\doc\web\97\08\ill4b.txt
Subject: Illinois1897 4th grade part2
FOURTH MONTH.
Teach method of finding width of rectangle by dividing whole number of unit-
squares by number of unit-squares along the base. Teach form of long division,
using divisors less than 13.Write quotient over dividend. Teach reduction of
fractions to equivalents of larger fractional units by reversing the series of
last month. Deduce principle. Teach reduction of compound numbers-gal. Qt.
Pt.-yd. ft. In. -
to lower denominations. Teach addition and subtraction of compound numbers.
FIFTH MONTH.
Long division by 13, 14, 15, 16, pupil making table of 13's, etc., as needed
for reference. Teach how to find what part one number is of another. Show how
to find averages and calculate average age of class, average weight, average
distance the pupils come to school, etc. Teach decimal hundredths and the
various operations outlined in first month for tenths.
SIXTH MONTH.
Divide by 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 21, 31, 41,51, etc., without table of reference.
Give half of the month to long division. Multiplication of compound numbers
studied. Teach how to find a number when a specified part of it is known; as,
15 is 3/8 of what number? Provide about 5O inch-cubes and
have the children build two-inch cubes, three-inch cubes, and various
rectangular solids. Have them note the area of the faces and the volume of the
solids. Teach method of calculating volume by noting units in a row, rows in a
layer, and layers in the solid.
SEVENTH MONTH.
Division by two-place divisors, See that the meaning of each problem in
division is clearly seen. Partition of compound numbers. Give problems in
proportion; such as: ''If 8 pounds of sugar cost 50 cents, what is the cost
of 12 pounds?'' 8 pounds is the same part of 12 pounds as 5O cents is of the
required number. 8 pounds is 2/3 of 12 pounds; 50 cents is 2/3 of 75 cents.
Teach how to find any fractional part of any integer. Teach how to make the
smaller number the multiplier in such problems as, "Cost of 360 lb. of lard at
7 1/2 cents?"
EIGHTH MONTH.
Long division by any three-place divisors. Measure rectangles with fractional
dimensions. Divide fractions by fractions, reducing them to equivalents having
the same unit. Teach definitions of subtraction, minuend, multiplicand,
product, etc. Note that division is the process of dividing a number into
equal numbers. In measurement the size of these equal numbers is given; in
partition, the number
of equal numbers.
ORAL GEOGRAPHY
Objects-The objects are to enable the pupil to make and read a map; to give
primary ideas concerning the earth, and to know what the study of geography
really is.
The plan is to teach time, direction, distance, art of measuring, use of
definite scale; to draw
maps, study climate, vegetation, animals, minerals, occupations, local
exports, imports, and government of home and neighborhood
REMARKs.-ln giving oral instruction we should bear in mind that the child
acquires a real knowledge of things through his own observation. Keep in mind,
then, that elementary instruction is upon real objects, and that your
inquiries must appeal to the senses of the pupil for answers. Wherever
practicable bring the object before the class. If not so, try to get pictures
for your illustrations.
Interest the Pupil.-endeavor to arouse the pupil's curiosity and cultivate his
imagination by the use of pictures and by oral descriptions. Find pictures of
a hill; talk of its foot, top (summit), sides, slopes, etc.; speak of top
covered with snow, very high. Secure definition of a hill and a mountain.
Work up, in the same way, the name and definition of each of the natural
divisions. Teach the symbol for each as its name is learned.
FIRST MONTH.
The Idea of Time.-Days are long in summer and short in winter. Winter
evenings. long, summer short; Day and night together, a natural day, or
twenty-four hours. The civil day begins and closes at midnight. Number
of hours in a school day. Number of times the clock strikes. When school
opened to-day. When it will close.
Class be silent a minute. Length of class exercise. Time to walk home. Minutes
in an hour. Seconds in a minute, etc. Use of hands of clock, and how to tell
the time. Names of days of week; the first and last days; number of weeks in
the month since school began, in a year; from birthday to birthday; from
Christmas to Christmas .
Months in a year. Time table learned.
SECOND MONTH
Tile Idea of Place and Direction-The terms right, left, front, back. Point in
these directions. Name numerous objects in these directions. Teacher name
objects and class locate. One pupil names objects to be located by the class,
and vice versa. Point to top, bottom, right side, left side, and center of
a map. Extend to location of familiar objects in the neighborhood.
Pupils face the rising sun; the setting sun; at noon; sunrise and sunset. Face
the east, west, and different points of the compass. Exhibit compass if
possible. Locate numerous objects in the room. Directions of lines in the
room; cracks, desks, etc. Objects near the house. Walks of pupils to and from
school. Direction of winds. How does the sun get back to the east every
twenty-four hours? Use globe
to illustrate day and night. Let pupils use globe and explain.
THIRD MONTH.
Idea of Distance.-Compare the length of objects with one another, Supply
pupils with foot rules, Guess length of objects, then measure them. Extend
this practice to the yard, when inside of room is exhausted. Pupils guess
distances, then measure them. Select objects half mile away, a mile away.
Distance to school or home. Combine distance, time, and direction by the use
of imaginary or real journeys. To illustate: The church is about a mile due
east, and it will take about twenty minutes to walk to it.''
Idea of Map,-Use north board. Top, north; bottom, south; right hand, east;
left hand, west Draw
this figure: (The figure in the book is a square with a smaller square drawn
in the middle. The number
1 is inside the smaller square. One of the numbers 2,4,6,8 is in each corner
of the larger square. In between these numbers in the middle of the line on
each side is either 5,7,9, or 3. Form many questions such as: Direction of 3
from 1; direction of boundary lines, etc. Require pupils to form questions.
Draw map of school room upon definite scale, as one fourth inch to a foot.
Pupils compare
map with room; note boundaries and their directions. Draw map of school
ground on a scale of one inch, or one half inch to the rod; locate house,
pump, etc.; note direction and length of boundaries.
Recite from map until all understand it.
FOURTH MONTH.
Map Drawing.-Draw map of school grounds with adjoining fields on reduced
scale. Pupils draw maps of home farms, locating pastureland, cornfields,
brooks, fences, etc. Take pupils on imaginary journeys over the school
district, locating roads, brooks, woods, farmhouses, and the schoolhouse.
Write a list of objects to be
located. Pupils draw map of district. Write a list of objects on margin of
map, referring by figures 1, 2, 3, etc., to the objects represented on map.
Let scale be an inch to the mile. Work up the township map in the same way.
Locate all schoolhouses, churches, and towns.
FIFTH MONTH.
Climate.-Teach climate as the pupils have experienced it; as to temperature-
hot, cold, moderate; as to moisture-dry, wet, damp; as to diseases-healthful
and unhealthful. Teach directions to travel to find changes in
climate. Teach the useful vegetation of the neighborhood, pupils making lists
of articles raised on farms. Tell what is done with them. Those sent away are
called exports. Make lists of vegetable pro ductions brought in for
home use; as, sugar, coffee, cinnamon, rubber, camphor, etc., imports.- Follow
the same plan with animals and
minerals. Be sure to study home exports and imports.
SIXTH MONTH.
Occupations.- Pupils name and write as long a list as possible of the
different trades and kinds of business. After several lessons spent in
preparing and talking about them, begin to classify. Put everything that is
clone on farms under agriculture; ; all buying and, selling and transporting
under
commerce; all in which things are made under manufacturing. Teacher speak of
lumbering, mining,, fishing, hunting, etc. Clergymen, lawyers, physicians,
authors, journalists, teachers, etc., belong to the
professions. Call attention to the different conditions of society and
peoples, as savages, partially civilized, and civilized.
Government.-Who governs the school when in session? Who hires the teachers,
buys coal, and cares for the house? Who governs the family ? Who governs the
State ? Who makes the laws? Who governs the United States? Study purpose of
government, punishments, etc. Lead pupils to see necessity for good
government, and that the best government is among civilized people.
SEVENTH MONTH
County.-Draw a map of the county, locating railroads., towns, and rivers.
Indicate adjoining counties and state shortest distances to them. The county
seat why so called? The county officers and some of their duties.
NOTE.-Large sheets of Manila wrapping paper answer well for map drawing.
EIGHTH MONTH.
Review.-. Review the work of the year. Deduce this definition-Geography is a
study of the earth and what is on it