US Sports by Race


doc93A\ussport.xls                                
                                 
Minorities in Professional Sports                                
                                 
Source: 1993 Racial Report Card                                
Northeastern University's Center for the Study of Sport in Society                                
Dr. Richard E. Lapchick, Jeffrey R. Benedict                                
(617)-373-4025                                
360 Huntington Ave Suite 161 Boston MA 02115                                
              Percent                  
US Population             White Black Latino Asian Women          
              75% 12% 9% 3% 50%          
                                 
                                 
National Basketball Association                                
  Number           Percent         Index        
  Total White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women
Management 243 185 53 4 1 108 76% 22% 2% 0% 44% 1.01 1.78 -5.54 -7.13 -1.14
Support 160 97 43 14 6 90 61% 27% 9% 4% 56% 0.81 2.76 1.21 1.60 1.40
Total 403 282 96 18 7 198 70% 24% 4% 2% 49% 0.93 2.12 -1.88 -1.55 1.06
                                 
National Football League Front Office                                
  Total White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women
Management 60 46 11 2 1 13 77% 18% 3% 2% 22% 1.02 1.49 -2.75 -1.77 -2.35
Support 38 32 4 1 1 25 84% 11% 3% 3% 66% 1.12 -1.29 -3.83 -1.23 1.18
total 98 78 15 3 2 38 80% 15% 3% 2% 39% 1.06 1.20 -3.11 -1.50 -1.36
                                 
Major League Baseball                                
Office of the Commisioner                                
  Total White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women
1988 49 40 5 4 0 24 82% 10% 8% 0% 49% 1.09 -1.29 -1.20 #DIV/0! -1.11
1992 74 56 11 7 0 41 76% 15% 9% 0% 55% 1.01 1.22 1.04 #DIV/0! 1.10
                                 
Executives/ Department Heads                                
  Total White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women
1989 12 12 0 0 0 1 100% 0% 0% 0% 8% 1.33 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! -7.98
1992 12 10 2 0 0 1 83% 17% 0% 0% 8% 1.11 1.24 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! -6.65
                                 
Owners                                
  Total White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women
NBA             97% 0% 3% 0% 8% 1.29 #DIV/0! -3.87 #DIV/0! -8.06
NFL             100% 0% 0% 0% 12% 1.33 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! -5.54
ML Baseball             98% 1% 0% 1% 12% 1.30 -15.77 #DIV/0! -3.78 -5.43
                                 
Chairman of the Board                                
  Total White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women
NBA 16 16 0 0 0   100%         1.33 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
NFL 13 13 0 0 0   100%         1.33 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
MLB 22 22 0 0 0   100%         1.33 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
Total 51 51 0 0 0                      
                                 
Presidents / Chief Executive Officers                                
  Total White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women
NBA 25 25 0 0 0 1 100% 0% 0% 0% 4% 1.33 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! -16.62
NFL 28 27 0 1 0 0 96% 0% 4% 0% 0% 1.28 #DIV/0! -3.23 #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
MLB 29 29 0 0 0 0 100% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1.33 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
Total 82 81 0 1 0 1 99% 0% 1% 0% 1% 1.31 #DIV/0! -9.69 #DIV/0! -53.86
                                 
Vice Presidents                                
  Total White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women
NBA 62 52 9 0 1 4 84% 15% 0% 2% 6% 1.12 1.08 #DIV/0! -2.01 -8.64
NFL 49 46 3 0 0 4 94% 6% 0% 0% 8% 1.25 -2.47 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! -7.65
MLB 103 97 4 1 1 1 94% 4% 1% 1% 1% 1.25 -3.90 -11.61 -3.74 -64.49
Total 214 195 16 1 2 9 91% 7% 0% 1% 4% 1.21 -1.96 -23.34 -3.76 -14.41
                                 
General Managers                                
  Total White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women
NBA 16 11 5 0 0 0 69% 31% 0% 0% 0% 0.91 2.82 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
NFL 16 15 0 1 0 0 94% 0% 6% 0% 0% 1.25 #DIV/0! -1.80 #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
MLB 28 28 0 0 0 0 100% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1.33 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
Total 60 54 5 1 0 0 90% 8% 2% 0% 0% 1.20 -1.74 -6.46 #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
                                 
Head Coaches and Managers 1992-93                                
  Total White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women
NBA 27 20 7 0 0 0 74% 26% 0% 0% 0% 0.99 2.18 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
NFL 28 25 2 1 0 0 89% 7% 4% 0% 0% 1.19 -2.01 -2.99 #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
MLB 28 22 4 2 0 0 79% 14% 7% 0% 0% 1.04 1.13 -1.32 #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
Total 83 67 13 3 0 0 81% 16% 4% 0% 0% 1.07 1.21 -2.67 #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
1988-89                                
  Total White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women
NBA 25 20 5 0 0 0 80% 20% 0% 0% 0% 1.06 1.55 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
NFL 28 28 0 0 0 0 100% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1.33 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
MLB 28 27 1 0 0 0 96% 4% 0% 0% 0% 1.28 -4.34 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
Total 81 75 6 0 0 0 93% 7% 0% 0% 0% 1.23 -2.01 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
                                 
Total Coaches (Heads, Managers and Assistants) 92-93                                
  Total White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women
NBA 94 69 25 0 0 0 73% 27% 0% 0% 0% 0.98 2.25 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
NFL 357 289 67 1 0 0 81% 19% 0% 0% 0% 1.08 1.44 -34.59 #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
MLB 195 155 26 12 2 0 79% 13% 6% 1% 0% 1.06 1.04 -1.55 -2.99 #DIV/0!
Total 646 513 118 13 2 0 79% 18% 2% 0% 0% 1.06 1.43 -4.72 -9.89 #DIV/0!
                                 
                                 
Medical Staff: Physicians                                
  Total White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women
NBA 67 66 1 0 0 0 99% 1% 0% 0% 0% 1.31 -10.62 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
NFL 67 66 1 0 0 0 99% 1% 0% 0% 0% 1.31 -10.62 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
MLB 34 32 1 1 0 0 94% 3% 3% 0% 0% 1.25 -5.15 -3.83 #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
Total 168 164 3 1 0 0 98% 2% 1% 0% 0% 1.30 -8.80 -19.63 #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
                                 
Head Trainers                                
  Total White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women
NBA 26 25 1 0 0 0 96% 4% 0% 0% 0% 1.28 -4.02 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
NFL 26 25 1 0 0 0 96% 4% 0% 0% 0% 1.28 -4.02 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
MLB 23 23 0 0 0 0 100% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1.33 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
Total 75 73 2 0 0 0 97% 3% 0% 0% 0% 1.29 -5.87 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
                                 
Major Leage Baseball team Front Office Employees                                
  Total White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women
1988 1,495 1,353 85 41 16 564 91% 6% 3% 1% 38% 1.20 -2.56 -3.95 -3.26 -1.60
1989 1,854 1,581 163 88 22 700 85% 9% 5% 1% 38% 1.13 -1.56 -2.15 -2.77 -1.50
1990 2,032 1,727 182 100 23 778 85% 9% 5% 1% 38% 1.13 -1.53 -2.07 -2.90 -1.48
1991 2,216 1,864 196 122 34 850 84% 9% 6% 2% 38% 1.12 -1.53 -1.83 -2.11 -1.46
1992 2,281 1,901 212 127 41 907 83% 9% 6% 2% 40% 1.11 -1.44 -1.79 -1.79 -1.39
                                 
Administration                                
  Total White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women
NBA 644 554 68 14 7   86% 11% 2% 1% 0% 1.14 -1.31 -4.74 -3.05 #DIV/0!
NFL 475 426 31 15 3   90% 7% 3% 1% 0% 1.19 -2.21 -3.40 -5.48 #DIV/0!
total 1,119 980 99 29 10   88% 9% 3% 1% 0% 1.16 -1.59 -4.04 -3.78 #DIV/0!
                                 
Key Professional Positions                                
  Total White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women
Public Relations Directors                       0.00 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
NBA             92% 8% 0% 0%   1.22 -1.85 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
NFL             96% 4% 0% 0%   1.28 -3.86 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
total                                
                                 
Community Relations Directors                                
NBA             41% 59% 0% 0%   0.55 8.94 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
NFL             69% 25% 6% 0%   0.92 2.25 -1.38 #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
total                                
                                 
Controllers                                
NBA             95% 0% 0% 0%   1.26 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
NFL             96% 4% 0% 0%   1.28 -3.86 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
total                                
                                 
Attorneys                                
NBA             100% 0% 0% 0%   1.33 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
NFL             87% 13% 0% 0%   1.16 -1.08 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
total                                
                                 
Accountants                                
NBA             80% 15% 3% 3%   1.06 1.17 -3.83 -1.23 #DIV/0!
NFL             100% 0% 0% 0%   1.33 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
total                                
                                 
Radio and Television Announcers                                
  Total White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women
NBA             81% 12% 7% 0% 0% 1.08 -1.09 -1.38 #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
NFL             86% 2% 12% 0% 0% 1.14 -6.92 1.17 #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
MLB             83% 5% 12% 0% 0% 1.10 -2.67 1.21 #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
total                                
                                 
Referees and Umpires                                
  Total White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women
NBA 54 40 13 1 0   74% 24% 2% 0% 0% 0.99 2.02 -4.79 #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
NFL 107 94 13 0 0   88% 12% 0% 0% 0% 1.17 -1.16 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
MLB 63 58 2 3 0   92% 3% 5% 0% 0% 1.22 -4.67 -2.31 #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
total                                
National Basketball Association, Major League Umpire' Association National Football League                                
                                 
Support Staff Personnel 1992                                
  Total White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women
NBA             78% 14% 5% 2% 71% 1.04 1.12 -1.87 -1.50 1.37
NFL             89% 5% 3% 1% 78% 1.18 -2.86 -3.55 -3.43 1.32
                                 
Racial composition of players                                
NBA Total White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women
89-90             25% 75% 0% 0% 0% 0.33 18.64 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
90-91             28% 72% 0% 0% 0% 0.37 15.98 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
91-92             25% 75% 0% 0% 0% 0.33 18.64 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
92-93             23% 77% 0% 0% 0% 0.31 20.81 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
                                 
NFL Total White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women
89             40% 60% 0% 0% 0% 0.53 9.32 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
90             39% 61% 0% 0% 0% 0.52 9.72 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
91             36% 62% 2% 0% 0% 0.48 10.70 -2.15 #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
92             30% 68% 1% 1% 0% 0.40 14.09 -3.59 -1.16 #DIV/0!
There were 22 Pacific Islanders in the NFL in 1992 season (200+ total players)                                
                                 
MLB Total White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women White Black Latino Asian Women
90             70% 17% 13% 0% 0% 0.93 1.51 1.55 #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
91             68% 18% 14% 0% 0% 0.90 1.65 1.72 #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
92             68% 17% 14% 1% 0% 0.90 1.55 1.72 -2.62 #DIV/0!
93             67% 16% 16% 0% 0% 0.89 1.48 2.00 #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
Less than 1% between Asian/PI and Native Am in 1993                                
                                 
NBA Positional Breakdown 1992-93                                
  White Black                            
Guard 17% 83%                            
Forward 20% 80%                            
Center 45% 55%                            
Total 23% 77%                            
                                 
Disproportionate percentage of centers are white, but not evidence of "stacking"                                
                                 
                                 
                                 
                                 
                                 
Table 23                                
MLB Positional Breakdown                                
                                 
  % of White Players       % of Black Players       % of Latino Players              
                                 
  1983 1991 1992 1993 1983 1991 1992 1993 1983 1991 1992 1993        
Pitcher 86 86 84 82 7 4 5 5 7 10 11 12        
Catcher 93 88 87 87 0 1 1 1 7 11 12 12        
1 B 55 63 57 69 38 20 28 19 7 17 15 11        
2B 65 51 60 58 21 22 21 13 14 27 19 26        
3 B 82 76 76 75 5 21 12 12 13 13 12 12        
S S 73 47 52 42 11 19 14 8 9 13 34 50        
Outfield 45 35 36 33 46 51 49 50 9 13 15 17        
                                 
Compiled by Northestern University's Center for the Study of Sport in Society. Based on 1983,                                
1991, 1992 and 1993 opening day rosters as reported in the New York Times, USA Today, 1993                                
team media guides and the 1983, 1991 and 1992 editions of Who's Who in Baseball.                                
                                 
Index                                
  1983 1991 1992 1993 1983 1991 1992 1993 1983 1991 1992 1993        
Pitcher 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 -12.29 -21.50 -16.80 -16.40 -12.29 -8.60 -7.64 -6.83        
Catcher 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 #DIV/0! -88.00 -87.00 -87.00 -13.29 -8.00 -7.25 -7.25        
1 B 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 -1.45 -3.15 -2.04 -3.63 -7.86 -3.71 -3.80 -6.27        
2B 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 -3.10 -2.32 -2.86 -4.46 -4.64 -1.89 -3.16 -2.23        
3 B 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 -16.40 -3.62 -6.33 -6.25 -6.31 -5.85 -6.33 -6.25        
S S 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 -6.64 -2.47 -3.71 -5.25 -8.11 -3.62 -1.53 1.19        
Outfield 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.02 1.46 1.36 1.52 -5.00 -2.69 -2.40 -1.94        
                                 
Most blacks play 1st base or outfield. Catchers and Pitchers are mostly white                                
                                 
                                 
Stacking in the NFL 1992                                
Quarterback and Center are characterized by leadership and intelligence                                
Table 2                                
Stacking in the NFL                                
                                 
  % of White Players       % of Black Plavers                      
                                 
  1983 1990 1991 1992 1983 1990 1991 1992                
OFFENSE                                
Quarterback 99 92 92 94 1 8 8 6                
Index 1.32 1.23 1.23 1.25 -15.84 -1.84 -1.84 -2.51                
Running Back 12 7 8 7 88 90 90 92                
Index 0.16 0.09 0.11 0.09 45.83 80.36 70.31 82.14                
Wide Receiver 23 14 10 11 77 86 89 88                
Center 97 87 89 76 3 13 10 19                
Guard 77 76 67 62 2 24 31 35                
Tight End 52 49 49 39 48 51 51 59                
Tackle 68 71 60 50 32 29 31 46                
Kicker 98 97 88 83 2 0 0 7                
                                 
DEFENSE                                
Cornerback 8 4 4 2 92 96 96 98                
Safety 43 17 20 12 57 83 80 88                
Linebacker 53 31 29 28 47 66 68 71                
DefensiveEnd 31 28 28 26 69 72 70 73                
Defensive Tackle 47 50 44 30 53 50 54 67                
Defensive Back 0 0 6 5 0 0 94 95                
Nose Tackle 0 0 42 35 0 0 49 60                
Punter 0 0 92 85 0 0 3 10                
                                 
68% of all players in NFL are Black.                                
30% of all players in NFL are white.                                
2% of all players in NFL are other (Pacific Islander, Latino and Asian American).                                
                                 
Table 22 compares the racial composition of the NFL by position for four sesons: 1983-84, 1990-                                
91, 199 1-92 and 1992-93.                                
      total       total                  
Race Rate % of White Players   30%   % of Black Plavers   68%                  
  vs. population       vs. population                      
  1983 1990 1991 1992 1983 1990 1991 1992                
OFFENSE                                
Quarterback 3.30 3.07 3.07 3.13 0.01 0.12 0.12 0.09                
Running Back 0.40 0.23 0.27 0.23 1.29 1.32 1.32 1.35                
Wide Receiver 0.77 0.47 0.33 0.37 1.13 1.26 1.31 1.29                
Center 3.23 2.90 2.97 2.53 0.04 0.19 0.15 0.28                
Guard 2.57 2.53 2.23 2.07 0.03 0.35 0.46 0.51                
Tight End 1.73 1.63 1.63 1.30 0.71 0.75 0.75 0.87                
Tackle 2.27 2.37 2.00 1.67 0.47 0.43 0.46 0.68                
Kicker 3.27 3.23 2.93 2.77 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.10                
                                 
DEFENSE                                
Cornerback 0.27 0.13 0.13 0.07 1.35 1.41 1.41 1.44                
Safety 1.43 0.57 0.67 0.40 0.84 1.22 1.18 1.29                
Linebacker 1.77 1.03 0.97 0.93 0.69 0.97 1.00 1.04                
DefensiveEnd 1.03 0.93 0.93 0.87 1.01 1.06 1.03 1.07                
Defensive Tackle 1.57 1.67 1.47 1.00 0.78 0.74 0.79 0.99                
Defensive Back 0.00 0.00 0.20 0.17 0.00 0.00 1.38 1.40                
Nose Tackle 0.00 0.00 1.40 1.17 0.00 0.00 0.72 0.88                
Punter 0.00 0.00 3.07 2.83 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.15                
                                 
Ratio                                
Race Rate % of White Players   30%   % of Black Plavers   68%                  
  vs. population       ratio vs. white                      
  1983 1990 1991 1992 1983 1990 1991 1992                
OFFENSE                                
Quarterback 3.30 3.07 3.07 3.13 -224.40 -26.07 -26.07 -35.51                
Running Back -2.50 -4.29 -3.75 -4.29 3.24 5.67 4.96 5.80                
Wide Receiver -1.30 -2.14 -3.00 -2.73 1.48 2.71 3.93 3.53                
Center 3.23 2.90 2.97 2.53 -73.29 -15.17 -20.17 -9.07                
Guard 2.57 2.53 2.23 2.07 -87.27 -7.18 -4.90 -4.02                
Tight End 1.73 1.63 1.63 1.30 -2.46 -2.18 -2.18 -1.50                
Tackle 2.27 2.37 2.00 1.67 -4.82 -5.55 -4.39 -2.46                
Kicker 3.27 3.23 2.93 2.77 -111.07 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! -26.88                
                                 
DEFENSE                                
Cornerback -3.75 -7.50 -7.50 -15.00 5.07 10.59 10.59 21.62                
Safety 1.43 -1.76 -1.50 -2.50 -1.71 2.15 1.76 3.24                
Linebacker 1.77 1.03 -1.03 -1.07 -2.56 -1.06 1.03 1.12                
DefensiveEnd 1.03 -1.07 -1.07 -1.15 -1.02 1.13 1.10 1.24                
Defensive Tackle 1.57 1.67 1.47 1.00 -2.01 -2.27 -1.85 -1.01                
Defensive Back #DIV/0! #DIV/0! -5.00 -6.00 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! 6.91 8.38                


Last Updated on 6/13/97
By Arthur Hu