------------------------------------------------
Index 1.00 = White +/-2.00 means 2 times better / worse.
Data from school districts, state education departments
Analysis by Arthur Hu 1997


Rising Test Scores? The only evidence of success of desegregation is that blacks have had rising test scores since the 1960. This may or may not be a result of any number of other factors, such as increasing percentage of black parents who are literate, complete high school and college. It absolutely does not compare students who have not been desegregated with those who have.

Asians are segregated But... Asians are nearly as segregated as other minorities, measured by percentage in majority minority schools, yet consistently get the highest math test scores and best grades. Asians are largely excluded from a voluntary busing program in suburban Boston, and included in a controversial program to bus Southeast Asian refugees in Wisconsin.

Desegregation HURTS Asians Although Southeast Asians may be helped by busing programs in Wisconsin, desegregation laws have caused Chinese to be excluded by a ceiling quota at Lowell High School in San Francisco which benefits mainly only Whites, Japanese and Koreans. Asian liberals even widely support such discriminatory caps on over-achieving minorities like the Chinese, when such quotas were never acceptable for Jews. Part Asians have also been denied admission to some select schools due to racial quotas on either Asians or mixed descent children

Eliminate Race-Based Education Policy My opinion is to outlaw deliberate segregation by race, and simply assign students without regard to race, whether or not this results in racial "balance". Such a concept has not been shown to be helpful to minorities, and harmful to some groups. Desegregation is a failure, in fact some of the most successful minority education institutions are predominantly minority.

Moral: Fix academics, not integration! The problem isn't that blacks do poorly because they are forced to got to segregated schools. The problem is that blacks don't achieve, and that's the reason mostly black schools have low scores, not the other way around when scores are equally low for blacks regardless of the proportion of whites they go to school with. You can segregate Asians all you want and they'll still get high math scores no matter how under-funded or broken down the buidings are. Segregation can only harm groups that perform poorly in the first place.

Contents

Levels
@@desegregation
%%subtopic


@@Achievement

http://www.lagriffedulion.f2s.com/diversity.htm

La Griffe's latest: DIVERSITY AND EXCELLENCE: ARE THEY COMPATIBLE?
11 Pages.
"Students do better in whiter and high-SES classrooms. The planes, 
however, differ noticeably in steepness. Both SES and racial mix affect 
whites more than blacks. White performance is influenced 65 percent more
than black by SES, and about twice as much by racial mix. In short, 
racial diversity in the classroom reduces white achievement more than it 
improves black."


\clip\98\10\blakach.txt
http://www.latimes.com/HOME/NEWS/STATE/t000073474.html Los Angeles
Times August 12, 1998 A Question of Priorities Most parents, black or
white, say student achievement is more important than integration,
and that diversity is frequently given too much attention. By NICK
ANDERSON, Times Staff Writer


@@Asian

Also see affirmative action under Lowell High School WHITES FLOCK TO SPANISH IMMERSION PROGRAM, ADOPTED KOREAN IS DISALLOWED TRANSFER IN FIGHT FOR "DIVERSITY" \clip\97\02\montgom.txt Education Week Volume 15, Issue 20, February 7, 1996 Copyright 1996, Editorial Projects in Education, Inc. `The Orwellian Transformation of Diversity' By Ted Gup Last April, I sat in the library of the Rock Creek Forest Elementary School in Montgomery County, Md., one of five white parents talking over our concerns with the principal... \doc\95\11\categor3.txt - Asians are denied access to french immersion program because transfer policy nearly prohibits Asians from transferring from schools where they are few in Montgomery County, Maryland \doc\95\15\frcinteg.txt Montgomery French Immersion school, Boston Latin quotas Family Research Council Sept 25, 1995 (Washington DC) "Category 3" Wall Street Journal Sept 15, 1997 A16 F073097 editorial Eleanor Glewwe and Hana Maruyama have part-Asians kids who are not allowed to go to a immersion French program in Montgomery County Maryland because of quotas on Asian students, even though to and from schools are both about evenly balanced between blacks and whites.
@@Balance Is the purpose of desegregation to enforce racial balance or to bar assignment of students by race? SFC 4/4/92 A8 Court Backs White Flight - school systems aren't accountable to demographic factors, only intentional \PRIV\95\05\HARTFRSEG.TXT - Can't degregate Hartford if problem is too many blacks and minorities living in city. CA TO HUNTINGTON BEACH: DESGREGATION DOES NOT MEAN DISCRIMINATION FOR ETHNIC "BALANCE"! School Blocks Transfer of White Students August 22, 1998 By Renee Tawa Los Angeles Times Officials of the Huntington Beach Union High School District have blocked the transfers from Ocean View High, saying the students' departure would upset the campus' ethnic balance. "Allowing those white students to transfer would cause Ocean View "to become ethnically isolated. . . . That's segregated," Myers said. But Gov. Pete Wilson's education advisor, Marian Bergeson, sent a letter to district officials urging them to reconsider. Despite their assertions, the letter said, the state education code does not mandate discrimination to maintain racial and ethnic balance in schools." \clip\98\11\huntseg.txt Huntington Beach Union High School District OKs Transfers for 8 White Students http://www.latimes.com:80/CNS_DAYS/980825/t000077311.html Los Angeles Times, August 25, 1998 District OKs Transfers for 8 White Students Education: Citing need to maintain ethnic balance, Huntington Beach Union had originally denied requests. State board questioned policy.

@@Book

\doc\web\97\04\racescho.txt Book: Race and Schooling In the City
Edited by Adam Yarmolinsky, Lance Liebman Corrine S. Schelling
Harvard University Press 1981

http://www.theatlantic.com/atlantic/issues/97feb/integ/integ.htm
\clip\987\04\whatinte.txt Atlantic Magazine Books -- February 1997 by
Gerald Early Whatever Happened to Integration?  IN the ideological
warfare between liberals and conservatives, African-Americans exist
as a kind of Rorschach test, an enigma to be solved in the context of
their disturbing exceptionalism in a country obsessed with its own
exceptionalism.


@@Blacks Against

SOME BLACKS ABANDONING CHASING INTEGRATION \clip\97\18\busblak.txt
U.S. News & World Report 07/28/97 Second thoughts about integration
Black ambivalence about busing has less to do with ideology than with
results "Better to spend scant resources on improving their schools,
they argue, than on chasing the rainbow of integration." "In Yonkers,
N.Y., for example, blacks still score nearly two grade levels below
whites on standardized tests a decade after a federal court ordered
busing;" BY JERELYN EDDINGS

CONSERVATIVE BLACKS OPPOSE FORCED INTEGRATION
\doc\web\97\06\views.txt http://www.concentric.net/~Issues/ 7/97
Ending Forced Integration in the Schools?  Finally?  Since first
published in 1985, Issues & Views has been a staunch opponent of all
forced integration, and we regularly carry articles about the heroic
blacks who withstand the slings and arrows of insult, as they
publicly oppose a system that buses children all around the cities of
the nation. 

@@City

Cities tend to have ethnic concentrations, which some say are natural, other say they are caused by segregation. The natural state they say is that every ethnic group should be equally distributed in every community, or else. No Chinatowns, no black districts, no white ones. ASIANS MOST "SEGREGATED" IN CITIES MOST POPULAR WITH ASIANS! z50\clipim\2001\07\16\seg.gif Segregation still touches minorities where they live USA Today April 4, 2001 p. 2A "Very few people want to live in all-minority neighborhoods" says Gary Orfield. "Very few minorities want to live in predominantly white neighborhoods" says Arthur Hu. 2000 Rank for Asians 1 New York 2 Stockton CA 3 Houston 4 Sacramento 5 San Francisco 6 Los Angeles 7 Vallejo (Affluent Asian suburb) 8 San Diego 9 Detroit 10 Atlanta Source: Lewis Mumford Center at the University at Albany Blacks 1 Detroit 2 Milwaukee Wisc 3 New York 4 Chicago 5 Newark NJ 6 Cleveland 7 Cincinnati 8 Nassau-Suffold NY 9 St. Louis 10 Miami z48\clip\2001\04\segcit.txt http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/ap/20010403/us/census_segregation_5.html April 3 2001 Segregation Still High, Study Says By GENARO C. ARMAS, Associated Press Writer -The typical white lived in a neighborhood that was 80 percent white, 8 percent Hispanic, 7 percent black and 4 percent Asian. The typical black lived in a neighborhood that was 51 percent black, 33 percent white, 12 percent Hispanic and 3 percent Asian. Louis Andrews notes: The actual data for the Mumford report on racial segregation in the nations cities can be downloaded from the site below. One option is in excel spreedsheet form of the data so you can do your own calculations. Data is given for 1990 and 2000. http://www.albany.edu/mumford/census/ @@Britain \clip\97\05\unequal.txt The Economist February 8, 1997 Race relations Integrated but unequal And if you create a segregation index, where zero signifies that an ethnic minority is spread evenly across the whole of a city and 100% that they live entirely in ghettoes, then American blacks are typically 80% segregated; for their British counterparts the figure is about 40%. @@Boston / Massachusetts Garrity's folly - 25 years after busing began http://www.boston.com/dailyglobe2/004/oped/Garrity_s_folly___25_years_afte r_ busing_began+.shtml January 4, 1999 By Jeff Jacoby Boston Globe "He would win, hands down, any contest for the Most Hated Bostonian of the last 30 years. And deservedly so. For Judge Garrity did more than inflict on Boston's schools and families a nightmare of riots, fear, racial hatred, and civic trauma. He did it with such blithe indifference to the pain of those he was hurting, such cool disdain for anyone who doubted the wisdom of accomplishing integration through massive crosstown busing, that to this day he still insists, ''Damn, it was working quite well, really.''" GARRITY STANDS ON HIS RECORD FOR BOSTON BUSING \clip\98\18\eclip06.txt On the record for busing By Kate Zernike, Globe Staff, 12/08/98 There is the myth of white flight, he says, the notion that when the buses rolled to desegregate the Boston public schools, white parents suddenly flooded out to the suburbs. DRIVE FOR NEIGHBORHOOD VS BUSING IN BOSTON '98 \clip\98\10\bostbus.txt http://www.foxnews.com/js_index.sml?content=/news/wires2/ Debate revived in Boston over school busing 12.15 p.m. ET (1616 GMT) July 5, 1998 By Jean Mcmillan, Associated Press. Parental involvment, funding for education vs. buses vs. the race activists. \clip\97\21\metco.txt http://www.boston.com/dailyglobe/globehtml/268/Metco_s_popularity_confirmed_in_sur.htm Metco's popularity confirmed in survey Most parents prefer suburban schools By Jordana Hart, Globe Staff, 09/25/97 (Gary Orfield study says black parents like desegregation) \priv\96\12\dividing.htm Time April 29, 1996 Why We Need to Raise Hell Jack E. White - says that the black elite have also abandoned integration by sending them to private schools and moving away. \priv\96\12\endint.htm TIME Magazine April 29, 1996 Volume 147, No. 18 "THE END OF INTEGRATION" A four-decade effort is being abandoned, as exhausted courts and frustrated blacks dust off the concept of "separate but equal" JAMES S. KUNEN Nationally, fully a third of black public school students attend schools where the enrollment is 90% to 100% minority--that is, black, Hispanic, Asian and Native American. In the Northeast, the country's most segregated region, half of all black students attend such schools. Plessy v. Ferguson, announced May 18, 1896, the Supreme Court declared laws mandating that "equal but separate" treatment of the races "do not necessarily imply the inferiority of either race," Brown, when only 2% of black children in the South attended schools with whites, 36.4% of black students attended majority-white schools by 1972 By 1970, with the white birthrate plunging, Northern urban school districts, which seldom extend beyond city limits, lacked enough white children to desegregate. Milliken v. Bradley that suburban districts could not be ordered to help desegregate a city's schools unless those suburbs had been involved in illegally segregating them in the first place Detroit's public school system is now 94% minority. By 1990, in the 18 largest Northern metropolitan areas, blacks had become so isolated that 78% of them would have had to move in order to achieve an evenly distributed residential pattern. The KCMSD's annual per-pupil expenditure, excluding capital costs, reached $9,412 last year, an amount exceeded by perhaps 40 of the nation's 14,881 school districts. All together, as of this February, $1.7 billion has been spent under court order in Kansas City. Standardized test scores have registered slight gains. white flight was not reversed: in 1985, the year before the magnet plan began, the district was 73.6% minority; this year it is 75.9% minority. If nothing else, horrible school facilities have been replaced with nice new ones, and for some that is justification enough. Norfolk Virginia was allowed to stop busing if it pumped extra money into black schools, spending $736 more in 93-94 than other elementary schools, and class sizes 2 or 3 smaller. Yet targeted blacks who started out scoring 5 points worse in 1991 scored 10 worse than those in integrated schools in 1995. At Young park, 98% black, 94% free lunch, some of the children arrive at school not knowing their full name; they just know their nickname," says principal Ruby Greer, who has managed to improve test scores and attendance. "They don't know how to hold a pencil or a book. Only 7% scored above normal, compared to 88% at Taylor Elem 5 mins away, 60% white. #achievement" Claims there is a lot of evidence that integration raises black performance while not hurting whites, but only presents association between states with narrowest test score differences, W. VA and Iowa, generally closing gap in reading scores, which is due largely to improved education level of black adults, not integration, and observation that children in Chapter 1 schools with more whites tend to do better. But integration never results in parity in scores, and in the best schools in Palo Alto, Seattle's Eastside, and Newton, blacks score no better than 50 percentile. \priv\96\12\bostom.htm Time April 29, 1996 Volume 147, No. 18 THE NEED FOR A TOUGHER KIND OF HEROISM J. ANTHONY LUKAS. (on Time web site) Concludes the job is to educate the children at hand, now only 18% white instead of wondering why integration didn't suceed, or trying to bring whites back. http://www.boston.com/globe \priv\96\12\massdesg.txt "Repeal wouldn't change mandate to desegregate" Boston Globe 04/23/96 Districts have chosen to desegregate voluntarily because it makes sense. http://www.boston.com/globe \priv\96\12\racibala.txt - John Silber considers whether to repeal the Mass state racial imbalance law. Abagail Thernstrom is for repealing the law outright. "Assessing racial balance" Boston Globe Staff, 04/18/96 @@Brown vs Board z78\clip\2004\05\brownbust.txt http://www.latimes.com/news/opinion/commentary/la-oe-thernstrom17may17,1,7721017.story COMMENTARY No, Brown Isn't a Bust Fifty years after the monumental decision, it's popular to say that segregation is back. That's hogwash. By Abigail Thernstrom Abigail Thernstrom is a senior fellow at the Manhattan Institute and the co-author, with Stephan Thernstrom, of "No Excuses: Closing the Racial Gap in Learning" (Simon & Schuster, 2003). May 17, 2004 Today, as a result, the typical black youngster attends a school that is about half black — an extraordinary change in half a century. @@Charlotte NC DOES EXCLUDING USE OF RACE VIOLATE DESEGREGATION LAW? N.C. district's schools integrated, judge says Seattle Times Sept 10,1999 federal judge orders district to stop using race as a factor in all programs. Luke Largess who sued 30 years ago says he overstepped authority, current lawsuit was by white parents excluded from magnet because of mixed race child quota. Questions whether you can exclude the use of race (but isn't that what desegregation was about???)
@@Charter Schools Charter schools have been criticized as a way to get whites out of mostly black schools, but some states find some charter schools are mostly black as well. MANY CHARTER SCHOOLS ARE PREDOMINANTLY BLACK, NOT WHITE NY Times: Diversity rules threaten N.C. charter schools that aid blacks December 23, 1998 Diversity Rules Threaten North Carolina Charter Schools That Aid Blacks By DAVID J. DENT " Today, at least 22 of the state's 60 charter schools appear to violate the diversity clause, according to estimates, but for reasons no one had expected. All but one are more than 85 percent black, populated mostly by children whose parents wanted to flee failing schools and enroll them in small academies that have unusual freedom to pick their own curriculums and staffs, bypassing local bureaucracies. " ORRFIELD SAYS DESEGREGATION MAKES BETTER TEST SCORES \CLIP\98\09\charter.txt http://www.azcentral.com:80/news/education/0527charters.shtml Why so White? Charter schools' racial makeup raises questions Cathryn Creno The Arizona Republic May 27, 1998 Arizona's charter schools are luring White middle-class children out of more racially mixed district schools, say two Arizona State University researchers who believe the trend could result in substandard educations for minority children. @@Chicago Integration in Chicago is a total joke. With only 10% of students white, there aren't enough whites to make any difference even if they were perfectly distributed. The magnet system only creates a private system for whites that shuts out blacks that want to get in. NOT ENOUGH WHITES TO MAKE INTEGRATION MAKE SENSE, STILL GET BEST SCHOOLS z63\clip\2003\03\chicdes.txt Lori Olszewski and Darnell Little: Integration a dream never lived March 23, 2003 http://www.chicagotribune.com [Chicago] the population of white students has dwindled to less than 10 percent of the system... comes at the expense of minority students, who are turned away to maintain outdated racial guidelines. White students make up more than 40 percent of some magnets 1/6 CHICAGO SCHOOLS IS 100% BLACK 1/4 ARE OVER 90% BLACK George N. Schmidt notes Of those 597 public schools, 158 are between 90 percent and 99.9 percent Black, while 110 of them are 100 percent Black. Of those 597 public schools, 48 are between 90 percent and 99.9 percent Hispanic, while one is 100 percent Hispanic. [All of these data are from the Chicago Board of Education's annual "Racial Ethnic Survey of Students as of September 30, 1999"]. @@Denver \doc\95\14\stopbus.txt "Stopping the bus" Economist Sept 30, 1995 p. 29 Busing didn't work in Denver, it just scared all the whites away. @@Harmful http://www.seattletimes.com/news/education/html98/educ_072998.html SEATTLE STUDY - POOR CHILDREN DID WORSE WHEN BUSED \clip\98\10\acadint.txt Seattle Times Company July 29, 1998 Blacks say schools should focus on academics more than integration by Richard Jones Knight Ridder Newspapers "A Seattle district study showed that low-income children - many of whom also were from minority groups - did worse in school when bused, compared to children from similar families who went to school close to home. " @@Kansas City Spending tons of money for world class facilities simply does not work in producing equity. \priv\95\11\demag.txt - 1.3 billion has not produced improved test scores. Stagnant scores are used as proof it must be continued instead of concluding it doesn't work. http://www.freerepublic.com/forum/a3998cab915f6.htm/pubs/pas/pa-298.html In the seminal study, "Money and School Performance: Lessons from the Kansas City Desegregation Experiment," Paul Ciotti illustrates that "educational problems can't be solved by throwing money at them." He recounts Kansas City's history of spending, which resulted in the highest per-pupil cost in the nation, higher teacher salaries, an Olympic-sized swimming pool with an underwater viewing room, television and animation studios, a robotics lab, a 25-acre wildlife sanctuary, a zoo, and a model United Nations with simultaneous translation capability. @@Gifted / Honors PARENT DEFENDS HONORS CLASSES ATTACKED AS "SEGREGATION" \clip\97\23\honorc.txt http://www.enews.com/magazines/tnr/current/trb102097.html The New Republic October 20, 1997 TRB FROM WASHINGTON: HONOR CODE By John B. Judis "American schools are resegregating," President Clinton warned at a ceremony marking the fortieth anniversary of integrating Little Rock's Central High. Clinton was referring obliquely to what Julian E. Barnes, in an article entitled "Segregation, now," argued in the September 22 U.S. News and World Report: that honors programs are reestablishing segregation within the country's public schools. SEGREGATION? OR BLACKS SHY AWAY FROM HONORS BECAUSE IT IS "RACIST" AND UNFASHIONABLE. \clip\97\20\honors.txt U.S. News & World Report 09/22/97 "Segregation, Now" (posted on web site http://www.usnews.com) Forty years after the forced integration of Little Rock's Central High School, honors classes separate black students from white "In Louisville, Ky., the schools are 30 percent black but the honors classes are only 10 percent black. In one Cleveland suburb, 50 percent of the district is black, but AP classes are only 10 percent black. In South Carolina's schools, blacks make up 43 percent of the students but only 13 percent of the students in gifted classes" Some black parents and students pull out of honors because they consider it "racist" or are taunted for hanging out with white achievers. @@Income z67\clip\2003\05\intcome.txt May 8, 2003 Cambridge Schools Try Integration by Income By SARA RIMER http://www.nytimes.com/2003/05/08/national/08CAMB.html In LaCrosse, Wis., the first district to endorse economic integration when it did so in the early 1990's, scores have risen, and the district has a very low dropout rate, despite a relatively high poverty rate. @@Left THE LEFT IS OFTEN LEERY OF INTEGRATION TOO \clip\98\18\leftintg.txt The Nation 12/14/98 http://www.thenation.com/issue/981214/kelle.htm Integration: What's Left? by ROBIN D.G. KELLEY @@Magnet Schools Magnet schools were originally designed to lure white students into minority areas by offering elite academic programs, but have had mixed success. In Durham, some have evolved into elite minority schools, which isn't such a bad thing. In Seattle, it has actually created complaints because the whites being bused into a formerly black dominant school are more elite than even average whites on mostly Advanced Placement track from gifted student programs, while blacks are stuck in a regular track ghetto. z82\clip\2004\06\garf.txt z82\clipim\2004\06\10\garfield http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/local/176577_garfield07.html Monday, June 7, 2004 The Two Garfields: The racial achievement gap at a premier school By GREGORY ROBERTS SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER REPORTER Garfield overall AP (38.1%) white 45.7 64 black 30.1 8.2 hisp 5.6 4.4 asian 17.1 21.7 native 1.6 1.6 seattle district WASL average math / read / write / science white 75 85 85 74 black 8 25 28 5 asian 65 70 75 58 latino 30 30 38 25 native 50 62 62 65 DURHAM MAGNETS FAIL AT DIVERSITY, BUT RAISE MINORITY TEST SCORES z75\clip\2004\03\magnet.txt http://www.herald-sun.com/durham/4-460810.html BY MICHAEL PETROCELLI, Durham Herald-Sun March 19, 2004 9:59 pm Magnets' test scores are rising, despite lack of student diversity [What a concept, minority kids getting into academic excellence, somebody please do something about it!!! - no word if "grade level" means 50th percentile, or worthless inflated "standards-based" tests] "...and at Y.E. Smith, the portion testing at grade level rose from 42 percent to 77 percent. http://www.educationnews.org/dailyeducationnews.htm 3/6/2000 Lexington Herald-Leader Magnet schools drawing attention Desegregation tool seems out of order By Lori Becker Hayes, Herald-Leader Education Writer Facing federal orders to desegregate schools, districts across the country established magnet schools to increase racial balance and improve education for minority students. Many of Fayette County's magnet schools don't seem to be accomplishing either, leaving the school board grappling to figure out what should be done and whether the schools are worth the millions of dollars put into them. @@Menlo Atherton (East Palo Alto) \clip\97\16\menloath.txt http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/chronicle/article.cgi?file=MN51299.DTL&directory=/chronicle/archive/1997/06/12 Thursday, June 12, 1997 · Page A1 ©1997 San Francisco Chronicle An `A' in Getting Along Menlo-Atherton High School students cross color barrier 1996 RACIAL BREAKDOWN 1,818 students White 36.9% Latino 36.6% African American 16.1% Pacific Islander 5.2% Asian 4.3% Filipino 0.6% American Indian 0.3% @@Missippi NEW SCHOOL FOR WHITE CASINO KIDS = PRIVATE ACADEMY FOR WHITES http://search.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/WPlate/1999-08/09/016l-080999-idx.html \clip\99\15\missseg.txt Windfall for Segregation By William Raspberry Monday, August 9, 1999; Page A15 [well, you could bus some % of whites and black kids between zones, but likley it would not any more difference in academics than it has elsewhere] The county's school system, once among the poorest and most segregated in the country, is proposing to establish a spanking new state-of-the-art school facility at Robinsonville The $8 million elementary school would be located hard by a new housing development planned to accommodate Tunica's [white] middle-class influx, drawn to the area by the bustling casinos. Because hardly any county blacks could afford the new housing, few would be in the new school's attendance zone. @@Prince George County: Busing Failure. Prince George County was the DC area suburb to adopt busing, but the demographics have shifted from mostly white to mostly black, and all parties ended up hating busing. New emphasis is on black achievement, not racial "balance" as there are few whites left to balance anything. \doc\web\98\06\endbus.txt Judge Ends Busing In Prince George's http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/WPlate/1998-09/02/107l-090298-idx.htm l September 2, 1998 By Lisa Frazier Washington Post "A federal judge in Greenbelt yesterday ordered the end to mandatory busing in Prince George's County, After 26 Years of Busing, Most Pleased to See It Go http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/WPlate/1998-09/02/090l-090298-idx.htm l September 2, 1998 By Robert E. Pierre & Rene Sanchez Washington Post many black and white Prince Georgians have come to the same conclusion: Forced busing has outlived its usefulness and become a burden. Judge approves end to court-ordered busing in Maryland county http://www.foxnews.com/js_index.sml?content=/news/wires2/0901/n_ap_0901_32 2. sml September 1, 1998 Associated Press But student population in the (since 1972) suburban Washington system has shifted from 70 percent white to nearly 80 percent black in that time. \priv\96B\03\WHITONLY.HTM No More White-Only School Seats Friday, June 21 1996; Page A22 The Washington Post The overriding fact is that the public schools have been holding seats open for white students even while denying access to eligible and waiting black students solely because of their race. That is not an effective way to achieve racial balance anymore in a county system that is nearly 72 percent black and 18.6 percent white. officials will stop holding 500 unused special magnet-school slots for white students when there's a waiting list of about 4,100 black students and zero white students. \priv\96B\03\ENDQUOT.HTM Pr. George's Schools Vote to End Racial Quotas By Lisa Frazier Washington Post Staff Writer Wednesday, June 19 1996; Page A01 The Washington Post The Prince George's County Board of Education voted early yesterday to abandon court-ordered racial quotas that have kept at least 500 black students out of schools that offer some of the county's most popular education programs. The court set a goal that the schools become no more than 80 percent black. As the black student population continued to grow toward its present 72 percent of total enrollment, the court allowed the school system to adjust the racial mandate. The guidelines for the 1995-96 school year stipulated that elementary schools should be no more than 86.6 percent black, middle schools no more than 90.8 percent black and high schools no more than 90.3 percent black. \priv\96B\06\PGMAGNET.HTM - vote to table the measure where 4100 blacks were waiting for 500 spots reserved for whites who didn't apply. The magnet programs, which offer specialized themes, such as French immersion, Montessori and performing arts, were created in 1985 as a desegregation strategy designed to draw white students to schools in predominantly black neighborhoods and avoid more widespread court-ordered busing. @@San Diego BASIC SKILLS NOT DESEGREGATION RAISED TEST SCORES, WHOLE LANGUAGE HARMFUL TO MINORITIES \clip\98\09\sandieg.txt San Diego Union-Tribune, Dec. 20, 1995. Was court oversight of schools worth it? SHARON L. JONES Staff Writer @@San Francisco See Lowell High School case SF CHINESE FOR AFFIRMATIVE ACTION DEFENDS BUSING CHINESE KIDS \clip\2004\04\chafac.txt S.F. Chinese Community Astir Over School Desegregation Debate http://news.ncmonline.com/news/view_article.html ?article_id=3836cd7397c2bb08e70b8ac8d44abe81 Ted Wang, policy director of Chinese For Affirmative Action. Feinstein, former San Franciso mayor, is a powerful Democrat. Wang said abolishing the current desegregation system would have no practical impact in improving the San Francisco public schools’ DESEGREGATION IN SF A DISMAL FAILURE \clip\99\06\edclip08.txt Desegregation failed black kids By Julian Guthrie February 21, 1999 San Francisco Examiner [Why fight to keep Chinese out of elite Lowell when desegregation wasn't even helping African Americans in the first place?] Spending $300 million over 15 years to desegregate San Francisco's schools bought students computers, culturally sensitive teachers, two new schools and the chance to sit next to kids of other races in class. Yet The failure is undeniable. The districtwide grade point average for black high school students -- who spent their entire careers under the desegregation plan -- was 1.81 in spring 1998. While blacks compose 16.6 percent of the district population, they represent half of all students suspended, and just 1.28 percent of those who take advanced placement exams. Ethnic Quotas in S.F. Schools Are Under Siege Judge says current bias must be shown http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/1998/12/ 18 /MN93259.DTL San Francisco Chronicle Nanette Asimov, Chronicle Staff Writer Friday, December 18, 1998 "The San Francisco schools' 15-year-old system of ethnic enrollment quotas for desegregation could soon collapse -- unless educators can prove that the district still discriminates against black and Latino students. Educators are desperate to keep the desegregation system because it draws a yearly $37 million in state and federal funds, mainly for programs to help blacks and Latinos raise achievement. But a federal ruling last spring said that to keep the system, the district must show that the discriminatory practices that led to its creation in 1983 persist today. Now, a federal judge is warning district officials that they may lose the system at a trial scheduled for February 16, since they have not yet justified keeping it." @@Seattle: Busing Deemed a Failure The original Seattle plan actually preserved predominantly black schools, blacks opposed being sprinkled equally throughout the system. What kind of a desegregation plan is that? In any case the only evidence is that kids that were bused if anything did worse than the ones who stayed in their own neighborhood, there was no evidence that it improved academic performance. ASSIGNING STUDENTS BY RACE OK AS LONG AS YOU WIN SOME, LOSE SOME?? z68\clip\2003\06\raceok.txt Seattle Times June 26, 2003 State Supreme Court OKs use of race in high school admissions By Paul Queary The Associated Press The majority found the policy is race-neutral because in some cases the system chooses a minority student and in others favors a white student. 2002: SEATTLE SCHOOLS RACE ASSIGNMENT NOT LEGAL z55\clip\2002\04\racefact.txt http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/localnews/134437318_schoolsweb16.html Tuesday, April 16, 2002, 09:54 p.m. Pacific Race as factor in Seattle school admissions illegal, court rules By Gene Johnson The Associated Press 2001: SEATTLE JUDGE SAYS RACE ASSIGNMENT REMEDY TO SEGREGATED NEIGHBORHOODS z48\clip\2001\04\searace.txt *(R) Seattle: Judge Oks race-based school assignments http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/cgi-bin/WebObjects/SeattleTimes.woa/wa/goto Article?zsection_id=268448406&text_only=0&slug=race07m&document_id=134282120 by Keith Ervin "U.S. District Court Judge Barbara Rothstein yesterday upheld race-based assignments of students to Seattle high schools, saying the policy is a legitimate antidote to segregated neighborhoods. SEATTLE PARENTS SUE TO END RACE ASSIGNMENT “Parents threaten to sue over school assignments by race,” Jolayne Houtz, Seattle Times, June 23, 2000 “It’s Ballard or bust,” Editorial (Seattle Times or P-I?), June 24, 2000 The Seattle schools claims that since you don't get excluded, you just get bumped to a less desireable school, then it's consistent with I200, but that won't fly. The same could be said for U Cal Berkeley, which routinely bumped whites and Asians but automatically gave admission to any black or Hispanic that was remotely qualified. Are Seattle Public Schools Complying with I200? lshaw@seattletimes.com Linda Shaw Seattle Times July 8, 1999 p. B4 At Seattle schools, race still helps determine what school a child goes to. Pacific Legal Foundation is looking for parents to challenge this, it would be first I200 lawsuit. Sharon Browne. Olchefske says that desegregation was not covered by Prop 209 in Ca, their gifted program no longer take race into account. \clip\99\13\seai200.txt PARENTS SAYS ASSIGNMENT BY RACE IN SEATTLE VIOLATES I200 The Stranger June 1999 (Seattle) KIDS CHANGE EVERYTHING Despite I200, Race Preferences Linger On by Josh Feit "I was told all the kids ahead of [my daughter] were 'integration positive'." "This is begging for a lawsuit," says John Carlson, who headed up last year's I200 campaign. "This is a slam dunk. The school district's practice of using race as a factor in school admissions is an obvious, if not brazen, violation of the law." [But Carlson isn't touching the 3 black women selected for #2 superintendent position!] SEATTLE ELECTS MORE NEIGHBORHOOD SCHOOLS OVER MORE BUSING Desegregation: South End may get new schools - but will the North End pay for them? Ruth Teichroeb Seattle Post Intelligencer June 4, 1999 North end (mostly white) seats are empty while south end (blacks, asians) are overflowing, most parents prefer closer schools. Gary Orfiels says Stanford promoted segregation, school board Michael preston says orfiels vision promotes racial balance not learning. Richard Kahlenberg Century Foudation (DC) says research proves a student will perform better at a middle thabn poverty level school (my study shows seattle whites better, blacks nearly equal to affluent bellevue schools) %public schools: north 65 central 65 west 80 south 90 SEATTLE PLAN WAS TO PRESERVE PREDOMINANTLY BLACK SCHOOLS WE RECOMMEND THAT THOSE SCHOOLS WHICH HAVE TRADITIONALLY AND HISTORICALLY BEEN DEEMED "MINORITY SCHOOLS" MAINTAIN NO LESS THAN 50% MINORITY ENROLLMENT" "Without a Court Order" Ann LaGrelius Siqueland Madrona Publishers [Seattle] p. 69 1981 ALTERNATIVE SCHOOLS WANT TO KEEP BUSING IN SEATTLE \clip\97\24\altbus.txt http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/buss_102197.html Seattle Times Company Tuesday, Oct. 21, 1997 Parents at alternative schools hit busing plan by Dick Lilly Seattle Times staff reporter SEATTLE TO ABANDON CROSS TOWN BUSING http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/skul_100997.html \clip\97\23\tossplan.txt The Seattle Times Company Thursday, Oct. 9, 1997 Time to toss student-assignment plan, Stanford says by Dick Lilly Seattle Times staff reporter Superintendent John Stanford hates the Seattle School District's system for assigning students to schools and busing them around town. It produces neither desegregation, as it was supposed to do when implemented in 1988, nor academic achievement among schoolchildren, particularly minorities, he says. SEATTLE BUSING: IT'S OVER AND TIME TO MOVE ON \clip\97\13\seabus.txt http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/jdl_052297.html Seattle Times Company Thursday, May 22, 1997 Focusing on schools, not on buses and other things "Promises, pitfalls of school re-segregation" Oct 17, 1996 p. B7 F121896-1 Marily s. Smith and Thaddeus Spratlen. The district has promised that new assignments will raise minority test scores, but most experience is that concentration in low income neighborhoods results in low scores. Comment - this ignores that blacks score equally poorly regardless of the average performance of the district they are found in. Seattle = Bellevue when compensating for race. SEATTLE: MINORITY KINDERGARTENERS CAN GO TO NEIGHBORHOOD SCHOOLS WITH END OF MANDATORY BUSING \doc\web\97\02\newkind.txt F021197-4 "New kindergartners can stay close to home" Seattle Post Intelligencer Feb 5, 1997 p. A2 Paul Shukovsky. "Among the beneficiaries of the relaxed desegregation standards are minority students in southeast Seattle, because of previous lids, many were bused to north Seattle" The old guidelines in a district that had 59% minorities were no more than 84% minorities, no single minority over 59%. Comment - spin of article is that minorities are the main beneficiaries of ending busing. BUSING IN SEATTLE STOPS BECAUSE IT DOESN'T HELP MINORITY PERFORMANCE \clip\96\09\endbus.txt Seattle Times Nov. 21, 1996 Seattle ending school busing Board OKs plan for voluntary integration Stanford says that busing has not improved the performance of minority children even though they are the ones that mostly have to travel far from home BLACK MAN WHO WENT ON BUS TO MOSTLY WHITE SCHOOL NOW DESIGNS SEATTLE'S NEW BUSING PLAN d:\clip\96\08\seadesg.txt Nov. 18, 1996 Making integration work He's architect of plan for schools by Jerry Large Seattle Times staff reporter http://www.seattletimes.com/topstories/browse/html/hump_111896.html John Humphrie says he wants people to be comfortable with one another, the way he is with people whose backgrounds are different from his. That comfort develops when people interact, he says, which is why he wants to make integration happen in Seattle's public schools. \doc\96\07\seainteg.txt Seattle had a good voluntary desegregation plan in 1976, but was dumped in favor of much worse mandatory plan that has failed. @@Test Scores %%No effect Arthur Hu's National Review study shows that test scores of minorities lag no matter how good the overall district performance, in many cases, for example, Bellevue vs Seattle, minorities do just as poorly in integrated suburban schools. %%Improved ORRFIELD SAYS DESEGREGATION MAKES BETTER TEST SCORES \CLIP\98\09\charter.txt http://www.azcentral.com:80/news/education/0527charters.shtml Why so White? Charter schools' racial makeup raises questions Cathryn Creno The Arizona Republic May 27, 1998 Arizona's charter schools are luring White middle-class children out of more racially mixed district schools, say two Arizona State University researchers who believe the trend could result in substandard educations for minority children. Glass pointed out that several academic studies -- the most notable being a 1982 University of North Carolina study and Dismantling Desegregation, a 1996 book published by the Harvard University Project on School Desegregation -- show standardized test scores of minority children increase when they attend racially balanced schools. @@Tracking DOES TRACKING CREATE SEGREGATION, OR ARE DIFFERENCES REAL? http://www.sfgate.com:80/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/1998/ 09 /22/MN103228.DTL On the Wrong Track? Segregated classes result from grouping students by expectations Nanette Asimov, Chronicle Staff Writer San Francisco Chronicle, Tuesday, September 22, 1998 \clip\98\13\trakrace.txt @@Voluntary MANY AFFLUENT MINORITIES PREFER TO LIVE IN 100% MINORITY AREAS z51\clip\2001\09\volseg.txt The New Segregation: Ethnic Identity or Racism? http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,33317,00.html "Four decades after civil rights activists risked their lives to fight racial discrimination, many minorities are choosing segregation over integration. In many places throughout the country, well-off minority families are moving into new neighborhoods to be with members of their own race. many affluent African Americans say they prefer to live in areas where the figure is closer to 100 percent. [Guru Gary Orrfield says very few prefer to live in majority minority neighborhoods] @@Yonkers: Failure JUDGE BLAMES MINORITY PROBLEMS ON SEGREGATION, REVERSES YONKERS DECISION. BANNING ASSIGNMENT BASED ON RACE = SEGREGATION? \clip\96\05\yonkseg.txt Date: Wed, 25 Sep 1996 03:22:51 -0400 Court Holds State Liable in Yonkers Desegregation By SAMUEL MAULL Associated Press Writer NEW YORK (AP) -- A federal appeals court on Tuesday said New York state was greatly responsible for racial segregation in Yonkers schools and must pay to fix the harm done to black and Hispanic children. [blames test scores and higher suspension rates on "vestiges of segregation" even though these racial differences exist regardless of quality of any school district even the best suburban districts. It faults decision to ban assignment on the basis of race, therefore colorblind assignment amounts to "segregation"????]

@@Definition

Is desegregation an exactly equal distribution across all schools, or is there an "ideal" ratio, where minorities should be of a size equal to other groups? As defined in the 1964 Civil Rights Act, desegregation was not to insure racial balance, but simply to assign without regard to race. This has evolved to Orrfield's definition which is to see perfect racial balance, and eliminate all isolation and academic disparity, regardless of benefit, or demonstration that of effectiveness in achieving academic goals. There seems to be some confusion here, as a school that reflects the "national" diversity of 75% white is considered to be "predominantly white" and undesirable, yet UC Berkeley was 70% minority by 1990, and this was considered "diverse" and desirable. Pick your definition: * 50 / 50 white black is integrated (poll question) * reflects local population (population parity) * 50% minority is segregated (1964 definition) * 60% minority is "diverse" (1994 U Wa Law School) * 70% minority is "diverse" (1990 UC Berkeley) * 75% is "predominantly white" (national population) * 40% of any group is segregated (San Francisco Schools) * 50% of minorities concentrated into two flagship campuses with 25% of students gives impression of "diversity" (UCLA, Berkeley 1989) * 50% students of color does not meet diversity goal (U Wash school of social work) * Preserve traditionally minority schools (Seattle 1970s) \clip\97\15\blakpoll.txt Poll: Whites, blacks differ on quality of race relations " A majority of whites and blacks told pollsters they'd prefer to live in a mixed neighborhood. But the reality is that more than 77 percent of whites live in a mostly or all white neighborhood, while only 41 percent of blacks live in predominantly black neighborhoods." Comment - what's a mixed neighborhood? National population is 72% white, only 10% black, but "mixed" usually means 50 / 50, which is actually a predominantly black neighborhoodl San Francisco defines segregation when any ethnic group, like Chinese exceeds 40%, thus quotas at Lowell, and opposition to lifting of preferences for Whites (who do not exceed the quota) over better qualified Chinese.
\doc\web\97\04\racescho.txt Book: Race and Schooling In the City Edited by Adam Yarmolinsky, Lance Liebman Corrine S. Schelling Harvard University Press 1981 p. 10 Dianne Ravitch "Furthermore, northern concerns that the act migh be used to bring about racial balance in northern school districts were assuaged in Title IV of the Civil Rights Act by an explicit prohibition of efforts to impose racial balance: "'Desegregation' means the assignment of students to public schools and within such schools without regard to their race, color, religion, or national origin, but 'desegregation' shall not mean the assignment of students to public schools in order to overcome racial imbalance." p. 14 "in 1973, the Court ruled in Keys v. Denvrer School District No. 1 that "state-imposed segregation in a substantial portion of the district will suffice to support a finding.. of a dual system" ... and would ultimately require the elimination of racial isolation wherever it existed" p. 22. What does segregation mean in a system that is 75-80% nonwhite like Chicago or Detroit? If it means not deviating, then would 50 / 50 be segregated? No school is majority white in a nonwhite system? "in an urban settting, there is no present understanding of what desegregation ought to be" WE RECOMMEND THAT THOSE SCHOOLS WHICH HAVE TRADITIONALLY AND HISTORICALLY BEEN DEEMED "MINORITY SCHOOLS" MAINTAIN NO LESS THAN 50% MINORITY ENROLLMENT" (???) "Without a Court Order" Ann LaGrelius Siqueland Madrona Publishers [Seattle] p. 69 1981 Title VII of the Emergency School Aid Act defines segregation when any school has over 50% minorities. The State of Washington defined segregation when any single minority group exceeded 40 percent, even if there were no whites. p. 63 The Church Council did not favor a random distribution of minority students and teachers around the district, but "schools which are presently identified with minority communities must maintain sufficient numbers of minority students in order that their racial identity can be maintained", listing schools which would be allowed to remain 50% to 60% black, mostly Asian, or lidded with one-third of each group. "A full citywide distribution of racial minority students would result in those students being represented in very small numbers in each classroom, thereby diminishing the opportunity for maintaining ethnic and cultural identity". p. 151 "We recommend that those schools which have traditionally and historically been deemed "minority schools" maintain no less than 50% minority enrollment" [In other words, they WANTED segregated predominantly minority schools, not 17% black, 9% Asian, 3% Native Amerian, reflecting the district. Diversity and desgregation evidently does NOT include sending minorities to predominantly white schools!] \doc\97\01\blaknews.txt Newsweek May 6, 1991 p. 31 Mark Whitaker et al F020397-1 In Newsweek's poll, 72 percent of blacks and 52 percent of whites said that they would prefer to live in a neighborhood that was racially "half and half", more than 3 years ago (comment, that's a predominantly minority neighborhood, not reflective of a US that is 3/4 white)

@@Evidence of success

%%Yes \doc\96\07\lublin.txt >You might check out Gary Orfield and Carol Ashikanize's excellent >book "The Closing Door" on education in Atlanta. They argue that >integration is key to improving African-American test scores and >argue persuasively that the effectively racially separate school >system in Atlanta does not sucessfully educate most kids. > >David Lublin >University of South Carolina >> Date sent: Wed, 23 Oct 1996 15:03:19 -0500 >> Send reply to: race-pol@acadcomp.cmp.ilstu.edu >> To: lublin@garnet.cla.sc.edu \doc\94\7\desegwk.txt black educational progress (1/2 gap erased between 1971 and 1991) proves that desegregation works (??) [There is _no_ other evidence ever cited that show desegregation results in academic parity or improved test scores] DID INTEGRATION RESULT IN HIGHER TEST SCORES? http://www.intellectualcapital.com/bibliotech/rev-120398.asp \clip\98\18\nogap.txt The New Optimism about Racial Equality by Richard D. Kahlenberg December 3, 1998 A review of The Black-White Test Score Gap, by Christopher Jencks and Meredith Phillips 1998, $18.95, 523 pp. Brookings Institution Press "An essay by David Grissmer of RAND finds that school desegregation probably did contribute to increased test scores among blacks. The gains were largest in the Southeast, where the most thorough desegregation occurred. Desegregation, furthermore, did not result in a decline in achievement among whites." [This is only a conjecture. My study in National Review shows that black test scores are equally low regardless of integration level] Date sent: Sat, 05 Dec 1998 09:41:49 -0500 From: "Louis R. Andrews" The Thernstrom's in _America in Black and White_ write (page 358) "Those black students who have remained in predominantly African-American schools have improved their scores as much or more than those attending integrated schools." The busing/integration sociologist researcher David J. Armour in his book _Forced Justice_ wrote: "Not only has mandatory desegregation failed to produce educational and social benefits for most minority children but also research shows it can lead to adverse consequences for some." He also wrote (paraphrased here) that improved school achievement would be the last reason anyone should suggest to support school integration. As I recall, the black legal theorist Roy L. Brooks in his _Integration or Separation?_ which I reviewed in an early issue of _pinc_ also makes a case that some black children learn better in a separate environment from white children. As I recall no specific evidence other than anecdotal as provided. Louis
@@Failure Desegregation has never worked, and never will. The usual reason for imposing integration is to equalize academic performance, but in every case, sending underperforming kids to the best schools ends up maintaining a wide performance gap. The only schools where minorities perform at the same high levels as the best affluent whites are actually predominantly minority settings see success.htm Hall of Shame ------------------------------- San Francisco Prince George County Virginia Yonkers New York Seattle Washington Kansas City Lynnfield Mass SENDING LATINOS TO POPULAR SCHOOL DOES NOT CLOSE SAT GAP z47\clip\2001\01\lajolla.txt .htm http://www.uniontrib.com/news/uniontrib/sun/news/news_1n7ljhigh.html SCHOOL PAYS PRICE FOR EXCELLENCE La Jolla High School's academic achievements have a surprising downside: Local kids return from private schools, leave less room for underprivileged By Chris Moran STAFF WRITER January 7, 2001 La Jolla's Latinos also score high on SAT exams average Latino SAT scores in 1997 (the most recent year for which data could be obtained), La Jolla's combined score was 69 points above the county average. Latinos score far below whites at La Jolla on the state-mandated test of basic skills. The Academic Performance Index (derived from the test scores) for Latinos at La Jolla ranks fifth in the county, but it's well below the whites at La Jolla. SUBURB READY TO FLUNK OUT BUSED METCO KIDS \clip\99\08\edclip05.txt By Beth Daley, Doreen Iudica Vigue, and Kate Zernike, Boston Globe Staff, 03/09/99 Last week, Lynnfield Superintendent Richard Palermo and members of the school committee said they were ready to eliminate the 41-student Metco program after several students at the high school posted failing grades. [More proof simply sending poor minority kids to rich suburbs doesn't magically raise their achievement to the level of their peers] WILLIAM RASPBERRY: FAILURE IN PRINCE GEORGE COUNTY http://search.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/WPlate/1997-12/19/048l-121997-idx.html \clip\97\29\pgbus.txt Washington Post This Is Where I Get Off By William Raspberry Friday, December 19, 1997; Page A25 [Busing has failed in Prince George County] What's wrong with black children? YONKERS BLACKS STILL 2 GRADES BEHIND \clip\97\18\busblak.txt U.S. News & World Report 07/28/97 Second thoughts about integration "In Yonkers, N.Y., for example, blacks still score nearly two grade levels below whites on standardized tests a decade after a federal court ordered busing;" BY JERELYN EDDINGS

@@Failure

DESEGREGATION IS NOT THE ANSWER - BLACKS DO POORLY EVEN IN THE BEST SCHOOL DISTRICTS d:\doc\96\07\blaktest.txt Rankings and research by Arthur Hu, source various news reports and contacting actual school districts Math SAT Rankings 1995 Asian/White Fairfax County (DC) (affluent) 549<--- Richland WA (middle class white) 540 US Asian 538 Los Angeles School Dist 464 Black Fairfax County 445<--- Wash DC 442 Baldwin Park (Black suburb) 436 Oakland Unified 413 Prince George County (affluent black 412 Blacks in Fairfax County, one of the best suburban districts (SATM549) scored no better than Los Angeles. (SATM464) Blacks in Prince George County, a predominantly black affluent suburb in the top 3% of counties in household income scores no better (SATM413) than Oakland Unified, one of the worst districts in the SF Bay area with the largest concentration of black poverty. (SATM412) (full table at http://www.arthurhu.com/ index/aeduc.htm#bestcahigh) CTBS Math Rankings (or equivalent) Seattle Lakeside (best private in WA state) 95 Mercer Island Asian 90<--+ Mercer Island (best dist in WA state) 83<--+ Bellevue Asian 82 Northshore Asian 80 Renton Asian 74<--+ Bellevue 67 Northshore White 67 | Lake Wash 61 | Renton All 59<--+ Baltimore Barclay (black) 60 Zion Academy (black) 55 Atlanta (black) 55 Yakima/Pasco/Spokane White 53 Northshore Black 51 ------------ Most blacks ------------------------- Seattle African Am Academy 43 Issaquah Black 41 Seattle Black 40 Lake Wash black 35 Renton Black 34 Asians in Renton (74) do as well as whites in Bellevue (67) Asians in Bellevue (82) do as well as whites in Mercer Island (83) Asians in Mercer Island (90) do nearly as well as Lakeside (92-94) Blacks in Bellevue, Lake Washington, and Renton (34-41) do as poorly as blacks in urban Seattle or Tacoma (40) The best blacks in Northshore were still no better than 50 Only Atlanta, Zion and Barclay were higher than 50. BLACKS DO POORLY IN CLAS, EVEN IN BEST DISTRICTS. Math high school performance, 1993 CLAS Califrornia Dept of Education Math scores in levels 1 lowest to 6 highest, ranked by 3 or higher Data collected from each school district office. Grade 10 Percentage with CLAS Math Test Score Over Race Location 6 5 4 3 3+ Asian Palo Alto Unified 0 16 42 33 91 Asian San Ramon Valley 2 14 32 30 78 Asian Lynbrook Cupertino 0 11 34 27 72 White Palo Alto Unified 0 22 30 19 71 Asian Cupertino 0 18 24 27 69 = Palo Alto White Oakland 0 3 28 22 53 White Cupertino 0 10 13 28 51 White San Ramon Valley 0 5 21 23 49 Asian Santa Clara County 0 9 16 23 48 = Cupertino Asian Contra Costa County 0 4 18 23 45 Asian Calfornia State 0 6 14 24 44 White Santa Clara County 0 6 12 23 41 Asian San Francisco 0 3 13 25 41 = Santa Clara County White Contra Costa County 0 3 15 22 40 ------ Worst Whites, Asians Above State Average --- -- White Calfornia State 0 3 10 23 36 White Lynbrook Cupertino 0 15 8 13 36 White San Francisco 0 3 7 25 35 Asian Oakland 0 2 6 25 33 = San Francisco ------- Best Blacks Only At State Average --------- ------ Black San Ramon Valley 0 0 10 20 30 <--- All Calfornia State 0 2 7 18 27 Black Cupertino 0 6 0 17 23 Black Santa Clara County 0 0 2 13 15 Black Calfornia State 0 0 2 10 12 Black San Francisco 0 1 11 12 Black Contra Costa County 0 0 3 8 11 Black Oakland 0 1 0 9 10 Blacks scored poorly with only 9-10% scoring above level 3 math in Oakland, San Francisco and state-wide in California measured on the CLAS test. But they did poorly - 13% even in affluent Santa Clara County, and 17-20% in Cupertino and San Ramon Valley, no better than state average (18%) in two of the best school systems in the state (23-28% for whites). Similar results show that blacks in predominantly black or Hispanic East San Jose and East Palo Alto scored the same as state average, or integrated San Francisco or Oakland at the elementary school level. The only groups scoring above 30% were Asians, who consistently outscored whites in the best school districts, and the worst Asians in Oakland still scored better than state average. No one in the press noted this at the time. CLAS was developed to address multiculturalism and to get away from multiple choice questions with fixed answers, but the result was a test that was even more difficult for minorities. It makes no sense to bus kids from poor working class white neighborhoods into rich suburbs in a futile attempt to equalize their test scores, why does busing children of different races make any more sense? ------------------------------------------------------------ DESEGREGATION HAS FAILED IN SAN FRANCISCO \clip\97\04\pricfail.txt Friday, August 18, 1995 · Page A25 1996 San Francisco Chronicle Black GPA 1.86 in 1995 1992 - black D average Only 20% reading at grade level by 3rd grade DEBRA J. SAUNDERS -- Pricey, Tragic, Institutionalized Failure -----------------------------------------------------------

@@Funding

\priv\96b\01\desgfund.txt Date: Wed, 19 Jun 1996 22:33:07 -0400 From: NewsHound@sjmercury.com (NewsHound) Financial Incentive in Racial-Balance Law Questioned By CAROLYN THOMPSON: School districts get more money if they submit racial balance plans, even though they may not have a problem, or may actually segregate students more. Framingham, which is nearly all-white admits it was a good way to pay for a new school. The San Francisco NAACP gets millions to administer the city busing plan which gives it incentive to oppose any changes, such as allowing Lowell to not cap numbers of Chinese.
@@Housing AFFORDABLE HOUSING IN SUBURBS KEY TO SCHOOLING THE POOR(?) Seattle has a chance to solve affordable housing problem Seattle Times Nov 7, 1999. David Rusk says Seattle should follow Montgomery County Maryland. It requires all developments to offer some units to below average income families. Claims poor students test scores rise 20% when they go to a more affluent school [note that blacks in particular do NOT score as well as whites even in affluent districts, in Seattle, they don't even score any higher] In seattle only 15% of poor whites, but 43% of blacks, 27% of Hispanics and 38% of Asian who are poor live in poor neighborhoods [note that Asians overall, who tend to be poor in Seattle, score only slightly lower than the much more affluent, better educated whites] zip38\clipim\99\11\07\affhou.efx

@@Opinion

SEGREGATION OK AS LONG AS OPPORTUNITIES ARE FAIR Chicago Sun Times http://www.suntimes.com/output/news/equal17.html zip36\clip\99\16\segok.txt Segregation OK with many youths August 17, 1999 BY JOHN BALZ LOS ANGELES TIMES WASHINGTON--About half of young adults believe that separation of the races is acceptable as long as there are equal opportunities for everyone, according to a survey of attitudes about race relations released Monday. The study, sponsored by the NAACP and conducted by Hamilton College in New York and the polling firm Zogby International, asked adults 18 to 29 whether "it's OK if races are basically separate" from one another. IS 50% MINORITY "INTEGRATED"? \doc\97\01\blaknews.txt Newsweek May 6, 1991 p. 31 Mark Whitaker et al F020397-1 In Newsweek's poll, 72 percent of blacks and 52 percent of whites said that they would prefer to live in a neighborhood that was racially "half and half", more than 3 years ago (comment, that's a predominantly minority neighborhood, not reflective of a US that is 3/4 white)

@@Orfield, Gary

Guru of busing and integration, now with Harvard University warns of the dangers of segregation. Yet he never shows that desegregation solves the problems like low achievement he uses to justify forced busing. Critic Preston of seattle says his priority is balance, not learning. On the one hand, he says that desegregation is needed because of differences in achievement, but on the other hand, he says that integration isn't doesn't result in equality, nor should it be expected to, there are other good reasons to enforce desegregation. He says that "segregated" school can never be equal, but never shows that integrated schools result in equality either. In fact, he simply wants numerical integration for its own sake, without any evidence that it fixes any of the problems he points out. ORFIELD AGAINST NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND z68\clip\2003\07\orfesea.txt NEA REJECTS OUTLINE BY BUSH FOR SCHOOLS Washington Times -- July 3, 2003 by George Archibald Gary Orfield, an education professor and co-director of the Civil Rights Project at Harvard University, said the law was "based on ideological assumptions ... that people who serve poor people are lazy ... and if they don't shape up very quickly, their money will be taken away from them." DESEGREGATION OF CITY SCHOOL NO LONGER FEASIBLE, BUT WE NEED TO ANYWAYS? http://www.seattletimes.com/news/education/html98/race_19990612.html Saturday, June 12, 1999 U.S. schools are racing toward resegregation, new report says by Richard Lee Colvin Los Angeles Times LOS ANGELES - Racial segregation in U.S. public schools is accelerating, with the trend particularly notable among Latinos in California and elsewhere in the Southwest. nearly 70 percent of black students and 75 percent of Latino students attend predominantly minority schools, More than one-third of the students in each group are in schools where 90 percent or more of their classmates are minorities. Meanwhile, the average white student is enrolled in a school where more than eight in 10 of his or her classmates are also white. [vs 7 in 10 in the population!] Desegregation of city schools is no longer feasible, he said. SEATTLE ELECTS MORE NEIGHBORHOOD SCHOOLS OVER MORE BUSING Desegregation: South End may get new schools - but will the North End pay for them? Ruth Teichroeb Seattle Post Intelligencer June 4, 1999 Gary Orfiels says Stanford promoted segregation, school board Michael preston says orfields vision promotes racial balance not learning. Richard clinton.tif Clinton promises results on race initiative Dec 17, 1997 p. A6 Seattle Times Clinton: it all come of substituting preferences for affirmative action. Gary Orfield says the real issue was resegregation of public schools for blacks and Hispanics. "Residential segregation produces school segregation" he said. Resegregation breeds lower achievement and poverty, he said. ----------------------------------------------------------- "Must We Bus? Segregated Schools and National Policy" Gary Orfield The Brookings Institution 1978 * says even successful blacks held down if black neighborhood is low achieving. * says that blacks want to live in integrated areas, yet study showed that many blacks had anti-white feelings, didn't want to move out of ghetto into white areas, and don't want to be the "only" black. Related to defintion of "integrated" as 50% black, when such a neighborhood is in fact predominantly black, 10% black would be integrated for most of us, but might be the "only black" for some people. * says that adding blacks doen't hurt white education, but he has never proven, and still claim he never said that busing brings equality in test scores for blacks, though low test scores is his #1 justification for busing in the firstplace. BUSING GURU ORRFIELD STRIKES AGAIN \clip\97\10\orrfiel.txt http://www.nytimes.com/yr/mo/day/news/national/school-reseg.html New York Times April 8, 1997 Segregation Creeping Back Into Schools, Study Finds By PETER APPLEBOME " Finn disputes the report's analysis that the figures on resegregation reflect a problem in need of a remedy. "There's a huge amount of Big Brotherism in Orfield's world view," said Finn, "and I'll bet he doesn't point out how much this unmixing we're seeing now is a consequence of white flight from compulsory busing strategies." " \doc\96\07\closdoor.txt "The Closing Door: Conservative policy and black opportunity" Gary Orfield and Carole Ashkinaze, University of Chicago Press (Chicago 1991) Summary - Orfield says that the conservative strategy of basics and excellence has stunted the move towards equality. His study of Atlanta schools shows that schools with more blacks do more poorly than those with more whites, except for Mays, but he specifically does NOT break down performance of minorities within school districts, which would be needed to support his theory that integration itself help equalize test scores, even though he cites low test scores as the main reason to integrate. Thus his entire case for desegregation is based on the fact that schools are not balanced, not that balanced schools will eliminate the problems he cites. Therefore, it is an enormous waste of time, money, effort and aggravation when the problem is lower minority performance, not the schools they go to. At least Orfield believes that throwing money at the problem is a waste, he concludes spending doesn't make a big difference. But he says that integration will without any evidence that it works. \doc\97\03\orf2.txt - notes * Predominantly black schools almost always perform worse than integrated and white schools, even in affluent and suburban districs which sometimes scored no better than poor inner city students. * Even though Orfield all over the book pins blame for poor performance on segregation, and offers low performance as the primary justification for proving the need for desegregation, he admits that without data (which is easy to obtain) showing test scores of blacks and whites within the same schools, rather than test scores of schools which are mostly white vs. mostly black, it is can't be used to "support the conclusion that integration improves student achievement". Comment - in fact, in every district where I HAVE looked at such data, blacks do more poorly than whites regardless of the proportions or economic composition of students, which blows away the entire premise of integration as a means of equalizing inequity in school performance. Dismantling desegregation: the quiet reversal of Brown v Board of Education / Gary Orfield, Susan E. Eaton, and the Harvard Project on School Desegregation. (c) 1996 The New Press New York, Dist by W. W. Norton C Ind New York. Summary - School districts are moving away from desegregation, and the idea that the goal is no longer to equalize outcomes and racial proportions as long as segregation is not intentionally assigning students by race. However, while he observes that there are no large-scale exmamples of "segregated" systems that work, he does not give any examples of any "integrated" systems where whites and blacks perform at anywhere near equal levels. The closest he comes is San Francisco where he says that students that went to "integrated" schools did better. However, SF district blacks peform just as poorly as those in Oakland, or predominantly minority E. San Jose or E. Palo Alto. p. 177 (He strongly implies the goal of desegregation should be to eradicate educational differences - but he himself has effectively stated that this is not the goal, nor is it realistic to expect that integration by itself will do this) "The essential goal of Miliken II programs is not to eradicate the effets of prior intentional segregation by eliminating achievement gaps between the races" p. 4 "the school district need not prove actual racial inequality" p. 144 (1996) "the courts should at least guarantee that minority children receive a quality education to remedy the educational deficits traceable to segregation" (What the heck does THAT mean? Equal test scores?) Orrfield 90 p. 168 The Judge said that there was no proven intentional segregation, but officials never state their intentions. In the "prioritiy schools" plan, but performance was still not equal, while there was some "improvement Orfield 1996 p. 89 1992 evaluation of St. Lois program relative to starting ability 1. Best tranferred to suburts, sigifican academic gains, high college attendence rates, low dropout rates (but doesn't say if it was equal to whites) 2. Inregrated magnet schools had "most positive effects" across add grades, top choice for black students. The lowest scoring stayed in neighborhood schools 3. Many millions were spent upgradeing neighborhood schools, but had no effect on improving performance. Orfield 96 p. 91 "There is little in the general research on compensatory education to suggest that even a costly compensation plan is likely to produce a marked educational improvement. Orfield 96 p. 93 There are no successful segregated schools (But there are no successful integrated ones either) Though there have been some successful segregated school, across the country no district has produced equal education on a large scale within segregated African American or Latin schools. (Comment - no integrated school district has produced equal education either!) Vast differences in resources and parental education is a result of past discrimination (but they do more poorly even with equal incomes and parental education) Negative peer group effects (which come from culture) and absence of clear paths to successs in suburbs. Orfield 96 p. 171 Another indication of schooll quality is the number of teachers, requesting transfers is higher in "priority schools", 91-92 21% in PS vs. 14% other schools in Austin. Orf p. 90 Spending Evaluation of SF 83 decree showed no gains for African American or Latino for most low-income schools, with extra dollars "desegregation" with few whites means poor blacks were mixed with poor latinos. Only changing staff had any effect on outcomes. Students who went to reconstituted and high achieving middle class integrated schools showed significant gains (CLAS shows that SF blacks score no better than those in E Palo Alto or Oakland or E San Jose)

@@Naacp

NAACP BACKS OFF FROM COMMITMENT TO INTEGRATION \clip\97\17\naacp.txt New York Times July 14, 1997 Chairwoman Silent on Integrated Schools By STEVEN A. HOLMES 06/23/1997 04:15 EST NAACP Rethinks Integration Policies NEW YORK (AP) -- The NAACP is rethinking its support of public school integration, which has been one of its fundamental goals for decades, The New York Times reported today.
@@National Association for Neighborhood Schools Anti force desegregration organization. http://www.nans.org 3/99 news

@@Near blacks

Anyone who lives within a 90 min bus ride of a black population center is guilty of intentional segregation unless they formulate a plan to equalize the population Orrfield 1996 p. 178 "when school district has a small pool of white students, racial integration is likely to occur only by including surrounding predominantly white communities".

@@Population

Atlantic Monthly May 1991 In 1986, 27.5% of black and 30.0% of Hispanic school children, but only 3.3% of whites were enrolled in the twenty-five largest central-city school districts. ==================================================== HOW COME ASIANS GO TO "SEGREGATED" MINORITY SCHOOLS BUT STILL GET GOOD TEST SCORES? "Segregated school are once again the norm" USAT May 12, 1994 8A Margaret L. Usdansky -Almost half of Asians attend "majority minority schools -Asians are most "segregated in the west where" 59% attend minority schools -Average black in 1992 San Francisco attends school that is only 12.2% white --- - minorities are going to school with fewer whites than before in many school districts - percentage of blacks in white majority schools from .001% in 1954 to 43.5% in 1988 d:\doc\94\18\whitscho.wk1 - whites in public schools USA Today May 12, 1994 p. 9A A Look at school populations" Average percentage of non-Hispanic whites in some large public school systems 1968 1974 1986 1992 Oakland 30.0% 17.7% 5.6% 3.7% Los Angeles 31.8% 25.0% 11.3% 8.4% Houston 38.1% 28.6% 13.9% 10.9% New York 18.7% 15.9% 12.2% 11.0% San Francisco 40.7% 26.6% 12.3% 11.0% Dallas 48.0% 40.7% 18.7% 14.1% Chicago 41.7% 30.6% 16.6% 14.4% Miami 45.3% 32.0% 19.4% 15.6% Fort Worth 55.9% 38.5% 26.7% 23.2% San Diego 57.8% 54.0% 38.2% 27.4% USA Today analysis of 1991-92 school year US Education Department data, earlier data form National School Boards associations Ed Note: none are over 27% white! d:\doc\94\18\uspubmin.wk1 - minorities at minority schools Summary: Nearly Half of Asians in Predominantly Minority Schools
Percentage of students by race and ethnicity attending US public schools that have more than 50% minority enrollment Source: USA Today Analysis by Barbara Pearson of 1991-92 US Education Department data for states excluding Alaska and Hawaii Note: Asians would be even higher if Hawaii were included White Black Hispanic Asian Rate 8% 65% 73% 46% Index 1.00 8.13 9.13 5.75 Black=1.0 USA Today May 12, 1994 p.2A doc941\asboston.txt metco favors blacks doc941\metco.txt voluntary busing favors blacks 2,966 black 351 Lation 24 Asian. blacks 56% of minority students, latino 31 Asian 7 doc941\orrfield.doc interview on SF busing DOC942\PRIV\ORRF2.TXT increasing spending hasn't helped asian education desegregation doc942\priv\orrf4.txt Orrfield says Kansas City was wasate doc\94\5\seg.txt US News report on segregation in cities and schools SFC 4/4/92 A8 Court Backs White Flight - school systems aren't accountable to demographic factors, only intentional @@Private Schools STUDY: PRIVATE SCHOOLS LESS SEGREGATED THAN PUBLIC SCHOOLS http://www.schoolchoices.org/roo/jay1.htm Of all students observed in private school lunchrooms, 63.5% were in an integrated setting. That is, 63.5% of private school students were sitting in a group where at least one of the five students immediately around them was of a different racial group. In public schools, 49.7% of all students were in a similarly integrated lunchroom setting (See Table 3). \doc\web\98\09\privseg.txt

@@Suburb

Orfield 1986 p. 326 Gautreaux was a Chicago Housing Authority program to move blacks out of inner city projects into white suburbs with rent subsidy certificates and into better schools with positive role models A lease on middle class life Experimental program moves poor families into more affluent areas. Seattle Times June 5, 2000 Amy Goldstein Wash Post. Little sign those who move make more money or improve their education. $3,000 in counseling for each family. Many move back closer to poor neighborhoods. Some move up to middle class buying houses and cars. All who signed up for program were black. NEED VOUCHERS TO SUBURBS NOT JUST PRIVATE SCHOOLS z45\clip\2000\10\ticksub.txt October 18, 2000 NYT Better Than a Voucher, a Ticket to Suburbia By RICHARD ROTHSTEIN the federal government began its own experiment in 1994, called Moving To Opportunity. It gives a total of about 2,000 poor families in five cities, including New York, housing vouchers to relocate to middle-income areas. Counselors work with the families, their new neighbors, and suburban real-estate agents to help the moves go smoothly.
@@Success The only evidence given that desegregation works is the closing gap between all blacks and all whites, but there is no way to distinguish if this was caused by busing, or by increasing education, income and quality of education of blacks. \doc\94\7\desegwk.txt Black educational progress (1/2 gap erased between 1971 and 1991) allegedly proves that desegregation works (??)

@@Test scores

The old assumption was that desegregation would equalize test scores. Now some advocate neighborhood schools as a way of equalizing test scores. Kansas city decree was based on desegregating until the test scores were the same under the assumption that desegregation alone would equalize test scores. The most that has been found is that sometimes there is improvement in blacks who go to "desegregated" schools, but it has never resulted in educational parity. \priv\96\20\MINNSC~1.HTM Seattle Times Company June 11, 1996 Minneapolis has some lessons on neighborhood schools There is a new feeling that doing away with forced busing could be key in closing the gap in minority test scores. "Without a Court Order" Ann LaGrelius Siqueland Madrona Publishers [Seattle] p. 183 Seattle has completed 3 years of school under the plan test scores have improved (but gap between races is not shown, this gap was still an issue even in 1997 when mandatory desegregation was finally abandoned) Schools are all racially balanced. CAT CAT 1975 1979 Total Math --------------- 1 65 2 58 63 +5 3 63 63 +0 4 54 63 +9 5 62 65 +3 6 63 70 +7 7 62 67 +5 8 64 65 +1

@@White resistance

file: \priv\96B\06\PGCHANG.HTM P.G. Braces for Major Change in Schools Some Welcome, Others Worry About Vote to Ignore Desegregation Order By Lisa Frazier Washington Post Staff Writer Monday, June 24 1996; Page B01 The Washington Post Magnet schools are a failure, ""We knew even back then the day would come when we were going to run out of white kids to get that kind of racial balance" .."her research has shown that only 18 percent of white parents say they will send their children to the schools if their enrollment is evenly divided between blacks and whites. Even fewer white parents say they will do so when the percentage of blacks in the magnet program is above 50 percent, she said."

@@Wisconsin

doc93b\asdeseg.txt Hmong in Wausau, Wisconsin doc\94\3\priv\hmongbus.txt busing for hmong dropped
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