TABLE 1

NAEP PROFICIENCY SCALE

Levels of Cognitive Taxonomy

 

Level

 

 

Bloom

Herber

NAEP

Category

Descriptor/Proficiency

1

 

 

Knowledge

Recalls or recognizes information

 

I

 

Literal Comprehension

 

 

 

200

Understands Simple Scientific Principles

 

2

 

 

Comprehension

Transforms information, gives examples, states in own words

 

II

 

Interpretive Comprehension

 

3

 

 

Application

Uses information, solves a problem.

 

 

250

Applies General Scientific Information

 

 

III

 

Applied Comprehension

 

4

 

 

Analysis

Separates components, identifies issues, motives, or implications

 

 

300

Analyzes Scientific Procedures and Data

 

5

 

 

Synthesis

Creates unique combination, identifies abstract relationships

 

 

350

Integrates Specialized Scientific Information

 

6

 

 

Evaluation

Establishes criteria to judge or opine

 

Sources:  Bloom, Benjamin, S., Max D. Engelhart, Edward J. Furst, Walker H. Hill and David R. Krathwohl.  (1956).  Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.  The Classification of Educational Goals.  Handbook I: Cognitive Domain.  New York: David McKay.

Herber, Harold L.  (1978).  Teaching Reading in the Content Areas, 2nd ed., Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

The 1990 Science Report Card: NAEP’s Assessment of Fourth, Eighth and Twelfth Grades.  (Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, 1992), p. 3.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


FIGURE 1

PERCENTAGES OF STUDENTS AT OR ABOVE FOUR PROFICIENCY

LEVELS ON THE NAEP SCIENCE SCALE

 

Percent of Students At Or Above

 

                                       0                             20                            40                            60                            80                           100

                                       ½                             ½                             ½                             ½                             ½                             ½

Level 200

Grade 4                                                                                                                                                                     85

Grade 8                                                                                                                                                                              94

Grade 12                                                                                                                                                                                        99

Level 250

Grade 4                                                                                31

Grade 8                                                                                                                                    64

Grade 12                                                                                                                                                                  84

Level 300

Grade 4                                1

Grade 8                                                          18

Grade 12                                                                                                    45

Level 350

Grade 4                         0

Grade 8                                1

Grade 12                                          9

 

The 1990 Science Report Card: NAEP’s Assessment of Fourth, Eighth, and Twelfth Graders.  (National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, 1992), p. 28.

 

 


TABLE 2

PERCENTAGE OF STUDENTS AT PIAGET’S COGNITIVE LEVELS

 

 

 

Age

 

Grade

 

Intuition

Entry

Concrete

Advanced

Concrete

Entry

Formal

Middle

Formal

10

4-5

12

52

35

1

 

12

6-7

5

32

51

12

 

14

8-9

1

32

43

15

9

16

10-11

1

15

54

17

13

 

Source: Herman Epstein.  (1981).  Washington, DC: National Science Teachers Association.

 

 

 

 

 


TABLE 3

COMBINED CLASSIFICATIONS FOR READING ASSESSMENT ITEMS

By Bloom, NAEP and Herber Levels (N = 39)

 

Scale

Number of Items*

Percentage of Total

NAEP

 

 

        200

                             27

64.3

        250

                             13

31.0

        300

                               2

4.7

        350

                               0

0.0

        Totals

                             42

100.0

Bloom’s Taxonomy

 

 

        1

                             14

22.2

        2

                             27

42.9

        3

                             10

15.9

        4

                               9

14.3

        5

                               3

4.7

        6

                               0

0.0

        Totals

                             63

100.0

Herber

 

 

        I

                             11

26.8

        II

                             22

53.7

        III

                               8

19.5

        Totals

                             41

100.0

 

*Number of items is greater than 39 due to the multiple classifications.

 

 


TABLE 4

DAY ONE: WASL READING ASSESSMENT

Items Classified by Bloom, NAEP, and Herber Levels (N = 20)

 

Scale

Number of Items*

Percentage of Total

NAEP

 

 

        200

                             12

52.2

        250

                               9

39.1

        300

                               2

8.7

        350

                               0

0.0

        Totals

                             23

100.0

Bloom’s Taxonomy

 

 

        1

                               7

20.0

        2

                             12

34.3

        3

                               6

17.1

        4

                               7

20.0

        5

                               3

8.6

        6

                               0

0.0

        Totals

                             35

100.0

Herber

 

 

        I

                               7

31.8

        II

                               8

36.4

        III

                               7

31.8

        Totals

                             22

100.0

 

*Number will be greater than 20 due to multiple classifications.

 

 

 


TABLE 5

DAY TWO: READING ASSESSMENT

Items Classified by NAEP Scale, Bloom, and Herber Levels (N = 19)

 

Scale

Number of Items*

Percentage of Total

NAEP

 

 

        200

                             15

79.9

        250

                               4

21.2

        300

                               0

0.0

        350

                               0

0.0

        Totals

                             19

100.0

Bloom’s Taxonomy

 

 

        1

                               7

25.0

        2

                             15

53.3

        3

                               4

   14.3

        4

                               2

 7.1

        5

                               0

0.0

        6

                               0

0.0

        Totals

                             28

100.0

Herber

 

 

        I

                               4

21.1

        II

                             14

73.6

        III

                               1

 5.3

        Totals

                             19

100.0

 

*The numbers will be greater than 19, due to multiple classifications.

 

 

 

 

 

 


TABLE 6

DAY ONE: GRADE 4 LISTENING ASSESSMENT

Items Classified by NAEP, Bloom, and Herber Levels (N = 13)

 

Scale

Number of Items*

Percentage of Total

NAEP

 

 

        200

                               9

69.2

        250

                               3

23.1

        300

                               1

7.7

        350

                               0

0.0

        Totals

                             13

100.0

Bloom’s Taxonomy

 

 

        1

                               2

10.5

        2

                               6

31.6

        3

                               7

21.1

        4

                               4

 0.0

        5

                               0

0.0

        6

                               0

0.0

        Totals

                             19

100.0

Herber

 

 

        I

                               3

23.1

        II

                               6

46.2

        III

                               4

30.7

        Totals

                             13

100.0

 

*The numbers will be greater than 13, due to multiple classifications.

 


TABLE 7

GRADE 4 WRITING ASSESSMENT

Items Classified by NAEP, and Bloom Levels

 

Day One—Prewriting

Task

NAEP

Bloom’s Taxonomy

1

200

1

2

200

1

Day Two—Writing

1

250

2 or 3

2

250

2 or 3

Combined Day Classification

Scale

Number of Tasks*

Percentage of Total

NAEP

 

 

        200

                               2

50.0

        250

                               2

50.0

        300

                               0

0.0

        350

                               0

0.0

        Totals

                               4

100.0

Bloom’s Taxonomy

 

 

        1

                             27

33.3

        2

                               2

33.3

        3

                               2

33.3

        4

                               0

 0.0

        5

                               0

0.0

        6

                               0

0.0

        Totals

                             35

100.0

 

*The numbers will be greater than  4, due to multiple classifications.

 

 


TABLE 8

DAY ONE—READING ASSESSMENT

Item Analysis by NAEP, Bloom And Herber

 

Item

NAEP

Bloom

Herber

1

200

2

2

2

200

1/2

2

3

200

1

1

4

250

3/4

3

5

200

1/2

1

6

250/300

1/2

1

7

250

3

2

8

250/300

4/5

3

9

200

1/2

1

10 A

200

1/2

2

10 B

250

2/3

2

11 A

200

2

1

11 B

200

4

2

12

200

1/2

1

13

200

1/2

1

14

200

2

1

15

250

3/4

3

16

250

2/3/4

2/3

17 A

200

2/3

2/3

17 B

250

4/5

3

Total 20

 

 

 

 

 


TABLE 9

DAY TWO—READING ASSESSMENT

Item Analysis by NAEP, Bloom And Herber

 

Item

NAEP

Bloom

Herber

18

200

1

1

19

250

2

2

20 A

200

1/2

2

20 B

200

1/2

2

20 C

200

1/2

2

20 D

200

1

1

20 E

200

1

1

21

250

2

2

22

250

2/3/4

2

23

200

2

2

24 A

200

2

2

24 B

200

2

2

25

200

2

2

26

200

2

2

27

200

2

2

28

250

3/4

3

29

200

1/2

1

30 A

200

2/3

2

30 B

200

2/3

2

Total 19

 

 

 

 

 


TABLE 10

DAY ONE—GRADE 4 LISTENING

Item Analysis by NAEP, Bloom And Herber (N = 11)

 

Sample Questions

Item

NAEP

Bloom

Herber

1

200

2

2

2

200/250

2/3

2/3

Example Test Items

1 A

250

3/4

2/3

1 B

200

1/2

1

1 C

300

3

3

2

200

2/3

2

3

200

2/3

2/3

4

200

2/3

1

5

200

2

2

6

200

1

1

7

200

3/4

2

8

200/250

3/4

3

 9

200

2

2

 


TABLE 11

WRITING ASSESSMENT

Item Analysis by NAEP and Bloom

 

 

Day One—Prewriting

Item

NAEP

Bloom

1

200

1

2

200

1

 

 

1

Day Two—Writing Assessment

1

250

2/3

2

250

2/3

 

 


TABLE 12

COMBINED GRADE 4 MATHEMATICS

Items Classified by NAEPand Bloom Levels (N = 45)

 

Scale

Number of Items*

Percentage of Total

NAEP

 

 

        200

                               9

17.6

        250

                             10

19.6

        300

                             25

49.1

        350

                               7

13.7

        Totals

                             51

100.0

Bloom’s Taxonomy

 

 

        1

                               3

3.7

        2

                             10

12.7

        3

                             12

15.2

        4

                             26

 32.9

        5

                             21

26.6

        6

                               7

8.9

        Totals

                             79

100.0

 

*The numbers will be greater than 45, due to multiple classifications.

 

 


TABLE 13

DAY ONE—MATHEMATICS

Items Classified by NAEP and Bloom Levels (N = 23)

 

Scale

Number of Items*

Percentage of Total

NAEP

 

 

        200

                               3

11.5

        250

                               5

19.2

        300

                             15

57.7

        350

                               3

11.5

        Totals

                             26

 99.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy

 

 

        1

                               0

0.0

        2

                               4

9.5

        3

                               7

16.7

        4

                             16

 38.1

        5

                             12

28.6

        6

                               3

7.1

 

*The numbers will be greater than 23, due to multiple classifications.

 


TABLE 14

DAY TWO—MATHEMATICS

Items Classified by NAEP, Bloom, and Herber Levels (N = 22)

 

Scale

Number of Items*

Percentage of Total

NAEP

 

 

        200

                               6

24.0

        250

                               5

20.0

        300

                             10

40.0

        350

                               4

16.0

        Totals

                             25

100.0

Bloom’s Taxonomy

 

 

        1

                               3

8.1

        2

                               6

16.2

        3

                               5

13.5

        4

                             10

 27.0

        5

                               9

24.3

        6

                               4

10.8

        Totals

                             37

 99.9

 

*The numbers will be greater than 22, due to multiple classifications.

 


TABLE 15

DAY ONE—MATHEMATICS

Item Analysis by NAEPand Bloom Levels

 

PRACTICE PROBLEMS

LEVEL

Question

NAEP

Bloom

1

250

2/3

2

300

4/5

3

200

2

Actual Test Items

NAEP

Bloom

1

250

3/4

2

200

2

3

250/300

4/5

4

250/300

4/5

4

300

4

5

300

4/5

6

300

4

7

300

4/5

8

200

2/3

9

300

4/5

10

300

3/4/5

11

300

5

12

200

2/3/4

13

300

4

14

300

4/5

15 A

300/350

4/5/6

15 B

300

6

16

200

2/3

17 A

300/350

4/5

17 B

300

4/5

17 C

300

4/5/6

18

250

3

19

250

3/4

20

350

5

 

*The numbers will be greater than 23, due to multiple classifications.

 

 

TABLE 16

DAY TWO—MATHEMATICS

Item Analysis by NAEPand Bloom Levels

 

 

LEVEL

Question

NAEP

Bloom

21

250

3

22 A

300

4

22 B

300

6

23

250

3/4

24

200

2

25

200

1

26

300

4/5

27

300

4/5

28

300

4/5

29

300/350

4/5/6

30

300

4/5/6

31

250

3

32

200

1

33

200

1/2

34 A

300

4/5

34 B

300/350

4/5

35

200

2

36

300

2/4/5

37

200

3

38

300/350

5/6

39

200

2

40

250

2/3

 

*The numbers will be greater than 22, due to multiple classifications.