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VERB PACKET

PART 2

Mrs. Donna Garner -- English I

February 24, 1998

INTRANSITIVE LINKING VERBS

13. Certain verbs are considered state-of-being verbs or are called linking verbs. The term "state-of-being" is probably more correct than "linking" because sometimes "linking" verbs do not actually link the subject with a predicate noun, predicate pronoun, or a predicate adjective. Sometimes an adverb or a prepositional phrase comes to the right of the "linking" verb. To make things easier, however, we will refer to the "state-of-being" verbs as intransitive linking verbs -- I. L. verbs.

14. Here is an easy way to remember the I. L. verbs:

POSSIBLE 12 LIST

A. 5 Senses

1. to look

2. to smell

3. to taste

4. to sound

5. to feel

B. BRASSS --G Words

6. to become ----- B

7. to remain ----- R

8. to appear ------ A

9. to seem ------ S

10. to stand ------ S

11.to stay ------ S

12. to grow ------ G

15. You will notice that there are 12 verbs on the Possible 12 List. The reason we call them "possible" is that their children can "possibly" be linking in some situations and not in other situations. The way to tell whether these verbs are used in a linking situation is to see whether the verbs indicate any action. When in doubt, if you can substitute am, are, is, was, were, shall be, will be for the verb in question, then you do indeed have an I. L. verb.

Ex. The music seems loud. (Notice that seems comes from the Possible 12 verb

-- TO SEEM; substitute is for the verb. "The music is loud.) I. L. verb

Ex. The bride tastes the punch. (If you substitute is for the word "tastes," the sentence reads "The bride is the punch." Obviously, you cannot successfully substitute "is" for the verb "tastes." Therefore, "tastes" in this particular sentence is not an I. L. verb. I. L. verbs will show absolutely no action. This sentence could be acted out which indicates that there is action in the sentence -- not state- of-being.)

16. To repeat: I. L. VERBS WILL NOT SHOW ANY ACTION. They indicate state-of-being or the condition of something or someone.

17. I. L. verbs are usually followed by:

A. Predicate noun (P.N.) -- renames the subject

B. Predicate pronoun (P.Pro.) -- takes the place of a noun and renames the subject

C. Predicate adjective (P. A.) -- describes the subject

18. Sometimes I. L. verbs may be followed by prepositional phrases or adverbs which tell where, when, how, to what extent.

Ex. The kite stays in the air.

The kite stays there.

19. The second type of I. L. verb (besides the Possible 12 List) comes from the verb TO BE. ALL OF THE CHILDREN FROM THE VERB TO BE WILL ALWAYS BE LINKING (I. L.). These verb children occur very frequently in English sentences. The problem with the TO BE family is that many of the children do not look like the father. All you have to do is learn the Principal Parts for the verb TO BE; apply the same conjugation pattern; and you will be able to conjugate the verb TO BE. Every single form (child) that you conjugate will always be linking.

PRINCIPAL PARTS OF TO BE

Present

1st col.

am, are, is (be)

Past

2nd col.

was, were

Past Participle

3rd col.

been

Present Participle

4th col.

being

       

PRESENT TENSE -- TO BE (1ST COL.)

Singular

 

Plural

 
       

1st .

I am

we are

 

2nd.

you are

you are

 

3rd

he, she, it is

they are

 
       

PAST TENSE -- TO BE (2ND COL.)

Singular

 

Plural

 
       

1st .

I was

we were

 

2nd.

you were

you were

 

3rd

he, she, it was

they were

 
       

FUTURE TENSE -- SHALL/WILL + 1ST COL.

Singular

 

Plural

 
       

1st

I shall/will be

we shall/will be

 

2nd

you shall/will be

you shall/will be

 

3rd

he, she, it

shall/will be

they shall/will be

 

PRESENT PERFECT -- HAVE/HAS + 3RD COL.

Singular

 

Plural

 
       

1st

I have been

we have been

 

2nd

you have been

you have been

 

3rd

he, she, it has been

they have been

 
       

 

PAST PERFECT -- HAD + 3RD COL.

Singular

 

Plural

 
       

1st

I had been

we had been

 

2nd

you had been

you had been

 

3rd

he, she, it had been

they had been

 
       

FUTURE PERFECT -- SHALL HAVE/WILL HAVE + 3RD COL.

Singular

 

Plural

     

1st

I shall/will have been

we shall/will have been

2nd

you shall/will have been

you shall/will have been

3rd

he, she, it shall/will have been

they shall/will have been

     

PRESENT PROGRESSIVE -- AM/ARE/IS + 4TH COL.

am being

are being

is being

PAST PROGRESSIVE -- WAS/WERE + 4TH COL.

was being

were being

FUTURE PROGRESSIVE -- SHALL /WILL BE + 4TH COL.

shall be being

will be being

FUTURE CONDITIONAL -- SHOULD/WOULD + 1ST COL.

should be

would be

FUTURE CONDITIONAL PERFECT -- SHOULD/WOULD HAVE + 3RD COL.

should have been

would have been

MISCELLANEOUS 10 LIST

can be can have been

could be could have been

may be may have been

might be might have been

must be must have been

20. All of these children from the verb TO BE will always be I. L. verbs:

   

1. am -- Present

18. shall be being -- Future Progressive

2. are -- Present

19. will be being -- Future Progressive

3. is -- Present

20. should be -- Future Conditional

4. was -- Past

21. would be -- Future Conditional

5. were -- Past

22. should have been -- Fut. Cond. Perf.

6. shall be -- Future

23. would have been -- Fut. Cond. Perf.

7. will be -- Future

24. can be -- Misc. 10

8. have been -- Present Perfect

25. could be -- Misc. 10

9. has been -- Present Perfect

26. may be -- Misc. 10

10. had been -- Past Perfect

27. might be -- Misc. 10

11. shall have been -- Future Perfect

28. must be -- Misc. 10

12. will have been -- Future Perfect

29. can have been -- Misc. 10

13. am being -- Present Progressive

30. could have been -- Misc. 10

14. are being -- Present Progressive

31. may have been -- Misc. 10

15. is being -- Present Progressive

32. might have been -- Misc. 10

16. was being -- Past Progressive

33. must have been -- Misc. 10

17. were being -- Past Progressive

 
   

21. One other slight problem arises every so often. Look at the following sentences:

Ex. The window was broken.

The window was broken by George.

The problem is to determine whether the verb phrase is "was broken" or whether the verb is just plain "was" and the word "broken" is a participle used as an adjective to describe the state or condition of the window. Remember what you learned in the preposition packet about verbals:

GERUNDS (always end in "ing")

verb

 

noun

   

PARTICIPLES (come from 3rd or 4th col.)

verb

 

adjective

   

INFINITIVES (Infinitives will never end in ing -- most of the time the word "to" will be present.)

verb

 

noun

 

adjective

 

adverb

   

There is a general "Rule of Thumb" to cover situations with verbals. If there are any modifying words involved, then usually the verb is drawn together into a verb phrase. Look after the trouble spot in the two examples mentioned above the verbal chart. See if there are any modifiers present. In the second example, notice that the words "by George" (preposition phrase) are modifying. Since modifiers are present, then the verb tends to be drawn close together into "was broken." In the first example, the state or condition of the window is that it is "broken." The word "broken" comes from the 3rd col. (Past Participle) and is describing the state or condition of the window. Therefore, in the first sentence, the verb is "was" and "broken" is a participle--part adjective yet comes from the verb family "to break." In the second example, the verb is "was broken" because of the modifying element "by George."

22. Let's get back to I. L. verbs. See if you can find the I. L. verbs. Be sure and look to the right of the I. L. verbs and see if there is a predicate noun, predicate pronoun, or a predicate adjective present. Use your test of replacing the verb with am, are, is, was, were, shall be, will be. If the verb can be replaced successfully, then the verb is an I. L. verb.

Also, notice how the first few sentences have been diagrammed for you. Diagram the rest of the sentences following the examples given.

23. Do Worksheet #4. Underline the I. L. verbs. Diagram and label the main elements in the sentences.

WORKSHEET #4

1. This food really smells good.

 

2. David's mother is a good cook.

 

3. The dogs looked ferocious.

 

4. The dogs looked at the cats.

 

5. This information is a secret.

 

6. Ludwig was one of the seven children.

 

7. He was a very unhappy fellow.

 

8. The man had been quite ill.

 

9. She will be ten on her birthday.

 

10. She was being a good friend to Sally.

 

11. It will have seemed like a long time.

 

12. She will feel better tomorrow.

 

13. Our meeting was long.

 

14. Lorice might be at home.

 

15. They were green with envy.

 

16. It had been a long time.

 

17. The school play is very good.

 

18. We were the winners.

 

19. Some people were from Texas.

 

20. The children grew three inches during the summer.

 

21. I stay at home often.

 

22. The students are standing in a row.

 

23. The audience is standing up and shouting.

 

24. The man sounded the alarm.

 

25. That sounds loud.

 

26. The boy appeared from behind the curtain.

 

27. The girl often appears a little pale.

 

24. Fill out the following Worksheet #5.

WORKSHEET #5

1. Another name for intransitive linking verb is ______________ ___________ _____ _______________________.

2. State-of-being verbs is a (better, worse) name for linking verbs because _______________________________________________________________.

3. Why do we use I. L. rather than intransitive state-of-being as our term? _______________________________________________________________

4. What does I. L. stand for? _______________________________________

5. Linking verbs do not show ______________________.

 

 

 

6. Linking verbs are usually followed by:

1. ____________

2. ____________

3. ____________

7. Sometimes linking verbs are followed by _________________ or _____________________________.

8. The verb _______________ and all of its children are always I. L. verbs.

9. Name 12 other verbs which may sometimes be I. L. and sometimes action.
1. ___________________ 6. _______________

2. ___________________ 7. _______________

3. ___________________ 8. _______________

4. ___________________ 9. _______________

5. ___________________ 10. _______________

10. Conjugate the verb TO BE in the following tenses:

1. Present

2. Past

3. Past Perfect

4. Future Conditional

11. Write down the 33 children of the verb TO BE.

12. Make a list of 50 children which come from the Possible 12 List.