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CONJUNCTION / CLAUSE PACKET
Mrs. Donna Garner -- English I
February 24, 1998
¶1. Definition of a conjunction: A conjunction is a word that joins words, phrases, or clauses.
¶2. Definition of a clause: A clause is a group of words which contains a subject and a verb. The group of words sticks together as a glob and cannot be pulled apart. A clause is just like a phrase except a phrase does not have both a subject and a verb. Therefore, the difference between a phrase glob and a clause glob is that a clause glob has both a subject and a verb, and a phrase glob does not have both a subject and a verb.
¶3. There are two kinds of clauses:
A. Independent clause -- a group of words with a subject, a verb, and a complete thought
B. Dependent clause -- a group of words with a subject and a verb but not a complete thought
¶4. Now we need to learn the two types of conjunctions:
I. Co-ordinate conjunctions -- join words or word groups of equal rank
A. Simple co-ordinate conjunctions -- and, or, nor, but, yet, (sometimes) for (Remember: BOY FAN)
B. Correlative co-ordinate conjunctions --// whether...or// //either...or// //neither...nor// //both...and// //not only...but also// (Remember: TWINS)
YOU MAY READ A CLAUSE WITHOUT SAYING THE CO-ORDINATE CONJUNCTION(S) WHEN TESTING FOR A COMPLETE THOUGHT.
II. Subordinate conjunctions -- used to introduce adverb clauses
*after, although, *as, as if, because, *before, if, *since, so that, than, unless, *until, when, where, while, that, though, whenever, wherever, whether, as long as, as though, in order that, provided, *till, whatever (* are on both preposition list and conjunction list)
SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS MUST BE READ AS PART OF THE CLAUSE; YOU CANNOT LEAVE THE SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTION OUT WHEN TESTING FOR A COMPLETE THOUGHT.
¶5. To help you learn to recognize all types of conjunctions, do the following worksheet.
Underline each conjunction. Label above the conjunction whether the conjunction is s. for simple co-ordinate, corr. for correlative conjunction, and sub. for subordinate conjunction.
1. If you have time, will you visit Aunt Mary while you are in New York?
2. The tornado struck not only the house but also the barn.
3. The baby can neither walk nor talk.
4. Volleyball and softball are popular sports in our school.
5. Father and Mother were surprised, but they soon recovered.
6. He failed because he was both lazy and dishonest.
7. Although the rain had ended, the sky still looked dark and stormy.
8. After the school year had closed, one of my classmates and her sister took a trip through the Black Hills.
9. Did someone knock, or am I imagining things?
10. As I have told you, you may have either this one or that one.
¶6. Did you notice that some of the subordinate conjunctions are also on your preposition list? Remember what you learned on the first page of this packet about the difference between a clause and a phrase. Locate all the verbs and their subjects; then you will know whether you have a prepositional phrase (begins with a preposition) or an adverbial clause (begins with a subordinate conjunction).
¶7. Learn the following definitions:
A. A simple sentence -- has one subject and one predicate -- Both the subject and predicate may be compound.
1 independent clause
B. A compound sentence -- consists of two or more simple sentences put together. In other words, two independent clauses (or more) put together into one sentence.
2 or more independent clauses
C. A complex sentence -- consists of one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses
1 independent clause and 1 or + dependent clauses
D. A compound-complex sentence -- consists of two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses.
2 or + independent clauses and 1 or + dependent clauses
¶8. Now go back to Worksheet #1 and underline once the independent clauseses and twice the dependent clauses. Also to the left of the sentence, put whether the sentence is S. (simple), Cmpd. (compound), Cx. (complex), or Cmpd.-Cx. (compound-complex).
¶9. The next step is to learn the three types of dependent clauses:
A. An adjective clause is a dependent clause which modifies a noun or a pronoun in the independent clause. The relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, and that) are used to introduce adjective clauses.
Ex. of adjective clause which modifies a noun: The route [that they took] went through Washington.
B. An adverb clause is a dependent clause which modifies a verb, adjective, or adverb in the independent clause. Every adverb clause is introduced by a subordinate conjunction. You have already learned the subordinate conjunctions in ¶ 4 of this packet.
Ex. of introductory adverbial clause: [When the rain began], the lights were shut off.
C. A noun clause is used just as a noun would be used. A noun clause can be used as a subject, direct object, object of a preposition, predicate noun, indirect object, or an appositive. Noun clauses may be introduced by some of the same words which introduce adverb clauses. When the words such as when or where introduce a noun clause, they are not considered as subordinate conjunctions but are used merely as adverbs within the noun clause. Noun clauses may also be introduced by some of the same words which introduce adjective clauses such as who, whose, whom, which, and that. When these words introduce a noun clause, they are not regarded as relative pronouns; but they serve as subjects or objects within the noun clause.
Ex. of noun clause used as a subject: [Who sent this package] is a mystery.
Ex. of noun clause used as a direct object: I know [that they like her].
¶10. The next part of the packet is going to teach you how to punctuate correctly.
A. Sentence Pattern #1: If a sentence is a compound sentence and the two parts are joined by a simple co-ordinate conjunction (but, or, yet, for, and, nor), then put a comma before the simple co-ordinate conjunction to separate the two equal parts. In other words, the intersection between the two independent clauses can be joined successfully with merely a comma.
SENTENCE PATTERN # 1
Independent Clause Independent Clause
Subject Verb , Co-ordinate Conjunction Subject Verb
Sara runs , but George walks.
B. Sentence Pattern #2: If there is internal punctuation (commas or semicolons) in either of the compound parts, then the equal parts must be joined by a semicolon before the co-ordinate conjunction. In other words, the main intersection between the two independent clauses must be marked by a bigger and better (stronger) sign than the minor intersections in either of the parts; and a semicolon is a stronger mark of punctuation than the comma. The main intersection must have a stronger mark of punctuation than any of the minor intersections in order for the major intersection to look more important than the minor intersections.
SENTENCE PATTERN #2A (using co-ordinate conjunction)
Independent Clause Independent Clause
Subject , Appositive , Verb ; Co-ordinate Conj. Subj. Verb
Sara ,the pretty girl , sings ; but no one listens.
SENTENCE PATTERN #2B (using conjunctive adverb)
Independent Clause Independent Clause
Subject Verb ; Conjunctive Adverb , Subject Verb
Sara jumps ; however , she falls.
C. Sentence Pattern #3: If the compound sentence parts are not joined by a co-ordinate conjunction, then a semicolon is used between the independent clauses.
SENTENCE PATTERN #3
Independent Clause Independent Clause
Subject Verb ; Subject Verb
Sara sings ; no one listens.
D. Sentence Pattern # 4: This is the only pattern of the four which is used in complex sentences. The other three patterns are used in compound sentences. If an adverbial clause comes at the beginning of the sentence, then the adverbial clause should have a comma after it. If an adverbial clause comes at the end of the sentence, no comma is necessary to separate it from the independent clause. Remember that an adverbial clause begins with a subordinate conjunction; therefore, what you have to do is look and see if the first word in the sentence is a subordinate conjunction introducing an adverbial clause.
SENTENCE PATTERN # 4
Dependent Clause Independent Clause
Subordinate Conjunction Subject Verb , Subject Verb
After Sara sang , she left.
¶ 11. There are other sentence patterns, but the above four patterns are the basic four. The rest of the patterns are branches from the basic four. Do Worksheet #2.
Punctuate correctly the following sentences. Out to the left of each sentence, put the number of the sentence pattern.
_____1. The plane from Chicago is due at 7:20 and it was an hour late today.
_____2. The wind blew fiercely and Harry was alone in the house.
_____3. I waited half an hour for Ed but he did not come.
_____4. I collect Indian-head pennies and I now have thirty.
_____5. The room grew dark but no one suggested turning on the lights.
____6. I the girl with the blue ribbon am the cousin but she the girl with yellow hair is the daughter-in-law.
____7. The plane from Chicago is due at 7:00 it was an hour late today.
____8. The wind blew fiercely Harry was alone in the house.
____9. The room grew dark no one suggested turning on the lights.
____10. I waited half an hour for Ed he did not come.
____11. I spent last week in Chicago I have friends there.
____12. I was locked out I got in through a window.
____13. Last month I visited New York and I had a chance to see two plays.
____14. Because my little sister is afraid of worms I never take her fishing.
____15. When we were younger I used to take her often to the park.
____16. Although I love my sister I would rather go alone.
____17. Until my sister overcomes her fear she should not go fishing.
____18. He was angry at the boy but now he is all right.
____19. While Mother went shopping we went to a movie.
____20. He went by plane he returned by boat.
____21. When the baseball season began we spent most of our time out-of-town.
____22. Roselia my older sister drove there but we decided to do our shopping at another mall.
____23. Choi baked the cake but Rochelle iced it.
____24. Harry works hard he does not make very good grades.
____25. Many people shun hard work and success escapes them.
____26. Hank writes interesting stories but he is careless in his use of English the most useful language in the world.
____27. If you must have ambition it is better to be honest in your work.
____28. I could not go to the parade but I watched all of it on television.
____29. When school closes I shall try to get a summer job.
____30. Because I went to summer school I did not work downtown.
____31. Eduardo was never absent from school but would often arrive late to class.
____32. Jeremiah my twin brother and very closest friend was never absent from school but would often arrive late.
____33. The course is old and crowded and is not properly cared for.
____34. There has been no word from the plane but we have not given up hope.
____35. Before the tide goes out we should sail back to the beach.
____36. Either the air is not moist enough for those crops or the soil does not contain enough minerals.
____37. Blue and yellow will combine and make green but red and yellow produce an orange color.
____38. Because reports of the hurricane sounded dangerous residents loaded their belongings and fled for shelter.
____39. The dip that contained onions and garlic tasted good with the chips. (This sentence illustrates an example of a non-restrictive, adjective clause. There are both restrictive and non-restrictive adjective clauses. The word "restrictive" means "necessary." The word "non-restrictive" means "not necessary." In this sentence a person could not identify clearly which "dip" unless the restrictive adjective clause "that contained onions and garlic"were placed in the sentence. The restrictive adjective clause makes the reader know which "dip" is being referred to -- the one that contained onions and garlic. Therefore, the adjective clause is considered necessary; and no commas are necessary around it.
Ex. of non-restrictive adjective clause: The French onion dip, which had green specks in it, tasted good with the chips. Now the adjective clause is just giving extra information and is not really necessary in order to clearly identify which dip; therefore, a non-restrictive adjective clause is set apart by comma(s).
____40. When the tide rises we will set sail.
____41. Tension mounted before the colonists finally rebelled.
____42. The pioneers raised their crops and domesticated many animals.
____43. Ron could not reach the top branch of the tree and he started back down.
____44. The sun was shining and there was no breeze at all.
____45. Alice was sitting under a tree and sipping her lemonade.
____46. After he had sat for awhile Kendal decided to study for his test.
____47. For awhile they both just stood there because they were too angry to talk.
____48. Although he hadn't bothered anyone recently the wolf had been known to irritate some of the rabbits.
____49. The natives who lived in the jungle and the ones who lived in the village tried to put out the fire.
¶ 12. Diagram the sentences in Worksheet #3.
WORKSHEET # 3
1. I wonder who will be the lucky person.
2. The pledges whom you sponsored at the club meeting are waiting outside.
3. Do you know who will be nominated for the office of president?
4. Have you any idea whose bracelet this is?
5. Boris doesn't know with whom he will be marching.
6. The girl with whom Ho Mein danced is my cousin.
7. He is a performer whom I admire.
8. Although he likes golf, he feels he must win.
9. Who asked the most important question?
10. The policeman whom we like is visiting our house tonight.
11. To whom do we owe our lives?
12. The detective questioned everyone whom we suspected.
13. No one heard the answer even though all were listening carefully.
14. I met the boys who attended the first meeting.
15. The hammer, which was here yesterday, is not in the tool box now.
16. She is the professor to whom the pupils tell their problems.
17. Pat is a boy whose questions are full of wisdom.
¶ 13. Do Worksheet # 4.
WORKSHEET # 4
Decide whether each sentence below is a simple, compound, complex, or a compound-complex sentence. Write your answer in the blank..
1. We telephoned Mark and warned him. ______________________
2. I would accept the invitation, but I was not invited. _____________________
3. Terrence stopped the car and inspected the tire. ______________________
4. I left early because I had a terrible headache. ______________________
5. Here is a list of the people who have bought tickets. ______________________
6. All of the children and their parents enjoyed the show. ______________________
7. Did you sleep through the storm; I hope that you will ______________________
8. If you need any assistance, I hope that you will call me. ______________________
9. Rodney snared the pass and then dived into the end zone. ______________________
10. After we got on the bus, we realized that we didn't have _______________________
enough money for our fares.
¶ 14. Do Worksheet # 5.
WORKSHEET # 5
Decide whether the group of underlined words in each sentence below is a phrase or a clause. Write your answers on the blanks.
1. The driver of the shiny, new chromium-plated auto was Uncle Jose. __________
2. He pulled up to the curb when the policewoman signaled to him. ___________
3. Uncle Gus, who is in the insurance business, has been very good to ____________
4. When I was twleve years old, he took me on a camping trip. ____________
5. As soon as I am old enough to get a driver's license, my father
will let me drive his car. ____________
6. As he is always good-natured and pleasant, he is a nice person to visit. ____________
7. She is a person of considerable business ability. ____________
8. Before your mom bought her new car, she drove a car from Germany. ____________
9. He has a wonderful laugh that people greatly enjoy hearing. ____________
10. My cousin's new car is green with a beige interior. ____________
¶ 14. Do Worksheet # 6.
WORKSHEET # 6
Write complete sentences which follow the prescribed elements. Put parentheses around each prescribed element and label the element.
1. A simple sentence with an introductory participial phrase and an intransitive linking verb in the future perfect tense ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. A simple sentence with a gerund phrase used as a direct object ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
3. A simple sentence with an infinitive phrase which modifies the subject and that contains a verb in the future conditional perfect tense ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
4. A compound sentence using a coordinate conjunction to link the clauses and that contains a transitive passive verb ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
5. A compound sentence using a conjunctive adverb to link the clauses and an introductory prepositional phrase with two objects ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
6. A compound sentence using a semicolon to link the independent clauses and that contains a future tense verb ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
7. A complex sentence with an adjective clause at the beginning of the sentence and a prepositional phrase at the end ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
8. A complex sentence with an adverb clause at the end of the sentence and a prepositional phrase at the beginning ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
9. A complex sentence with a noun clause used as a predicate noun and that has an intransitive complete verb and a transitive active verb with two direct objects ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
10. A compound-complex sentence with an adjective clause and a semicolon and that contains a verb in the future progressive tense ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________