Lake Washington School District Graduation Standards Recommendations 1

Contents:

¨ Beliefs

¨ Recommendations

¨ Background Information

¨ Timeline

Lake Washington School District Graduation Standards Recommendations 2

Lake Washington Schools

BELIEF STATEMENTS For Schooling Beyond the Certificate of Mastery

As the Lake Washington School District moves from the current standard of high school credit based on time in class to a system based on standards for student performance, it is important to establish a set of beliefs that will guide us in this new direction. Stakeholders in this process include students, teachers, parents, administrators, local businesses, colleges and our community at large.

All stakeholders are responsible for realization of these beliefs through appropriate postCertificate of Mastery standards, programs and resources. All stakeholders must realize:

u educators have the responsibility to provide quality programs;

u parents/ guardians have an important role to ensure that each student comes to school ready to learn; and

u students have a significant responsibility to help create and maintain an excellent learning environment and to further their education.

W We e b be el li ie ev ve e… … . .

1) students have a right to meaningful schoolwork* that actively engages them and to demonstrate their learning in a variety of authentic ways. This work is purposeful, and both teacher and student can articulate why the work is important to a student’s progress.

*Meaningful schoolwork meets the standards defined in the Student Profile and is measured by both its rigor (the degree to which it engages the student in complex tasks such as analysis, synthesis or evaluation) and relevance (the application of the skill into real- world situations).

2) students need to be educated for and individually guided* toward a successful transition* to life after high school.

*Students need to be made aware of an array of options available to them after high school and receive assistance in matching their interests and aptitudes to these options. It is the responsibility of all stakeholders to educate and guide students towards all possible transitions they could make after high school. We must remember to treat students as individuals with differing needs, abilities and desires. *A successful transition to life after high school requires students to understand: the many options available to them; the multiple pathways that will lead to their goals; the basic skills required to enter entry level work within the community; and the skills necessary to live independently.

Lake Washington School District Graduation Standards Recommendations 3

3) students learn best from a personalized education* that challenges them to achieve their potential.

*Personalized education requires that each student be known well by adults within the high school. Teachers need to know their students well enough to individually challenge them to achieve their potential and assess them appropriately. It reminds us that students are individuals with unique abilities and aspirations, and should have many choices and challenges in how to demonstrate their learning.

4) students learn best when their programs of study are interconnected* and build upon previous learning and experiences.

*Students learn best when they are able to connect what they are learning with past, present and future learnings across all academic disciplines to form a rich fabric of knowledge and skills.

5) students have a right and responsibility to build upon their fundamental skills* and knowledge beyond Certificate of Mastery performance levels.

*The Certificate of Mastery ensures that students will have basic competency in the areas of reading, writing, mathematics and science. These skills need to continue to be developed and be practiced as a major component of work in which all students are engaged throughout their high school years.

6) students have a right to excellent schools that deliver a dynamic curriculum and outstanding teaching as measured by student performance* according to clear standards that ensure a world class education.

*It is key that each teacher, program, and school evaluates effectiveness based on student achievement. This means looking at all available data (beyond traditional standardized testing) to determine how students are performing and if they are not performing, investigating to determine why not. Further, it challenges educators to constantly improve the curriculum and teaching strategies to meet the needs of students.

7) students have a right to and responsibility for a school environment* that honors diversity, promotes good citizenship, mutual respect and strength of character.

*The school environment is created through collaborative efforts of staff, students, parents and the community. Staff create and reinforce the overall systems that promote a positive learning atmosphere within the school. Community members and parents have a responsibility to work within these systems. Students have a responsibility to help create and work to ensure the system is effective. Extended learning environments (found when students are involved in internships, job- shadowing, mentorships) should also provide and promote these attributes.

Lake Washington School District Graduation Standards Recommendations 4

8) parents/ guardians and community members have a civic obligation* to support and enrich and to be actively involved in student learning. Educators have an obligation to encourage parent involvement.

*Society provides for the welfare and education of its members and in return, those members have a responsibility to contribute to the continuation of a healthy society. As students are obliged to put effort into their education, parents should provide for the student’s health and welfare and readiness to learn. Community members need to protect the students’ time to study and contribute their talents and support to enliven the curriculum.

Lake Washington School District Graduation Standards Recommendations 5

Advanced Literacies Recommendation:

Every student in the Lake Washington School District will be required to demonstrate proficiency in five areas of advanced literacy:

¨ Communication: applies the skills, concepts, knowledge and attitudes in communication with depth, fluency and personal style.

¨ Quantitative and Scientific Reasoning: selects the appropriate tools and concepts of math and science to define or solve real world problems.

¨ Culture: makes sense of historical and contemporary cultures. Provides students with knowledge of past cultures, recognition of their place in contemporary culture and insight on responsibilities regarding cultural change.

¨ Citizenship: develops knowledge and skills to participate as responsible and effective citizens

¨ School to Career & Life Skills: develops and applies an understanding of the importance of work and how performance, perseverance, and decisions directly affect career, educational and life opportunities.

These literacies are not separate subject areas, but rather are the end product of the Level 5 studies in an array of subject areas. For example, students may develop advanced literacy skills in communication through language arts, social studies and mathematics courses. To determine if students have reached a level of competency the district will develop a standard set of criteria.

Technology

Advanced literacy also demands that students be technologically competent. Technology provides students with access to an ever- changing world dependent on information. Students need to be informed navigators, critical thinkers and analyzers, creators of knowledge and communicators using a variety of technologies. To determine if students develop these skills a technology component will be built into each of the performance criteria within each advanced literacy.

Backed by the Level 5 Beliefs:

• Students have a right to meaningful schoolwork that actively engages them and to demonstrate their learning in a variety of authentic ways. This work is purposeful, and both teacher and student can articulate why the work is important to a student's progress. (Belief 1) • Students need to be educated for and individually guided toward a successful transition to life after

high school. (Belief 2) • Students have a right and responsibility to build upon their fundamental skills and knowledge beyond

Certificate of Mastery performance levels. (Belief 5)

Supported by the Profile

The column headings in the Student Profile are easily linked to each of the Advanced Literacy requirements. • Communication: Communication & Learning Skills and Literacy in Arts & Sciences • Quantitative and Scientific Reasoning: Literacy in Arts & Sciences • Culture: Global Awareness and Literacy in the Arts & Sciences • Citizenship: Global Awareness and Literacy in the Arts & Sciences • School to Career and Life Skills: Career Development/ Employment Skills and Personal Attributes &

Ethics

Lake Washington School District Graduation Standards Recommendations 6

Assessment Recommendation:

Graduation standards in the Lake Washington School District will be tied to a blend of traditional and performance- based assessments. Students will be required to exhibit proficiency in the advanced literacies through criteria- driven assessments. These graduation criteria will be standardized districtwide, but may be met through a variety of activities.

Backed by the Level 5 Beliefs

• Students have a right to meaningful school work that actively engages them to demonstrate their learning in a variety of authentic ways. This work is purposeful, and both teacher and student can articulate why the work is important to a student’ s progress. (Belief 1) • Students learn best from a personalized education that challenges them to achieve their potential.

(Belief 3) • Students have a right to excellent schools that deliver a dynamic curriculum and outstanding teaching

as measured by student performance according to clear standards that ensure a world class education. (Belief 6)

Supports the Profile

Use of criteria provides clear, performance- based standards for the student to meet in working toward the goals set forth in the Student Profile and in earning graduation.

The Research:

From Thomas R. Guskey. What You Assess May Not Be What You Get. Educational Leadership, 51( 6), 51- 54. March 1994. • Benefits of Criteria- Based Assessment:

“Assessment should be centered around our basic beliefs about what students should learn and how they can best be taught. These beliefs have changed in the last twenty years, but our assessment practices have largely lagged behind.

“Two major factors have intensified the interest in performance- based assessments. First, advances in cognitive science have compelled educators to acknowledge how complex learning is and how diverse are the means needed to assess learning fully and fairly.

“Second, many educators have recognized the limitations of assessment systems that have relied on multiple- choice, standardized achievement tests. Researchers have found that such systems encourage teachers to skew their instruction to the basic skills assessed in those tests.

“Performance- based assessments centered around higher- order thinking skills could drive instructional practices that emphasize and develop higher- order thinking skills.

“Moreover, an added benefit of performance- based assessments is their ability to become an integral part of the learning process, rather than an after the fact check on whether learning took place. Many people have suggested that performance- based assessments could actually drive instructional improvements.” • Discusses the rationale for performance- based assessments. The Vitali study (evaluating Kentucky’ s

KERA and KIRIS) is discussed. Support is found for the notion that multiple- choice, standardized achievement measures employed for accountability purposes do focus instruction on the content of the tests. Most teachers narrow the curriculum and focus instruction on basic skills. The performancebased assessment program resulted in only modest changes in instructional practice, even though teachers regarded these more broadly based assessments as better measures of student learning. Vitali found the primary impediment to change was teachers did not know how to teach to the performance- based assessments, nor did they believe that they could do so within their current time constraints. The need for high quality professional development was emphasized.

Lake Washington School District Graduation Standards Recommendations 7 From Ken Jensen. Effective Rubric Design. The Science Teacher. October 1995.

p. 34- 35. • The author talks about three authentic assessments in the context of teaching about energy to eighth

graders. Discussion centers on a writing assignment, a lab experiment, and a creative writing assignment. Criteria are discussed. This is followed by a general discussion about rubrics.

From Alan Davis and Catherine Felknor. The Demise of Performance- Based Graduation in Littleton. Educational Leadership. March 1994. p. 64- 65. • In February, 1994 a newly elected school board eliminated the performance- based requirements for

graduation, despite evidence of improved instruction. Student confusion about portfolio requirements, and student struggling with demonstrations led to student dissatisfaction with the graduation requirements. Public meetings revealed the public was upset with the high stakes of the graduation requirements. There was also some discussion about the generation of criteria for the standards.

From Katherine Liu. Rubrics Revisited. The Science Teacher. October 1995. p. 49- 51. • Distinguishes between traditional rubrics and additive rubrics in the context of science assessment.

Discusses the primary benefits of rubrics. Rubrics; set clearly set standards, clarify expectations, help student students take responsibility for their own learning, and can define success in a classroom.

From Julie Luft. Design Your Own Rubric. Science Scope. February 1997. p. 25- 27. • Rubrics are hailed as a way of determining a student’ s current level of achievement, diagnosing a

student’ s strengths, evaluating the effectiveness of curriculum, and allowing a student to learn how they know and understand science. She states the following guidelines for constructing a rubric. 1. Know goals for instruction, 2. Select a rubric type, 3. Determine the levels of performance, and 4. Share the rubric with students at the beginning of the unit.

From Student Exhibitions Put Higher- Order Skills to the Test by Scott Willis ( July 1998): • Public performances are a fact of life for students involved in music and sports.… Few schools,

however, require students to demonstrate before an audience what they’ ve learned in the academic realm. . . . Yet schools that require student exhibitions find they are a valuable assessment tool and motivate students to make a good showing, experts say. • … Student exhibitions allow educators to bring assessment in line with higher- order curriculum

objectives, says Ted Chittenden, a research psychologist with the Educational Testing Service (ETS), who has studied exhibitions. • … Another benefit of student exhibitions is their effect on students’ level of interest and effort.

Exhibitions motivate students, says McDonald, because they give students “more pride of ownership, and a clearer sense of what the school wants.” • … Preparing students to shine during such exhibitions requires teachers to spend as much time

teaching research and analytical skills as they do teaching content, Myers says. Teachers must also adopt a strong coaching role. … When rubrics aren’ t tied to exemplars, they can discourage students, others warn. … • Educators planning for student exhibitions must keep the purpose of the assessment foremost in mind.

Exhibitions are “great” for assessing students’ inquiry skills and depth of understanding, but “lousy for assessing breadth of subject- area expertise,” Wiggins observes. Using exhibitions to test for low- level skills would be “silly,” Spicer adds. Educators need to ask, “What’ s important enough to assess for kids to do this elaborate work?” she recommends.

From David L. Radford, et. al. Demonstration Assessment: measuring conceptual understanding and critical thinking with rubrics. The Science Teacher. October 1995. p. 52- 55. • The authors present a general rubric for scoring demonstration assessments and gives two examples

of its use. There is some discussion of the development of the rubric.

Lake Washington School District Graduation Standards Recommendations 8 From Joseph M. Ryan and Jeanne R. Miyasaka. Current Practices in Testing and

Assessment: What Is Driving the Changes? NASSP Bulletin. October 1995. p. 1- 10. • Talks about the factors driving the development of new performance- based assessment. Lists and

discusses the many forms of performance- based assessments. Discusses various rubrics and how to develop a rubric for a particular performance assessment.

From Joe McDonald of the Annenberg Institute for School Reform Student exhibitions have six elements:

• the prompt… • a vision of what adults hope students will do… • agreement about standards… • student work is out in the open, exhibited, and a part of the dynamic of the school… • a coaching context • reflection on the results of exhibitions, to adjust the system…

Additional Resources:

• An ASCD fastback, Graduation by Exhibition, provides essays on the use an usefulness of using exhibitions for graduation. It also has advise on implementing such a program. • Ted Sizer’ s Horace’ s School has an explanation of exhibitions at work, and included sample

exhibitions in most subject areas. • Rubrics: the Backbone of Performance- based Assessment (from Joseph M. Ryan and Jeanne R.

Miyasaka. “Current Practices in Testing and Assessment: What is Driving the Changes?” NASSP Bulletin. October 1995. p. 1- 10.)

Lake Washington School District Graduation Standards Recommendations 9

Citizenship:

Service Learning Component

Recommendation:

Every student graduating from the Lake Washington School District will complete the Service Learning requirement. Service learning is an unpaid activity within the curriculum, school or outside community that provides service to an individual or group to address a school or community need.*

Service Learning is related to school learning, and provides students opportunities for: • applying basic and advanced skills • practicing problem- solving • observing work place and community organization • understanding the role of groups within the community • practicing the role of the individual in the community as group member and/ or leader • observing the interaction between community groups, their processes and outcomes • appreciating the role of diversity and cultural differences in the workplace and community • supporting constructive behavior and social skills • refining a model of good citizenship • exploring career possibilities • examining the community and government

Research indicates that service learning increases the likelihood of later civic participation, positively affects students’ sense of social responsibility and their attitude toward adults, and increases their sense of personal competence.

Students will be required to document at least 20 hours of service learning during Level Five (traditionally, eleventh and twelfth grades) and meet the associated rubrics in order to graduate from high school.

*National Education Policy Network of the National School Boards Association

Backed by the Level 5 Beliefs

• Students have a right to meaningful school work that actively engages them to demonstrate their learning in a variety of authentic ways. This work is purposeful, and both teacher and student can articulate why the work is important to a student’ s progress. (Belief 1) • Students need to be educated for and individually guided toward a successful transition to life after

high school. (Belief 2) • Students learn best when their programs of study are interconnected and build upon previous learning

and experiences. (Belief 4) • Students have a right to and responsibility for a school environment that honors diversity, promotes

good citizenship, mutual respect and strength of character. (Belief 7) • Parents/ guardians and community members have a civic obligation to support and enrich and to be

actively involved in student learning. Educators have an obligation to encourage parent involvement. (Belief 8)

Supported by the Profile

• Understands, appreciates and works with people from diverse backgrounds and abilities. • Formulates questions and seeks answers to problems using critical thinking, observation and

interpretation of phenomena; analyzes, evaluates and integrates data. • Understands issues, choices, and consequences involved with contemporary societal problems. • Exhibits initiative, organization, punctuality, and daily attendance; demonstrates dependability,

responsibility, commitment and self- evaluation in completing tasks.

Lake Washington School District Graduation Standards Recommendations 10 • Assumes responsibility for self and contributes to the well- being of others in the community, nation and

world. • Listens actively; makes appropriate inquiries. • Works effectively with others by valuing and using leadership skills, using conflict resolution skills,

striving for consensus, and functioning as a teacher and learner. • Understands the importance of appropriate dress and hygiene. • Adapts to various schedules and environments; understands the dynamics of change; adapts to

change. • Demonstrates quality in the workplace by showing pride in work, engaging in continuous improvement

efforts, and recognizing quality as identified by the audience/ customer. • Works effectively both independently and as a team member. • Delegates tasks, assumes responsibility and demonstrates professionalism. • Knows and supports the goals of one’ s school, community, business or organization; questions

authority appropriately. • Demonstrates the skills necessary to locate and evaluate career information to develop one’ s career

plans.

The Research:

From School Based Community Service: What We Know from Research and Theory by Dan Conrad and Diane Hedin ( July 1998): • Our study looked at 27 school- sponsored programs featuring direct participation in the community,

including programs of service learning, community study, career internships, and outdoor adventure. We found that students in participatory programs, including service programs, gained in social and personal responsibility.( 1) • Stephen Hamilton and Mickey Fenzel reported similar gains in social responsibility with groups of 4- H

members engaged in various forms of service: child care, community improvement efforts, and the like. Fred Newmann and Robert Rutter found less dramatic and less consistent differences between service and classroom programs but concluded that service learning appeared to affect students’ sense of social responsibility and personal competence more positively than did regular classroom instruction.( 2) • [W] e found that students in service programs developed more favorable attitudes toward adults and

also toward the types of organizations and people with whom they were involved. (1) • Studies that have examined political efficacy and inclination toward subsequent civic participation as a

result of service activities have had mixed results. About an equal number of studies find increases and no increases on these factors. • Raymond Calabrese and Harry Schumer reported that a program that assigned junior high students

with behavioral difficulties to service activities resulted in lower levels of alienation and isolation and fewer disciplinary problems.( 3)

From Daniel F. Perkins and Joyce Miller, Why Community Service and ServiceLearning? Providing Rationale and Research

(July 1998) • Combining classroom work and service can lead to dramatic improvements in student attitudes,

motivation, and achievement. In addition, an experiential learning process that includes both classroom learning and group work outside the classroom has the greatest likelihood of making an impact on student ignorance, intolerance, and prejudice. (4)

From Community Service Learning and School- to- Career Initiatives: Case Studies of School, District and Community- Based Models

(July 1998) • An urban school in Springfield, Mass., a rural school district in Wisconsin and an alternative school in

Lancaster, Penn., have all found benefits in including community service and service learning as part of their curriculum. The use of service projects has reduced absentees, dropouts and violence in

Lake Washington School District Graduation Standards Recommendations 11 Springfield, created a belief in the potential of all young people and increased community cohesion in

Flambeau County and in Lancaster, service activities are often the work- experience activities, supplemented by employer visits, interviews and job shadows.

From the Carnegie Council: • Youth service can teach young people values for citizenship, including compassion, regard for human

worth and dignity, tolerance and appreciation of human diversity, and a desire for social justice. Youth service also teaches students skills for work such as collaboration, problem solving, and conflict resolution.( 5)

Citations: (l) Dan Conrad and Diane Hedin. “The Impact of Volunteer Experience on Adolescent Social

Development: Evidence of Program Effects,” Journal of Adolescent Research, vol. 3, 1988, pp 65- 80. (2) Fred M. Newmann and Robert A. Ratter, The Effects of High School Community Service Programs

on Students’ Social Development (Madison: Wisconsin Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin, 1983). (3) Raymond Calabrese and Harry Schumer, "T

(incomplete citation at website) (4) Barber, B. “Service Under Thin Democracy,” Youth Policy, vol. 15, 1993, pp. 15- 17. (5) Turning Points: Preparing American Youth for the 21st Century. Report prepared by the Carnegie

Council on Adolescent Development’ s Task Force on Education of Young Adolescents. The Carnegie Council is a program of Carnegie Corporation of New York, January 1990.

Lake Washington School District Graduation Standards Recommendations 12

School to Career & Life Skills:

Education & Career Plan Component

Recommendation:

Every student in the Lake Washington School District will be required to have an Education and Career Plan. This plan will commence in the 9th grade and will include the following: • Student assessment: vocational aptitude/ interest, and educational achievement • Parental involvement which will address 9- 12 educational planning and vocational goals • Goal setting, plans to attain goals, and regular review of progress toward goals, this will include

planning and reflecting on the acquisition of all the advanced literacies as well as attainment of the service learning, field experience and culminating project components

Backed by the Level 5 Beliefs:

• Students need to be educated for and individually guided toward a successful transition to life after high school. (Belief 2) • Students learn best from a personalized education that challenges them to achieve their potential.

(Belief 3) • Students have a right and responsibility to build upon their fundamental skills and knowledge beyond

Certificate of Mastery performance levels. (Belief 5) • Parents/ guardians and community members have a civic obligation to support and enrich and to be

actively involved in student learning. Educators have an obligation to encourage parent involvement. (Belief 8)

Supported by the Profile:

• Listens actively; makes appropriate inquiries. • Expresses thoughts, feelings, opinions and ideas clearly. • Approaches learning as a lifelong process. Develops common sense and the ability to learn from

mistakes. • Formulates questions and seeks answers to problems using critical thinking, observation and

interpretation. Analyzes, evaluates and integrates data. • Understands the connections and applies knowledge among the various disciplines. • Adapts to various schedules and environments. Understands the dynamics of change. Adapts to

change. • Demonstrates the skills necessary to locate and evaluate career information to develop one’ s career

plans. • Applies skills in areas such as personal finance, parenting, consumerism, and time and stress

management. • Assumes responsibility for self and contributes to the well- being of others in the community, nation and

world.

The Research:

From Comprehensive Guidance Programs that Work- II by Norman Gysbers and Patricia Henderson, 1997. • Myers (1923) stated that “a centralized, unified program of vocational guidance for the entire school of

a city is essential to the most effective work.” • Another tendency dangerous to the cause of vocational guidance is the tendency to load the

vocational counselor with so many duties foreign to the office that little real counseling can be done. • A comprehensive guidance program, by definition, leads to guidance activities for all students. It deemphasizes administrative and clerical tasks, one- to- one counseling only, and limited accountability.

Lake Washington School District Graduation Standards Recommendations 13 From 1993 National Survey of Working America, Gallup Poll, October 1993.

• “In general, the majority of adult respondents indicated that they felt high schools are not doing a sufficiently good job in preparing students for the workplace, in providing occupational information, and in helping them choose careers. This is not an indictment of the high schools, in my belief, but rather reflects a growing interest and understanding by the American public of the need to better tie education to our work- lives.” • More than half of all adults said high schools are not doing enough to help students – and particularly

those who are not going to college – with: 1. choosing careers 2. developing job skills 3. developing job- finding skills 4. job placement

From Planning to Meet Career Development Needs, Washington State Occupational Information Coordinating Committee and the National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, October 1995. • People know the labor market is changing and that many of our youth are having trouble finding a

niche in it. They see high schools as a logical source of help and expect them to provide it. One way schools can help is by integrating career development into the education process. Juliette N. Lester, Executive Director of NOICC, 1995

• The need is that career pathways dictate certain educational selections that require guided reflection and decision- making. Informed educational decisions cannot be made without appropriate continuing career development activities. • Although an initial selection of a career major must be made no later than the 11 th grade, the

Committee believes career awareness and exploration must begin much earlier in the elementary school years, but no later than the middle school years, where at all possible. House Report on the School- to- Work Opportunities Act

Lake Washington School District Graduation Standards Recommendations 14

School to Career & Life Skills:

Field Experience Component

Recommendation:

Every student graduating from the Lake Washington School District will complete a field experience as an integral part of the Education and Career Plan. Field experiences provide experiential learning, which is both authentic and purposeful. Field experiences expose students to a diverse community and allow for contacts within a career field of interest. In addition, students assess the reality of the work environment of their chosen career field.

Backed by the Level 5 Beliefs:

• Students have a right to meaningful school work that actively engages them to demonstrate their learning in a variety of authentic ways. This work is purposeful, and both teacher and student can articulate why the work is important to a student’ s progress. (Belief 1) • Students need to be educated for and individually guided toward a successful transition to life after

high school. (Belief 2) • Students learn best from a personalized education that challenges them to achieve their potential.

(Belief 3) • Students learn best when their programs of study are interconnected and build upon previous learning

and experiences. (Belief 4) • Students have a right and responsibility to build upon their fundamental skills and knowledge beyond

Certificate of Mastery performance levels. (Belief 5)

Supported by the Profile:

• Understands, appreciates and works with people from diverse backgrounds and abilities. • Listens actively; makes appropriate inquiries. • Expresses thoughts, feelings, opinions and ideas clearly. • Communicates effectively verbally, non- verbally, graphically and visually to diverse groups and

individuals. • Approaches learning as a lifelong process. Develops common sense and the ability to learn from

mistakes. • Works effectively with others by valuing and using leadership skills, using conflict resolution skills,

striving for consensus and functioning as a teacher and learner. • Demonstrates creative expression and curiosity. Responds to the creative work of others. • Formulates questions and seeks answers to problems using critical thinking, observation and

interpretation. Analyzes, evaluates and integrates data. • Understands the connections and applies knowledge among the various disciplines. • Understands the importance of appropriate dress and hygiene. • Demonstrates sensitivity to the varying needs, opinions and concerns of others. • Adapts to various schedules and environments. Understands the dynamics of change. Adapts to

change. • Demonstrates quality in the workplace by showing pride in work, engaging in continuous improvement

efforts and recognizing quality as identified by the audience/ customer. • Works effectively independently and as a team member. • Delegates tasks, assumes responsibility and demonstrates professionalism. • Knows and supports the goals of one’ s school, community, business or organization. Questions

authority appropriately. • Demonstrates the skills necessary to locate and evaluate career information to develop one’ s career

plans. • Exhibits initiative, organization, punctuality and daily attendance. Demonstrates dependability,

responsibility, commitment and self- evaluation in completing tasks.

Lake Washington School District Graduation Standards Recommendations 15 • Applies skills in areas such as personal finance, parenting, consumerism, and time and stress

management. • Assumes responsibility for self and contributes to the well- being of others in the community, nation and

world.

The Research:

From American’ s Choice: high skills or low wages! by the National Center on Education and the Economy, 1990 • Other industrial nations have multi- year career- oriented educational programs that prepare students to

operate at a professional level in the workplace. • Most of the countries we studied, schools begin early to prepare young people for working life.

Students in Denmark, Germany and Sweden begin learning about occupations in the seventh grade from local employers and labor market representatives who visit the schools. Swedish children make field trips to workplaces and are required to complete 10 weeks of summer employment by age 16. After they finish compulsory school at age 15 or 16, the majority of young people in Germany, Sweden and Denmark enter a two- to four- year professional program to prepare them for working life.

From High Skills, High Wages — Washington’ s Comprehensive Plan for Workforce Training and Education by the Workforce Training and Education Coordination Board, 1994 • An effective school- to- work transition system would help students see the connection between school

and work by providing them with exploratory career experiences that would increase their awareness of potential careers. Such a system would provide guidance to empower students to make informed career and educational choices. • The Board most urgently recommends that we make the last years of high school part of a school- towork transition system: Within five years, schools will provide educational “pathways” to students who

have completed a Certificate of Mastery. These pathways will be organized around career majors that integrate academic and vocational learning, and school- based and work- based education. An ideal workforce training and education system would provide support services such as career counseling. We need to create a system in which every student has access to a variety of rigorous educational pathways that help students make the transition from school to productive employment and/ or further training and education.

Lake Washington School District Graduation Standards Recommendations 16

Culminating Project Recommendation:

Every student graduating from the Lake Washington School District will complete a culminating project. Students will apply a diverse set of previous learnings in a real world setting to a project of their choice. Students may choose to explore or gain experience in a career field of interest. Students may incorporate their Service Learning and/ or Field Experience into the Culminating Project.

Projects will include:

· a research paper

· appropriate technology

· at least 60 hours of documented research and project involvement

· work with an approved adult mentor

· the presentation of the project, including a summary of their research, to a faculty panel and student audience.

Backed by the Level 5 Beliefs

• Students have a right to meaningful school work that actively engages them to demonstrate their learning in a variety of authentic ways. This work is purposeful, and both teacher and student can articulate why the work is important to a student’ s progress. (Belief 1) • Students need to be educated for and individually guided toward a successful transition to life after

high school. (Belief 2) • Students learn best when their programs of study are interconnected and build upon previous learning

and experiences. (Belief 4) • Students have a right to and responsibility for a school environment that honors diversity, promotes

good citizenship, mutual respect and strength of character. (Belief 7)

Supported by the Profile

• Understands the commonly accepted rules and conventions of the English language and knows how and when to use them. • Listens actively; makes appropriate inquires. • Reads and understands the literal and implied meanings of fictional and non- fictional material. • Presents a coherent, logical argument using relevant evidence. • Communicates effectively verbally, non- verbally, graphically and visually to diverse groups and

individuals. • Gathers, analyzes, interprets and integrates information. Thinks and works from whole to part and part

to whole. Makes decisions using factual information, logical reasoning and intuitive and creative thinking. • Formulates questions and seeks answers to problems using critical thinking, observation and

interpretation. Analyzes, evaluates and integrates data. • Understands the connections and applies knowledge among the various disciplines. • Demonstrates technological literacy, understands the relationship of technology to productivity and

quality of life. • Understands the importance of appropriate dress and hygiene. • Demonstrates sensitivity to the varying needs, opinions and concerns of others. • Adapts to various schedules and environments. Understands the dynamics of change. Adapts to

change. • Delegates tasks, assumes responsibility and demonstrates professionalism. • Demonstrates the skills necessary to locate and evaluate career information to develop one’ s career

plans. • Builds and maintains physical, emotional and mental wellness by balancing work, family, social and

leisure needs.

Lake Washington School District Graduation Standards Recommendations 17 • Exhibits initiative, organization, punctuality and daily attendance. Demonstrates dependability,

commitment and self- evaluation in completing tasks.

The Research: Schools With Culminating Projects

South Medford High School, Medford, Oregon. Taken from: “The Senior Project and Technology.” Conference Proceedings: Case Studies of Successful Programs, Fifth Annual Model Schools Conference. Nashville, Tennessee. June 22- 25, 1997. p. 199- 207. • South Medford High School instituted the Senior Project in 1986. Students are required to do a Senior

Project. The key components are: selecting a topic, conducting research, writing the research paper, producing a project related to the topic, and presenting the results to a panel of teachers and community members with expertise in the subject area. • The senior project, as initiated by South Medford High School, has been instituted in nearly 200

schools nationwide. Eastlake High School, Redmond, WA. • Each student is required to submit a proposal for a senior project. Students are then required to do

research and write an acceptable research paper, according to previously handed out criteria. Students are then required to engage in an activity and produce a project for presentation. On one day in May, students present their project to a faculty panel and group of underclassmen. The project is graded according to a rubric developed by the Humanities department.

Caledonia High School, Caledonia, Michigan, Taken from: “Caledonia High School- Learning Together to be the Best!” Conference Proceedings: Case Studies of Successful Programs, Fifth Annual Model Schools Conference. Nashville, Tennessee. June 22- 25, 1997. p. 167- 172. During the senior year students must demonstrate the following exit outcomes in a project:

• Demonstrate an understanding of and concern for the global community. • Demonstrate logical problem solving skills. • Demonstrate the ability to find, evaluate, and apply information. • Demonstrate understanding of healthy physical, emotional, intellectual, and interpersonal habits. • Demonstrate communication ability. • Demonstrate aesthetic responsiveness and creativity.