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Arizona Standards

Language Arts Standards

Standard 1: Reading
(adopted 7/8/96)

Students learn and effectively apply a variety of reading strategies for comprehending, interpreting and evaluating a wide range of texts including fiction, nonfiction, classic and contemporary works.

READINESS (Kindergarten)

Students know and are able to do the following:

  • R-R1. Identify characters in a story and retell stories in sequence

After listening to a selection:

PO 1. Identify main characters

PO 2. Retell storyline in sequence

  • R-R2.Predict elements and events in a story

After listening to a selection:

PO 1. Make predictions based on title, cover, illustrations, text

  • R-R3.Identify facts in nonfiction material

After listening to a selection:

PO 1. Identify facts from nonfiction material

  • R-R4.Use phonetic skills to decode simple words

PO 1. Identify consonant sound/symbol relationships in the context of words

  • R-R5.Comprehend the meaning of simple written selections, using prior knowledge, letter/sound relationships and picture clues

PO 1. Demonstrate an understanding of print concepts (e.g., directionality, pictures, letters, words, return sweep, book handling skills)

PO 2. Derive meaning from picture clues

PO 3. Derive meaning from illustrations/print using prior knowledge/experience

PO 4. Derive meaning from print using sound/symbol relationships

FOUNDATIONS (Grades 1-3)

Students know and are able to do all of the above and the following:

  • R-F1.Use phonetic skills to decode words

PO 1. Decode words in context using beginning, middle and final letter/sound relationships

  • R-F2.Use word recognition and decoding strategies such as phonetic skills, context clues, picture clues, word order, prefixes and suffixes to comprehend written selections

PO 1. Derive meaning from a written selection using reading/decoding strategies

- phonetic clues

- context clues

- picture clues

- word order

- structural analysis ((e.g., prefixes, suffixes)

- word recognition

  • R-F3.Use reading comprehension strategies such as drawing conclusions, summarizing, making predictions, identifying cause and effect, and differentiating fiction from nonfiction

PO 1. Draw conclusions based on the text

PO 2. Restate information from a reading selection

PO 3. Predict events, actions and behaviors using prior knowledge and/or details to comprehend a reading selection

PO 4. Identify cause-and-effect relationships

PO 5. Differentiate fiction and nonfiction texts

  • R-F4.Identify facts and the main idea, sequence events, define and differentiate characters, and determine an author’s purpose in a range of traditional and contemporary literature

PO 1. Identify the main idea and relevant facts in a reading selection

PO 2. Sequence a series of events from a reading selection

PO 3. Compare characters (e.g., traits, roles, similarities, differences) in a reading selection

PO 4. Identify the author’s main purpose (e.g., to inform, to entertain, to persuade, to describe) in a reading selection

  • R-F5.Analyze selections of fiction, nonfiction and poetry for their literary elements such as character, setting, plot, sequence of events and organization of text

PO 1. Compare characters, plot (including sequence of events), settings across reading selections

PO 2. Explain whether the events in the reading selection are real or fantasy

PO 3. Describe structural elements of poetry (e.g., rhyme, rhythm, repetition)

PO 4. Describe the literary elements of fiction and nonfiction

  • R-F6.Read and comprehend consumer information such as forms, newspaper ads, warning labels and safety pamphlets

PO 1. Explain the meaning of specific signs (e.g., traffic, safety, warning)

PO 2. Restate information found in consumer literature (e.g., safety pamphlets, newspapers, catalogs)

PO 3. Compare information in written advertisements

PO 4. Fill out a variety of forms (e.g., contest entry, requests for information)

  • R-F7.Follow a list of directions and evaluate those directions for clarity

PO 1. Follow a set of written directions

PO 2. Evaluate written directions for sequence and completeness

  • R-F8.Recognize the historical and cultural perspectives of literary selections

Note: For instructional purposes–not for state assessment

PO 1. Identify similarities and differences relating to theme, plot, setting, character and point of view in literature from different cultures

PO 2. Compare real-life experiences to events, characters and conflicts in literary selections from different cultures

PO 3. Recognize that some words in literary selections come from a variety of cultures

ESSENTIALS (Grades 4-8)

Students know and are able to do all of the above and the following:

  • R-E1.Use structural analysis skills such as identifying root words, prefixes, suffixes and word origins to decode words unfamiliar in print

(Grades 4-5)

PO 1. Identify root words

PO 2. Infer meanings of words in a selection through knowledge of prefixes and suffixes

PO 3. Confirm meaning of words using context clues

(Grades 6-8)

PO 1. Identify the effect of prefixes and suffixes on root words

PO 2. Confirm meaning of figurative, idiomatic and technical language using context clues

  • R-E2.Use reading strategies such as making inferences and predictions, summarizing, paraphrasing, differentiating fact from opinion, drawing conclusions, and determining the author’s purpose and perspective to comprehend written selections

(Grades 4-5)

PO 1. Identify the main ideas; critical and supporting details; and the author’s purpose, feelings and point of view of the text

PO 2. Distinguish fact from opinion

PO 3. Summarize the text in own words (assessed at district level only)

PO 4. Compare and contrast the text (e.g., characters, genre, cultural differences, fact, fiction)

PO 5. Determine cause-and-effect relationships

PO 6. Identify the text in chronological, sequential or logical order

PO 7. Make an inference using contextual clues

(Grades 6-8)

PO 1. Identify the main ideas; critical and supporting details; and the author’s purpose, feelings and point of view of the text

PO 2. Distinguish fact from opinion

PO 3. Summarize the text in own words (assessed at district level only)

PO 4. Compare and contrast the text (e.g., characters, genre, cultural differences, fact, fiction)

PO 5. Determine cause-and-effect relationships

PO 6. Summarize the text in chronological, sequential or logical order

PO 7. Predict outcome of text

  • R-E3.Analyze selections of fiction, nonfiction and poetry by identifying the plot line (i.e., beginning, conflict, rising action, climax and resolution); distinguishing the main character from minor ones; describing the relationships between and motivations of characters; and making inferences about the events, setting, style, tone, mood and meaning of the selection

(Grades 4-5)

PO 1. Distinguish the main characters from the minor characters

PO 2. Summarize the plot line to include cause and effect

PO 3. Explain the interaction of major and minor characters in a selection

PO 4. Draw defensible conclusions based on events and settings

PO 5. Differentiate fiction, nonfiction and poetry based on their attributes

PO 6. Explain cause and effect within the plot

(Grades 6-8)

PO 1. Describe the setting and its relationship to the selection

PO 2. Describe the motivation of major and minor characters in a selection

PO 3. Draw defensible conclusions, based on stated and implied information according to style, meaning and mood

PO 4. Differentiate fiction, nonfiction or poetry based on their attributes

PO 5. Identify the theme

  • R-E4.Identify the author’s purpose, position, bias and strategies in a persuasive selection

(Grades 4-5)

PO 1. Identify the author’s purpose and use of details to support the purpose

PO 2. Describe the author’s use of strategies to convince or persuade

  • bandwagon
  • peer pressure
  • "loaded" words

PO 3. Identify the author’s bias

(Grades 6-8)

PO 1. Identify the author’s purpose and use of details to support the purpose

PO 2. Describe the author’s use of strategies to convince or persuade

  • bandwagon
  • peer pressure
  • "loaded" words

PO 3. Identify the author’s bias

  • R-E5.Evaluate an instructional manual such as assembly directions or user’s guide for clarity and completeness

Note: Can be used for 5th and 8th grades, depending on difficulty of manual used for the assessment

PO 1. Identify the components of an instructional manual (e.g., directions, tools required, parts needed, illustrations, diagram sequence, bold face for relevant steps)

PO 2. Incorporate information from the illustrations

PO 3. Locate support help in manual or from manufacturer

PO 4. Identify the sequence of activities needed to carry out a procedure

PO 5. Identify information that is either extraneous or missing (e.g., directions, tools required, parts needed, illustrations, diagram sequence, bold face for relevant steps)

  • R-E6.Compare and contrast the historical and cultural perspectives of literary selections

Note: For instructional purposes–not for state assessment

(Grades 4-5)

PO 1. Compare one author’s perspective of a historical character, setting or event with another historical or contemporary literary selection (e.g., essays, autobiographies, fiction, nonfiction)

PO 2. Compare the lives and experiences of characters in history to present-day individuals who have similar goals or face similar challenges

PO 3. Compare versions of traditional or contemporary literature from different cultures for similarities and differences related to theme, plot, character, setting and point of view

(Grades 6-8)

PO 1. Compare one author’s perspective of a historical character, setting or event with another historical or contemporary literary selection (e.g., essays, autobiographies, fiction, nonfiction)

PO 2. Compare the lives and experiences of characters in history to present-day individuals who have similar goals or face similar challenges

PO 3. Compare versions of traditional or contemporary literature from different cultures for similarities and differences related to theme, plot, character, setting and point of view

PROFICIENCY (Grades 9-12)

Students know and are able to do all of the above and the following:

  • R-P1.Apply reading strategies such as extracting, summarizing, clarifying, and interpreting information; predicting events and extending the ideas presented; relating new information to prior knowledge; supporting assertions with evidence; and making useful connections to other topics to comprehend works of literature and documents

PO 1. Extract critical details or elements of literature

PO 2. Summarize the main points

PO 3. Make predictions based on evidence presented

PO 4. Extend ideas presented in the text

PO 5. Connect prior knowledge to information available

  • R-P2.Recognize, analyze and evaluate an author’s use of literary elements such as mood, tone, theme, point of view, diction, dialog and figurative language (e.g., metaphors, allusions, symbolism, similes) in selections of challenging fiction, nonfiction and poetry

PO 1. Identify the author’s use of literary elements (e.g., theme, point of view, diction, dialog, character, setting, plot and figurative language)

PO 2. Analyze the author’s use of literary elements and figurative language

PO 3. Support a judgment of the effectiveness of the author’s use of literary elements and figurative language

  • R-P3.Evaluate the author’s persuasive techniques in written selections such as editorials, essays, reviews and critiques

PO 1. Distinguish use of fact and opinion

PO 2. Identify purpose (thesis, point of view, stand) of a selection and the response desired from the reader

PO 3. Evaluate the author’s bias and use of persuasive strategies to accomplish a purpose

  • faulty logic
  • word choice
  • sentence structure
  • propaganda techniques
  • organizational pattern
  • R-P4.Evaluate technical journals or workplace documents for purpose, organizational pattern, clarity, reliability and accuracy, and relevancy of information

PO 1. Critique consistency and clarity of purpose

PO 2. Critique effectiveness of organizational pattern (e.g., logic, focus, consistency, visual appeal)

PO 3. Evaluate information for

  • relevance
  • clarity
  • understandability
  • logic
  • reliability and accuracy (e.g., expertise of author, appropriate use of statistics, diagrams, charts)
  • R-P5.Analyze classic and contemporary literature selections, drawn from American and world literature, for the universality of themes such as the individual’s role in society, interdependence, and the interaction between man and nature

PO 1. Draw a logical inference about the theme and support the inference with evidence from the selection (e.g., symbolism, setting, characterization, irony, conflict)

PO 2. Compare and/or contrast universality of themes with real-life experiences and/or other works of literature

DISTINCTION (Honors)

Students know and are able to do all of the above and the following:

  • R-D1.Analyze complex texts drawn from American and world literature in several historical periods and movements to discern the universality of themes such as the individual’s role in society, interdependence, and the interaction between man and nature; and the author’s use of literary elements and styles 
  • R-D2.Use a full range of strategies to judge the reliability, accuracy, effectiveness, and persuasiveness of literary criticism and analysis, professional and technical journals, and professional-level reading materials
  • R-D3.Develop and support a theme or thesis about the craft and significance of a body of literature, both classic and contemporary, from a diverse selection of writers

 

Copyright 1998 Arizona Department of Education.   All Rights Reserved.