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Mrs. Donna Garner -- English I
February 24, 1998
¶1. A proper noun is the special name of a particular person, place, or thing. Proper nouns are always capitalized. A proper noun may contain one word or more. Ex. Puget Sound, Gary Jones
¶2. If a proper noun has within it prepositions, conjunctions, or the articles a, an, or the, these words are not capitalized. Ex. Stratford-on-Avon
¶3. A common noun is the name of any person, place, or thing. Common nouns are not capitalized. Common nouns refer to any one of a class or a group of persons, places, or things. Ex. girl, shoe, house, the state of New York
¶4. A common noun is capitalized if it is a part of a proper noun word group; in other words, it has lost common identity and has become part of something specific. Ex. Palmolive Building, Striker Jr. High School
¶5. Do not capitalize family relationship words when they are preceded by a possessive pronoun -- when they are not being used as the names you directly call someone. Ex. my mother, an uncle
¶6. Do not capitalize compass names or adjectives derived from them. Ex. three blocks south, traveling southwest through the South, a westbound flight
¶7. Do capitalize geographical names of continents, bodies of water, land forms, political units, public areas, roads, and highways. Rule: Since geographical names would appear on a map, capitalize them because they are the names of particular places or things. Ex. the Sinai Peninsula, the Grand Canyon, the West Indies, Gettysburg National Park
¶8. Do capitalize the names of languages, races, nationalities, historical events, documents, and periods of history. Also capitalize the adjectives which are formed from them. Ex. the Italian person, Irish setter, Peruvian, the Constitution, French fries
¶9. Do not capitalize school subjects unless they use proper nouns or adjectives or include section numbers or a specific, detailed title. Ex. general science, Keyboarding 103, English, geometry, Geometry I, Spanish
¶10. Do not capitalize any words but the first in the complimentary closing of a letter. Ex. Sincerely yours,
¶11. Capitalize the first word in a sentence, in a direct quotation, in the salutation of a letter (Dear Mr. Smith), in an outline, and in a line of poetry.
Ex. To see is to believe
Even though the hurt lives on
In the heart of the believer.
¶12. Capitalize the pronoun I, the abbreviations A. D. and B. C., the names of days of the week, months of the year, holidays, titles which come before individual names (Mr. , Mrs., Doctor Weber), words in the names of specific organizations or agencies (except for prepositions, conjunctions, articles), and names of religions. Ex. Baptist, Catholic, Episcopalians, Campfire Girls, Association of University Women
¶13. All references to the Deity must be capitalized as well as the names of Mohammed, Islam, Koran, etc. The titles of high officials are capitalized even when they are used without the official's name. Ex. the President of the United States, the Secretary of State, the Governor, Jesus Christ, God
¶14. Do Worksheet #1.
Correct all mistakes in punctuation and capitalization. If a letter needs to be capitalized, superimpose the capital letter directly on top of the lower-case letter.
1. a canal called the corinth canal is in greece
2. there is a dam over lake carroll and lake wilshire
3. last night i attended ash wednesday services at asbury methodist church
4. did you know that rangoon is the capital and largest city in burma
5. the german measles are common among small children
6. i like english 8, biology, spanish, world history, u. s. history, mathematics, and social studies
7. i read the book the adventures of tom sawyer and the short story the secret life of walter mitty
8. i said come here, jack. i have something to tell you
9. i have an irish setter who likes to stay in the backyard
10. the koran is the sacred book of the moslems. the bible is the sacred book of the christians
11. my uncle george runs the orthopedic clinic in strasburg, texas
12. the american tourist cashed his traveler's check at mexico city's largest hotel called hotel fantasia
13. the ford vans were numerous on the highways of south america
14. my english teacher always likes to give homework on fridays
15. go and sit down in the western part of the classroom
16. help me yelled sandra as the toyota accidentally shifted into gear
¶15. Plurals of nouns -- Plurals of nouns have many exceptions. Your only sure guide is the dictionary. Here are a few of the rules which fit most of the time.
A. Nouns regularly form their plurals by adding s to the singular: Ex. trees
B. Nouns ending in sh, ch, s, x, or z add es to form the plurals: Ex. bunches, boxes
C. Some nouns ending in o add es; some add s; and a few add either s or es: Ex. heroes, portfolios, buffaloes -- Always go with the first spelling as given in the dictionary.
D. Nouns ending in o preceded by a vowel are formed by adding s. The reason for this rule is that you do not want to have 3 vowels in a row -- stud i o e s. The correct spelling is studios.
E. Common nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant, change y to i and add es: Ex. skies. This rule makes sense because it is all right to have two vowels in a row -- sky changes to sk i e s.
F. A noun ending in y preceded by a vowel forms the plural by adding s: Ex. donkeys -- It would not be correct to have 3 vowels in a row -- donk e i e s.
G. Proper nouns ending in y form their plurals by adding s: Ex. the two Harrys, the Kellys
H. Some nouns ending in f or fe change the f or fe to v and add es: Ex. calves, lives Others add only s: Ex. roofs, safes, fifes (Most of these words can be decided by the way the words sound.)
I. Some nouns form the plural by changing the spelling: Ex. oxen, teeth, mice, feet
J. A few nouns have the same form for singular and plural: Ex. deer, sheep
K.. When a compound noun is made up of a noun plus a modifier, the plural (s or es, whichever is correct) is added to the noun (main word): Ex. brothers- in-law, commanders-in-chief, rights-of-way
L. When a compound noun is written without a hyphen, the plural is formed at the end of the word. Ex. cupfuls, spoonfuls, birdhouses, handfuls
M. A few nouns are plural in form but singular in meaning: Ex. civics, news. A few nouns are used in the plural only: Ex. tongs, scissors
N.. Plurals of letters, figures, and words used merely as words are formed as follows: E's, 6's, but's, and's.
O.. Most musical terms ending in o add s to form the plurals: Ex. bassos, solos, radios, piccolos, concertos, sopranos, pianos
P.. The following vegetables take es (last syllable becomes "toes"). Ex. tomatoes, potatoes
Q.. Picture the following words walking around on their toes: Ex. vetoes, mottoes, mosquitoes, potatoes, tomatoes
R.. To help you memorize a few of the words which do not seem to fit into any particular rule, try the following memory devices: Ex. "Eskimos are albinos with halos." "Negroes are heroes who in the military shoot torpedoes which make smoke that looks like volcanoes." "A car 'goes' -- cargoes."
¶16. Do Worksheet #2.
WORKSHEET # 2
On the line to the left of each word, write the letter of the rule (see Rules A-R as listed above) which seems to apply. Then utilizing the rule, write the plural to the right of each word.
_______ 1. cherry ______________________________
_______ 2. elf _________________________________
_______ 3. Mary _______________________________
_______ 4. turkey ______________________________
_______ 5. goose _______________________________
_______ 6. piano _______________________________
_______ 7. bench _______________________________
_______ 8. handful ______________________________
_______ 9. scissors ______________________________
_______10. chief _________________________________
_______11. lady __________________________________
_______12. roof __________________________________
_______13. radio _________________________________
_______14. sister-in-law ___________________________________________
_______15. handkerchief ___________________________________________
_______16. tomato ________________________________________________
_______17. alto ___________________________________________________
_______18. albino _________________________________________________
_______19. auto __________________________________________________
______ 20. concerto ______________________________________________
_______21. zero _________________________________________________
_______22. mosquito _____________________________________________
_______23. motto ________________________________________________
_______24. belief ________________________________________________
_______25. cargo ________________________________________________
_______26. Negro _______________________________________________
_______27. loaf _________________________________________________
_______28. wife _________________________________________________
_______29. half _________________________________________________
_______30. roof _________________________________________________
_______31. party ________________________________________________
_______32. hose (garden ) _________________________________________
_______33. hose (stockings) _______________________________________
_______34. forty ________________________________________________
_______35. hope ________________________________________________
_________36. neighbor ____________________________________
_________37. desire _______________________________________
_________38. grief ________________________________________
_________39. potato _______________________________________
_________40. tomato _______________________________________
_________41. volcano ______________________________________
_________42. Eskimo ______________________________________
_________43. memento ____________________________________
_________44. ratio ________________________________________
_________45. piccolo ______________________________________
_________46. basso _______________________________________
_________47. solo ________________________________________
_________48. machine _____________________________________
_________49. halo ________________________________________
_________50. hero ________________________________________
¶17. Possessive of nouns -- There are three simple rules to learn. One of these rules has a variation, but the variation tends to confuse people. Therefore, we will ignore the variation and learn the three simple rules because they will always be correct in every situation and will not lead to confusion:
Rule 1 The singular possessive of a noun is always formed by adding an apostrophe and s to the singular form. Ex. girl's dress, James's car, Moses's rod
Rule 2 To form the plural possessive, write down the plural noun form. Look at it. If it ends in s, add an apostrophe. Ex. donkeys'
Rule 3 If the plural noun form does not end in s, simply add the apostrophe and s. Ex. children's, men's, sheep's
¶18. Do Worksheet #3.
WORKSHEET # 3
Use the three rules for possessives as listed above. Write the correct form of the possessive noun. Fill out all the columns.
¶19. Ownership rules -- When two or more nouns indicate common ownership, use the apostrophe after the last noun only. Ex. He works at Ward and Star's Store.
A. When two or more nouns indicate separate ownership, the apostrophe is used with each. Ex. Bob's and Don's grades are good. Ex. (Ed and Don are brothers.) Ed and Don's father takes an hour's walk everyday.
B. Notice the last example. You will need to use an apostrophe with possessive constructions which indicate time or amounts. Ex. an hour's worth, a day's experience, three days' experiences, two hours' worth
C. Only the last part of a compound noun shows possession. Ex. mother-in-law's house
¶20. You have learned how to punctuate nouns to indicate possession. Now you need to learn when a noun must be punctuated to show possession. The most common usage occurs where a noun or pronoun follows the possessive word. Ex. the girl's mother, the girls' mothers, the new student's name, the three students' names, George's friend, the moose's antlers
A. You can see that the possessive word ("moose's" ) comes to the left of the word that is being possessed ("antlers"). The possessive word is actually used as an adjective because it modifies a noun or pronoun ("moose's" possesses "antlers"). Why do we study adjectives in the noun packet? The reason is that some teachers consider "moose's" a possessive adjective while other teachers consider it a possessive noun. It is just a matter of terminology.
B. For a word to show possession, something must be possessed. The possessive word normally comes before the thing possessed. Some people make mistakes by showing possession when nothing is possessed: Ex. The girls' often win. (This is wrong because nothing is possessed; therefore, no apostrophe is necessary.) The girls often win. (This is the correct punctuation.)
C. Sometimes one other type of construction occurs: Ex. The earth is the Lord's. Notice that there is no noun or pronoun to the right of "Lord's." However, there is still something being possessed -- the Lord's earth. Therefore, you still show possession on the word "Lord's" even though there is no noun or pronoun which follows it.
¶21. Do Worksheet # 4.
WORKSHEET # 4
Fill in the columns correctly. This worksheet is just like Worksheet #3 and offers you more practice.
¶22. A concrete noun names things you can see: Ex. box, river, dirt
¶23. An abstract noun names things you cannot see or touch: Ex. fear, love
¶24. A collective noun names a group: Ex. sheep, flock, team, group
¶25. A compound noun has two or more words used as one noun: Ex. living room, dining hall
¶26. Do Worksheet # 5.
WORKSHEET # 5
Label above all the nouns cn. for concrete, ab. for abstract, coll. for collective, and cmpd. for compound. Some may fall into several categories.
1. The speaker reminds the class that a successful individual must have integrity.
2. Grandmother embroidered these words on the pillow: "God Bless Our Home."
3. Miss Winston came into the dining room in a hurry.
4. A brass plate with a colonial scene on it hangs above the fireplace.
5. At the bookstore I bought a new disc for my computer.
¶27. Appositives -- Nouns are also used as appositives. An appositive usually comes after the word it renames; and its purpose is to explain or identify the noun or pronoun which generally comes before it. Ex. Myrtle, my poodle, has shoebutton eyes. "My poodle" is the appositive phrase because it explains or identifies "Myrtle." Actually the appositive is "poodle," and the words "my poodle" form the appositive phrase. The appositive phrase is made up of the appositive and any words which cling to it.
A. Appositives are handy in combining two sentences into one: Ex. Myrtle is my poodle. She has shoebutton eyes. (These are two, short sentences. It is better to combine them into a longer, more sophisticated sentence by using an appositive construction.) Myrtle, my poodle, has shoebutton eyes.
B. Appositives may be compound: Ex. Jim Bates, center and captain, scored first for our team.
C. A one-word appositive is not set off in commas. Ex. My friend George is sick today. "George" is the appositive but has no commas around it because it is made up of one word. Why does a one-word appositive not carry commas? If George were set off by commas, people would not know whether George is another name for "friend" (an appositive) or whether "George" is being spoken to (noun of direct address). To keep the reader from being confused, do not put commas around one-word appositives; but do put commas around nouns of direct address. Ex. My brother, Ernie, likes to play the trumpet ("Ernie" is being addressed.) Ex. My brother Ernie likes to play the trumpet ("Ernie" is the same person as "brother" -- "Ernie" is a one-word appositive).
D. If an appositive is made up of more than one word, put comma(s) around it. Ex. My brother, Ernie Reed, likes to play the trumpet.
¶28. Do not confuse appositives with predicate nouns. Ex. George was the driver of the car. "George" and "driver" are separated by the intransitive linking verb "was." "George" is a predicate noun because it renames the subject but has an I. L. verb lying between "George" and "driver." Here is an appositive construction: Ex. George, the driver of the car, was tired. Notice that there is not an I. L. verb lying between "George" and "driver."
¶29. Now let's learn how to diagram an appositive.
Ex. George, the driver, is my best friend.
¶30. Do Worksheet # 6.
WORKSHEET # 6
Underline the appositive and/or appositive phrase. Put commas where they should go. Diagram the sentences underneath.
1. Marie a girl from Russia sits beside me in class.
2. The coach started Henry Tech's star pitcher.
3. The guide a young Chinese boy answered all our questions.
4. Mr. Henderson the best pharmacist in town filled my prescriptions.
5. Mrs. Henry the algebra teacher has almost an hour for class.
¶31. Nouns of direct address (N.D.A.) -- Nouns or direct address are nouns used in speaking directly to someone or something. Ex. Here are some foreign stamps, George.
A. Notice that a noun of direct address can come anywhere in a sentence. Ex. George, here are some foreign stamps. Here, George, are some foreign stamps.
B. Because nouns of direct address can hop around the sentence, they need to be set off by commas wherever they are in the sentence. A noun of direct address must always be set off by a comma or commas. Can you see why a one-word appositive must not be set off by commas? The reader would not be able to tell the difference between a one-word appositive and a noun of direct address! Ex. George, my uncle, is a nice person (appositive). Ex. George, my uncle is a nice person ("George" is a noun of direct address). Ex. My uncle George is a nice person ("George" is a one-word appositive with no commas). Ex. My uncle, George, is a nice person ("George" is a noun of direct address). Can you see how important it is to follow punctuation rules?
¶32. Let's learn how to diagram nouns of direct address.
Ex. George, I like you.
¶33. Do Worksheet # 7.
WORKSHEET # 7
Punctuate the following sentences correctly. Label all nouns of direct address and all appositives. Diagram the sentences underneath.
1. I am mad at you my friend.
2. Now my dears do not go to the store.
3. Young man you know the girl's name.
4. Mr. Simms I see your son's house.
5. Lizzie you talk too fast my child.
6. Uncle George is a nice person.
7. My uncle George is a nice person. (appositive)
8. My uncle George is a nice person. (noun of direct address)
9. George my uncle is a nice person. (appositive)
¶34. Let's review all of the many uses of nouns. They can be used as subjects, direct objects, predicate nouns, indirect objects, objects of prepositions, nouns of direct address, and appositives.
¶35. Indirect objects (I. O.)-- We have not studied indirect objects yet, but they are not hard to understand if you will learn the following:
1. A noun is used as an indirect object only in a clause where there is a direct object and a T. A. verb.
2. The indirect object (I. O.) must come between the T. A. and the D. O.
3. The I. O. receives the D. O. The T. A. passes the action to the D. O., and the I. O. receives the D. O. Ex. George gave Sara the candy. ("Gave" passes its action to the word "candy." George gave what? -- "candy." Who got the D. O. -- who got the "candy"? "Sara" got the "candy." "Sara" is the I. O. because it receives the action "indirectly" by way of the D. O.
4. You can put the words "to" or "for" before the I. O., and it will make sense. Ex. George gave "to" Sara the candy.
¶36. Now do Worksheet # 8.
WORKSHEET # 8
Label the usage above all nouns: S. for subject, D. O. for direct object, I. O. for indirect object, O. P. for object of preposition, P. N. for predicate noun, App. for appositive, N. D. A. for noun of direct address. Punctuate the sentences correctly.
1. The speaker reminded the class of the assignment.
2. Miss Winston came into the store in a hurry.
3. George likes puzzles about Africa.
4. She is a poor sport.
5. Henry and Maria please come to the door.
6. At the bookstore I found the book in the corner.
7. George the next-door neighbor came inside the house.
8. Give the book to Latisha.
9. Give Geraldo the book.
10. They sometimes feel sick at heart.
11. Miss White my French teacher is an accomplished pianist.
12. My collie sent Jim a silent message with its eyes.
13. Miss Biars operates the computer and the laser disc efficiently.
14. James will you please turn off the server?
15. The teacher gave the panel of experts several clues to the answer.
16. Hortense gives candy to her boyfriend on Valentine's Day.
17. The mother gives her daughter some candy because of her good behavior at school.
¶37. Subject-Verb Agreement -- The first thing to do when you face a sentence is to find the verb(s). Then say who or what in order to locate the subject(s). It really makes no difference whether the subject(s) is in the beginning, middle, or end of a sentence. Even though the verb is the foundation for the entire sentence, when it comes to singular or plural, the subject is "king." The subject tells the verb what to do. If the subject is singular, then the verb has to be singular. If the subject is plural, then the verb has to be plural. Ex. Here (are, is) the three girls. (Say "who are?" The "girls" are.) Ex. There (are, is) one boy in my class. (Say "who is?" The "boy" is.)
A. Another thing to remember is that the present tense verb which ends in s is the third person, singular form. Ex. enjoy, enjoys ("enjoys"-- singular form).
B. Use a singular verb with a singular subject and with a compound subject that refers to one person or thing. Ex. The director and the writer are George Scott.
C. Use a singular verb when the words every or many a are used to modify a single or compound subject. Ex. Every apple, peach, and orange is ready to eat.
D. The title of a book, play, film, musical composition, or other work of art refers to one thing and is used with a singular verb. Ex. Little Women is the name of a classic novel.
E. Use a plural verb with most compound subjects joined with and or both...and. Ex. The girls and the boy are in the room. The only exception to this rule would occur if the subject indicates one person. Ex. The owner and manager of the restaurant is Jim (singular).
F. When you have a compound subject joined with or, nor, neither...nor, or either...or, you look at the subject which is located closer to the verb. If the subject closer to the verb is singular, then the verb is singular. If the subject closer to the verb is plural, then the verb is plural.
Ex. Neither the boys nor the girl (are, is) here. "Girl" is singular and is closer to the verb -- choose "is."
Ex. Neither the girl nor the boys (are, is) here. -- "Boys" is plural and is closer to the verb -- choose "are."
Ex. The girl nor the boys (are, is) here. -- "Boys" is plural and is closer to the verb -- choose "are."
Ex. The boys nor the girl (are, is) here. -- "Girl" is singular and is closer to the verb -- choose "is."
G. Use a plural verb with such subjects as slacks, jeans, clippers, shears, scissors. Ex. Those jeans have faded (plural).
¶38. Do Worksheet # 9.
WORKSHEET # 9
Circle the correct verb, write Singular or Plural to the right of the sentence, and draw an arrow(s) from the correct verb to the word which actually determines your choice.
1. Janice and Melinda usually (bring, brings) the beachball. _______________________
2. The Smiths (have, has) planted several bushes in their backyard. ___________________________
3. Your suggestions for the school assembly (are, is) being considered by the principal. ____________________________
4. The order of the test questions (were, was) changed for the final. ___________________________
5. The taste of spicy food (do, does) not appeal to some people. ________________________
6. Pita's physical education teacher and math instructor (are, is) Miss Crosby.____________________________
7. Either Gary or his brothers (uses, use) the truck on weekends.
8. Mother's scissors (is, are) the ones with green handles. _________________________
9. Hours of her day (were, was) spent in prayer. ______________________________
10. The United States (is, are) the most powerful nation in the world. __________________________
11. The House Ways and Means Committee (are, is) meeting in Austin this week. _______________________________
12. The Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (are, is) made up of over 1,000 pages. _____________________________
13. There (isn't, aren't) any chances for her. ________________________
14. Eric (doesn't, don't) come here often. _____________________________
15. Twelve girls and one boy (are, is) left in the building. ____________________________________
16. The pile of leaves (was, were) ready for burning. ____________________________
17. Here (come, comes) the substitute teachers. __________________________
18. The captain and left guard (is, are) the high scorer. ___________________________
19. The girls or their brothers (is, are) going to the mall. ___________________________
20. The girls or their brother (is, are) going to the mall.
21. (Haven't, Hasn't) the teams been chosen yet? _____________________________-
22. Either the garden or the garage (is, are) the best place for the party. ___________________________
23. Disease and drought (was, were) two main problems for people during the Middle Ages. ______________________________________
24. Flea-infected rats or an infected person (was spreading, were spreading) the disease among the nearby villages. __________________________________________
25. Legends often (exaggerate, exaggerates) the actual historical events of history. ______________________________________
¶39. Use a singular verb with a subject that expresses a fraction, a measurement, distance, an amount of money, or a specific interval of time when it refers to a single unit. Ex. Five-hundred dollars is a great deal of money to lose. Ex. Thirty years was the average life span of a person living during the Middle Ages.
¶40. Use a plural verb if the subject expresses a length of time or an amount of money when they are considered as separate units. Ex. Thousands of dollar bills were thrown from the car. Ex. Two more hours are needed in order to finish cleaning up the neighborhood.
¶41. If a prepositional phrase comes between the subject and the verb, we normally ignore the prepositional phrase when deciding about subject/verb agreement. Ex. The chorus of songs (are, is) fun to sing. (The subject of the verb is "chorus" and is singular; therefore, the verb must be the singular "is." Just cross out the prepositional phrase "of songs.")
¶42. There is one exception to this "prepositional phrase" rule. If a prepositional phrase separates the subject from the verb when amounts or measurements are indicated, then the verb is singular if its subject is considered a single thing or thought. Ex. Fifty barrels of oil was spilled. (**Most of the time the object of the preposition with amounts or measurements will determine the verb. When amounts or measurements are not involved, do not look at the object of the preposition. Just look at the subject in order to determine whether the verb should be singular or plural.)
¶43. Do Worksheet # 10.
WORKSHEET # 10
Circle the correct verb. Draw an arrow(s) from the word(s) which helps to make the decision about whether the verb should be singular or plural.
1. Only a half a cup of sugar (is, are) called for in Mom's recipe.
2. Thousands of dollar bills (was, were) discarded by the robbers.
3. The greatest blessings of her life (were, was) her years as a college student.
4. Jorge's children by his second wife (were, was) lost in the tornado.
5. Hours of her day (were, was) used to finish her research paper.
6. A few of the people (come, comes) to the beach on Saturdays.
7. Jeff's friends in the house (are, is) the nicest students in school.
8. Only one member of the cast (have, has) been ill.
9. Ten gallons of gas (are, is) all my little car will hold.
10. Thirty acres of wheat (was, were) destroyed by hail.
11. Half of my friends (is, are) going to the beach.
12. The final days of the voyage (was, were) hard to endure.
13. The United States of America (are, is) exporting wheat to Cuba.
14. Six in the audience (were, was) men; the other ten (was, were) women.
15. Four pints of ice cream (are, is) sour.
16. Star Wars (is, are) an unusual movie.
17. Hours of time (was, were) wasted while she tried to make her decision.
18. Hundreds of geese (flies, fly) south for the winter.
19. One-fourth of the Marines (are, is) going to Bosnia.
20. Only fifty of the prisoners (were, was) allowed to go free.
¶44. A collective noun names a group of people or things such as committee, flock, team, herd, crowd, tribe, jury. When a collective noun indicates that a group is acting in one accord or in total agreement, then we are to think of that collective noun as being singular. If the collective noun indicates a group that is in disagreement or that is acting as separate individuals instead of acting in one accord, then the collective noun is plural. Ex. The entire herd is in the barn (singular idea of "herd" acting in one accord). Ex. The herd are running from each other (plural idea of "herd" because they are acting as individuals and are not acting in one accord).
¶45. Some nouns are plural in form but are singular in meaning. Ex. news, mumps, measles -- Ex. Mumps is a bad disease.
¶46. Some words that end in -ics are singular; some are plural; some can be either singular or plural depending upon the usage in the sentence. Ex. Athletics (name of class in college) is a good subject to take in college. Athletics (substitute the plural words "competitive sports") are fun for most students. Economics is a very difficult class for freshmen to take. Physics is considered by most people to be a demanding course. Ethics (the study of moral choices) is important in the study of medicine. (When you are in doubt about whether the word takes a singular or a plural verb, look it up in a dictionary.)
¶45. Do Worksheet # 11.
WORKSHEET # 11
Circle the correct choice. Draw an arrow(s) from the word which helps you determine whether to use a singular or a plural verb.
1. A flock of geese (was, were) flying south this afternoon.
2. The jury (agrees, agree) that the defendant is guilty.
3. The jury (was, were) impressed with the judge's decision.
4. The fleet (are, is) sailing from the port at different times.
5. The crowd (go, goes) their separate ways after the concert.
6. The army (was made, were made) up of many soldiers.
7. Economics (were, was) a main factor in determining which cities grew during the Middle Ages.
8. Mathematics (was, were) helpful in deciding which answer is correct.
9. The group of football players (was, were) putting on their uniforms.
10. After the hurricane, the crowd (were, was) fleeing in every direction.
11. Measles (are, is) a serious disease for little children.
12. The news of the war (is, are) quite tragic.
13. Economics (are, is) Luis's best subject in school.
14. The new committee (consist, consists) of former police officers.
15. Ten city blocks (are, is) the most that I can run without gasping for breath.
16. The soccer team (have, has) voted to wear blue and red uniforms.
17. The faculty (are, is) presenting their ideas for the school calendar today; they have not been able to agree on the exact dates.
18. Seventy-five dollars (was, were) the cost of the repair to the car.
19. Cotton pants (feel, feels) cool and comfortable in hot weather.
20. Politics (seem, seems) to make headlines every day of the week.
21. Athletics (are, is) featured at the state university.
22. Athletics (are, is) one class that you need to take while you are in school.
23. The American Association of University Scholars (publish, publishes) its yearly report.
24. Ten minutes (are, is) all it takes to make this dinner.
¶46. Parsing of nouns -- Parse the nouns in the following sentences. Set up your parsing chart on your own notebook paper. Notice the column headings:
WORKSHEET # 12
Write each noun in the sentence on a separate line. Parse each one.
Write singular or plural beside each noun.
Use in Sentence
Tell whether each noun is used as a subject (S.), direct object (D. O.), indirect object (I. O.), object of preposition (O. P.), appositive (App.), noun of direct address (N. D. A.), or predicate noun (P. N.).
1. Our parents and grandparents are away.
2. Marian and her roommate have not seen their cousins in three years.
3. Eileen is planning a visit to her grandmother's house in the country.
4. Dad will build a kite for me.
5. Edna told them the final score of the basketball game.
6. Grape juice tastes delicious on a hot day.
7. The fast-moving car hit a small child in the street.
8. The bottle exploded on the kitchen floor.
9. The geese in the sky like to fly in a formation.
10. Helen, my head hurts.
11. My daughter Karen seems ill.
12. My daughter, Karen, seems ill.
13. The young man, the one with the blue hat, is actually the real thief.
14. Give Jane the right telephone book, please.
15. The group of boys was sent to the gym for athletics.
WORKSHEET # 13
¶47. Now go back and parse all the verbs. Set up your parsing chart on your own notebook paper. Notice the column headings: verb, number, person, tense, kind of verb, reason for choice.
¶48. Do Worksheet # 14.
WORKSHEET # 14
Write complete sentences which follow the prescribed elements. Put parentheses around each prescribed element and label the element.
1. A simple sentence with an intransitive complete verb in the present emphatic tense and a prepositional phrase with three objects ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. A compound sentence which contains a correlative conjunction, an appositive, a noun of direct address, and a present tense verb which is singular ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
3. A compound-complex sentence which contains a transitive active verb with three objects, a prepositional phrase with two objects, a predicate adjective, and a plural subject ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
4. A complex sentence which begins with a subordinate conjunction and that contains a plural subject, a verb in the past progressive tense, a preposition made up of three words, and an indirect object ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
5. A complex sentence with a noun clause used as a direct object and that contains a past perfect, plural verb ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
6. A compound-complex sentence with an adjective clause, an adverb clause, an introductory prepositional phrase, a plural/possessive adjective, and a transitive passive verb ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
7. A simple sentence which contains a noun clause used as a predicate noun and that contains a plural noun ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
8. A sentence which contains a plural noun, a possessive adjective, a noun clause, an intransitive complete verb, and a subordinate conjunction ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
9. A sentence that contains an indirect object, three transitive active verbs, a predicate pronoun, and a simple co-ordinate conjunction ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
10. A compound-complex sentence that contains two back-to-back prepositional phrases, an intransitive complete verb which is in the future conditional tense, a direct object, and an adverb clause ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________